Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Search results for: unsupervised

112 Unsupervised Images Generation Based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey with Deep Convolutional Generative Neural Networks

Authors: Guanghua Zhang, Fubao Wang, Weijun Duan

Abstract:

Convolution neural network (CNN) has attracted more and more attention on recent years. Especially in the field of computer vision and image classification. However, unsupervised learning with CNN has received less attention than supervised learning. In this work, we use a new powerful tool which is deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGANs) to generate images from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Training by various star and galaxy images, it shows that both the generator and the discriminator are good for unsupervised learning. In this paper, we also took several experiments to choose the best value for hyper-parameters and which could help to stabilize the training process and promise a good quality of the output.

Keywords: convolution neural network, discriminator, generator, unsupervised learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
111 Unsupervised Assistive and Adaptative Intelligent Agent in Smart Enviroment

Authors: Sebastião Pais, João Casal, Ricardo Ponciano, Sérgio Lorenço

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The adaptation paradigm is a basic defining feature for pervasive computing systems. Adaptation systems must work efficiently in a smart environment while providing suitable information relevant to the user system interaction. The key objective is to deduce the information needed information changes. Therefore relying on fixed operational models would be inappropriate. This paper presents a study on developing an Intelligent Personal Assistant to assist the user in interacting with their Smart Environment. We propose an Unsupervised and Language-Independent Adaptation through Intelligent Speech Interface and a set of methods of Acquiring Knowledge, namely Semantic Similarity and Unsupervised Learning.

Keywords: intelligent personal assistants, intelligent speech interface, unsupervised learning, language-independent, knowledge acquisition, association measures, symmetric word similarities, attributional word similarities

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
110 Unsupervised Assistive and Adaptive Intelligent Agent in Smart Environment

Authors: Sebastião Pais, João Casal, Ricardo Ponciano, Sérgio Lourenço

Abstract:

The adaptation paradigm is a basic defining feature for pervasive computing systems. Adaptation systems must work efficiently in smart environment while providing suitable information relevant to the user system interaction. The key objective is to deduce the information needed information changes. Therefore, relying on fixed operational models would be inappropriate. This paper presents a study on developing a Intelligent Personal Assistant to assist the user in interacting with their Smart Environment. We propose a Unsupervised and Language-Independent Adaptation through Intelligent Speech Interface and a set of methods of Acquiring Knowledge, namely Semantic Similarity and Unsupervised Learning.

Keywords: intelligent personal assistants, intelligent speech interface, unsupervised learning, language-independent, knowledge acquisition, association measures, symmetric word similarities, attributional word similarities

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
109 Double Clustering as an Unsupervised Approach for Order Picking of Distributed Warehouses

Authors: Hsin-Yi Huang, Ming-Sheng Liu, Jiun-Yan Shiau

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Planning the order picking lists of warehouses to achieve when the costs associated with logistics on the operational performance is a significant challenge. In e-commerce era, this task is especially important productive processes are high. Nowadays, many order planning techniques employ supervised machine learning algorithms. However, the definition of which features should be processed by such algorithms is not a simple task, being crucial to the proposed technique’s success. Against this background, we consider whether unsupervised algorithms can enhance the planning of order-picking lists. A Zone2 picking approach, which is based on using clustering algorithms twice, is developed. A simplified example is given to demonstrate the merit of our approach.

Keywords: order picking, warehouse, clustering, unsupervised learning

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108 Identification of Biological Pathways Causative for Breast Cancer Using Unsupervised Machine Learning

Authors: Karthik Mittal

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This study performs an unsupervised machine learning analysis to find clusters of related SNPs which highlight biological pathways that are important for the biological mechanisms of breast cancer. Studying genetic variations in isolation is illogical because these genetic variations are known to modulate protein production and function; the downstream effects of these modifications on biological outcomes are highly interconnected. After extracting the SNPs and their effect on different types of breast cancer using the MRBase library, two unsupervised machine learning clustering algorithms were implemented on the genetic variants: a k-means clustering algorithm and a hierarchical clustering algorithm; furthermore, principal component analysis was executed to visually represent the data. These algorithms specifically used the SNP’s beta value on the three different types of breast cancer tested in this project (estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer, estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer, and breast cancer in general) to perform this clustering. Two significant genetic pathways validated the clustering produced by this project: the MAPK signaling pathway and the connection between the BRCA2 gene and the ESR1 gene. This study provides the first proof of concept showing the importance of unsupervised machine learning in interpreting GWAS summary statistics.

