Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5589

Search results for: user classification accuracy

5589 Satellite Image Classification Using Firefly Algorithm

Authors: Paramjit Kaur, Harish Kundra

Abstract:

In the recent years, swarm intelligence based firefly algorithm has become a great focus for the researchers to solve the real time optimization problems. Here, firefly algorithm is used for the application of satellite image classification. For experimentation, Alwar area is considered to multiple land features like vegetation, barren, hilly, residential and water surface. Alwar dataset is considered with seven band satellite images. Firefly Algorithm is based on the attraction of less bright fireflies towards more brightener one. For the evaluation of proposed concept accuracy assessment parameters are calculated using error matrix. With the help of Error matrix, parameters of Kappa Coefficient, Overall Accuracy and feature wise accuracy parameters of user’s accuracy & producer’s accuracy can be calculated. Overall results are compared with BBO, PSO, Hybrid FPAB/BBO, Hybrid ACO/SOFM and Hybrid ACO/BBO based on the kappa coefficient and overall accuracy parameters.

Keywords: image classification, firefly algorithm, satellite image classification, terrain classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
5588 Evaluating Classification with Efficacy Metrics

Authors: Guofan Shao, Lina Tang, Hao Zhang

Abstract:

The values of image classification accuracy are affected by class size distributions and classification schemes, making it difficult to compare the performance of classification algorithms across different remote sensing data sources and classification systems. Based on the term efficacy from medicine and pharmacology, we have developed the metrics of image classification efficacy at the map and class levels. The novelty of this approach is that a baseline classification is involved in computing image classification efficacies so that the effects of class statistics are reduced. Furthermore, the image classification efficacies are interpretable and comparable, and thus, strengthen the assessment of image data classification methods. We use real-world and hypothetical examples to explain the use of image classification efficacies. The metrics of image classification efficacy meet the critical need to rectify the strategy for the assessment of image classification performance as image classification methods are becoming more diversified.

Keywords: accuracy assessment, efficacy, image classification, machine learning, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
5587 Emotion Classification Using Recurrent Neural Network and Scalable Pattern Mining

Authors: Jaishree Ranganathan, MuthuPriya Shanmugakani Velsamy, Shamika Kulkarni, Angelina Tzacheva

Abstract:

Emotions play an important role in everyday life. An-alyzing these emotions or feelings from social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook, blogs, and forums based on user comments and reviews plays an important role in various factors. Some of them include brand monitoring, marketing strategies, reputation, and competitor analysis. The opinions or sentiments mined from such data helps understand the current state of the user. It does not directly provide intuitive insights on what actions to be taken to benefit the end user or business. Actionable Pattern Mining method provides suggestions or actionable recommendations on what changes or actions need to be taken in order to benefit the end user. In this paper, we propose automatic classification of emotions in Twitter data using Recurrent Neural Network - Gated Recurrent Unit. We achieve training accuracy of 87.58% and validation accuracy of 86.16%. Also, we extract action rules with respect to the user emotion that helps to provide actionable suggestion.

Keywords: emotion mining, twitter, recurrent neural network, gated recurrent unit, actionable pattern mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
5586 Lipschitz Classifiers Ensembles: Usage for Classification of Target Events in C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev

Abstract:

This paper introduces an original method for guaranteed estimation of the accuracy of an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. The solution was obtained as a finite closed set of alternative hypotheses, which contains an object of classification with a probability of not less than the specified value. Thus, the classification is represented by a set of hypothetical classes. In this case, the smaller the cardinality of the discrete set of hypothetical classes is, the higher is the classification accuracy. Experiments have shown that if the cardinality of the classifiers ensemble is increased then the cardinality of this set of hypothetical classes is reduced. The problem of the guaranteed estimation of the accuracy of an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers is relevant in the multichannel classification of target events in C-OTDR monitoring systems. Results of suggested approach practical usage to accuracy control in C-OTDR monitoring systems are present.

