Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13738

Search results for: curing time

13738 Effect of Curing Temperature on Unconfined Compression Strength of Bagasse Ash-Calcium Carbide Residue Treated Organic Clay

Authors: John Trihatmoko, Luky Handoko

Abstract:

A series of experimental program was undertaken to study the effect of curing temperature on the unconfined compression strength of bagasse ash (BA) - calcium carbide residue (CCR) stabilized organic clay (OC). A preliminary experiment was performed to get the physical properties of OC, and to get the optimum water content (OMC), the standard compaction test was done. The stabilizing agents used in this research was (40% BA + 60% CCR) . Then to obtain the best binder proportion, unconfined compression test was undertaken for OC + 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% of binder with 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days curing period. The best quantity of the binder was found on 9%. Finally, to study the effect of curing temperature, the unconfined compression test was performed on OC + 9% binder with 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days curing time with 20O, 25O, 30O, 40O, and 50O C curing temperature. The result indicates that unconfined compression strength (UCS) of treated OC improve according to the increase of curing temperature at the same curing time. The improvement of UCS is probably due to the degree of cementation and pozzolanic reactions.

Keywords: curing temperature, organic clay, bagasse ash, calcium carbide residue, unconfined compression strength

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13737 The Effects of Various Curing Compounds on the Mechanical Characteristics of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavements (RCCP)

Authors: Azadeh Askarinejad, Parmida Hayati, Parham Hayati, Reza Parchami

Abstract:

Curing is a very important factor in the ultimate strength and durability of roller compacted concrete pavements (RCCP). Curing involves keeping the concrete is saturated or close to saturation point. Since maintaining concrete moisture has a significant impact on its mechanical properties, permeability and durability, curing is important. The most common procedure for curing of roller compacted concrete is using a white pigmented curing compound. This method is effective, economical and fast. In the present study, different curing compounds were applied on concrete specimens and the results of their effects on the mechanical properties were compared with each other and usual methods of curing in order to select appropriate materials and methods of curing for RCCP construction.

Keywords: curing compounds, roller compacted concrete pavements, mechanical properties, durability

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13736 Improvement of GVPI Insulation System Characteristics by Curing Process Modification

Authors: M. Shadmand

Abstract:

The curing process of insulation system for electrical machines plays a determinative role for its durability and reliability. Polar structure of insulating resin molecules and used filler of insulation system can be taken as an occasion to leverage it to enhance overall characteristics of insulation system, mechanically and electrically. The curing process regime for insulating system plays an important role for its mechanical and electrical characteristics by arranging the polymerization of chain structure for resin. In this research, the effect of electrical field application on in-curing insulating system for Global Vacuum Pressurized Impregnation (GVPI) system for traction motor was considered by performing the dissipation factor, polarization and de-polarization current (PDC) and voltage endurance (aging) measurements on sample test objects. Outcome results depicted obvious improvement in mechanical strength of the insulation system as well as higher electrical characteristics with routing and long-time (aging) electrical tests. Coming together, polarization of insulation system during curing process would enhance the machine life time. 

Keywords: insulation system, GVPI, PDC, aging

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13735 Towards Sustainable Concrete: Maturity Method to Evaluate the Effect of Curing Conditions on the Strength Development in Concrete Structures under Kuwait Environmental Conditions

Authors: F. Al-Fahad, J. Chakkamalayath, A. Al-Aibani

Abstract:

Conventional methods of determination of concrete strength under controlled laboratory conditions will not accurately represent the actual strength of concrete developed under site curing conditions. This difference in strength measurement will be more in the extreme environment in Kuwait as it is characterized by hot marine environment with normal temperature in summer exceeding 50°C accompanied by dry wind in desert areas and salt laden wind on marine and on shore areas. Therefore, it is required to have test methods to measure the in-place properties of concrete for quality assurance and for the development of durable concrete structures. The maturity method, which defines the strength of a given concrete mix as a function of its age and temperature history, is an approach for quality control for the production of sustainable and durable concrete structures. The unique harsh environmental conditions in Kuwait make it impractical to adopt experiences and empirical equations developed from the maturity methods in other countries. Concrete curing, especially in the early age plays an important role in developing and improving the strength of the structure. This paper investigates the use of maturity method to assess the effectiveness of three different types of curing methods on the compressive and flexural strength development of one high strength concrete mix of 60 MPa produced with silica fume. This maturity approach was used to predict accurately, the concrete compressive and flexural strength at later ages under different curing conditions. Maturity curves were developed for compressive and flexure strengths for a commonly used concrete mix in Kuwait, which was cured using three different curing conditions, including water curing, external spray coating and the use of internal curing compound during concrete mixing. It was observed that the maturity curve developed for the same mix depends on the type of curing conditions. It can be used to predict the concrete strength under different exposure and curing conditions. This study showed that concrete curing with external spray curing method cannot be recommended to use as it failed to aid concrete in reaching accepted values of strength, especially for flexural strength. Using internal curing compound lead to accepted levels of strength when compared with water cuing. Utilization of the developed maturity curves will help contactors and engineers to determine the in-place concrete strength at any time, and under different curing conditions. This will help in deciding the appropriate time to remove the formwork. The reduction in construction time and cost has positive impacts towards sustainable construction.

