Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 956

Search results for: cement stabilization

956 The Increasing of Unconfined Compression Strength of Clay Soils Stabilized with Cement

Authors: Ali̇ Si̇nan Soğanci


The cement stabilization is one of the ground improvement method applied worldwide to increase the strength of clayey soils. The using of cement has got lots of advantages compared to other stabilization methods. Cement stabilization can be done quickly, the cost is low and creates a more durable structure with the soil. Cement can be used in the treatment of a wide variety of soils. The best results of the cement stabilization were seen on silts as well as coarse-grained soils. In this study, blocks of clay were taken from the Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel route which is 125km long will be built in Konya that take the water with 70m3/sec from Mavi tunnel to Hotamış storage. Firstly, the index properties of clay samples were determined according to the Unified Soil Classification System. The experimental program was carried out on compacted soil specimens with 0%, 7 %, 15% and 30 % cement additives and the results of unconfined compression strength were discussed. The results of unconfined compression tests indicated an increase in strength with increasing cement content.

Keywords: cement stabilization, unconfined compression test, clayey soils, unified soil classification system.

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955 The Effect of Soil Fractal Dimension on the Performance of Cement Stabilized Soil

Authors: Nkiru I. Ibeakuzie, Paul D. J. Watson, John F. Pescatore


In roadway construction, the cost of soil-cement stabilization per unit area is significantly influenced by the binder content, hence the need to optimise cement usage. This research work will characterize the influence of soil fractal geometry on properties of cement-stabilized soil, and strive to determine a correlation between mechanical proprieties of cement-stabilized soil and the mass fractal dimension Dₘ indicated by particle size distribution (PSD) of aggregate mixtures. Since strength development in cemented soil relies not only on cement content but also on soil PSD, this study will investigate the possibility of reducing cement content by changing the PSD of soil, without compromising on strength, reduced permeability, and compressibility. A series of soil aggregate mixes will be prepared in the laboratory. The mass fractal dimension Dₘ of each mix will be determined from sieve analysis data prior to stabilization with cement. Stabilized soil samples will be tested for strength, permeability, and compressibility.

Keywords: fractal dimension, particle size distribution, cement stabilization, cement content

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
954 Stabilization of Expansive Soils by Additions Binders Hydraulic Lime and Cement

Authors: Kherafa Abdennasser


A literature review was conducted to gather as much information. Concerns the phenomenon of swelling clays, as well as a presentation of some bibliographic findings on factors affecting the swelling potential. Citing the various techniques of stabilization of clays as well as a presentation of some literature results on the stabilization of swelling. Then a characterization of the materials was carried out at basic bibliographic study. These are standard mechanical geotechnical testing. Simple practical, economical and efficient to minimize the phenomenon swelling.

Keywords: stabilization, expansive soils, cement, lime, oedometer

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953 Effect of Cement Amount on California Bearing Ratio Values of Different Soil

Authors: Ayse Pekrioglu Balkis, Sawash Mecid


Due to continued growth and rapid development of road construction in worldwide, road sub-layers consist of soil layers, therefore, identification and recognition of type of soil and soil behavior in different condition help to us to select soil according to specification and engineering characteristic, also if necessary sometimes stabilize the soil and treat undesirable properties of soils by adding materials such as bitumen, lime, cement, etc. If the soil beneath the road is not done according to the standards and construction will need more construction time. In this case, a large part of soil should be removed, transported and sometimes deposited. Then purchased sand and gravel is transported to the site and full depth filled and compacted. Stabilization by cement or other treats gives an opportunity to use the existing soil as a base material instead of removing it and purchasing and transporting better fill materials. Classification of soil according to AASHTOO system and USCS help engineers to anticipate soil behavior and select best treatment method. In this study soil classification and the relation between soil classification and stabilization method is discussed, cement stabilization with different percentages have been selected for soil treatment based on NCHRP. There are different parameters to define the strength of soil. In this study, CBR will be used to define the strength of soil. Cement by percentages, 0%, 3%, 7% and 10% added to soil for evaluation effect of added cement to CBR of treated soil. Implementation of stabilization process by different cement content help engineers to select an economic cement amount for the stabilization process according to project specification and characteristics. Stabilization process in optimum moisture content (OMC) and mixing rate effect on the strength of soil in the laboratory and field construction operation have been performed to see the improvement rate in strength and plasticity. Cement stabilization is quicker than a universal method such as removing and changing field soils. Cement addition increases CBR values of different soil types by the range of 22-69%.