Keywords: Lipschitz classifiers, confidence set, C-OTDR monitoring, classifiers accuracy, classifiers ensemble

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
5585 Application of Rapid Eye Imagery in Crop Type Classification Using Vegetation Indices

Authors: Sunita Singh, Rajani Srivastava

Abstract:

For natural resource management and in other applications about earth observation revolutionary remote sensing technology plays a significant role. One of such application in monitoring and classification of crop types at spatial and temporal scale, as it provides latest, most precise and cost-effective information. Present study emphasizes the use of three different vegetation indices of Rapid Eye imagery on crop type classification. It also analyzed the effect of each indices on classification accuracy. Rapid Eye imagery is highly demanded and preferred for agricultural and forestry sectors as it has red-edge and NIR bands. The three indices used in this study were: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), and the Normalized Difference Red Edge Index (NDRE) and all of these incorporated the Red Edge band. The study area is Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh, India and Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel was used here for the Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classification. Classification was performed with these three vegetation indices. The contribution of each indices on image classification accuracy was also tested with single band classification. Highest classification accuracy of 85% was obtained using three vegetation indices. The study concluded that NDRE has the highest contribution on classification accuracy compared to the other vegetation indices and the Rapid Eye imagery can get satisfactory results of classification accuracy without original bands.

Keywords: GNDVI, NDRE, NDVI, rapid eye, vegetation indices

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
5584 Energy Detection Based Sensing and Primary User Traffic Classification for Cognitive Radio

Authors: Urvee B. Trivedi, U. D. Dalal

Abstract:

As wireless communication services grow quickly; the seriousness of spectrum utilization has been on the rise gradually. An emerging technology, cognitive radio has come out to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. To support the spectrum reuse functionality, secondary users are required to sense the radio frequency environment, and once the primary users are found to be active, the secondary users are required to vacate the channel within a certain amount of time. Therefore, spectrum sensing is of significant importance. Once sensing is done, different prediction rules apply to classify the traffic pattern of primary user. Primary user follows two types of traffic patterns: periodic and stochastic ON-OFF patterns. A cognitive radio can learn the patterns in different channels over time. Two types of classification methods are discussed in this paper, by considering edge detection and by using autocorrelation function. Edge detection method has a high accuracy but it cannot tolerate sensing errors. Autocorrelation-based classification is applicable in the real environment as it can tolerate some amount of sensing errors.

Keywords: cognitive radio (CR), probability of detection (PD), probability of false alarm (PF), primary user (PU), secondary user (SU), fast Fourier transform (FFT), signal to noise ratio (SNR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5583 Efficient Schemes of Classifiers for Remote Sensing Satellite Imageries of Land Use Pattern Classifications

Authors: S. S. Patil, Sachidanand Kini

Abstract:

Classification of land use patterns is compelling in complexity and variability of remote sensing imageries data. An imperative research in remote sensing application exploited to mine some of the significant spatially variable factors as land cover and land use from satellite images for remote arid areas in Karnataka State, India. The diverse classification techniques, unsupervised and supervised consisting of maximum likelihood, Mahalanobis distance, and minimum distance are applied in Bellary District in Karnataka State, India for the classification of the raw satellite images. The accuracy evaluations of results are compared visually with the standard maps with ground-truths. We initiated with the maximum likelihood technique that gave the finest results and both minimum distance and Mahalanobis distance methods over valued agriculture land areas. In meanness of mislaid few irrelevant features due to the low resolution of the satellite images, high-quality accord between parameters extracted automatically from the developed maps and field observations was found.

Keywords: Mahalanobis distance, minimum distance, supervised, unsupervised, user classification accuracy, producer's classification accuracy, maximum likelihood, kappa coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
5582 Comparative Study of Accuracy of Land Cover/Land Use Mapping Using Medium Resolution Satellite Imagery: A Case Study

Authors: M. C. Paliwal, A. K. Jain, S. K. Katiyar

Abstract:

Classification of satellite imagery is very important for the assessment of its accuracy. In order to determine the accuracy of the classified image, usually the assumed-true data are derived from ground truth data using Global Positioning System. The data collected from satellite imagery and ground truth data is then compared to find out the accuracy of data and error matrices are prepared. Overall and individual accuracies are calculated using different methods. The study illustrates advanced classification and accuracy assessment of land use/land cover mapping using satellite imagery. IRS-1C-LISS IV data were used for classification of satellite imagery. The satellite image was classified using the software in fourteen classes namely water bodies, agricultural fields, forest land, urban settlement, barren land and unclassified area etc. Classification of satellite imagery and calculation of accuracy was done by using ERDAS-Imagine software to find out the best method. This study is based on the data collected for Bhopal city boundaries of Madhya Pradesh State of India.