Keywords: curing, durability, maturity, strength

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13734 Effect of Strength Class of Concrete and Curing Conditions on Capillary Water Absorption of Self-Compacting and Conventional Concrete

Authors: E. Ebru Demirci, Remzi Şahin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to compare Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) and Conventional Concrete (CC) in terms of their capillary water absorption. During the comparison of SCC and CC, the effects of two different factors were also investigated: concrete strength class and curing condition. In the study, both SCC and CC were produced in three different concrete classes (C25, C50 and C70) and the other parameter (i.e curing condition) was determined as two levels: moisture and air curing. It was observed that, for both curing environments and all strength classes of concrete, SCCs had lower capillary water absorption values than that of CCs. It was also detected that, for both SCC and CC, capillary water absorption values of samples kept in moisture curing were significantly lower than that of samples stored in air curing. Additionally, it was determined that capillary water absorption values for both SCC and CC decrease with increasing strength class of concrete for both curing environments.

Keywords: capillary water absorption, curing condition, reinforced concrete beam, self-compacting concrete

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13733 Generalized Model Estimating Strength of Bauxite Residue-Lime Mix

Authors: Sujeet Kumar, Arun Prasad

Abstract:

The present work investigates the effect of multiple parameters on the unconfined compressive strength of the bauxite residue-lime mix. A number of unconfined compressive strength tests considering various curing time, lime content, dry density and moisture content were carried out. The results show that an empirical correlation may be successfully developed using volumetric lime content, porosity, moisture content, curing time unconfined compressive strength for the range of the bauxite residue-lime mix studied. The proposed empirical correlations efficiently predict the strength of bauxite residue-lime mix, and it can be used as a generalized empirical equation to estimate unconfined compressive strength.

Keywords: bauxite residue, curing time, porosity/volumetric lime ratio, unconfined compressive strength

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13732 UV-Cured Coatings Based on Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Epoxy Carboxylate

Authors: Alaaddin Cerit, Suheyla Kocaman, Ulku Soydal

Abstract:

During the past two decades, photoinitiated polymerization has been attracting a great interest in terms of scientific and industrial activity. The wide recognition of UV treatment in the polymer industry results not only from its many practical applications but also from its advantage for low-cost processes. Unlike most thermal curing systems, radiation-curable systems can polymerize at room temperature without additional heat, and the curing is completed in a very short time. The advantage of cationic UV technology is that post-cure can continue in the ‘dark’ after radiation. In this study, bio-based acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was cured with UV radiation using radicalic photoinitiator Irgacure 184. Triarylsulphonium hexafluoroantimonate was used as cationic photoinitiator for curing of 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate. The effect of curing time and the amount of initiators on the curing degree and thermal properties were investigated. The thermal properties of the coating were analyzed after crosslinking UV irradiation. The level of crosslinking in the coating was evaluated by FTIR analysis. Cationic UV-cured coatings demonstrated excellent adhesion and corrosion resistance properties. Therefore, our study holds a great potential with its simple and low-cost applications.

Keywords: acrylated epoxidized soybean oil, epoxy carboxylate, thermal properties, uv-curing

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13731 The Importance of Water Temperature and Curing Conditions on Concrete Curing

Authors: Ahmad Javid Zia, Abdulkerim Ilgun, Suleyman Kamil Akin, Mustafa Altin

Abstract:

Curing conditions that help concrete, which is one of the most widely used building materials in construction sector, gain strength today is one the important issues. In this study the varying concrete strength depending on water temperature at curing stage is investigated through tests at laboratory. At laboratory the curing conditions has been determined according to both TS EN 12390-2 and regular construction site while performing the experiments on specimens. Five samples have been taken from concrete and cured under five different curing conditions and the compressive strength results of concrete specimens have been compared. One of these five curing conditions has been prepared accordance with TS EN 12390-2, the sample cured at 20 ± 2 ˚C and accepted as reference samples. Two of the remaining sample groups have been cured in 5 ± 2 ˚C and 15 ± 2 ˚C and the other two have been cured outside of the laboratory. One group of the samples which have been cured outside has been watered twice a day and the other group has not been watered at all. The experiments have been carried out on 150x150x150 mm cube samples of C20 (200 kg/cm2) and C25 (250 kg/cm2). 7 and 28 days compressive strength of specimens have been measured and compared.

