Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 254

Search results for: bauxite residue

254 Generalized Model Estimating Strength of Bauxite Residue-Lime Mix

Authors: Sujeet Kumar, Arun Prasad

Abstract:

The present work investigates the effect of multiple parameters on the unconfined compressive strength of the bauxite residue-lime mix. A number of unconfined compressive strength tests considering various curing time, lime content, dry density and moisture content were carried out. The results show that an empirical correlation may be successfully developed using volumetric lime content, porosity, moisture content, curing time unconfined compressive strength for the range of the bauxite residue-lime mix studied. The proposed empirical correlations efficiently predict the strength of bauxite residue-lime mix, and it can be used as a generalized empirical equation to estimate unconfined compressive strength.

Keywords: bauxite residue, curing time, porosity/volumetric lime ratio, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
253 Utilization of Bauxite Residue in Construction Materials: An Experimental Study

Authors: Ryan Masoodi, Hossein Rostami

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Aluminum has been credited for the massive advancement of many industrial products, from aerospace and automotive to electronics and even household appliances. These developments have come with a cost, which is a toxic by-product. The rise of aluminum production has been accompanied by the rise of a waste material called Bauxite Residue or Red Mud. This toxic material has been proved to be harmful to the environment, yet, there is no proper way to dispose or recycle it. Herewith, a new experimental method to utilize this waste in the building material is proposed. A method to mix red mud, fly ash, and some other ingredients is explored to create a new construction material that can satisfy the minimum required strength for bricks. It concludes that it is possible to produce bricks with enough strength that is suitable for constriction in environments with low to moderate weather conditions.

Keywords: bauxite residue, brick, red mud, recycling

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252 Pre-Beneficiation of Low Grade Diasporic Bauxite Ore by Reduction Roasting

Authors: Koksal Yılmaz, Burak Birol, Muhlis Nezihi Saridede, Erdogan Yigit

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A bauxite ore can be utilized in Bayer Process, if the mass ratio of Al2O3 to SiO2 is greater than 10. Otherwise, its FexOy and SiO2 content should be removed. On the other hand, removal of TiO2 from the bauxite ore would be beneficial because of both lowering the red mud residue and obtaining a valuable raw material containing TiO2 mineral. In this study, the low grade diasporic bauxite ore of Yalvaç, Isparta, Turkey was roasted under reducing atmosphere and subjected to magnetic separation. According to the experimental results, 800°C for reduction temperature and 20000 Gauss of magnetic intensity were found to be the optimum parameters for removal of iron oxide and rutile from the non-magnetic ore. On the other hand, 600°C and 5000 Gauss were determined to be the optimum parameters for removal of silica from the non-magnetic ore.

Keywords: low grade diasporic bauxite, magnetic separation, reduction roasting, separation index

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251 Research of Concentratibility of Low Quality Bauxite Raw Materials

Authors: Nadezhda Nikolaeva, Tatyana Alexandrova, Alexandr Alexandrov

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Processing of high-silicon bauxite on the base of the traditional clinkering method is related to high power consumption and capital investments, which makes production of alumina from those ores non-competitive in terms of basic economic showings. For these reasons, development of technological solutions enabling to process bauxites with various chemical and mineralogical structures efficiently with low level of thermal power consumption is important. Flow sheet of the studies on washability of ores from the Timanskoe and the Severo-Onezhskoe deposits is on the base of the flotation method.

Keywords: low-quality bauxite, resource-saving technology, optimization, aluminum, conditioning of composition, separation characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
250 Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul

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Soy milk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soy milk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soy milk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soy milk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soy milk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92% protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soy milk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soy milk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.

Keywords: Gyoza skin, sensory, soymilk residue, wheat flour

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
249 Synthesis of Zeolites from Bauxite and Kaolin: Effect of Synthesis Parameters on Competing Phases

Authors: Bright Kwakye-Awuah, Elizabeth Von-Kiti, Isaac Nkrumah, Baah Sefa-Ntiri, Craig D. Williams

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Bauxite and kaolin from Ghana Bauxite Company mine site were used to synthesize zeolites. Bauxite served as the alumina source and kaolin the silica source. Synthesis variations include variation of aging time at constant crystallization time and variation of crystallization times at constant aging time. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed in the characterization of the raw samples as well as the synthesized samples. The results obtained showed that the transformations that occurred and the phase of the resulting products were coordinated by the aging time, crystallization time, alkaline concentration and Si/Al ratio of the system. Zeolites A, X, Y, analcime, Sodalite, and ZK-14 were some of the phases achieved. Zeolite LTA was achieved with short crystallization times of 3, 5, 18 and 24 hours and a maximum aging of 24 hours. Zeolite LSX was synthesized with 24 hr aging followed with 24 hr hydrothermal treatment whilst zeolite Y crystallized after 48 hr of aging and 24 hr crystallization. Prolonged crystallization time produced a mixed phased product. Prolonged aging times, on the other hand, did not yield any zeolite as the sample was amorphous. Increasing the alkaline content of the reaction mixture above 5M introduced sodalite phase in the final product. The properties of the final products were comparable to zeolites synthesized from pure chemical reagents.