Keywords: resolution, accuracy assessment, land use mapping, satellite imagery, ground truth data, error matrices

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
5581 Sentiment Classification Using Enhanced Contextual Valence Shifters

Authors: Vo Ngoc Phu, Phan Thi Tuoi

Abstract:

We have explored different methods of improving the accuracy of sentiment classification. The sentiment orientation of a document can be positive (+), negative (-), or neutral (0). We combine five dictionaries from [2, 3, 4, 5, 6] into the new one with 21137 entries. The new dictionary has many verbs, adverbs, phrases and idioms, that are not in five ones before. The paper shows that our proposed method based on the combination of Term-Counting method and Enhanced Contextual Valence Shifters method has improved the accuracy of sentiment classification. The combined method has accuracy 68.984% on the testing dataset, and 69.224% on the training dataset. All of these methods are implemented to classify the reviews based on our new dictionary and the Internet Movie data set.

Keywords: sentiment classification, sentiment orientation, valence shifters, contextual, valence shifters, term counting

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
5580 Online Handwritten Character Recognition for South Indian Scripts Using Support Vector Machines

Authors: Steffy Maria Joseph, Abdu Rahiman V, Abdul Hameed K. M.

Abstract:

Online handwritten character recognition is a challenging field in Artificial Intelligence. The classification success rate of current techniques decreases when the dataset involves similarity and complexity in stroke styles, number of strokes and stroke characteristics variations. Malayalam is a complex south indian language spoken by about 35 million people especially in Kerala and Lakshadweep islands. In this paper, we consider the significant feature extraction for the similar stroke styles of Malayalam. This extracted feature set are suitable for the recognition of other handwritten south indian languages like Tamil, Telugu and Kannada. A classification scheme based on support vector machines (SVM) is proposed to improve the accuracy in classification and recognition of online malayalam handwritten characters. SVM Classifiers are the best for real world applications. The contribution of various features towards the accuracy in recognition is analysed. Performance for different kernels of SVM are also studied. A graphical user interface has developed for reading and displaying the character. Different writing styles are taken for each of the 44 alphabets. Various features are extracted and used for classification after the preprocessing of input data samples. Highest recognition accuracy of 97% is obtained experimentally at the best feature combination with polynomial kernel in SVM.

Keywords: SVM, matlab, malayalam, South Indian scripts, onlinehandwritten character recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
5579 SNR Classification Using Multiple CNNs

Authors: Thinh Ngo, Paul Rad, Brian Kelley

Abstract:

Noise estimation is essential in today wireless systems for power control, adaptive modulation, interference suppression and quality of service. Deep learning (DL) has already been applied in the physical layer for modulation and signal classifications. Unacceptably low accuracy of less than 50% is found to undermine traditional application of DL classification for SNR prediction. In this paper, we use divide-and-conquer algorithm and classifier fusion method to simplify SNR classification and therefore enhances DL learning and prediction. Specifically, multiple CNNs are used for classification rather than a single CNN. Each CNN performs a binary classification of a single SNR with two labels: less than, greater than or equal. Together, multiple CNNs are combined to effectively classify over a range of SNR values from −20 ≤ SNR ≤ 32 dB.We use pre-trained CNNs to predict SNR over a wide range of joint channel parameters including multiple Doppler shifts (0, 60, 120 Hz), power-delay profiles, and signal-modulation types (QPSK,16QAM,64-QAM). The approach achieves individual SNR prediction accuracy of 92%, composite accuracy of 70% and prediction convergence one order of magnitude faster than that of traditional estimation.

Keywords: classification, CNN, deep learning, prediction, SNR

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
5578 A Recommender System Fusing Collaborative Filtering and User’s Review Mining

Authors: Seulbi Choi, Hyunchul Ahn

Abstract:

Collaborative filtering (CF) algorithm has been popularly used for recommender systems in both academic and practical applications. It basically generates recommendation results using users’ numeric ratings. However, the additional use of the information other than user ratings may lead to better accuracy of CF. Considering that a lot of people are likely to share their honest opinion on the items they purchased recently due to the advent of the Web 2.0, user's review can be regarded as the new informative source for identifying user's preference with accuracy. Under this background, this study presents a hybrid recommender system that fuses CF and user's review mining. Our system adopts conventional memory-based CF, but it is designed to use both user’s numeric ratings and his/her text reviews on the items when calculating similarities between users.