Keywords: concrete curing, curing conditions, water temperature, concrete compressive strength

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13730 Development of High Strength Self Curing Concrete Using Super Absorbing Polymer

Authors: K. Bala Subramanian, A. Siva, S. Swaminathan, Arul. M. G. Ajin

Abstract:

Concrete is an essential building material which is widely used in construction industry all over the world due to its compressible strength. Curing of concrete plays a vital role in durability and other performance necessities. Improper curing can affect the concrete performance and durability easily. When areas like scarcity of water, structures is not accessible by humans external curing cannot be performed, so we opt for internal curing. Internal curing (or) self-curing plays a major role in developing the concrete pore structure and microstructure. The concept of internal curing is to enhance the hydration process to maintain the temperature uniformly. The evaporation of water in the concrete is reduced by self-curing agent (Super Absorbing Polymer – SAP) thereby increasing the water retention capacity of the concrete. The research work was carried out to reduce water, which is prime material used for concrete in the construction industry. Concrete curing plays a major role in developing hydration process. Concept of self-curing will reduce the evaporation of water from concrete. Self-curing will increase water retention capacity as compared to the conventional concrete. Proper self-curing (or) internal curing increases the strength, durability and performance of concrete. Super absorbing Polymer (SAP) used as internal curing agent. In this study 0.2% to 0.4% of SAP was varied in different grade of high strength concrete. In the experiment replacement of cement by silica fumes with 5%, 10% and 15% are studied. It is found that replacement of silica fumes by 10 % gives more strength and durability when compared to others

Keywords: compressive strength, high strength concrete rapid chloride permeability, super absorbing polymer

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13729 Evaluate Effects of Different Curing Methods on Compressive Strength, Modulus of Elasticity and Durability of Concrete

Authors: Dhara Shah, Chandrakant Shah

Abstract:

Construction industry utilizes plenty of water in the name of curing. Looking at the present scenario, the days are not so far when all construction industries will have to switch over to an alternative-self curing system, not only to save water for sustainable development of the environment but also to promote indoor and outdoor construction activities even in water scarce areas. At the same time, curing is essential for the development of proper strength and durability. IS 456-2000 recommends a curing period of 7 days for ordinary Portland cement concrete, and 10 to 14 days for concrete prepared using mineral admixtures or blended cements. But, being the last act in the concreting operations, it is often neglected or not fully done. Consequently, the quality of hardened concrete suffers, more so, if the freshly laid concrete gets exposed to the environmental conditions of low humidity, high wind velocity and high ambient temperature. To avoid the adverse effects of neglected or insufficient curing, which is considered a universal phenomenon, concrete technologist and research scientists have come up with curing compounds. Concrete is said to be self-cured, if it is able to retain its water content to perform chemical reaction for the development of its strength. Curing compounds are liquids which are either incorporated in concrete or sprayed directly onto concrete surfaces and which then dry to form a relatively impermeable membrane that retards the loss of moisture from the concrete. They are an efficient and cost-effective means of curing concrete and may be applied to freshly placed concrete or that which has been partially cured by some other means. However, they may affect the bond between concrete and subsequent surface treatments. Special care in the choice of a suitable compound needs to be exercised in such circumstances. Curing compounds are generally formulated from wax emulsions, chlorinated rubbers, synthetic and natural resins, and from PVA emulsions. Their effectiveness varies quite widely, depending on the material and strength of the emulsion.

Keywords: curing methods, self-curing compound, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, durability

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13728 Combined Effect of High Curing Temperature and Crack Width on Chloride Migration in Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Elkedrouci Lotfi, Diao Bo, Pang Sen, Li Yi

Abstract:

Deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is a serious concern in the construction engineering, largely due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement. Chloride penetration is markedly influenced by one or several major factors at the same time such as cuing in combination with different crack widths which have spectacular effect on reinforced concrete structures. This research presents the results of an experimental investigation involving reinforced concrete beams with three different crack widths ranging from 0 to 0.2mm, curing temperatures of 20°C or 40°C and water-to-cement of 0.5. Chloride content profiles were determined under non-steady state diffusion at 20°C. Based on the obtained results, higher chloride content was obtained under condition of high curing temperature in combination with large crack more than 0.1mm and there are no significant differences between narrow crack width (less than 0.1 mm) and beams without crack (0mm).

Keywords: crack width, high curing temperature, rapid chloride migration, reinforced concrete beam

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13727 Real-Time Compressive Strength Monitoring for NPP Concrete Construction Using an Embedded Piezoelectric Self-Sensing Technique

Authors: Junkyeong Kim, Seunghee Park, Ju-Won Kim, Myung-Sug Cho

Abstract:

Recently, demands for the construction of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) using high strength concrete (HSC) has been increased. However, HSC might be susceptible to brittle fracture if the curing process is inadequate. To prevent unexpected collapse during and after the construction of HSC structures, it is essential to confirm the strength development of HSC during the curing process. However, several traditional strength-measuring methods are not effective and practical. In this study, a novel method to estimate the strength development of HSC based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) measurements using an embedded piezoelectric sensor is proposed. The EMI of NPP concrete specimen was tracked to monitor the strength development. In addition, cross-correlation coefficient was applied in sequence to examine the trend of the impedance variations more quantitatively. The results confirmed that the proposed technique can be applied successfully monitoring of the strength development during the curing process of HSC structures.