Keywords: California Bearing Ratio, cement stabilization, clayey soil, mechanical properties

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952 Compression Strength of Treated Fine-Grained Soils with Epoxy or Cement

Authors: M. Mlhem


Geotechnical engineers face many problematic soils upon construction and they have the choice for replacing these soils with more appropriate soils or attempting to improve the engineering properties of the soil through a suitable soil stabilization technique. Mostly, improving soils is environmental, easier and more economical than other solutions. Stabilization soils technique is applied by introducing a cementing agent or by injecting a substance to fill the pore volume. Chemical stabilizers are divided into two groups: traditional agents such as cement or lime and non-traditional agents such as polymers. This paper studies the effect of epoxy additives on the compression strength of four types of soil and then compares with the effect of cement on the compression strength for the same soils. Overall, the epoxy additives are more effective in increasing the strength for different types of soils regardless its classification. On the other hand, there was no clear relation between studied parameters liquid limit, passing No.200, unit weight and between the strength of samples for different types of soils.

Keywords: additives, clay, compression strength, epoxy, stabilization

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951 Peat Soil Stabilization by Using Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

Authors: Mohd. Khaidir Abu Talib, Noriyuki Yasufuku, Ryohei Ishikura


It is well recognized that peat can impede the proper hydration of cement because of high organic content, presence of humic acid and less solid particles. That means the large amount of cement is required in order to neutralize the acids or otherwise the process of the peat stabilization remains retarded. Nevertheless, adding a great quantity of cement into the peat is absolutely an unfriendly and uneconomical solution. Sugarcane production is world number one commodities and produced a lot of bagasse. Bagasse is burnt to generate power required for diverse activities in the factory and leave bagasse ash as a waste. Increasing concern of disposal of bagasse residual creates interest to explore the potential application of this material. The objective of this study is to develop alternative binders that are environment friendly and contribute towards sustainable management by utilizing sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) in the stabilization of peat soil. Alongside SCBA, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and silica sand (K7) were used as additives to stabilize the peat that sampled from Hokkaido, Japan. In obtaining the optimal mix design, specimens of stabilized peat were tested in unconfined compression. It was found that stabilized peat comprising 20% and 5% (PCB1-20 and PCB2-5) partial replacement of OPC with SCBA 1 and SCBA 2 attain the maximum unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and discovered greater than untreated soil (P) and UCS of peat-cement (PC) specimen. At the optimal mix design, the UCS of the stabilized peat specimens increased with increasing of curing time, preloading during curing, OPC dosage and K7 dosage. For PCB1-20 mixture, inclusion of a minimum OPC dosage of 300 kg/m3 and K7 dosage of 500 kg/m3 along with curing under 20kPa pressure is recommendable for the peat stabilization to be effective. However for PCB2-5 mixture, it suggested to use more OPC and K7 dosage or alternatively increase the preloading during curing to 40kPa in order to achieve minimum strength target. It can be concluded that SCBA 1 has better quality than SCBA 2 in peat stabilization especially the contribution made by its fine particle size.

Keywords: peat stabilization, sugarcane bagasse ash utilization, partial cement replacement, unconfined strength

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950 A New Binder Mineral for Cement Stabilized Road Pavements Soils

Authors: Aydın Kavak, Özkan Coruk, Adnan Aydıner


Long-term performance of pavement structures is significantly impacted by the stability of the underlying soils. In situ subgrades often do not provide enough support required to achieve acceptable performance under traffic loading and environmental demands. NovoCrete® is a powder binder-mineral for cement stabilized road pavements soils. NovoCrete® combined with Portland cement at optimum water content increases the crystallize formations during the hydration process, resulting in higher strengths, neutralizes pH levels, and provides water impermeability. These changes in soil properties may lead to transforming existing unsuitable in-situ materials into suitable fill materials. The main features of NovoCrete® are: They are applicable to all types of soil, reduce premature cracking and improve soil properties, creating base and subbase course layers with high bearing capacity by reducing hazardous materials. It can be used also for stabilization of recyclable aggregates and old asphalt pavement aggregate, etc. There are many applications in Germany, Turkey, India etc. In this paper, a few field application in Turkey will be discussed. In the road construction works, this binder material is used for cement stabilization works. In the applications 120-180 kg cement is used for 1 m3 of soil with a 2 % of binder NovoCrete® material for the stabilization. The results of a plate loading test in a road construction site show 1 mm deformation which is very small under 7 kg/cm2 loading. The modulus of subgrade reaction increase from 611 MN/m3 to 3673 MN/m3.The soaked CBR values for stabilized soils increase from 10-20 % to 150-200 %. According to these data weak subgrade soil can be used as a base or sub base after the modification. The potential reduction in the need for quarried materials will help conserve natural resources. The use of on-site or nearby materials in fills, will significantly reduce transportation costs and provide both economic and environmental benefits.