Keywords: Recommender system, Collaborative filtering, Text mining, Review mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
5577 A Study of the Performance Parameter for Recommendation Algorithm Evaluation

Authors: C. Rana, S. K. Jain

Abstract:

The enormous amount of Web data has challenged its usage in efficient manner in the past few years. As such, a range of techniques are applied to tackle this problem; prominent among them is personalization and recommender system. In fact, these are the tools that assist user in finding relevant information of web. Most of the e-commerce websites are applying such tools in one way or the other. In the past decade, a large number of recommendation algorithms have been proposed to tackle such problems. However, there have not been much research in the evaluation criteria for these algorithms. As such, the traditional accuracy and classification metrics are still used for the evaluation purpose that provides a static view. This paper studies how the evolution of user preference over a period of time can be mapped in a recommender system using a new evaluation methodology that explicitly using time dimension. We have also presented different types of experimental set up that are generally used for recommender system evaluation. Furthermore, an overview of major accuracy metrics and metrics that go beyond the scope of accuracy as researched in the past few years is also discussed in detail.

Keywords: collaborative filtering, data mining, evolutionary, clustering, algorithm, recommender systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
5576 Urban Land Cover from GF-2 Satellite Images Using Object Based and Neural Network Classifications

Authors: Lamyaa Gamal El-Deen Taha, Ashraf Sharawi

Abstract:

China launched satellite GF-2 in 2014. This study deals with comparing nearest neighbor object-based classification and neural network classification methods for classification of the fused GF-2 image. Firstly, rectification of GF-2 image was performed. Secondly, a comparison between nearest neighbor object-based classification and neural network classification for classification of fused GF-2 was performed. Thirdly, the overall accuracy of classification and kappa index were calculated. Results indicate that nearest neighbor object-based classification is better than neural network classification for urban mapping.

Keywords: GF-2 images, feature extraction-rectification, nearest neighbour object based classification, segmentation algorithms, neural network classification, multilayer perceptron

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
5575 Predication Model for Leukemia Diseases Based on Data Mining Classification Algorithms with Best Accuracy

Authors: Fahd Sabry Esmail, M. Badr Senousy, Mohamed Ragaie

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been an explosion in the rate of using technology that help discovering the diseases. For example, DNA microarrays allow us for the first time to obtain a "global" view of the cell. It has great potential to provide accurate medical diagnosis, to help in finding the right treatment and cure for many diseases. Various classification algorithms can be applied on such micro-array datasets to devise methods that can predict the occurrence of Leukemia disease. In this study, we compared the classification accuracy and response time among eleven decision tree methods and six rule classifier methods using five performance criteria. The experiment results show that the performance of Random Tree is producing better result. Also it takes lowest time to build model in tree classifier. The classification rules algorithms such as nearest- neighbor-like algorithm (NNge) is the best algorithm due to the high accuracy and it takes lowest time to build model in classification.

Keywords: data mining, classification techniques, decision tree, classification rule, leukemia diseases, microarray data

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
5574 Performance Evaluation of Contemporary Classifiers for Automatic Detection of Epileptic EEG

Authors: K. E. Ch. Vidyasagar, M. Moghavvemi, T. S. S. T. Prabhat

Abstract:

Epilepsy is a global problem, and with seizures eluding even the smartest of diagnoses a requirement for automatic detection of the same using electroencephalogram (EEG) would have a huge impact in diagnosis of the disorder. Among a multitude of methods for automatic epilepsy detection, one should find the best method out, based on accuracy, for classification. This paper reasons out, and rationalizes, the best methods for classification. Accuracy is based on the classifier, and thus this paper discusses classifiers like quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), classification and regression tree (CART), support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes classifier (NBC), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Results show that ANN is the most accurate of all the above stated classifiers with 97.7% accuracy, 97.25% specificity and 98.28% sensitivity in its merit. This is followed closely by SVM with 1% variation in result. These results would certainly help researchers choose the best classifier for detection of epilepsy.