Keywords: concrete curing, embedded piezoelectric sensor, high strength concrete, nuclear power plant, self-sensing impedance

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13726 Investigating the Effect of Using Amorphous Silica Ash Obtained from Rice Husk as a Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar

Authors: Aliyu Usman, Muhaammed Bello Ibrahim, Yusuf D. Amartey, Jibrin M. Kaura

Abstract:

This research is aimed at investigating the effect of using amorphous silica ash (ASA) obtained from rice husk as a partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the mechanical and microstructure properties of cement paste and mortar. ASA was used in partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement in the following percentages 3 percent, 5 percent, 8 percent and 10 percent. These partial replacements were used to produce Cement-ASA paste and Cement-ASA mortar. ASA was found to contain all the major chemical compounds found in cement with the exception of alumina, which are SiO2 (91.5%), CaO (2.84%), Fe2O3 (1.96%), and loss on ignition (LOI) was found to be 9.18%. It also contains other minor oxides found in cement. Consistency of Cement-ASA paste was found to increase with increase in ASA replacement. Likewise, the setting time and soundness of the Cement-ASA paste also increases with increase in ASA replacements. The test on hardened mortar were destructive in nature which include flexural strength test on prismatic beam (40mm x 40mm x 160mm) at 2, 7, 14 and 28 days curing and compressive strength test on the cube size (40mm x 40mm, by using the auxiliary steel platens) at 2,7,14 and 28 days curing. The Cement-ASA mortar flexural and compressive strengths were found to be increasing with curing time and decreases with cement replacement by ASA. It was observed that 5 percent replacement of cement with ASA attained the highest strength for all the curing ages and all the percentage replacements attained the targeted compressive strength of 6N/mm2 for 28 days. There is an increase in the drying shrinkage of Cement-ASA mortar with curing time, it was also observed that the drying shrinkages for all the curing ages were greater than the control specimen all of which were greater than the code recommendation of less than 0.03%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the Cement-ASA mortar microstructure and to also look for hydration product and morphology.

Keywords: amorphous silica ash, cement mortar, cement paste, scanning electron microscope

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13725 Adverse Curing Conditions and Performance of Concrete: Bangladesh Perspective

Authors: T. Manzur

Abstract:

Concrete is the predominant construction material in Bangladesh. In large projects, stringent quality control procedures are usually followed under the supervision of experienced engineers and skilled labors. However, in the case of small projects and particularly at distant locations from major cities, proper quality control is often an issue. It has been found from experience that such quality related issues mainly arise from inappropriate proportioning of concrete mixes and improper curing conditions. In most cases external curing method is followed which requires supply of adequate quantity of water along with proper protection against evaporation. Often these conditions are found missing in the general construction sites and eventually lead to production of weaker concrete both in terms of strength and durability. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the performance of general concreting works of the country when subjected to several adverse curing conditions that are quite common in various small to medium construction sites. A total of six different types of adverse curing conditions were simulated in the laboratory and samples were kept under those conditions for several days. A set of samples was also submerged in normal curing condition having proper supply of curing water. Performance of concrete was evaluated in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength, chloride permeability and drying shrinkage. About 37% and 25% reduction in 28-day compressive and tensile strength were observed respectively, for samples subjected to most adverse curing condition as compared to the samples under normal curing conditions. Normal curing concrete exhibited moderate permeability (close to low permeability) whereas concrete under adverse curing conditions showed very high permeability values. Similar results were also obtained for shrinkage tests. This study, thus, will assist concerned engineers and supervisors to understand the importance of quality assurance during the curing period of concrete.

Keywords: adverse, concrete, curing, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, permeability, tensile strength

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13724 Influence of Alccofine on Semi-Light Weight Concrete under Accelerated Curing and Conventional Curing Regimes

Authors: P. Parthiban, J. Karthikeyan

Abstract:

This paper deals with the performance of semi-light weight concrete, prepared by using wood ash pellets as coarse aggregates which were improved by partial replacement of cement with alccofine. Alccofine is a mineral admixture which contains high glass content obtained through the process of controlled granulation. This is finer than cement which carries its own pozzolanic property. Therefore, cement could be replaced by alccofine as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, and 70% to enhance the strength and durability properties of concrete. High range water reducing admixtures (HRWA) were used in these mixes which were dosed up to 1.5% weight of the total cementitious content (alccofine & cement). It also develops the weaker transition zone into more impermeable layer. Specimens were subjected in both the accelerated curing method as well as conventional curing method. Experimental results were compared and reported, in that the maximum compressive strength of 32.6 MPa was achieved on 28th day with 30% replacement level in a density of 2200 kg/m3 to a conventional curing, while in the accelerated curing, maximum compressive strength was achieved at 40% replacement level. Rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT) output results for the conventional curing method at 0% and 70% give 3296.7 and 545.6 coulombs.