Keywords: bauxite, kaolin, aging, crystallization, zeolites

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248 Determination of Carbofuran Residue in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) and Soil of Brinjal Field

Authors: R. Islam, M. A. Haque, K. H. Kabir

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A supervised trail was set with brinjal at research field, Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur to determine the residue of Carbofuran in soil and fruit samples at different days after application (DAA) of Furadan 5 G @ 2 kg AI/ ha. Field collected samples were analyzed by GCMS-EI. Results of the experiment indicated the presence of Carbofuran residue up to 60 DAA in soil samples and 25 DAA in brinjal fruit samples. In case of soil samples, the detected residues were 7.04, 2.78, 0.79, 0.43, 0.12, 0.06 and 0.05 ppm at 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 DAA respectively. On the other hand, in brinjal fruit samples Carbofuran residues were 0.005 ppm, 0.095 ppm, 0.084 ppm, 0.065 ppm, 0.063 ppm, 0.056 ppm, 0.050 ppm, 0.030 ppm and 0.016 ppm at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 25-DAA, respectively. None of this amount was above the recommended MRL (0.1 mg / kg crop) of Carborufan for agricultural crops.

Keywords: brinjal, carbofuran, MRL, residue

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247 Fractional Residue Number System

Authors: Parisa Khoshvaght, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

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During the past few years, the Residue Number System (RNS) has been receiving considerable interest due to its parallel and fault-tolerant properties. This system is a useful tool for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) since it can support parallel, carry-free, high-speed and low power arithmetic. One of the drawbacks of Residue Number System is the fractional numbers, that is, the corresponding circuit is very hard to realize in conventional CMOS technology. In this paper, we propose a method in which the numbers of transistors are significantly reduced. The related delay is extremely diminished, in the first glance we use this method to solve concerning problem of one decimal functional number some how this proposition can be extended to generalize the idea. Another advantage of this method is the independency on the kind of moduli.

Keywords: computer arithmetic, residue number system, number system, one-Hot, VLSI

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246 Iranian Refinery Vacuum Residue Upgrading Using Microwave Irradiation: Effects of Catalyst Type and Amount

Authors: Zarrin Nasri

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Microwave irradiation is an innovative technology in the petroleum industry. This kind of energy has been considered to convert vacuum residue of oil refineries into useful products. The advantages of microwaves energy are short time, fast heating, high energy efficiency, and precise process control. In this paper, the effects of catalyst type and amount have been investigated on upgrading of vacuum residue using microwave irradiation. The vacuum residue used in this research is from Tehran oil refinery, Iran. Additives include different catalysts, active carbon as sensitizer, and sodium borohydride as a solid hydrogen donor. Various catalysts contain iron, nickel, molybdenum disulfide, iron oxide and copper. The amount of catalysts in two cases of presence and absence of sodium borohydride have been evaluated. The objective parameters include temperature, asphaltene, viscosity, and API. The specifications of vacuum residue are API, 8.79, viscosity, 16391 cSt (60°C), asphaltene, 13.3 wt %. The results show that there is a significant difference between the effects of catalysts. Among the used catalysts, Fe powder is the best catalyst for upgrading vacuum residue using microwave irradiation and resulted in asphaltene reduction, 31.3 %; viscosity reduction, 76.43 %; and 23.43 % in API increase.

Keywords: asphaltene, microwave, upgrading, vacuum residue, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
245 Utilization of Logging Residue to Reduce Soil Disturbance of Timber Harvesting

Authors: Juang R. Matangaran, Qi Adlan

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Industrial plantation forest in Indonesia was developed in 1983, and since then, several companies have been successfully planted a total area of concessionaire approximately 10 million hectares. Currently, these plantation forests have their annual harvesting period. In the timber harvesting process, amount part of the trees generally become logging residue. Tree parts such as branches, twigs, defected stem and leaves are unused section of tree on the ground after timber harvesting. The use of heavy machines in timber harvesting area has caused damage to the forest soil. The negative impact of such machines includes loss of topsoil, soil erosion, and soil compaction. Forest soil compaction caused reduction of forest water infiltration, increase runoff and causes difficulty for root penetration. In this study, we used logging residue as soil covers on the passages passed by skidding machines in order to observe the reduction soil compaction. Bulk density of soil was measured and analyzed after several times of skidding machines passage on skid trail. The objective of the research was to analyze the effect of logging residue on reducing soil compaction. The research was taken place at one of the industrial plantation forest area of South Sumatra Indonesia. The result of the study showed that percentage increase of soil compaction bare soil was larger than soil surface covered by logging residue. The maximum soil compaction occurred after 4 to 5 passes on soil without logging residue or bare soil and after 7 to 8 passes on soil cover by logging residue. The use of logging residue coverings could reduce soil compaction from 45% to 60%. The logging residue was effective in decreasing soil disturbance of timber harvesting at the plantation forest area.