Keywords: classification, seizure, KNN, SVM, LDA, ANN, epilepsy

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
5573 Defect Classification of Hydrogen Fuel Pressure Vessels using Deep Learning

Authors: Dongju Kim, Youngjoo Suh, Hyojin Kim, Gyeongyeong Kim

Abstract:

Acoustic Emission Testing (AET) is widely used to test the structural integrity of an operational hydrogen storage container, and clustering algorithms are frequently used in pattern recognition methods to interpret AET results. However, the interpretation of AET results can vary from user to user as the tuning of the relevant parameters relies on the user's experience and knowledge of AET. Therefore, it is necessary to use a deep learning model to identify patterns in acoustic emission (AE) signal data that can be used to classify defects instead. In this paper, a deep learning-based model for classifying the types of defects in hydrogen storage tanks, using AE sensor waveforms, is proposed. As hydrogen storage tanks are commonly constructed using carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite (CFRP), a defect classification dataset is collected through a tensile test on a specimen of CFRP with an AE sensor attached. The performance of the classification model, using one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1-D CNN) and synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) data augmentation, achieved 91.09% accuracy for each defect. It is expected that the deep learning classification model in this paper, used with AET, will help in evaluating the operational safety of hydrogen storage containers.

Keywords: acoustic emission testing, carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite, one-dimensional convolutional neural network, smote data augmentation

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5572 An Enhanced Support Vector Machine Based Approach for Sentiment Classification of Arabic Tweets of Different Dialects

Authors: Gehad S. Kaseb, Mona F. Ahmed

Abstract:

Arabic Sentiment Analysis (SA) is one of the most common research fields with many open areas. Few studies apply SA to Arabic dialects. This paper proposes different pre-processing steps and a modified methodology to improve the accuracy using normal Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification. The paper works on two datasets, Arabic Sentiment Tweets Dataset (ASTD) and Extended Arabic Tweets Sentiment Dataset (Extended-AATSD), which are publicly available for academic use. The results show that the classification accuracy approaches 86%.

Keywords: Arabic, classification, sentiment analysis, tweets

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
5571 A Reliable Multi-Type Vehicle Classification System

Authors: Ghada S. Moussa

Abstract:

Vehicle classification is an important task in traffic surveillance and intelligent transportation systems. Classification of vehicle images is facing several problems such as: high intra-class vehicle variations, occlusion, shadow, illumination. These problems and others must be considered to develop a reliable vehicle classification system. In this study, a reliable multi-type vehicle classification system based on Bag-of-Words (BoW) paradigm is developed. Our proposed system used and compared four well-known classifiers; Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), and Decision Tree to classify vehicles into four categories: motorcycles, small, medium and large. Experiments on a large dataset show that our approach is efficient and reliable in classifying vehicles with accuracy of 95.7%. The SVM outperforms other classification algorithms in terms of both accuracy and robustness alongside considerable reduction in execution time. The innovativeness of developed system is it can serve as a framework for many vehicle classification systems.

Keywords: vehicle classification, bag-of-words technique, SVM classifier, LDA classifier, KNN classifier, decision tree classifier, SIFT algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
5570 One-Shot Text Classification with Multilingual-BERT

Authors: Hsin-Yang Wang, K. M. A. Salam, Ying-Jia Lin, Daniel Tan, Tzu-Hsuan Chou, Hung-Yu Kao

Abstract:

Detecting user intent from natural language expression has a wide variety of use cases in different natural language processing applications. Recently few-shot training has a spike of usage on commercial domains. Due to the lack of significant sample features, the downstream task performance has been limited or leads to an unstable result across different domains. As a state-of-the-art method, the pre-trained BERT model gathering the sentence-level information from a large text corpus shows improvement on several NLP benchmarks. In this research, we are proposing a method to change multi-class classification tasks into binary classification tasks, then use the confidence score to rank the results. As a language model, BERT performs well on sequence data. In our experiment, we change the objective from predicting labels into finding the relations between words in sequence data. Our proposed method achieved 71.0% accuracy in the internal intent detection dataset and 63.9% accuracy in the HuffPost dataset. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by NCKU-B109-K003, which is the collaboration between National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, and SoftBank Corp., Tokyo.