Keywords: Alccofine, compressive strength, RCPT, wood ash pellets

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13723 Effect of Carbon-Free Fly Ash and Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag on Compressive Strength of Mortar under Different Curing Conditions

Authors: Abdul Khaliq Amiri, Shigeyuki Date

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of using carbon-free fly ash (CfFA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) on the compressive strength of mortar. The CfFA used in this investigation is high-quality fly ash and the carbon content is 1.0% or less. In this study, three types of blends with a 30% water-binder ratio (w/b) were prepared: control, binary and ternary blends. The Control blend contained only Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), in binary and ternary blends OPC was partially replaced with CfFA and GGBFS at different substitution rates. Mortar specimens were cured for 1 day, 7 days and 28 days under two curing conditions: steam curing and water curing. The steam cured specimens were exposed to two different pre-curing times (1.5 h and 2.5 h) and one steam curing duration (6 h) at 45 °C. The test results showed that water cured specimens revealed higher compressive strength than steam cured specimens at later ages. An increase in CfFA and GGBFS contents caused a decrease in the compressive strength of mortar. Ternary mixes exhibited better compressive strength than binary mixes containing CfFA with the same replacement ratio of mineral admixtures.

Keywords: carbon-free fly ash, compressive strength, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, steam curing, water curing

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13722 Rapid Processing Techniques Applied to Sintered Nickel Battery Technologies for Utility Scale Applications

Authors: J. D. Marinaccio, I. Mabbett, C. Glover, D. Worsley

Abstract:

Through use of novel modern/rapid processing techniques such as screen printing and Near-Infrared (NIR) radiative curing, process time for the sintering of sintered nickel plaques, applicable to alkaline nickel battery chemistries, has been drastically reduced from in excess of 200 minutes with conventional convection methods to below 2 minutes using NIR curing methods. Steps have also been taken to remove the need for forming gas as a reducing agent by implementing carbon as an in-situ reducing agent, within the ink formulation.

Keywords: batteries, energy, iron, nickel, storage

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13721 Effect of Fresh Concrete Curing Methods on Its Compressive Strength

Authors: Xianghe Dai, Dennis Lam, Therese Sheehan, Naveed Rehman, Jie Yang

Abstract:

Concrete is one of the most used construction materials that may be made onsite as fresh concrete and then placed in formwork to produce the desired shapes of structures. It has been recognized that the raw materials and mix proportion of concrete dominate the mechanical characteristics of hardened concrete, and the curing method and environment applied to the concrete in early stages of hardening will significantly influence the concrete properties, such as compressive strength, durability, permeability etc. In construction practice, there are various curing methods to maintain the presence of mixing water throughout the early stages of concrete hardening. They are also beneficial to concrete in hot weather conditions as they provide cooling and prevent the evaporation of water. Such methods include ponding or immersion, spraying or fogging, saturated wet covering etc. Also there are various curing methods that may be implemented to decrease the level of water lost which belongs to the concrete surface, such as putting a layer of impervious paper, plastic sheeting or membrane on the concrete to cover it. In the concrete material laboratory, accelerated strength gain methods supply the concrete with heat and additional moisture by applying live steam, coils that are subject to heating or pads that have been warmed electrically. Currently when determining the mechanical parameters of a concrete, the concrete is usually sampled from fresh concrete on site and then cured and tested in laboratories where standardized curing procedures are adopted. However, in engineering practice, curing procedures in the construction sites after the placing of concrete might be very different from the laboratory criteria, and this includes some standard curing procedures adopted in the laboratory that can’t be applied on site. Sometimes the contractor compromises the curing methods in order to reduce construction costs etc. Obviously the difference between curing procedures adopted in the laboratory and those used on construction sites might over- or under-estimate the real concrete quality. This paper presents the effect of three typical curing methods (air curing, water immersion curing, plastic film curing) and of maintaining concrete in steel moulds on the compressive strength development of normal concrete. In this study, Portland cement with 30% fly ash was used and different curing periods, 7 days, 28 days and 60 days were applied. It was found that the highest compressive strength was observed from concrete samples to which 7-day water immersion curing was applied and from samples maintained in steel moulds up to the testing date. The research results implied that concrete used as infill in steel tubular members might develop a higher strength than predicted by design assumptions based on air curing methods. Wrapping concrete with plastic film as a curing method might delay the concrete strength development in the early stages. Water immersion curing for 7 days might significantly increase the concrete compressive strength.

Keywords: compressive strength, air curing, water immersion curing, plastic film curing, maintaining in steel mould, comparison

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13720 Hysteresis Behaviour of Mass Concrete Mixed with Plastic Fibre under Compression

Authors: A. A. Okeola, T. I. Sijuade

Abstract:

Unreinforced concrete is a comparatively brittle substance when exposed to tensile stresses, the required tensile strength is provided by the introduction of steel which is used as reinforcement. The strength of concrete may be improved tremendously by the addition of fibre. This study focused on investigating the compressive strength of mass concrete mixed with different percentage of plastic fibre. Twelve samples of concrete cubes with varied percentage of plastic fibre at 7, 14 and 28 days of water submerged curing were tested under compression loading. The result shows that the compressive strength of plastic fibre reinforced concrete increased with rise in curing age. The strength increases for all percentage dosage of fibre used for the concrete. The density of the Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) also increases with curing age, which implies that during curing, concrete absorbs water which aids its hydration. The least compressive strength obtained with the introduction of plastic fibre is more than the targeted 20 N/mm2 recommended for construction work showing that PFRC can be used where significant loading is expected.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, curing, density, plastic fibre