Keywords: soil, stabilization, cement, binder, Novocrete, additive

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
949 Stabilization of Medical Waste Incineration Fly Ash in Cement Mortar Matrix

Authors: Tanvir Ahmed, Musfira Rahman, Rumpa Chowdhury


We performed laboratory experiments to assess the suitability of using medical waste incineration fly ash in cement as a construction material based on the engineering properties of fly ash-cement matrix and the leaching potential of toxic heavy metals from the stabilized mix. Fly ash-cement samples were prepared with different proportions of fly ash (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight) in the laboratory controlled conditions. The solidified matrix exhibited a compressive strength from 3950 to 4980 psi when fly ash is mixed in varying proportions. The 28-day compressive strength has been found to decrease with the increase in fly ash content, but it meets the minimum requirement of compressive strength for cement-mortar. Soundness test results for cement-mortar mixes having up to 15% fly ash. Final and initial setting times of cement have been found to generally increase with fly ash content. Water requirement (for normal consistency) also increased with the increase in fly ash content in cement. Based on physical properties of the cement-mortar matrix it is recommended that up to 10% (by weight) medical waste incineration fly ash can be incorporated for producing cement-mortar of optimum quality. Leaching behaviours of several targeted heavy metals (As, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn) were analyzed using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) on fly ash and solidified fly ash-cement matrix. It was found that the leached concentrations of As, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were reduced by 80.13%, 89.47%, 33.33% and 23.9% respectively for 10% fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix compared to that of original fly ash. The leached concentrations of heavy metals were from the matrix were far below the EPA land disposal limits. These results suggest that the solidified fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix can effectively confine and immobilize the heavy metals contained in the fly ash.

Keywords: cement-mortar, fly ash, leaching, waste management

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948 Evaluation of Eco Cement as a Stabilizer of Clayey Sand

Authors: Jeeja Menon, M. S. Ravikumar


With the advent of green technology and the concept of zero energy buildings, there is an emerging trend in the utilization of indigenous materials like soil as a construction material. However, fine soils like clays and sand have undesirable properties and stabilization of these soils is essential before it is used to develop a building unit. Eco cement or Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), a waste byproduct formed during the manufacture of iron has cementitious properties and has the potential of replacing cement which is the most common stabilizer used for improving the geotechnical properties of soil. This paper highlights the salient observations obtained by the investigations into the effect of GGBS as a stabilizer for clayey sand. The index and engineering properties of the soil on the addition of different percentages (0%, 2%, 4%, 5% & 6% of the dry weight of the soil) of GGBS are tested to arrive at the optimum binder content. The criteria chosen for evaluation are the unconfined compressive strength values of different soil- binder composition. The test results indicate that there are significant strength improvements by the addition of GGBS in the soil, and the optimum GGBS content was determined as 5%. Moreover, utilizing waste binders for developing an ecofriendly, less energy induced building units as well as for stabilizing soil will also contribute to the solid waste management, which is the current environmental crisis of the world.

Keywords: eco cement, GGBS, index properties, stabilization, unconfined compressive strength

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947 Geopolymer Stabilization of Earth Building Material for Construction 3D Printing

Authors: Timur Mukhametkaliyev


The earthen material possesses low compression strength, and it is highly sensitive to the water content. Different binders can be added (Portland cement or lime) to improve the durability and the mechanical characteristics of earthen material, but the production of these binders has high embodied energy and results in an increase in world CO₂ emission. Geopolymers are binders which can be synthesized at low temperature in alkaline solutions from raw materials consisting of amorphous aluminosilicates. Geopolymers are an attractive substitution of Portland cement and can be used as an excellent stabilization for earthen material. In this study, earthen material stabilized with geopolymer binder for use in construction 3D printing was developed. Construction 3D printing offers freedom of design, waste minimisation, customisation, reduced labour, and automation. For successful 3D printing, the properties of used material are the most important aspects because they require adaptability for extrusion and controlled time of hardening for the binder.