Keywords: bulk density, logging residue, plantation forest, soil compaction, timber harvesting

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244 Mechanical Properties Analysis of Masonry Residue Mortar as Cement Replacement

Authors: Camila Parodi, Viviana Letelier, Giacomo Moriconi

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The cement industry is responsible for around a 5% of the CO2 emissions worldwide and considering that concrete is one of the most used materials in construction its total effect is important. An alternative to reduce the environmental impact of concrete production is to incorporate certain amount of residues in the dosing, limiting the replacement percentages to avoid significant losses in the mechanical properties of the final material. Previous researches demonstrate the feasibility of using brick and rust residues, separately, as a cement replacement. This study analyses the variation in the mechanical properties of mortars by incorporating masonry residue composed of clay bricks and cement mortar. In order to improve the mechanical properties of masonry residue, this was subjected to a heat treatment of 650 ° C for four hours and its effect is analyzed in this study. Masonry residue was obtained from a demolition of masonry perimetral walls. The residues were crushed and sieved and the maximum size of particles used was 75 microns. The percentages of cement replaced by masonry residue were 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of masonry residue addition and its heat treatment in the mechanical properties of mortars is evaluated through compressive and flexural strength tests after 7, 14 and 28 curing days. Results show that increasing the amount of masonry residue used increases the losses in compressive strength and flexural strength. However, the use of up to a 20% of masonry residue, when a heat treatment is applied, allows obtaining mortars with similar compressive strength to the control mortar. Masonry residues mortars without a heat treatment show losses in compressive strengths between 15% and 27% with respect to masonry residues with heat treatment, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the heat treatment. From this analysis it can be conclude that it is possible to use up to 20% of masonry residue with heat treatment as cement replacement without significant losses in mortars mechanical properties, reducing considerably the environmental impact of the final material.

Keywords: cement replacement, environmental impact, masonry residue, mechanical properties of recycled mortars

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243 Pesticide Residue Determination on Cumin Plant (Nigella orientalis L.) with LC-MS/MS and GC-MS

Authors: Nilda Ersoy, Sevinç Şener, Ayşe Yalçın Elidemir, Ebru Evcil, Ergün Döğen

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In this study, pesticide residues were investigated in black cumin (Nigella orientalis L.) seeds grown in Turkey. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analytical instruments are used in high precision when determining residue limits. A total of 100 pesticide active ingredients in LC-MS/MS devices have been performed in Nigella orientalis L. seeds samples. Also for the same aim, 103 pesticide active ingredients were analyzed in GC-MS. This study was conducted in 2012 and 2013. Sample residues were not found in detectable levels for two years.

Keywords: pesticide, residue, black cumin, Nigella orientalis L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
242 Conservation Agriculture and Precision Water Management in Alkaline Soils under Rice-Wheat Cropping System: Effect on Wheat Productivity and Irrigation Water Use-a Case Study from India

Authors: S. K. Kakraliya, H. S. Jat, Manish Kakraliya, P. C. Sharma, M. L. Jat

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The biggest challenge in agriculture is to produce more food for the continually increasing world population with in the limited land and water resources. Serious water deficits and reducing natural resources are some of the major threats to the agricultural sustainability in many regions of South Asia. Food and water security may be gained by bringing improvement in the crop water productivity and the amount produced per unit of water consumed. Improvement in the crop water productivity may be achieved by pursuing alternative modern agronomics approaches, which are more friendly and efficient in utilizing natural resources. Therefore, a research trial on conservation agriculture (CA) and precision water management (PWM) was conducted in 2018-19 at Karnal, India to evaluate the effect on crop productivity and irrigation in sodic soils under rice-wheat (RW) systems of Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Eight scenarios were compared varied in the tillage, crop establishment, residue and irrigarion management i.e., {First four scenarios irrigated with flood irrigation method;Sc1-Conventional tillage (CT) without residue, Sc2-CT with residue, Sc3- Zero tillage (ZT) without residue, Sc4-ZT with residue}, and {last four scenarios irrigated with sub-surface drip irrigation method; Sc5-ZT without residue, Sc6- ZT with residue, Sc7-ZT inclusion legume without residue and Sc8- ZT inclusion legume with residue}. Results revealed that CA-flood irrigation (S3, Sc4) and CA-PWM system (Sc5, Sc6, Sc7 and Sc8) recorded about ~5% and ~15% higher wheat yield, respectively compared to Sc1. Similar, CA-PWM saved ~40% irrigation water compared to Sc1. Rice yield was not different under different scenarios in the first year (kharif 2019) but almost half irrigation water saved under CA-PWM system. Therefore, results of our study on modern agronomic practices including CA and precision water management (subsurface drip irrigation) for RW rotation would be addressed the existing and future challenges in the RW system.