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13719 Influence of Initial Curing Time, Water Content and Apparent Water Content on Geopolymer Modified Sludge Generated in Landslide Area

Authors: Minh Chien Vu, Tomoaki Satomi, Hiroshi Takahashi

Abstract:

As being lack of sufficient strength to support the loading of construction as well as service life cause the clay content and clay mineralogy, soft and highly compressible soils (sludge) constitute a major problem in geotechnical engineering projects. Geopolymer, a kind of inorganic polymer, is a promising material with a wide range of applications and offers a lower level of CO₂ emissions than conventional Portland cement. However, the feasibility of geopolymer in term of modified the soft and highly compressible soil has not been received much attention due to the requirement of heat treatment for activating the fly ash component and the existence of high content of clay-size particles in the composition of sludge that affected on the efficiency of the reaction. On the other hand, the geopolymer modified sludge could be affected by other important factors such as initial curing time, initial water content and apparent water content. Therefore, this paper describes a different potential application of geopolymer: soil stabilization in landslide areas to adapt to the technical properties of sludge so that heavy machines can move on. Sludge condition process is utilized to demonstrate the possibility for stabilizing sludge using fly ash-based geopolymer at ambient curing condition ( ± 20 °C) in term of failure strength, strain and bulk density. Sludge conditioning is a process whereby sludge is treated with chemicals or various other means to improve the dewatering characteristics of sludge before applying in the construction area. The effect of initial curing time, water content and apparent water content on the modification of sludge are the main focus of this study. Test results indicate that the initial curing time has potential for improving failure strain and strength of modified sludge with the specific condition of soft soil. The result further shows that the initial water content over than 50% total mass of sludge could significantly lead to a decrease of strength performance of geopolymer-based modified sludge. The optimum apparent water content of geopolymer modified sludge is strongly influenced by the amount of geopolymer content and initial water content of sludge. The solution to minimize the effect of high initial water content will be considered deeper in the future.

Keywords: landslide, sludge, fly ash, geopolymer, sludge conditioning

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13718 Self-Healing Performance of Heavyweight Concrete with Steam Curing

Authors: Hideki Igawa, Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Takashi Yokomuro, Hideo Eguchi

Abstract:

In this study, the crack self-healing performance of the heavyweight concrete used in the walls of containers and structures designed to shield radioactive materials was investigated. A steam curing temperature that preserves self-healing properties and demolding strength was identified. The presented simultaneously mixing method using the expanding material and the fly ash in the process of admixture can maximize the self-curing performance. Also adding synthetic fibers in the heavyweight concrete improved the self-healing performance.

Keywords: expanding material, heavyweight concrete, self-healing performance, synthetic fiber

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13717 Communicating with Spirits: Bridging the Nether World of Spirits and the Real World in Healing Performances

Authors: S. Ishak, M. G. Nasuruddin

Abstract:

Traditional Malay performances are carried out for both entertainment and curing purposes. In curing rituals, the men and women serving as shamans, communicates with the spirits and beings from the nether world to facilitate the curing process. The dependency on engaging with these other-worldly beings however, have raised religious issues of being syirik, namely practicing in rituals which are religiously forbidden. This study aims to observe how ritual leaders attempt to negotiate the fine balance between what has been religiously forbidden and the psychological and sociological needs of the patient. Two curing rituals, the main peteri and the malibobou were chosen to exemplify the communication between the physical and spiritual realities. In both rituals, the healers engaged in procedures of curing as they attempted to diagnose sicknesses and proffer cures with the help of the spirits. The main peteri was conducted by a male shaman, the tuk teri whereas the malibobou was conducted by a female ritual specialist, the bobohizan. Main peteri and the malibobou both ended with ritually thanking and sending off the spirits back to their nether, invisible domains. These curing rituals heal not only the sick individual, but by extension, the village community. Therefore, there is a need to reconcile these rituals with religious tenets, beliefs and sociological-political-cultural dimensions.

Keywords: traditional healing, trance, spirits, main peteri, bobohizan

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13716 Studies on Partial Replacement of Cement by Rice Husk Ash under Sodium Phosphate Medium

Authors: Dharmana Pradeep, Chandan Kumar Patnaikuni, N. V. S. Venugopal

Abstract:

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a green product contains carbon and also loaded with silica. For the development of durability and strength of any concrete, curing phenomenon shall be very important. In this communication, we reported the exposure of partial replacement of cement with RHA at different percentages of 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight under sodium phosphate curing atmosphere. The mix is designed for M40 grade concrete with the proportions of 1:2.2:3.72. The tests conducted on concrete was a compressive strength, and the specimens were cured in normal water & exposed to the chemical solution for 7, 28 & 56 days. For chemical curing 0.5% & 1% concentrated sodium phosphates were used and were compared with normal concrete strength results. The strength of specimens of 1% sodium phosphate exposure showed that the compressive strength decreased with increase in RHA percentages.