Keywords: 3D printing, building construction, geopolymer, architecture

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946 An Evaluation of the Influence of Corn Cob Ash on the Strength Parameters of Lateritic SoiLs

Authors: O. A. Apampa, Y. A. Jimoh


The paper reports the investigation of Corn Cob Ash as a chemical stabilizing agent for laterite soils. Corn cob feedstock was obtained from Maya, a rural community in the derived savannah agro-ecological zone of South-Western Nigeria and burnt to ashes of pozzolanic quality. Reddish brown silty clayey sand material characterized as AASHTO A-2-6(3) lateritic material was obtained from a borrow pit in Abeokuta and subjected to strength characterization tests according to BS 1377: 2000. The soil was subsequently mixed with CCA in varying percentages of 0-7.5% at 1.5% intervals. The influence of CCA stabilized soil was determined for the Atterberg limits, compaction characteristics, CBR and the unconfined compression strength. The tests were repeated on laterite cement-soil mixture in order to establish a basis for comparison. The result shows a similarity in the compaction characteristics of soil-cement and soil-CCA. With increasing addition of binder from 1.5% to 7.5%, Maximum Dry Density progressively declined while the OMC steadily increased. For the CBR, the maximum positive impact was observed at 1.5% CCA addition at a value of 85% compared to the control value of 65% for the cement stabilization, but declined steadily thereafter with increasing addition of CCA, while that of soil-cement continued to increase with increasing addition of cement beyond 1.5% though at a relatively slow rate. Similar behavior was observed in the UCS values for the soil-CCA mix, increasing from a control value of 0.4 MN/m2 to 1.0 MN/m2 at 1.5% CCA and declining thereafter, while that for soil-cement continued to increase with increasing cement addition, but at a slower rate. This paper demonstrates that CCA is effective for chemical stabilization of a typical Nigerian AASHTO A-2-6 lateritic soil at maximum stabilizer content limit of 1.5% and therefore recommends its use as a way of finding further application for agricultural waste products and achievement of environmental sustainability in line with the ideals of the millennium development goals because of the economic and technical feasibility of the processing of the cobs from corn.

Keywords: corn cob ash, pozzolan, cement, laterite, stabilizing agent, cation exchange capacity

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945 Stabilization of Spent Engine Oil Contaminated Lateritic Soil Admixed with Cement Kiln Dust for Use as Road Construction Materials

Authors: Johnson Rotimi Oluremi, A. Adedayo Adegbola, A. Samson Adediran, O. Solomon Oladapo


Spent engine oil contains heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which contribute to chronic health hazards, poor soil aeration, immobilisation of nutrients and lowering of pH in soil. It affects geotechnical properties of lateritic soil thereby constituting geotechnical and foundation problems. This study is therefore based on the stabilization of spent engine oil (SEO) contaminated lateritic soil using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a mean of restoring it to its pristine state. Geotechnical tests which include sieve analysis, atterberg limit, compaction, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength tests were carried out on the natural, SEO contaminated and CKD stabilized SEO contaminated lateritic soil samples. The natural soil classified as A-2-7 (2) by AASHTO classification and GC according to the Unified Soil Classification System changed to A-4 non-plastic soil due to SEO contaminated even under the influence of CKD it remained unchanged. However, the maximum dry density (MDD) of the SEO contaminated soil increased while the optimum moisture content (OMC) behaved vice versa with the increase in the percentages of CKD. Similarly, the bearing strength of the stabilized SEO contaminated soil measured by California Bearing Ratio (CBR) increased with percentage increment in CKD. In conclusion, spent engine oil has a detrimental effect on the geotechnical properties of the lateritic soil sample but which can be remediated using 10% CKD as a stand alone admixture in stabilizing spent engine oil contaminated soil.

Keywords: spent engine oil, lateritic soil, cement kiln dust, stabilization, compaction, unconfined compressive strength

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944 The Effect of Curing Temperature and Rice Husk Ash Addition on the Behaviour of Sulfate-Rich Clay after Lime Stabilization

Authors: E. Bittar, A. Quiñonez, F. Mencia, E. Aguero, M. Delgado, V. Arriola, R. López


In the western region of Paraguay, the poor condition of the roads has negatively affected the development of this zone, where the absence of petrous material has led engineers to opt for the stabilization of soils with lime or cement as the main structure for bases and subbases of these roads. In several areas of this region, high sulfate contents have been found both in groundwater and in soils, which, when reacted with lime or cement, generate a new problem instead of solving it. On the other hand, the use of industrial waste as granulated slag and fly ash proved to be a sustainable practice widely used in the manufacture of cement, and now also, in the stabilization of soils worldwide. Works related to soils containing sulfates stabilized either with granulated slag or fly ash and lime shown a good performance in their mechanical behaviour. This research seeks to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of soils with high contents of sulfates stabilized with lime by curing them both, at the normalized temperature (23 ± 2 °C) and at 40 ± 2 °C. Moreover, it attempts to asses if the addition of rice husk ash has a positive influence on the new geomaterial. The 40 ± 2 °C curing temperature was selected trying to simulate the average local temperature in summer and part of spring session whereas rice husk ash is an affordable waste produced in the region. An extensive experimental work, which includes unconfined compression, durability and free swell tests were carried out considering different dry unit weights, lime content and the addition of 20% of rice husk ash. The results showed that the addition of rice husk ash increases the resistance and durability of the material and decreases the expansion of this, moreover, the specimens cured at a temperature of 40 ± 2 °C showed higher resistance, better durability and lower expansion compared to those cured at the normalized temperature of 23 ± 2 °C.