Keywords: breast cancer, computational biology, unsupervised machine learning, k-means, PCA

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107 Combining Shallow and Deep Unsupervised Machine Learning Techniques to Detect Bad Actors in Complex Datasets

Authors: Jun Ming Moey, Zhiyaun Chen, David Nicholson

Abstract:

Bad actors are often hard to detect in data that imprints their behaviour patterns because they are comparatively rare events embedded in non-bad actor data. An unsupervised machine learning framework is applied here to detect bad actors in financial crime datasets that record millions of transactions undertaken by hundreds of actors (<0.01% bad). Specifically, the framework combines ‘shallow’ (PCA, Isolation Forest) and ‘deep’ (Autoencoder) methods to detect outlier patterns. Detection performance analysis for both the individual methods and their combination is reported.

Keywords: detection, machine learning, deep learning, unsupervised, outlier analysis, data science, fraud, financial crime

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106 Feature Evaluation Based on Random Subspace and Multiple-K Ensemble

Authors: Jaehong Yu, Seoung Bum Kim

Abstract:

Clustering analysis can facilitate the extraction of intrinsic patterns in a dataset and reveal its natural groupings without requiring class information. For effective clustering analysis in high dimensional datasets, unsupervised dimensionality reduction is an important task. Unsupervised dimensionality reduction can generally be achieved by feature extraction or feature selection. In many situations, feature selection methods are more appropriate than feature extraction methods because of their clear interpretation with respect to the original features. The unsupervised feature selection can be categorized as feature subset selection and feature ranking method, and we focused on unsupervised feature ranking methods which evaluate the features based on their importance scores. Recently, several unsupervised feature ranking methods were developed based on ensemble approaches to achieve their higher accuracy and stability. However, most of the ensemble-based feature ranking methods require the true number of clusters. Furthermore, these algorithms evaluate the feature importance depending on the ensemble clustering solution, and they produce undesirable evaluation results if the clustering solutions are inaccurate. To address these limitations, we proposed an ensemble-based feature ranking method with random subspace and multiple-k ensemble (FRRM). The proposed FRRM algorithm evaluates the importance of each feature with the random subspace ensemble, and all evaluation results are combined with the ensemble importance scores. Moreover, FRRM does not require the determination of the true number of clusters in advance through the use of the multiple-k ensemble idea. Experiments on various benchmark datasets were conducted to examine the properties of the proposed FRRM algorithm and to compare its performance with that of existing feature ranking methods. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed FRRM outperformed the competitors.

Keywords: clustering analysis, multiple-k ensemble, random subspace-based feature evaluation, unsupervised feature ranking

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105 Contrastive Learning for Unsupervised Object Segmentation in Sequential Images

Authors: Tian Zhang

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Unsupervised object segmentation aims at segmenting objects in sequential images and obtaining the mask of each object without any manual intervention. Unsupervised segmentation remains a challenging task due to the lack of prior knowledge about these objects. Previous methods often require manually specifying the action of each object, which is often difficult to obtain. Instead, this paper does not need action information of objects and automatically learns the actions and relations among objects from the structured environment. To obtain the object segmentation of sequential images, the relationships between objects and images are extracted to infer the action and interaction of objects based on the multi-head attention mechanism. Three types of objects’ relationships in the object segmentation task are proposed: the relationship between objects in the same frame, the relationship between objects in two frames, and the relationship between objects and historical information. Based on these relationships, the proposed model (1) is effective in multiple objects segmentation tasks, (2) just needs images as input, and (3) produces better segmentation results as more relationships are considered. The experimental results on multiple datasets show that this paper’s method achieves state-of-art performance. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the result are conducted. The proposed method could be easily extended to other similar applications.