Keywords: rice husk ash, compressive strength, sodium phosphate, curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
13715 Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activation of fly ash (FA) to use in deep soil mixing (DSM) technology. The content of FA was 20% by dry mass of soil, and the alkaline activator was sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). Samples were cured for 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days to evaluate the effect of curing time on strength development. To study the effect of adding slag (S) to the mixture on the strength development, 5% S was replaced with FA. In addition, the effect of the initial unit weight of samples on strength development was studied by preparing specimens with two different static compaction stresses. This was to replicate the field conditions where during implementing the DSM technique, the pressure on the soil while being mixed, increases with depth. Unconfined compression strength (UCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) tests were conducted on the specimens. The results show that adding S to the FA based geopolymer activated by Na2SiO3 decreases the strength. Furthermore, samples prepared at a higher unit weight demonstrate greater strengths. Moreover, samples prepared at lower unit weight reached their final strength at about 14 days of curing, whereas the strength development continues to 56 days for specimens prepared at a higher unit weight.

Keywords: alkaline activation, curing time, fly ash, geopolymer, slag

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
13714 Ceramic Ware Waste Potential as Co-Ballast in Dense Masonry Unit Production

Authors: A. A. Ajayi-Banji, M. A. Adegbile, T. D. Akpenpuun, J. Bello, O. Omobowale, D. A. Jenyo

Abstract:

Ceramic ware waste applicability as coarse aggregate was considered in this study for dense masonry unit production. The waste was crushed into 1.4 mm particle size and mixed with natural fine aggregate in the ratio 2:3. Portland ordinary cement, aggregate, and water mix ratio was 1:7:0.5. Masonry units produced were cured for 7, 21 and 28 days prior to compressive test. The result shows that curing age have a significant effect on all the compressive strength indices inspected except for Young’s modulus. Crushing force and the compressive strength of the ceramic-natural fine aggregate blocks increased by 11.7 – 54.7% and 11.6 – 59.2% respectively. The highest ceramic-natural fine block compressive strength at yield and peak, 4.97 MPa, was obtained after 21 days curing age. Ceramic aggregate introduced into the dense blocks improved the suitability of the blocks for construction purposes.

Keywords: ceramic ware waste, co-ballast, dense masonry unit, compressive strength, curing time

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
13713 Effect of Catalyst on Castor Oil Based Polyurethane with Different Hard/Soft Segment Ratio

Authors: Swarnalata Sahoo, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak

Abstract:

Environmentally friendly Polyurethane(PU) synthesis from Castor oil(CO) has been studied extensively. Probably due to high proportion of fatty hydroxy acids and unsaturated bond, CO showed better performance than other oil, can be easily utilized as commercial applications. In this work, cured PU polymers having different –NCO/OH ratio with and without catalyst were synthesized by using partially biobased Isocyanate with castor oil (CO). Curing time has been studied by observing at the time of reaction, which can be confirmed by AT-FTIR. DSC has been studied to monitor the reaction between CO & Isocyanates using non Isothermal process. Curing kinetics have also been studied to investigate the catalytic effect of the NCO / OH ratio of Polyurethane. Adhesion properties were evaluated from Lapshear test. Tg of the PU polymer was evaluated by DSC which can be compared by DMA. Surface Properties were studied by contact angle measurement. Improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the nonpolar surface of Aluminum substrate and the polar adhesive has been studied by modifying surface.

Keywords: polyurethane, partially bio-based isocyanate, castor oil, catalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
13712 Advanced Materials Based on Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Terpolymers and Organically Modified Montmorillonite

Authors: M. D. Stelescu, E. Manaila, G. Pelin, M. Georgescu, M. Sonmez

Abstract:

This paper presents studies on the development and characterization of nanocomposites based on ethylene-propylene terpolymer rubber (EPDM), chlorobutyl rubber (IIR-Cl) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). Mixtures were made containing 0, 3 and 6 phr (parts per 100 parts rubber) OMMT, respectively. They were obtained by melt intercalation in an internal mixer - Plasti-Corder Brabender, in suitable blending parameters, at high temperature for 11 minutes. Curing agents were embedded on a laboratory roller at 70-100 ºC, friction 1:1.1, processing time 5 minutes. Rubber specimens were obtained by compression, using a hydraulic press at 165 ºC and a pressing force of 300 kN. Curing time, determined using the Monsanto rheometer, decreases with the increased amount of OMMT in the mixtures. At the same time, it was noticed that mixtures containing OMMT show improvement in physical-mechanical properties. These types of nanocomposites may be used to obtain rubber seals for the space application or for other areas of application.