Keywords: Sub-surface drip, Crop residue, Crop yield , Zero tillage

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241 Pesticide Residue Determination on Cumin Plant (Nigella orientalis L.) Grown through Agricultural Practices with LC-MS/MS and GC-MS

Authors: Nilda Ersoy, Sevinç Şener, Ayşe Yalçın Elidemir, Ebru Evcil, Ergün Döğen

Abstract:

In this study, pesticide residues were investigated in black cumin (Nigella orientalis L.) seeds which grown in Turkey. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analytical instruments are used in high precision, when determining residue limits. A total of 100 pesticide active ingredients in LC-MS/MS devices have been performed in Nigella orientalis L. seeds samples. Moreover, for same aim, 103 pesticide active ingredients were analyzed in GC-MS. This study conducted in 2012 and 2013. Samples residues were not found in detectable levels for two years.

Keywords: pesticide, residue, black cumin, Nigella orientalis L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
240 The Distribution and Environmental Behavior of Heavy Metals in Jajarm Bauxite Mine, Northeast Iran

Authors: Hossein Hassani, Ali Rezaei

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Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density at least five times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical, and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment, raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Environmental protection against various pollutants, such as heavy metals formed by industries, mines and modern technologies, is a concern for researchers and industry. In order to assess the contamination of soils the distribution and environmental behavior have been investigated. Jajarm bauxite mine, the most important deposits have been discovered in Iran, which is about 22 million tons of reserve, and is the main mineral of the Diaspora. With a view to estimate the heavy metals ratio of the Jajarm bauxite mine area and to evaluate the pollution level, 50 samples have been collected and have been analyzed for the heavy metals of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb with the help of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP- MS). In this study, we have dealt with determining evaluation criteria including contamination factor (CF), average concentration (AV), enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (GI) to assess the risk of pollution from heavy metals(As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb) in Jajarm bauxite mine. In the samples of the studied, the average of recorded concentration of elements for Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Mercury, Nickel and Lead are 18, 0.11, 12, 0.07, 58 and 51 (mg/kg) respectively. The comparison of the heavy metals concentration average and the toxic potential in the samples has shown that an average with respect to the world average of the uncontaminated soil amounts. The average of Pb and As elements shows a higher quantity with respect to the world average quantity. The pollution factor for the study elements has been calculated on the basis of the soil background concentration and has been categorized on the basis of the uncontaminated world soil average with respect to the Hakanson classification. The calculation of the corrected pollutant degree shows the degree of the bulk intermediate pollutant (1.55-2.0) for the average soil sampling of the study area which is on the basis of the background quantity and the world average quantity of the uncontaminated soils. The provided conclusion from calculation of the concentrated factor, for some of the samples show that the average of the lead and arsenic elements stations are more than the background values and the unnatural metal concentration are covered under the study area, That's because the process of mining and mineral extraction. Given conclusion from the calculation of Geoaccumulation index of the soil sampling can explain that the copper, nickel, cadmium, arsenic, lead and mercury elements are Uncontamination. In general, the results indicate that the Jajarm bauxite mine of heavy metal pollution is uncontaminated area and extract the mineral from the mine, not create environmental hazards in the region.

Keywords: enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, heavy metals, Jajarm bauxite mine, pollution

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239 Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay Based Detection of Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A in Raw Milk in Punjab, India

Authors: Pallavi Moudgil, J. S. Bedi, R. S. Aulakh, J. P. S. Gill

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Mycotoxins in milk are of major public health concern. The present study was envisaged with an aim to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw milk samples collected from individual animals from dairy farms located in Punjab (India). A total of 168 raw milk samples were collected and analysed using competitive ELISA kits. Out of these, 9 (5.4%) samples were found positive for aflatoxin M1 with the mean concentration of 0.006-0.13 ng/ml and 2 (1.2%) samples exceeded the established maximum residue limit of 0.05 ng/ml established by the European Union. For ochratoxin A, 2 (0.1%) samples were found positive with the mean concentration of 0.61-0.83 ng/ml with both the samples below the established maximum residue limit of 2 ng/ml. The results showed that the milk of dairy cattle is safe with respect to ochratoxin A contamination but occurrence of aflatoxin M1 above maximum residue limit suggested that feed contaminated with mycotoxins might have been offered to dairy cattle that can pose serious health risks to consumers.