Keywords: unsupervised object segmentation, attention mechanism, contrastive learning, structured environment

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104 Unsupervised Part-of-Speech Tagging for Amharic Using K-Means Clustering

Authors: Zelalem Fantahun

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Part-of-speech tagging is the process of assigning a part-of-speech or other lexical class marker to each word into naturally occurring text. Part-of-speech tagging is the most fundamental and basic task almost in all natural language processing. In natural language processing, the problem of providing large amount of manually annotated data is a knowledge acquisition bottleneck. Since, Amharic is one of under-resourced language, the availability of tagged corpus is the bottleneck problem for natural language processing especially for POS tagging. A promising direction to tackle this problem is to provide a system that does not require manually tagged data. In unsupervised learning, the learner is not provided with classifications. Unsupervised algorithms seek out similarity between pieces of data in order to determine whether they can be characterized as forming a group. This paper explicates the development of unsupervised part-of-speech tagger using K-Means clustering for Amharic language since large amount of data is produced in day-to-day activities. In the development of the tagger, the following procedures are followed. First, the unlabeled data (raw text) is divided into 10 folds and tokenization phase takes place; at this level, the raw text is chunked at sentence level and then into words. The second phase is feature extraction which includes word frequency, syntactic and morphological features of a word. The third phase is clustering. Among different clustering algorithms, K-means is selected and implemented in this study that brings group of similar words together. The fourth phase is mapping, which deals with looking at each cluster carefully and the most common tag is assigned to a group. This study finds out two features that are capable of distinguishing one part-of-speech from others these are morphological feature and positional information and show that it is possible to use unsupervised learning for Amharic POS tagging. In order to increase performance of the unsupervised part-of-speech tagger, there is a need to incorporate other features that are not included in this study, such as semantic related information. Finally, based on experimental result, the performance of the system achieves a maximum of 81% accuracy.

Keywords: POS tagging, Amharic, unsupervised learning, k-means

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103 A Two-Step Framework for Unsupervised Speaker Segmentation Using BIC and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Ahmad Alwosheel, Ahmed Alqaraawi

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This work proposes a new speaker segmentation approach for two speakers. It is an online approach that does not require a prior information about speaker models. It has two phases, a conventional approach such as unsupervised BIC-based is utilized in the first phase to detect speaker changes and train a Neural Network, while in the second phase, the output trained parameters from the Neural Network are used to predict next incoming audio stream. Using this approach, a comparable accuracy to similar BIC-based approaches is achieved with a significant improvement in terms of computation time.

Keywords: artificial neural network, diarization, speaker indexing, speaker segmentation

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102 Unsupervised Reciter Recognition Using Gaussian Mixture Models

Authors: Ahmad Alwosheel, Ahmed Alqaraawi

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This work proposes an unsupervised text-independent probabilistic approach to recognize Quran reciter voice. It is an accurate approach that works on real time applications. This approach does not require a prior information about reciter models. It has two phases, where in the training phase the reciters' acoustical features are modeled using Gaussian Mixture Models, while in the testing phase, unlabeled reciter's acoustical features are examined among GMM models. Using this approach, a high accuracy results are achieved with efficient computation time process.

Keywords: Quran, speaker recognition, reciter recognition, Gaussian Mixture Model

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101 Unsupervised Learning of Spatiotemporally Coherent Metrics

Authors: Ross Goroshin, Joan Bruna, Jonathan Tompson, David Eigen, Yann LeCun

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Current state-of-the-art classification and detection algorithms rely on supervised training. In this work we study unsupervised feature learning in the context of temporally coherent video data. We focus on feature learning from unlabeled video data, using the assumption that adjacent video frames contain semantically similar information. This assumption is exploited to train a convolutional pooling auto-encoder regularized by slowness and sparsity. We establish a connection between slow feature learning to metric learning and show that the trained encoder can be used to define a more temporally and semantically coherent metric.