Keywords: OSML, BERT, text classification, one shot

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
5569 A New Approach for Improving Accuracy of Multi Label Stream Data

Authors: Kunal Shah, Swati Patel

Abstract:

Many real world problems involve data which can be considered as multi-label data streams. Efficient methods exist for multi-label classification in non streaming scenarios. However, learning in evolving streaming scenarios is more challenging, as the learners must be able to adapt to change using limited time and memory. Classification is used to predict class of unseen instance as accurate as possible. Multi label classification is a variant of single label classification where set of labels associated with single instance. Multi label classification is used by modern applications, such as text classification, functional genomics, image classification, music categorization etc. This paper introduces the task of multi-label classification, methods for multi-label classification and evolution measure for multi-label classification. Also, comparative analysis of multi label classification methods on the basis of theoretical study, and then on the basis of simulation was done on various data sets.

Keywords: binary relevance, concept drift, data stream mining, MLSC, multiple window with buffer

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
5568 Performance Comparison of ADTree and Naive Bayes Algorithms for Spam Filtering

Authors: Thanh Nguyen, Andrei Doncescu, Pierre Siegel

Abstract:

Classification is an important data mining technique and could be used as data filtering in artificial intelligence. The broad application of classification for all kind of data leads to be used in nearly every field of our modern life. Classification helps us to put together different items according to the feature items decided as interesting and useful. In this paper, we compare two classification methods Naïve Bayes and ADTree use to detect spam e-mail. This choice is motivated by the fact that Naive Bayes algorithm is based on probability calculus while ADTree algorithm is based on decision tree. The parameter settings of the above classifiers use the maximization of true positive rate and minimization of false positive rate. The experiment results present classification accuracy and cost analysis in view of optimal classifier choice for Spam Detection. It is point out the number of attributes to obtain a tradeoff between number of them and the classification accuracy.

Keywords: classification, data mining, spam filtering, naive bayes, decision tree

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
5567 Video Object Segmentation for Automatic Image Annotation of Ethernet Connectors with Environment Mapping and 3D Projection

Authors: Marrone Silverio Melo Dantas Pedro Henrique Dreyer, Gabriel Fonseca Reis de Souza, Daniel Bezerra, Ricardo Souza, Silvia Lins, Judith Kelner, Djamel Fawzi Hadj Sadok

Abstract:

The creation of a dataset is time-consuming and often discourages researchers from pursuing their goals. To overcome this problem, we present and discuss two solutions adopted for the automation of this process. Both optimize valuable user time and resources and support video object segmentation with object tracking and 3D projection. In our scenario, we acquire images from a moving robotic arm and, for each approach, generate distinct annotated datasets. We evaluated the precision of the annotations by comparing these with a manually annotated dataset, as well as the efficiency in the context of detection and classification problems. For detection support, we used YOLO and obtained for the projection dataset an F1-Score, accuracy, and mAP values of 0.846, 0.924, and 0.875, respectively. Concerning the tracking dataset, we achieved an F1-Score of 0.861, an accuracy of 0.932, whereas mAP reached 0.894. In order to evaluate the quality of the annotated images used for classification problems, we employed deep learning architectures. We adopted metrics accuracy and F1-Score, for VGG, DenseNet, MobileNet, Inception, and ResNet. The VGG architecture outperformed the others for both projection and tracking datasets. It reached an accuracy and F1-score of 0.997 and 0.993, respectively. Similarly, for the tracking dataset, it achieved an accuracy of 0.991 and an F1-Score of 0.981.

Keywords: RJ45, automatic annotation, object tracking, 3D projection

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
5566 Radar-Based Classification of Pedestrian and Dog Using High-Resolution Raw Range-Doppler Signatures

Authors: C. Mayr, J. Periya, A. Kariminezhad

Abstract:

In this paper, we developed a learning framework for the classification of vulnerable road users (VRU) by their range-Doppler signatures. The frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar raw data is first pre-processed to obtain robust object range-Doppler maps per coherent time interval. The complex-valued range-Doppler maps captured from our outdoor measurements are further fed into a convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn the classification. This CNN has gone through a hyperparameter optimization process for improved learning. By learning VRU range-Doppler signatures, the three classes 'pedestrian', 'dog', and 'noise' are classified with an average accuracy of almost 95%. Interestingly, this classification accuracy holds for a combined longitudinal and lateral object trajectories.