Keywords: Aflatoxin M1, health risks, maximum residue limit, milk, Ochratoxin A

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
238 Computational Investigation of V599 Mutations of BRAF Protein and Its Control over the Therapeutic Outcome under the Malignant Condition

Authors: Mayank, Navneet Kaur, Narinder Singh

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The V599 mutations in the BRAF protein are extremely oncogenic, responsible for countless of malignant conditions. Along with wild type, V599E, V599D, and V599R are the important mutated variants of the BRAF proteins. The BRAF inhibitory anticancer agents are continuously developing, and sorafenib is a BRAF inhibitor that is under clinical use. The crystal structure of sorafenib bounded to wild type, and V599 is known, showing a similar interaction pattern in both the case. The mutated 599th residue, in both the case, is also found not interacting directly with the co-crystallized sorafenib molecule. However, the IC50 value of sorafenib was found extremely different in both the case, i.e., 22 nmol/L for wild and 38 nmol/L for V599E protein. Molecular docking study and MMGBSA binding energy results also revealed a significant difference in the binding pattern of sorafenib in both the case. Therefore, to explore the role of distinctively situated 599th residue, we have further conducted comprehensive computational studies. The molecular dynamics simulation, residue interaction network (RIN) analysis, and residue correlation study results revealed the importance of the 599th residue on the therapeutic outcome and overall dynamic of the BRAF protein. Therefore, although the position of 599th residue is very much distinctive from the ligand-binding cavity of BRAF, still it has exceptional control over the overall functional outcome of the protein. The insight obtained here may seem extremely important and guide us while designing ideal BRAF inhibitory anticancer molecules.

Keywords: BRAF, oncogenic, sorafenib, computational studies

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237 Comparative Assessment of Organo-Chlorine Pesticides Residue in Fruits and Fruit Juices

Authors: Saidu Garba Okereafor Stella

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The presence of 15 organochlorine pesticides residue was assessed from 29 different fruits and fruit juice samples from selected farms in Kaduna and Niger States using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS), followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The results showed the presence of varying concentrations of ten (10) organochlorine pesticide residues in all the samples with Endrin ketone showing the highest concentration in 3 samples from Kaduna (guava juice 1 and 2 0.099 to 0.145 mg/kg) and Niger States (orange juice J19 0.102 mg/kg). The heptachlor was detected at high concentration in 11 samples, 7 samples from Kaduna State (mango juice 0.011 mg/kg, Washington orange 0.014 mg/kg, Valencia orange fruit 0.020 mg/kg, orange juice 0.011, white guava fruit 0.024 mg/kg, guava juice 0.023 mg/kg, guava juice 2 0.024 mg/kg) and 4 samples from (mango juice 1 0.015 mg/kg, pineapple juice 1 0.0120 mg/kg pineapple juice 2 011 mg/kg and mix juice 2 0.012 mg/kg) from Niger State. Dieldrine and endosulfansulfate were detected at high levels in one sample each from Niger (guava fruit 0.019 mg/kg and mixed juice1 0.011mg/kg), respectively. However, all were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by WHO/FAO which suggest that people consuming these type of contaminated fruits and fruits juices may contact diseases associated with those organochlorine pesticides residue. Minute concentrations of other organochlorines (α- BHC, δ- BHC, β- BHC, Lindane, and p’p DDT) ranged from 0.003 to 0.015 were recorded below the MRLs.

Keywords: fruits and fruits juices, organochlorine pesticide residue, comparative studies, gc-ms spectrophometer

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236 An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Several Industrial Wastes and Natural Materials as Precursors for the Production of Alkali Activated Materials

Authors: O. Alelweet, S. Pavia

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In order to face current compelling environmental problems affecting the planet, the construction industry needs to adapt. It is widely acknowledged that there is a need for durable, high-performance, low-greenhouse gas emission binders that can be used as an alternative to Portland cement (PC) to lower the environmental impact of construction. Alkali activated materials (AAMs) are considered a more sustainable alternative to PC materials. The binders of AAMs result from the reaction of an alkali metal source and a silicate powder or precursor which can be a calcium silicate or an aluminosilicate-rich material. This paper evaluates the particle size, specific surface area, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness of silicate materials (most industrial waste locally produced in Ireland and Saudi Arabia) to develop alkali-activated binders that can replace PC resources in specific applications. These include recycled ceramic brick, bauxite, illitic clay, fly ash and metallurgical slag. According to the results, the wastes are reactive and comply with building standards requirements. The study also evidenced that the reactivity of the Saudi bauxite (with significant kaolinite) can be enhanced on thermal activation; and high calcium in the slag will promote reaction; which should be possible with low alkalinity activators. The wastes evidenced variable water demands that will be taken into account for mixing with the activators. Finally, further research is proposed to further determine the reactive fraction of the clay-based precursors.