Keywords: durability, expansion, lime stabilization, rice husk ash, sulfate

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943 Characterization of Stabilized Earth in the Construction Field

Authors: Sihem Chaibeddra, Fatoum Kharchi


This study deals with the characterization of stabilized earth in the field of construction from the behavior under changes in conservation conditions that may occur during the lifetime of the material, namely, the exposure to high humidity and temperature variations. These two parameters are involved increasingly, because of climate changes that are confronting earth-based constructions to conditions for which they were not originally designed. These exposure conditions may affect the long-term behavior of the material and the entire structure. A cement treatment was adopted for stabilizing the earth with dosages ranging from 4, 6, 8 to 10%. The influence of addition percentage was analyzed in this context based on laboratory tests measuring the evolution of compressive strength, rate of absorption and shrinkage, and finally thermal conductivity. It was shown that the behaviour was dependent on the ambient conditions which influence the action of the binder. Temperate cure has proved beneficial for the material as the cement content increased. Moisture has less affected the compressive strength with increasing the cement content. The absorption was reduced with the increase of cement dosage. Regarding the variation of shrinkage, cement assays have presented an optimum value beyond which the addition of further quantities was less advantageous. The thermal conductivity on the other hand, increased with increasing cement content, which decreased the insulating properties of the material.

Keywords: behavior, characterization, construction, earth, stabilization

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942 Effect of Nano-CaCO₃ Addition on the Nano-Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Muzeyyen Balcikanli, Selma Ozaslan, Osman Sahin, Burak Uzal, Erdogan Ozbay


In this study, the effect of nano-CaCO3 replacement with cement on the nano-mechanical properties of cement paste was investigated. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics Two types of nano CaCO3 were replaced with Portland cement at 0, 0.5 and 1%. Water to (cement+nano-CaCO3) ratio was kept constant at 0.5 for all mixtures. 36 indentations were applied on each cement paste, and the values of nano-hardness and elastic modulus of cement pastes were determined from the indentation depth-load graphs. Then, by getting the average of them, nano-hardness and elastic modulus were identified for each mixture. Test results illustrate that replacement of hydrophilic n-CaCO3 with cement lead to a significant increase in nano-mechanical properties, however, replacement of hydrophobic n-CaCO3 with cement worsened the nano-mechanical properties considerably.

Keywords: nanoindenter, CaCO3, nano-hardness, nano-mechanical properties

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941 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek


The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate

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940 A Numerical Study for Mixing Depth and Applicability of Partial Cement Mixing Method Utilizing Geogrid and Fixing Unit

Authors: Woo-seok Choi, Eun-sup Kim, Nam-Seo Park


The demand for new technique in soft ground improvement continuously increases as general soft ground methods like PBD and DCM have a application problem in soft grounds with deep depth and wide distribution in Southern coast of Korea and Southeast. In this study, partial cement mixing method utilizing geogrid and fixing unit(CMG) is suggested and Finite element analysis is performed for analyzing the depth of surface soil and deep soil stabilization and comparing with DCM method. In the result of the experiment, the displacement in DCM method were lower than the displacement in CMG, it's because the upper load is transferred to deep part soil not treated by cement in CMG method case. The differential settlement in DCM method was higher than the differential settlement in CMG, because of the effect load transfer effect by surface part soil treated by cement and geogrid. In conclusion, CMG method has the advantage of economics and constructability in embankment road, railway, etc in which differential settlement is the important consideration.

Keywords: soft ground, geogrid, fixing unit, partial cement mixing, finite element analysis

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939 A Review of Soil Stabilization Techniques

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Mahdi Keramatikerman


Soil stabilization is a crucial issue that helps to remove of risks associated with the soil failure. As soil has applications in different industries such as construction, pavement and railways, the means of stabilizing soil are varied. This paper will focus on the techniques of stabilizing soils. It will do so by gathering useful information on the state of the art in the field of soil stabilization, investigating both traditional and advanced methods. To inquire into the current knowledge, the existing literature will be divided into categories addressing the different techniques.

Keywords: review, soil, stabilization, techniques

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938 Evaluating Cement Brands in Southwestern Nigeria for Local Construction Industries

Authors: Olonade, K. A., Jaji, M. B., Rasak, S. A., Ojo, B. A., Adefuye, O. E.