Keywords: machine learning, pattern clustering, pooling, classification

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100 Multi-Objective Evolutionary Computation Based Feature Selection Applied to Behaviour Assessment of Children

Authors: F. Jiménez, R. Jódar, M. Martín, G. Sánchez, G. Sciavicco

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Abstract—Attribute or feature selection is one of the basic strategies to improve the performances of data classification tasks, and, at the same time, to reduce the complexity of classifiers, and it is a particularly fundamental one when the number of attributes is relatively high. Its application to unsupervised classification is restricted to a limited number of experiments in the literature. Evolutionary computation has already proven itself to be a very effective choice to consistently reduce the number of attributes towards a better classification rate and a simpler semantic interpretation of the inferred classifiers. We present a feature selection wrapper model composed by a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, the clustering method Expectation-Maximization (EM), and the classifier C4.5 for the unsupervised classification of data extracted from a psychological test named BASC-II (Behavior Assessment System for Children - II ed.) with two objectives: Maximizing the likelihood of the clustering model and maximizing the accuracy of the obtained classifier. We present a methodology to integrate feature selection for unsupervised classification, model evaluation, decision making (to choose the most satisfactory model according to a a posteriori process in a multi-objective context), and testing. We compare the performance of the classifier obtained by the multi-objective evolutionary algorithms ENORA and NSGA-II, and the best solution is then validated by the psychologists that collected the data.

Keywords: evolutionary computation, feature selection, classification, clustering

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99 Data-Driven Market Segmentation in Hospitality Using Unsupervised Machine Learning

Authors: Rik van Leeuwen, Ger Koole

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Within hospitality, marketing departments use segmentation to create tailored strategies to ensure personalized marketing. This study provides a data-driven approach by segmenting guest profiles via hierarchical clustering based on an extensive set of features. The industry requires understandable outcomes that contribute to adaptability for marketing departments to make data-driven decisions and ultimately driving profit. A marketing department specified a business question that guides the unsupervised machine learning algorithm. Features of guests change over time; therefore, there is a probability that guests transition from one segment to another. The purpose of the study is to provide steps in the process from raw data to actionable insights, which serve as a guideline for how hospitality companies can adopt an algorithmic approach.

Keywords: hierarchical cluster analysis, hospitality, market segmentation

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98 Unsupervised Feature Learning by Pre-Route Simulation of Auto-Encoder Behavior Model

Authors: Youngjae Jin, Daeshik Kim

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This paper describes a cycle accurate simulation results of weight values learned by an auto-encoder behavior model in terms of pre-route simulation. Given the results we visualized the first layer representations with natural images. Many common deep learning threads have focused on learning high-level abstraction of unlabeled raw data by unsupervised feature learning. However, in the process of handling such a huge amount of data, the learning method’s computation complexity and time limited advanced research. These limitations came from the fact these algorithms were computed by using only single core CPUs. For this reason, parallel-based hardware, FPGAs, was seen as a possible solution to overcome these limitations. We adopted and simulated the ready-made auto-encoder to design a behavior model in Verilog HDL before designing hardware. With the auto-encoder behavior model pre-route simulation, we obtained the cycle accurate results of the parameter of each hidden layer by using MODELSIM. The cycle accurate results are very important factor in designing a parallel-based digital hardware. Finally this paper shows an appropriate operation of behavior model based pre-route simulation. Moreover, we visualized learning latent representations of the first hidden layer with Kyoto natural image dataset.

Keywords: auto-encoder, behavior model simulation, digital hardware design, pre-route simulation, Unsupervised feature learning

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97 Feature Based Unsupervised Intrusion Detection

Authors: Deeman Yousif Mahmood, Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

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The goal of a network-based intrusion detection system is to classify activities of network traffics into two major categories: normal and attack (intrusive) activities. Nowadays, data mining and machine learning plays an important role in many sciences; including intrusion detection system (IDS) using both supervised and unsupervised techniques. However, one of the essential steps of data mining is feature selection that helps in improving the efficiency, performance and prediction rate of proposed approach. This paper applies unsupervised K-means clustering algorithm with information gain (IG) for feature selection and reduction to build a network intrusion detection system. For our experimental analysis, we have used the new NSL-KDD dataset, which is a modified dataset for KDDCup 1999 intrusion detection benchmark dataset. With a split of 60.0% for the training set and the remainder for the testing set, a 2 class classifications have been implemented (Normal, Attack). Weka framework which is a java based open source software consists of a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks has been used in the testing process. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is very accurate with low false positive rate and high true positive rate and it takes less learning time in comparison with using the full features of the dataset with the same algorithm.