Keywords: alkali activated materials, alkali-activated binders, sustainable building materials, recycled ceramic brick, bauxite, red mud, clay, fly ash, metallurgical slags, particle size, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness, water demand, particle density

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235 Comparison of Efficacy between Low-Residue Diet and Clear-Liquid Diet in Colonoscopic Bowel Preparation at a Surgical Clinic: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Sopana Wongtawee

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Purpose: Adequate bowel cleansing is essential for a high quality, effective and safe colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of bowel preparation based on a low-residue diet before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet, and a low-residue diet until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy using sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®), the side effects of the two protocols and the patient satisfaction with them. Method: This was an endoscopist-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 224 patients (112 in each group) scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy met the criteria.They were randomized to either a low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with either fish, chicken or eggs before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet (Group 1) or a low-residue diet consisting of the same food and drink, until 16:00 the day before colonoscopy(Group 2). All of them received 45 ml of sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®) and three glasses of water (300 ml/glass) the evening before and the morning of the procedure. The cleansing efficacy of bowel preparation was rated according to the modified Rajawithi hospital bowel preparation score scale, patient satisfaction with bowel preparation was rated using Likert scale, and side effects of the 2 protocols was assessed using a patient questionnaire. Results: The cleansing efficacy between the two groups was significantly different (p=0.02). Satisfaction with bowel preparation and side effects were not different, except for the feeling of hunger in the first group (p=0.001). Conclusion: The low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with fish, chicken or eggs until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy achieved a better bowel-cleansing efficacy than the protocol consisting of clear liquid all day and rice porridge only before 8:00 one day before colonoscopy.

Keywords: bowel preparation, colonoscopy, sodium phosphate solution, nursing management

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234 Regulating Transnational Corporations and Protecting Human Rights: Analyzing the Efficiency of International Legal Framework

Authors: Stellina Jolly

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July 18th to August 19th 2013 has gone down in the history of India for undertaking the country’s first environment referendum. The Supreme Court had ruled that the Vedanta Group's bauxite mining project in the Niyamgiri Hills of Orissa will have to get clearance from the gram sabha, which will consider the cultural and religious rights of the tribals and forest dwellers living in Rayagada and Kalahandi districts. In the Niyamgiri hills, people of small tribal hamlets were asked to voice their opinion on bauxite mining in their habitat. The ministry has reiterated its stand that mining cannot be allowed on the Niyamgiri hills because it will affect the rights of the Dongria Kondhs. The tribal person who occupies the Niyamgiri Hills in Eastern India accomplished their first success in 2010 in their struggle to protect and preserve their existence, culture and land against Vedanta a London-based mining giant. In August, 2010 Government of India revoked permission for Vedanta Resources to mine bauxite from hills in Orissa State where the Dongria Kondh live as forest dwellers. This came after various protests and reports including amnesty report wherein it highlighted that an alumina refinery in eastern India operated by a subsidiary of mining company. Vedanta was accused of causing air and water pollution that threatens the health of local people and their access to water. The abuse of human rights by corporate is not a new issue it has occurred in Africa, Asia and other parts of the world. Paper focuses on the instances and extent of human right especially in terms of environment violations by corporations. Further Paper details on corporations and sustainable development. Paper finally comes up with certain recommendation including call for a declaration by United Nations on Corporate environment Human Rights Liability.

Keywords: environment, corporate, human rights, sustainable development

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233 Use of Residues from Water Treatment and Porcelain Coatings Industry for Producing Eco-Bricks

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Fabiolla Lima, Julio Lima, Paulo Scalize, Antonio Albuquerque, Heitor Reis

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One of the great environmental problems in the management of water treatment (WTP) is on the disposal of waste generated during the treatment process. The same occurs with the waste generated during rectification of porcelain tiles. Despite environmental laws in Brazil the residues does not have an ecologically balanced destination. Thus, with the purpose to identify an environmentally sustainable disposal, residues were used to replace part of the soil, for production soil-cement bricks. It was used the residues from WTP and coatings industry Cecrisa (Brazil). Consequently, a greater amount of fine aggregate in the two samples of residues was found. The residue affects the quality of bricks produced, compared to the sample without residues. However, the results of compression and water absorption tests were obtained values that meet the standards, respectively 2.0 MPa and 20% absorption.