Keywords: machine learning, radar, signal processing, autonomous driving

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
5565 An Integrated Lightweight Naïve Bayes Based Webpage Classification Service for Smartphone Browsers

Authors: Mayank Gupta, Siba Prasad Samal, Vasu Kakkirala

Abstract:

The internet world and its priorities have changed considerably in the last decade. Browsing on smart phones has increased manifold and is set to explode much more. Users spent considerable time browsing different websites, that gives a great deal of insight into user’s preferences. Instead of plain information classifying different aspects of browsing like Bookmarks, History, and Download Manager into useful categories would improve and enhance the user’s experience. Most of the classification solutions are server side that involves maintaining server and other heavy resources. It has security constraints and maybe misses on contextual data during classification. On device, classification solves many such problems, but the challenge is to achieve accuracy on classification with resource constraints. This on device classification can be much more useful in personalization, reducing dependency on cloud connectivity and better privacy/security. This approach provides more relevant results as compared to current standalone solutions because it uses content rendered by browser which is customized by the content provider based on user’s profile. This paper proposes a Naive Bayes based lightweight classification engine targeted for a resource constraint devices. Our solution integrates with Web Browser that in turn triggers classification algorithm. Whenever a user browses a webpage, this solution extracts DOM Tree data from the browser’s rendering engine. This DOM data is a dynamic, contextual and secure data that can’t be replicated. This proposal extracts different features of the webpage that runs on an algorithm to classify into multiple categories. Naive Bayes based engine is chosen in this solution for its inherent advantages in using limited resources compared to other classification algorithms like Support Vector Machine, Neural Networks, etc. Naive Bayes classification requires small memory footprint and less computation suitable for smartphone environment. This solution has a feature to partition the model into multiple chunks that in turn will facilitate less usage of memory instead of loading a complete model. Classification of the webpages done through integrated engine is faster, more relevant and energy efficient than other standalone on device solution. This classification engine has been tested on Samsung Z3 Tizen hardware. The Engine is integrated into Tizen Browser that uses Chromium Rendering Engine. For this solution, extensive dataset is sourced from dmoztools.net and cleaned. This cleaned dataset has 227.5K webpages which are divided into 8 generic categories ('education', 'games', 'health', 'entertainment', 'news', 'shopping', 'sports', 'travel'). Our browser integrated solution has resulted in 15% less memory usage (due to partition method) and 24% less power consumption in comparison with standalone solution. This solution considered 70% of the dataset for training the data model and the rest 30% dataset for testing. An average accuracy of ~96.3% is achieved across the above mentioned 8 categories. This engine can be further extended for suggesting Dynamic tags and using the classification for differential uses cases to enhance browsing experience.

Keywords: chromium, lightweight engine, mobile computing, Naive Bayes, Tizen, web browser, webpage classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
5564 Documents Emotions Classification Model Based on TF-IDF Weighting Measure

Authors: Amr Mansour Mohsen, Hesham Ahmed Hassan, Amira M. Idrees

Abstract:

Emotions classification of text documents is applied to reveal if the document expresses a determined emotion from its writer. As different supervised methods are previously used for emotion documents’ classification, in this research we present a novel model that supports the classification algorithms for more accurate results by the support of TF-IDF measure. Different experiments have been applied to reveal the applicability of the proposed model, the model succeeds in raising the accuracy percentage according to the determined metrics (precision, recall, and f-measure) based on applying the refinement of the lexicon, integration of lexicons using different perspectives, and applying the TF-IDF weighting measure over the classifying features. The proposed model has also been compared with other research to prove its competence in raising the results’ accuracy.

Keywords: emotion detection, TF-IDF, WEKA tool, classification algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
5563 Detection and Classification of Myocardial Infarction Using New Extracted Features from Standard 12-Lead ECG Signals

Authors: Naser Safdarian, Nader Jafarnia Dabanloo

Abstract:

In this paper we used four features i.e. Q-wave integral, QRS complex integral, T-wave integral and total integral as extracted feature from normal and patient ECG signals to detection and localization of myocardial infarction (MI) in left ventricle of heart. In our research we focused on detection and localization of MI in standard ECG. We use the Q-wave integral and T-wave integral because this feature is important impression in detection of MI. We used some pattern recognition method such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to detect and localize the MI. Because these methods have good accuracy for classification of normal and abnormal signals. We used one type of Radial Basis Function (RBF) that called Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) because of its nonlinearity property, and used other classifier such as k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Naive Bayes Classification. We used PhysioNet database as our training and test data. We reached over 80% for accuracy in test data for localization and over 95% for detection of MI. Main advantages of our method are simplicity and its good accuracy. Also we can improve accuracy of classification by adding more features in this method. A simple method based on using only four features which extracted from standard ECG is presented which has good accuracy in MI localization.