Different brands of cement are used in Nigeria by local contractors for various works without prior knowledge of their performance. Qualities of common cement brands in Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Elephant, Dangote, Gateway, Purechem, Burham and Five Star cements were selected for the study. Fineness, setting times, chemical composition, compressive and flexural strengths of each of the cement brands were determined. The results showed that all the cement brands contained major oxides in amount within the acceptable values except that the sulphite content of Gateway fell outside the range. Strength comparison indicated that Burham had highest flexural and compressive strength, followed by Elephant and then Dangote while Gateway had the lowest strength at 28 days. It was observed that Dangote cement set earlier than other cement brands. The study has shown that there were differences in performance of the selected cement brands and concluded that the choice of cement brand should be based on the expected performance.

Keywords: cement brand, compressive strength, flexural strength, local construction industries

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937 The Effect of the Incorporation of Glass Powder into Cement Sorel

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi


The work concerns thermo-mechanical properties of cement Sorel mixed with different proportions of glass powder. Five specimens were developed. Four different glass powder mixtures were developed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with one control sample without glass powder. The research presented in this study focused on evaluating the effects of replacing portion of glass powder with various percentages of cement Sorel. The influence of the glass powder on the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density and compressive strength of the cement Sorel at 28 days of curing were determined. The thermal property of cement was measured by using Photothermal deflection technique PTD. The results revealed that the glass powder additive affected greatly on the thermal properties of the cement.

Keywords: cement sorel, photothermal deflection technique, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
936 Oil Palm Shell Ash: Cement Mortar Mixture and Modification of Mechanical Properties

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


The waste agriculture materials cause environment pollution, recycle of these materials help sustainable development. This study focused on the impact of used oil palm shell ash on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar. Two different cement mortar mixes have been designed to investigate the impact of oil palm shell ash on strengths of cement mortar. Quantity of 4% oil palm shell ash has been replaced in cement mortar. The main objective of this paper is, to modify mechanical properties of cement mortar by replacement of oil palm ash in it at early age of seven days. The results have been revealed optimum quantity of oil palm ash for replacement in cement mortar. The deflection, load to failure, time to failure of compressive strength and flexural strength of all specimens have significantly been improved. The stress-strain behavior has been indicated ability of modified cement mortar in control stress path and strain. The micro property of cement paste has not been investigated.

Keywords: minerals, additive, flexural strength, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity

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935 The Effect of Zeolite on Sandy-Silt Soil Mechanical Properties

Authors: Shahryar Aftabi, Saeed Fathi, Mohammad H. Aminfar


It is well known that cemented sand is one of the best approaches for soil stabilization. In some cases, a blend of sand, cement and other pozzolan materials such as zeolite, nano-particles and fiber can be widely (commercially) available and be effectively used in soil stabilization, especially in road construction. In this research, we investigate the effects of CaO which is based on the geotechnical characteristics of zeolite composition with sandy silt soil. Zeolites have low amount of CaO in their structures, that is, varying from 3% to 10%, and by removing the cement paste, we want to investigate the effect of zeolite pozzolan without any activator on soil samples strength. In this research, experiments are concentrated on various weight percentages of zeolite in the soil to examine the effect of the zeolite on drainage shear strength and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) both with and without curing. The study also investigates their liquid limit and plastic limit behavior and makes a comparative result by using Feng's and Wroth-Wood's methods in fall cone (cone penetrometer) device; in the final the SEM images have been presented. The results show that by increasing the percentage of zeolite in without-curing samples, the fine zeolite particles increase some soil's strength, but in the curing-state we can see a relatively higher strength toward without-curing state, since the zeolites have no plastic behavior, the pozzolanic property of zeolites plays a much higher role than cementing properties. Indeed, it is better to combine zeolite particle with activator material such as cement or lime to gain better results.

Keywords: California bearing ratio, CBR, direct shear, fall-cone, sandy silt, SEM, zeolite

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934 Environmental Benefits of Corn Cob Ash in Lateritic Soil Cement Stabilization for Road Works in a Sub-Tropical Region