Keywords: water treatment residue, porcelain tile residue, WTP, brick

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232 Pruning Residue Effects on Symbiotic N₂ Fixation and δ¹³C Isotopic Composition of Sesbania sesban and Cajanus cajan

Authors: I. T. Makhubedu, B. A. Letty, P. F. Scogings, P. L. Mafongoya

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Despite their potential importance in recycling dinitrogen (N2) fixed in alley cropping systems, the effects of tree pruning residues on symbiotic N2 fixation are poorly studied. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pruning residue management and pruning date on symbiotic performance and

Keywords: alley cropping, management, N₂ fixed, natural abundance, recycling

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231 Evaluation of Non-Destructive Application to Detect Pesticide Residue on Leaf Mustard Using Spectroscopic Method

Authors: Nazmi Mat Nawi, Muhamad Najib Mohamad Nor, Che Dini Maryani Ishkandar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of spectroscopic methods to detect the presence of pesticide residues on leaf mustard. A total of 105 leaf mustard used were divided into five batches, four batches were treated with four different types of pesticides whereas one batch with no pesticide applied. Spectral data were obtained using visible shortwave near infrared spectrometer (VSWNIRS) which is Ocean Optics HR4000 High-resolution Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. Reflectance value was collected to determine the difference between one pesticide to the other. The obtained spectral data were pre-processed for optimum performance. The effective wavelength of approximate 880 nm, 675-710 nm also 550 and 700 nm indicates the overtones -CH stretching vibration, tannin, also chlorophyll content present in the leaf mustard respectively. This study has successfully demonstrated that the spectroscopic method was able to differentiate between leaf mustard sample with and without pesticide residue.

Keywords: detect, leaf mustard, non-destructive, pesticide residue

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230 Recovery of Zn from Different Çinkur Leach Residues by Acidic Leaching

Authors: Mehmet Ali Topçu, Aydın Ruşen

Abstract:

Çinkur is the only plant in Turkey that produces zinc from primary ore containing zinc carbonate from its establishment until 1997. After this year, zinc concentrate coming from Iran was used in this plant. Therefore, there are two different leach residues namely Turkish leach residue (TLR) and Iranian leach residue (ILR), in Çinkur stock piles. This paper describes zinc recovery by sulphuric acid (H2SO4) treatment for each leach residue and includes comparison of blended of TLR and ILR. Before leach experiments; chemical, mineralogical and thermal analysis of three different leach residues was carried out by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), respectively. Leaching experiments were conducted at optimum conditions; 100 oC, 150 g/L H2SO4 and 2 hours. In the experiments, stirring rate was kept constant at 600 r/min which ensures complete mixing in leaching solution. Results show that zinc recovery for Iranian LR was higher than Turkish LR due to having different chemical composition from each other.

Keywords: hydrometallurgy, leaching, metal extraction, metal recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
229 Comparison Physicochemical Properties of Hexane Extracted Aniseed Oil from Cold Press Extraction Residue and Cold Press Aniseed Oil

Authors: Derya Ören, Şeyma Akalın

Abstract:

Cold pres technique is a traditional method to obtain oil. The cold-pressing procedure, involves neither heat nor chemical treatments, so cold press technique has low oil yield and cold pressed herbal material residue still contains some oil. In this study, the oil that is remained in the cold pressed aniseed extracted with hegzan and analysed to determine physicochemical properties and quality parameters. It is found that the aniseed after cold press process contains % 10 oil. Other analysis parametres free fatty acid (FFA) is 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value is 7,6 meq02/kg. Cold pressed aniseed oil values are determined for fatty acid (FFA) value as 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value 4,5 meq02/kg respectively. Also fatty acid composition is analysed, it is found that both of these oil have same fatty acid composition. The main fatty acids are; oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids.

Keywords: aniseed oil, cold press, extraction, residue

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228 Searching the Stabilizing Effects of Neutron Shell Closure via Fusion Evaporation Residue Studies

Authors: B. R. S. Babu, E. Prasad, P. V. Laveen, A. M. Vinodkumar

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Searching the “Island of stability” is a topic of extreme interest in theoretical as well as experimental modern physics today. This “island of stability” is spanned by superheavy elements (SHE's) that are produced in the laboratory. SHE's are believed to exist primarily due to the “magic” stabilizing effects of nuclear shell structure. SHE synthesis is extremely difficult due to their very low production cross section, often of the order of pico barns or less. Stabilizing effects of shell closures at proton number Z=82 and neutron number N=126 are predicted theoretically. Though stabilizing effects of Z=82 have been experimentally verified, no concluding observations have been made with N=126, so far. We measured and analyzed the total evaporation residue (ER) cross sections for a number of systems with neutron number around 126 to explore possible shell closure effects in ER cross sections, in this work.