Keywords: information gain (IG), intrusion detection system (IDS), k-means clustering, Weka

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96 Analysis of Expression Data Using Unsupervised Techniques

Authors: M. A. I Perera, C. R. Wijesinghe, A. R. Weerasinghe

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his study was conducted to review and identify the unsupervised techniques that can be employed to analyze gene expression data in order to identify better subtypes of tumors. Identifying subtypes of cancer help in improving the efficacy and reducing the toxicity of the treatments by identifying clues to find target therapeutics. Process of gene expression data analysis described under three steps as preprocessing, clustering, and cluster validation. Feature selection is important since the genomic data are high dimensional with a large number of features compared to samples. Hierarchical clustering and K Means are often used in the analysis of gene expression data. There are several cluster validation techniques used in validating the clusters. Heatmaps are an effective external validation method that allows comparing the identified classes with clinical variables and visual analysis of the classes.

Keywords: cancer subtypes, gene expression data analysis, clustering, cluster validation

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95 Unsupervised Sentiment Analysis for Indonesian Political Message on Twitter

Authors: Omar Abdillah, Mirna Adriani

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In this work, we perform new approach for analyzing public sentiment towards the presidential candidate in the 2014 Indonesian election that expressed in Twitter. In this study we propose such procedure for analyzing sentiment over Indonesian political message by understanding the behavior of Indonesian society in sending message on Twitter. We took different approach from previous works by utilizing punctuation mark and Indonesian sentiment lexicon that completed with the new procedure in determining sentiment towards the candidates. Our experiment shows the performance that yields up to 83.31% of average precision. In brief, this work makes two contributions: first, this work is the preliminary study of sentiment analysis in the domain of political message that has not been addressed yet before. Second, we propose such method to conduct sentiment analysis by creating decision making procedure in which it is in line with the characteristic of Indonesian message on Twitter.

Keywords: unsupervised sentiment analysis, political message, lexicon based, user behavior understanding

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94 Biofilm Text Classifiers Developed Using Natural Language Processing and Unsupervised Learning Approach

Authors: Kanika Gupta, Ashok Kumar

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Biofilms are dense, highly hydrated cell clusters that are irreversibly attached to a substratum, to an interface or to each other, and are embedded in a self-produced gelatinous matrix composed of extracellular polymeric substances. Research in biofilm field has become very significant, as biofilm has shown high mechanical resilience and resistance to antibiotic treatment and constituted as a significant problem in both healthcare and other industry related to microorganisms. The massive information both stated and hidden in the biofilm literature are growing exponentially therefore it is not possible for researchers and practitioners to automatically extract and relate information from different written resources. So, the current work proposes and discusses the use of text mining techniques for the extraction of information from biofilm literature corpora containing 34306 documents. It is very difficult and expensive to obtain annotated material for biomedical literature as the literature is unstructured i.e. free-text. Therefore, we considered unsupervised approach, where no annotated training is necessary and using this approach we developed a system that will classify the text on the basis of growth and development, drug effects, radiation effects, classification and physiology of biofilms. For this, a two-step structure was used where the first step is to extract keywords from the biofilm literature using a metathesaurus and standard natural language processing tools like Rapid Miner_v5.3 and the second step is to discover relations between the genes extracted from the whole set of biofilm literature using pubmed.mineR_v1.0.11. We used unsupervised approach, which is the machine learning task of inferring a function to describe hidden structure from 'unlabeled' data, in the above-extracted datasets to develop classifiers using WinPython-64 bit_v3.5.4.0Qt5 and R studio_v0.99.467 packages which will automatically classify the text by using the mentioned sets. The developed classifiers were tested on a large data set of biofilm literature which showed that the unsupervised approach proposed is promising as well as suited for a semi-automatic labeling of the extracted relations. The entire information was stored in the relational database which was hosted locally on the server. The generated biofilm vocabulary and genes relations will be significant for researchers dealing with biofilm research, making their search easy and efficient as the keywords and genes could be directly mapped with the documents used for database development.