Authors: Ahmed O. Apampa, Yinusa A. Jimoh


The potential economic viability and environmental benefits of using a biomass waste, such as corn cob ash (CCA) as pozzolan in stabilizing soils for road pavement construction in a sub-tropical region was investigated. Corn cob was obtained from Maya in South West Nigeria and processed to ash of characteristics similar to Class C Fly Ash pozzolan as specified in ASTM C618-12. This was then blended with ordinary Portland cement in the CCA:OPC ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. Each of these blends was then mixed with lateritic soil of ASHTO classification A-2-6(3) in varying percentages from 0 – 7.5% at 1.5% intervals. The soil-CCA-Cement mixtures were thereafter tested for geotechnical index properties including the BS Proctor Compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and the Unconfined Compression Strength Test. The tests were repeated for soil-cement mix without any CCA blending. The cost of the binder inputs and optimal blends of CCA:OPC in the stabilized soil were thereafter analyzed by developing algorithms that relate the experimental data on strength parameters (Unconfined Compression Strength, UCS and California Bearing Ratio, CBR) with the bivariate independent variables CCA and OPC content, using Matlab R2011b. An optimization problem was then set up minimizing the cost of chemical stabilization of laterite with CCA and OPC, subject to the constraints of minimum strength specifications. The Evolutionary Engine as well as the Generalized Reduced Gradient option of the Solver of MS Excel 2010 were used separately on the cells to obtain the optimal blend of CCA:OPC. The optimal blend attaining the required strength of 1800 kN/m2 was determined for the 1:2 CCA:OPC as 5.4% mix (OPC content 3.6%) compared with 4.2% for the OPC only option; and as 6.2% mix for the 1:1 blend (OPC content 3%). The 2:1 blend did not attain the required strength, though over a 100% gain in UCS value was obtained over the control sample with 0% binder. Upon the fact that 0.97 tonne of CO2 is released for every tonne of cement used (OEE, 2001), the reduced OPC requirement to attain the same result indicates the possibility of reducing the net CO2 contribution of the construction industry to the environment ranging from 14 – 28.5% if CCA:OPC blends are widely used in soil stabilization, going by the results of this study. The paper concludes by recommending that Nigeria and other developing countries in the sub-tropics with abundant stock of biomass waste should look in the direction of intensifying the use of biomass waste as fuel and the derived ash for the production of pozzolans for road-works, thereby reducing overall green house gas emissions and in compliance with the objectives of the United Nations Framework on Climate Change.

Keywords: corn cob ash, biomass waste, lateritic soil, unconfined compression strength, CO2 emission

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933 Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

Authors: Fazeera Ujin, Kamran Shavarebi Ali, Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith


This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement. Chemical properties of both eggshells ash and cement are compared. From the results obtained, both eggshells ash and cement have the same chemical composition and primary composition which is the calcium compounds. Results from the setting time show that by adding the eggshells ash to the cement, the setting time of the cement decreases. In short, the higher amount of eggshells ash, the faster the rate of setting and apply to all percentage of eggshells ash that were used in this investigation. Both initial and final setting times fulfill the setting time requirements by Malaysian Standard. Hence, it is suggested that eggshells ash can be used as an admixture in concrete mix.

Keywords: construction materials, eggshells ash, solid waste, setting time

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932 The Mechanical Behavior of a Chemically Stabilized Soil

Authors: I Lamri, L Arabet, M. Hidjeb


The direct shear test was used to determine the shear strength parameters C and Ø of a series of samples with different cement content. Samples stabilized with a certain percentage of cement showed a substantial gain in compressive strength and a significant increase in shear strength parameters. C and Ø. The laboratory equipment used in UCS tests consisted of a conventional 102mm diameter sample triaxial loading machine. Beyond 4% cement content a very important increase in shear strength was observed. It can be deduced from a comparative study of shear strength of soil samples with 4%, 7%, and 10% cement with sample containing 2 %, that the sample with a 4% cement content showed 90% increase in shear strength while those with 7% and 10% showed an increase of around 13 and 21 fold.

Keywords: cement, compression strength, shear stress, cohesion, angle of internal friction

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931 Effect of Mineral Additives on Improving the Geotechnical Properties of Soils in Chief

Authors: Rabah Younes


The reduction of available land resources and the increased cout associated with the use of high quality materials have led to the need for local soils to be used in geotechnical construction, however; poor engineering properties of these soils pose difficulties for constructions project and need to be stabilized to improve their properties in other works unsuitable soils with low bearing capacity , high plasticity coupled with high instability are frequently encountered hence, there is a need to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics of these soils to make theme more suitable for construction this can be done by using different mechanical and chemical methods clayey soil stabilization has been practiced for sometime but mixing additives, such us cement, lime and fly ash to the soil to increase its strength.