Keywords: super heavy elements, fusion, evaporation residue, compund nucleus

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227 Characteristics Flakes Product with Dry Residue of Wild Orenago

Authors: Kosutic Milenko, Filipovic Jelena

Abstract:

Cereals constitute the staple food of the human race. In accordance with the modern nutritionist opinions, cereal products, flakes and snack products are the most common foods in the daily diet, such as ready to eat breakfast cereal, flakes, and snacks. Extrusion technology makes it possible to apply different sources of ingredients for the enrichment of cereal-based flakes or snacks products. Substances with strong antioxidant properties such as wild oregano have a positive impact on human health, therefore attracting the attention of scientists, consumers and food industry experts. This paper investigates the effects of simultaneous addition of dry residue of wild oregano (0.5% and 1%), on the physical and colour properties of corn flakes to obtain new products with altered nutritional properties. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between various samples. Addition of dry residue wild oregano positively influenced physical characteristics (decreased bulk density 30.2%, increased expansion rate 44.9%), influenced of decrease hardness 38.1% and work of compression 40.3% also significantly change the color of flakes product. Presented data point that investigated corn flakes is a new product with good physical and sensory properties due to higher level of dry residue of wild oregano.

Keywords: flakes product, wild oregano, phisical properties, colour, sensory properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
226 Study on Technological Development for Reducing the Sulfur Dioxide Residue Problem in Fresh Longan for Exporting

Authors: Wittaya Apai, Satippong Rattanakam, Suttinee Likhittragulrung, Nuttanai Tungmunkongvorakul, Sompetch Jaroensuk

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to find some alternative ways to decrease sulfur dioxide (SO₂) residue problem and prolong storage life in fresh longan for export. Office of Agricultural Research and Development Region 1, Chiang Mai province conducted the research and development from 2016-2018. A grade longan cv. Daw fruit with panicle attached was placed in 11.5 kg commercial perforated plastic basket. They had 5 selected treatments comprising of 3 baskets as replication for each treatment, i.e. 1.5% SO₂ fumigation prior to insert SO₂-generated pads (Uvasys®) (1.5% SO₂+SO₂ pad), dipping in 5% hydrochloric acid (HCl) mixed with 1% sodium metabisulfite (SMS) for 5 min (5% HCl +1% SMS), ozone (O₃) fumigation for 1 hours (h) prior to 1.5% SO₂ fumigation (O₃ 1 h+1.5% SO₂), 1.5% SO₂ fumigation prior to O₃ fumigation for 1 h (1.5% SO₂+O₃ 1 h) and 1.5% SO₂ fumigation alone as commercial treatment (1.5% SO₂). They were stored at 5 ˚C, 90% relative humidity (RH) for 40-80 days. The results found that the possible treatments were 1.5% SO₂+O₃ 1 h and 5% HCl +1% SMS respectively and prevented pericarp browning for 80 days at 5 ºC. There were no significant changes in some parameters in any treatments; 1.5% SO₂+O₃ 1 h and 1.5% SO₂ during storage, i.e., pericarp browning, flesh discoloration, disease incidence (%) and sensory evaluation during storage. Application 1.5% SO₂+O₃ 1 h had a tendency less both SO₂ residue in fruit and disease incidence (%) including brighter pericarp color as compared with commercial 1.5% SO₂ alone. Moreover, HCl 5%+SMS 1% showed the least SO₂ residue in whole fruit below codex tolerance at 50 mg/kg throughout period of time. The fruit treated with 1.5% SO₂+O₃ 1 h, 1.5% SO₂, 5% HCl+1% SMS, O₃ 1 h+1.5% SO₂, and 1.5% SO₂+SO₂ pad could prolong storage life for 40, 40, 40, 30 and 30 days respectively at 5°C, 90% RH. Thus, application 1.5% SO₂+O₃ 1 h and/or 5% HCl +1% SMS could be used for extending shelf life fresh longan exported to restricted countries due to less SO₂ residue and fruit quality was maintained as compared with the conventional method.

Keywords: longan, sulfur dioxide, ozone fumigation, sodium metabisulfite

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225 Recovery of Waste: Feasibility and Sustainable Application of Residues from Drinking Water Treatment in Building Materials

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Julio Lima, Paulo Scalize, Antonio Albuquerque, Isabela Santos

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to perform the physicochemical characterizations of the residue generated in the Meia-Ponte Water Treatment Plant, seeking to obtain normative parameters and consider sustainable alternatives for reincorporation of the residues in the productive chain for manufacturing various materials construction. In order to reduce the environmental liabilities generated by sanitation companies and discontinue unsustainable forms of disposal as the launching of the residue in the rivers, disposal in landfills or burning it, because such ways pollute watercourses, ground and air. The analyzes performed: Granulometry, identification of clay minerals, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-Ray Diffraction demonstrated the potential application of residues to replace the soil and sand, because it has characteristics compatible with small aggregate and can be used as feedstock for the manufacture of materials as ceramic and soil-cement bricks, mortars, interlocking floors and concrete artifacts.

Keywords: recovery of waste, residue, sustainable, water treatment plant, WTR

Procedia PDF Downloads 368