Keywords: biofilms literature, classifiers development, text mining, unsupervised learning approach, unstructured data, relational database

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93 Modern Machine Learning Conniptions for Automatic Speech Recognition

Authors: S. Jagadeesh Kumar

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This expose presents a luculent of recent machine learning practices as employed in the modern and as pertinent to prospective automatic speech recognition schemes. The aspiration is to promote additional traverse ablution among the machine learning and automatic speech recognition factions that have transpired in the precedent. The manuscript is structured according to the chief machine learning archetypes that are furthermore trendy by now or have latency for building momentous hand-outs to automatic speech recognition expertise. The standards offered and convoluted in this article embraces adaptive and multi-task learning, active learning, Bayesian learning, discriminative learning, generative learning, supervised and unsupervised learning. These learning archetypes are aggravated and conferred in the perspective of automatic speech recognition tools and functions. This manuscript bequeaths and surveys topical advances of deep learning and learning with sparse depictions; further limelight is on their incessant significance in the evolution of automatic speech recognition.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, deep learning methods, machine learning archetypes, Bayesian learning, supervised and unsupervised learning

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92 Unsupervised Text Mining Approach to Early Warning System

Authors: Ichihan Tai, Bill Olson, Paul Blessner

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Traditional early warning systems that alarm against crisis are generally based on structured or numerical data; therefore, a system that can make predictions based on unstructured textual data, an uncorrelated data source, is a great complement to the traditional early warning systems. The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) Volatility Index (VIX), commonly referred to as the fear index, measures the cost of insurance against market crash, and spikes in the event of crisis. In this study, news data is consumed for prediction of whether there will be a market-wide crisis by predicting the movement of the fear index, and the historical references to similar events are presented in an unsupervised manner. Topic modeling-based prediction and representation are made based on daily news data between 1990 and 2015 from The Wall Street Journal against VIX index data from CBOE.

Keywords: early warning system, knowledge management, market prediction, topic modeling.

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91 Sparsity-Based Unsupervised Unmixing of Hyperspectral Imaging Data Using Basis Pursuit

Authors: Ahmed Elrewainy

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Mixing in the hyperspectral imaging occurs due to the low spatial resolutions of the used cameras. The existing pure materials “endmembers” in the scene share the spectra pixels with different amounts called “abundances”. Unmixing of the data cube is an important task to know the present endmembers in the cube for the analysis of these images. Unsupervised unmixing is done with no information about the given data cube. Sparsity is one of the recent approaches used in the source recovery or unmixing techniques. The l1-norm optimization problem “basis pursuit” could be used as a sparsity-based approach to solve this unmixing problem where the endmembers is assumed to be sparse in an appropriate domain known as dictionary. This optimization problem is solved using proximal method “iterative thresholding”. The l1-norm basis pursuit optimization problem as a sparsity-based unmixing technique was used to unmix real and synthetic hyperspectral data cubes.

Keywords: basis pursuit, blind source separation, hyperspectral imaging, spectral unmixing, wavelets

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90 Component Based Testing Using Clustering and Support Vector Machine

Authors: Iqbaldeep Kaur, Amarjeet Kaur

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Software Reusability is important part of software development. So component based software development in case of software testing has gained a lot of practical importance in the field of software engineering from academic researcher and also from software development industry perspective. Finding test cases for efficient reuse of test cases is one of the important problems aimed by researcher. Clustering reduce the search space, reuse test cases by grouping similar entities according to requirements ensuring reduced time complexity as it reduce the search time for retrieval the test cases. In this research paper we proposed approach for re-usability of test cases by unsupervised approach. In unsupervised learning we proposed k-mean and Support Vector Machine. We have designed the algorithm for requirement and test case document clustering according to its tf-idf vector space and the output is set of highly cohesive pattern groups.