Keywords: clay, soil stabilization, naturaln pozzolana, atterberg limits, compaction, compressive strength shear strength, curing

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930 Properties of Cement Pastes with Different Particle Size Fractions of Metakaolin

Authors: M. Boháč, R. Novotný, F. Frajkorová, R. S. Yadav, T. Opravil, M. Palou


Properties of Portland cement mixtures with various fractions of metakaolin were studied. 10 % of Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R was replaced by different fractions of high reactivity metakaolin with defined chemical and mineralogical properties. Various fractions of metakaolin were prepared by jet mill classifying system. There is a clear trend between fineness of metakaolin and hydration heat development. Due to metakaolin presence in mixtures the compressive strength development of mortars is rather slower for coarser fractions but 28-day flexural strengths are improved for all fractions of metakaoline used in mixtures compared to reference sample of pure Portland cement. Yield point, plastic viscosity and adhesion of fresh pastes are considerably influenced by fineness of metakaolin used in cement pastes.

Keywords: calorimetry, cement, metakaolin fineness, rheology, strength

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929 Characterization of Cement Concrete Pavement

Authors: T. B. Anil Kumar, Mallikarjun Hiremath, V. Ramachandra


The present experimental investigation deals with the quality performance analysis of cement concrete with 0, 15 and 25% fly ash and 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% of polypropylene fibers by weight of cement. The various test parameters like workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and abrasion resistance are detailed in the analysis. The compressive strength of M40 grade concrete attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash and at 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Higher flexural strength of concrete was observed by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.2% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Similarly, split tensile strength value also increases and attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. The percentage of wear gets reduced to 30 to 33% by the addition of fibers at 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% in cement concrete replaced by 15 and 25% fly ash. Hence, it is found that the pavement thickness gets reduced up to 20% when compared with plain concrete slab by the 15% fly ash treated with 0.2% PP fibers and also reduced up to 27% of surface course cost.

Keywords: cement, fly ash, polypropylene fiber, pavement design, cost analysis

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928 Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Metakaolin on the Compressive Strengths of Ternary Cement Mortars

Authors: Olubajo Olumide Olu


This paper studies the effect of Metakaolin (MK) and Rice husk ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of ternary cement mortar at replacement level up to 30%. The compressive strength test of the blended cement mortars were conducted using Tonic Technic compression and machine. Nineteen ternary cement mortars were prepared comprising of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Rice husk ash (RHA) and Metakaolin (MK) at different proportion. Ternary mortar prisms in which Portland cement was replaced by up to 30% were tested at various age; 2, 7, 28 and 60 days. Result showed that the compressive strength of the cement mortars increased as the curing days were lengthened for both OPC and the blended cement samples. The ternary cement’s compressive strengths showed significant improvement compared with the control especially beyond 28 days. This can be attributed to the slow pozzolanic reaction resulting from the formation of additional CSH from the interaction of the residual CH content and the silica available in the Metakaolin and Rice husk ash, thus providing significant strength gain at later age. Results indicated that the addition of metakaolin with rice husk ash kept constant was found to lead to an increment in the compressive strength. This can either be attributed to the high silica/alumina contribution to the matrix or the C/S ratio in the cement matrix. Whereas, increment in the rice husk ash content while metakaolin was held constant led to an increment in the compressive strength, which could be attributed to the reactivity of the rice husk ash followed by decrement owing to the presence of unburnt carbon in the RHA matrix. The best compressive strength results were obtained at 10% cement replacement (5% RHA, 5% MK); 15% cement replacement (10% MK and 5% RHA); 20% cement replacement (15% MK and 5% RHA); 25% cement replacement (20% MK and 5% RHA); 30% cement replacement (10%/20% MK and 20%/10% RHA). With the optimal combination of either 15% and 20% MK with 5% RHA giving the best compressive strength of 40.5MPa.

Keywords: metakaolin, rice husk ash, compressive strength, ternary mortar, curing days

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927 Influence of Gum Acacia Karroo on Some Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortars and Concrete

Authors: Mbugua R. N., Salim R. W., Ndambuki J. M.


Natural admixtures provide concrete with enhanced properties but their processing end up making them very expensive resulting in increase to cost of concrete. In this study the effect of Gum from Acacia Karroo (GAK) as set-retarding admixture in cement pastes was studied. The possibility of using GAK as water reducing admixture both in cement mortar concrete was also investigated. Cement pastes with different dosages of GAK were prepared to measure the setting time using different dosages. Compressive strength of cement mortars with 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9% weight of cement and w/c ratio of 0.5 were compared to those with water cement (w/c) ratio of 0.44 but same dosage of GAK. Concrete samples were prepared using higher dosages of GAK (1, 2 and 3\% wt of cement) and a water bidder (w/b) of 0.61 were compared to those with the same GAK dosage but with reduced w/b ratio. There was increase in compressive strength of 9.3% at 28 days for cement mortar samples with 0.9% dosage of GAK and reduced w/c ratio.

Keywords: compressive strength, Gum Acacia Karroo, retarding admixture, setting time, water-reducing admixture

Procedia PDF Downloads 221