Keywords: ECG signal processing, myocardial infarction, features extraction, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
5562 An Approach for Vocal Register Recognition Based on Spectral Analysis of Singing

Authors: Aleksandra Zysk, Pawel Badura

Abstract:

Recognizing and controlling vocal registers during singing is a difficult task for beginner vocalist. It requires among others identifying which part of natural resonators is being used when a sound propagates through the body. Thus, an application has been designed allowing for sound recording, automatic vocal register recognition (VRR), and a graphical user interface providing real-time visualization of the signal and recognition results. Six spectral features are determined for each time frame and passed to the support vector machine classifier yielding a binary decision on the head or chest register assignment of the segment. The classification training and testing data have been recorded by ten professional female singers (soprano, aged 19-29) performing sounds for both chest and head register. The classification accuracy exceeded 93% in each of various validation schemes. Apart from a hard two-class clustering, the support vector classifier returns also information on the distance between particular feature vector and the discrimination hyperplane in a feature space. Such an information reflects the level of certainty of the vocal register classification in a fuzzy way. Thus, the designed recognition and training application is able to assess and visualize the continuous trend in singing in a user-friendly graphical mode providing an easy way to control the vocal emission.

Keywords: classification, singing, spectral analysis, vocal emission, vocal register

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5561 Reinforcement Learning for Classification of Low-Resolution Satellite Images

Authors: Khadija Bouzaachane, El Mahdi El Guarmah

Abstract:

The classification of low-resolution satellite images has been a worthwhile and fertile field that attracts plenty of researchers due to its importance in monitoring geographical areas. It could be used for several purposes such as disaster management, military surveillance, agricultural monitoring. The main objective of this work is to classify efficiently and accurately low-resolution satellite images by using novel technics of deep learning and reinforcement learning. The images include roads, residential areas, industrial areas, rivers, sea lakes, and vegetation. To achieve that goal, we carried out experiments on the sentinel-2 images considering both high accuracy and efficiency classification. Our proposed model achieved a 91% accuracy on the testing dataset besides a good classification for land cover. Focus on the parameter precision; we have obtained 93% for the river, 92% for residential, 97% for residential, 96% for the forest, 87% for annual crop, 84% for herbaceous vegetation, 85% for pasture, 78% highway and 100% for Sea Lake.

Keywords: classification, deep learning, reinforcement learning, satellite imagery

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
5560 Using Deep Learning for the Detection of Faulty RJ45 Connectors on a Radio Base Station

Authors: Djamel Fawzi Hadj Sadok, Marrone Silvério Melo Dantas Pedro Henrique Dreyer, Gabriel Fonseca Reis de Souza, Daniel Bezerra, Ricardo Souza, Silvia Lins, Judith Kelner

Abstract:

A radio base station (RBS), part of the radio access network, is a particular type of equipment that supports the connection between a wide range of cellular user devices and an operator network access infrastructure. Nowadays, most of the RBS maintenance is carried out manually, resulting in a time consuming and costly task. A suitable candidate for RBS maintenance automation is repairing faulty links between devices caused by missing or unplugged connectors. A suitable candidate for RBS maintenance automation is repairing faulty links between devices caused by missing or unplugged connectors. This paper proposes and compares two deep learning solutions to identify attached RJ45 connectors on network ports. We named connector detection, the solution based on object detection, and connector classification, the one based on object classification. With the connector detection, we get an accuracy of 0:934, mean average precision 0:903. Connector classification, get a maximum accuracy of 0:981 and an AUC of 0:989. Although connector detection was outperformed in this study, this should not be viewed as an overall result as connector detection is more flexible for scenarios where there is no precise information about the environment and the possible devices. At the same time, the connector classification requires that information to be well-defined.

Keywords: radio base station, maintenance, classification, detection, deep learning, automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 91