Keywords: software testing, reusability, clustering, k-mean, SVM

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89 Deep Learning Based Unsupervised Sport Scene Recognition and Highlights Generation

Authors: Ksenia Meshkova

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With increasing amount of multimedia data, it is very important to automate and speed up the process of obtaining meta. This process means not just recognition of some object or its movement, but recognition of the entire scene versus separate frames and having timeline segmentation as a final result. Labeling datasets is time consuming, besides, attributing characteristics to particular scenes is clearly difficult due to their nature. In this article, we will consider autoencoders application to unsupervised scene recognition and clusterization based on interpretable features. Further, we will focus on particular types of auto encoders that relevant to our study. We will take a look at the specificity of deep learning related to information theory and rate-distortion theory and describe the solutions empowering poor interpretability of deep learning in media content processing. As a conclusion, we will present the results of the work of custom framework, based on autoencoders, capable of scene recognition as was deeply studied above, with highlights generation resulted out of this recognition. We will not describe in detail the mathematical description of neural networks work but will clarify the necessary concepts and pay attention to important nuances.

Keywords: neural networks, computer vision, representation learning, autoencoders

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88 Chemical Image Processing for Food Safety, Classification and Authentication

Authors: Isik Riza Türkmen, Simon Friedrich, Ervinatasia Djaw

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The application of chemical imaging for food safety and authentication studies has recently become a popular research topic in the food industry, as recent technological advances have led to increased computational power to run data- and computational-intensive machine learning algorithms on laboratory computers. As a result, data intensive hyperspectral image acquisition and processing has gained acceptance and prestige in the food industry, enabling a wide range of digital transformation applications that accompany various research efforts from farm to fork. We focus on two case studies: In the first, we address the application of digital image processing for sorting coffee brands based on aroma characteristics and origin. In the second application, we address the safety and authentication of minced meat by processing hyperspectral images captured in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Methods are developed for the processing of hyperspectral image data that enables visual data exploration using unsupervised clustering and for the prediction of various food safety and authenticity properties based on supervised learning.

Keywords: hyperspectral imaging, food safety and authentication, unsupervised learning, supervised learning

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87 Efficient Schemes of Classifiers for Remote Sensing Satellite Imageries of Land Use Pattern Classifications

Authors: S. S. Patil, Sachidanand Kini

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Classification of land use patterns is compelling in complexity and variability of remote sensing imageries data. An imperative research in remote sensing application exploited to mine some of the significant spatially variable factors as land cover and land use from satellite images for remote arid areas in Karnataka State, India. The diverse classification techniques, unsupervised and supervised consisting of maximum likelihood, Mahalanobis distance, and minimum distance are applied in Bellary District in Karnataka State, India for the classification of the raw satellite images. The accuracy evaluations of results are compared visually with the standard maps with ground-truths. We initiated with the maximum likelihood technique that gave the finest results and both minimum distance and Mahalanobis distance methods over valued agriculture land areas. In meanness of mislaid few irrelevant features due to the low resolution of the satellite images, high-quality accord between parameters extracted automatically from the developed maps and field observations was found.

Keywords: Mahalanobis distance, minimum distance, supervised, unsupervised, user classification accuracy, producer's classification accuracy, maximum likelihood, kappa coefficient

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86 Optimal Pricing Based on Real Estate Demand Data

Authors: Vanessa Kummer, Maik Meusel

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Real estate demand estimates are typically derived from transaction data. However, in regions with excess demand, transactions are driven by supply and therefore do not indicate what people are actually looking for. To estimate the demand for housing in Switzerland, search subscriptions from all important Swiss real estate platforms are used. These data do, however, suffer from missing information—for example, many users do not specify how many rooms they would like or what price they would be willing to pay. In economic analyses, it is often the case that only complete data is used. Usually, however, the proportion of complete data is rather small which leads to most information being neglected. Also, the data might have a strong distortion if it is complete. In addition, the reason that data is missing might itself also contain information, which is however ignored with that approach. An interesting issue is, therefore, if for economic analyses such as the one at hand, there is an added value by using the whole data set with the imputed missing values compared to using the usually small percentage of complete data (baseline). Also, it is interesting to see how different algorithms affect that result. The imputation of the missing data is done using unsupervised learning. Out of the numerous unsupervised learning approaches, the most common ones, such as clustering, principal component analysis, or neural networks techniques are applied. By training the model iteratively on the imputed data and, thereby, including the information of all data into the model, the distortion of the first training set—the complete data—vanishes. In a next step, the performances of the algorithms are measured. This is done by randomly creating missing values in subsets of the data, estimating those values with the relevant algorithms and several parameter combinations, and comparing the estimates to the actual data. After having found the optimal parameter set for each algorithm, the missing values are being imputed. Using the resulting data sets, the next step is to estimate the willingness to pay for real estate. This is done by fitting price distributions for real estate properties with certain characteristics, such as the region or the number of rooms. Based on these distributions, survival functions are computed to obtain the functional relationship between characteristics and selling probabilities. Comparing the survival functions shows that estimates which are based on imputed data sets do not differ significantly from each other; however, the demand estimate that is derived from the baseline data does. This indicates that the baseline data set does not include all available information and is therefore not representative for the entire sample. Also, demand estimates derived from the whole data set are much more accurate than the baseline estimation. Thus, in order to obtain optimal results, it is important to make use of all available data, even though it involves additional procedures such as data imputation.