Keywords: chlorobutyl rubber, ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymers, montmorillonite, rubber seals, space application

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
13711 Effect of Alkaline Activator, Water, Superplasticiser and Slag Contents on the Compressive Strength and Workability of Slag-Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar Cured under Ambient Temperature

Authors: M. Al-Majidi, A. Lampropoulos, A. Cundy

Abstract:

Geopolymer (cement-free) concrete is the most promising green alternative to ordinary Portland cement concrete and other cementitious materials. While a range of different geopolymer concretes have been produced, a common feature of these concretes is heat curing treatment which is essential in order to provide sufficient mechanical properties in the early age. However, there are several practical issues with the application of heat curing in large-scale structures. The purpose of this study is to develop cement-free concrete without heat curing treatment. Experimental investigations were carried out in two phases. In the first phase (Phase A), the optimum content of water, polycarboxylate based superplasticizer contents and potassium silicate activator in the mix was determined. In the second stage (Phase B), the effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) incorporation on the compressive strength of fly ash (FA) and Slag based geopolymer mixtures was evaluated. Setting time and workability were also conducted alongside with compressive tests. The results showed that as the slag content was increased the setting time was reduced while the compressive strength was improved. The obtained compressive strength was in the range of 40-50 MPa for 50% slag replacement mixtures. Furthermore, the results indicated that increment of water and superplasticizer content resulted to retarding of the setting time and slight reduction of the compressive strength. The compressive strength of the examined mixes was considerably increased as potassium silicate content was increased.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymer, potassium silicate, slag

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
13710 Effect of Curing Temperature on the Gel Strength and Melting Temperature of Gelatine-SDS Hydrogels

Authors: Virginia Martin, Binjie Wu

Abstract:

Gelatine is a protein biopolymer obtained from the partial hydrolysis of animal tissues which contain collagen, the primary structural component in connective tissue. Gelatine hydrogels have attracted considerable research in recent years as an alternative to synthetic materials due to their outstanding gelling properties, biocompatibility and compostability. Surfactants, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are often used in hydrogels solutions as surface modifiers or solubility enhancers, and their incorporation can influence the hydrogel's viscoelastic properties and, in turn, its processing and applications. Literature usually focuses on studying the impact of formulation parameters (e.g., gelatine content, gelatine strength, additives incorporation) on gelatine hydrogels properties, but processing parameters, such as curing temperature, are commonly overlooked. For example, some authors have reported a decrease in gel strength at lower curing temperatures, but there is a lack of research on the systematic viscoelastic characterisation of high strength gelatine and gelatine-SDS systems at a wide range of curing temperatures. This knowledge is essential to meet and adjust the technological requirements for different applications (e.g., viscosity, setting time, gel strength or melting/gelling temperature). This work investigated the effect of curing temperature (10, 15, 20, 23 and 25 and 30°C) on the elastic modulus (G’) and melting temperature of high strength gelatine-SDS hydrogels, at s10 wt% and 20 wt% gelatine contents, by small-amplitude oscillatory shear rheology coupled with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. It also correlates the gel strength obtained by rheological measurements with the gel strength measured by texture analysis. Gelatine and gelatine-SDS hydrogels’ rheological behaviour strongly depended on the curing temperature, and its gel strength and melting temperature can be slightly modified to adjust it to given processing and applications needs. Lower curing temperatures led to gelatine and gelatine-SDS hydrogels with considerably higher storage modulus. However, their melting temperature was lower than those gels cured at higher temperatures and lower gel strength. This effect was more considerable at longer timescales. This behaviour is attributed to the development of thermal-resistant structures in the lower strength gels cured at higher temperatures.

Keywords: gelatine gelation kinetics, gelatine-SDS interactions, gelatine-surfactant hydrogels, melting and gelling temperature of gelatine gels, rheology of gelatine hydrogelss

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
13709 Quality Characteristics of Cured Dried Camel Meat Formulated with Different Medicinal Plants as Natural Preservatives

Authors: H. S. Aljabeili, E. A. Abd El-Hady, M. M. Abd El-Razik, M. Abd Elgadir

Abstract:

The aim of the study is determining the quality characteristics of produced curing and dried camel meat contained some medicinal plants of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger as natural preservatives. Camel meat samples were sliced and divided into five batches, one batch recorded as control sample was treated by the curing mixture (2.5%) contained the following ingredients: black pepper 1 gm, cumin 0.4 gm, spices mixture 0.5 gm, dried onion 3 gm, dried garlic 0.5 gm and salt 2 gm. To evaluate the effect of different natural preservatives sources of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger, 3.0% of the aforementioned natural preservatives was mixed with the aforementioned curing mixture and used for curing the four batches of sliced camel meat. After curing process, cured sliced camel meat (control and treated with the natural preservatives) were conducting to drying process at 35 ± 3 °C for 36 h in a drying cabinet. The quality characteristics of prepared dried camel meat were evaluated such as chemical composition, microbiological characteristics and sensory characteristics. Based on the microbiological and sensory characteristics, it could be suggested that the selected medicinal plants specially thyme and rosemary could be used as natural preservatives for preparing semi dry camel meat without negative effects.

Keywords: curing, dried camel meat, medicinal plants, natural preservatives, quality characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 47