Keywords: demand estimate, missing-data imputation, real estate, unsupervised learning

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85 Unsupervised Segmentation Technique for Acute Leukemia Cells Using Clustering Algorithms

Authors: N. H. Harun, A. S. Abdul Nasir, M. Y. Mashor, R. Hassan

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Leukaemia is a blood cancer disease that contributes to the increment of mortality rate in Malaysia each year. There are two main categories for leukaemia, which are acute and chronic leukaemia. The production and development of acute leukaemia cells occurs rapidly and uncontrollable. Therefore, if the identification of acute leukaemia cells could be done fast and effectively, proper treatment and medicine could be delivered. Due to the requirement of prompt and accurate diagnosis of leukaemia, the current study has proposed unsupervised pixel segmentation based on clustering algorithm in order to obtain a fully segmented abnormal white blood cell (blast) in acute leukaemia image. In order to obtain the segmented blast, the current study proposed three clustering algorithms which are k-means, fuzzy c-means and moving k-means algorithms have been applied on the saturation component image. Then, median filter and seeded region growing area extraction algorithms have been applied, to smooth the region of segmented blast and to remove the large unwanted regions from the image, respectively. Comparisons among the three clustering algorithms are made in order to measure the performance of each clustering algorithm on segmenting the blast area. Based on the good sensitivity value that has been obtained, the results indicate that moving k-means clustering algorithm has successfully produced the fully segmented blast region in acute leukaemia image. Hence, indicating that the resultant images could be helpful to haematologists for further analysis of acute leukaemia.

Keywords: acute leukaemia images, clustering algorithms, image segmentation, moving k-means

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84 Using a Neural Network to Identify Pornographic Materials Involving Minors: Case Study

Authors: Wojciech Oronowicz-Jaśkowiak, Piotr Girdwoyń, Piotr Wasilewski

Abstract:

The aim of the article is to present the application of a neural network (using both supervised and unsupervised learning) to identify pornographic materials involving minors. In judicial practice, visual and audiovisual materials depicting minors engaging in sexual activity or presenting various degrees of nudity are considered pornographic materials involving minors. This will be presented as a case study – a summary of a forensic sexological opinion with an appropriate theoretical commentary and description of research methodology. The subject of the proceedings was the storage of pornographic materials involving minors; therefore, a forensic opinion of a sexology expert was sought in order to determine whether the prosecuted could be diagnosed with sexual preference disorders. The character and type of the secured materials were an important clinical premise for the expert. As a result of the preliminary analysis, it was found that the secured material contained a very large number of photographs and videos, exceeding the possibility of their manual evaluation. For this reason, it was decided to use a neural network to identify photographs corresponding to a given type of pornography. A neural network was created using the fast.ai library, an original architecture, and ResNet152 architecture, and both supervised learning (classification of pornographic materials into groups involving only adults and involving minors) and unsupervised learning techniques (using the modified SOM algorithm). This solution allowed to verify one of the theses put forward by the accused. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first application of a neural network in forensic sexology.

Keywords: child sexual abuse material, forensic sexology, data science, CSAM, COPINE

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83 Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed

Abstract:

This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.

Keywords: image segmentation, hierarchical analysis, 2-D histogram, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 291