Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1958

Search results for: trajectories mathematical proves

1958 Stability Analysis of DFIG Stator Powers Control Based on Sliding Mode Approach

Authors: Abdelhak Djoudi, Hachemi Chekireb, El Madjid Berkouk

Abstract:

The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) received recently an important consideration in medium and high power wind energy conversion systems integration, due to its advantages compared to other generators types. The stator power sliding mode control (SPSMC) proves a great efficiency judge against other control laws and schemes. In the SPSMC laws elaborated by several authors, only the slide surface tracking conditions are elaborated using Lyapunov functions, and the boundedness of the DFIG states is never treated. Some works have validated theirs approaches by experiments results in the case of specified machines, but these verifications stay insufficient to generalize to other machines range. Adding to this argument, the DFIG states boundedness demonstration is widely suggested in goal to ensure that in the application of the SPSMC, the states evaluates within theirs tolerable bounds. Our objective in the present paper is to highlight the efficiency of the SPSMC by stability analysis. The boundedness of the DFIG states such as the stator current and rotor flux is discussed. Moreover, the states trajectories are finding using analytical proves taking into consideration the SPSMC gains.

Keywords: Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Stator Powers Sliding Mode Control (SPSMC), lyapunov function, stability, states boundedness, trajectories mathematical proves

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1957 Assessing Land Cover Change Trajectories in Olomouc, Czech Republic

Authors: Mukesh Singh Boori, Vít Voženílek

Abstract:

Olomouc is a unique and complex landmark with widespread forestation and land use. This research work was conducted to assess important and complex land use change trajectories in Olomouc region. Multi-temporal satellite data from 1991, 2001 and 2013 were used to extract land use/cover types by object oriented classification method. To achieve the objectives, three different aspects were used: (1) Calculate the quantity of each transition; (2) Allocate location based landscape pattern (3) Compare land use/cover evaluation procedure. Land cover change trajectories shows that 16.69% agriculture, 54.33% forest and 21.98% other areas (settlement, pasture and water-body) were stable in all three decade. Approximately 30% of the study area maintained as a same land cove type from 1991 to 2013. Here broad scale of political and socio-economic factors was also affect the rate and direction of landscape changes. Distance from the settlements was the most important predictor of land cover change trajectories. This showed that most of landscape trajectories were caused by socio-economic activities and mainly led to virtuous change on the ecological environment.

Keywords: remote sensing, land use/cover, change trajectories, image classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
1956 Calculation of Orbital Elements for Sending Interplanetary Probes

Authors: Jorge Lus Nisperuza Toledo, Juan Pablo Rubio Ospina, Daniel Santiago Umana, Hector Alejandro Alvarez

Abstract:

This work develops and implements computational codes to calculate the optimal launch trajectories for sending a probe from the earth to different planets of the Solar system, making use of trajectories of the Hohmann and No-Hohmann type and gravitational assistance in intermediate steps. Specifically, the orbital elements, the graphs and the dynamic simulations of the trajectories for sending a probe from the Earth towards the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are obtained. A detailed study was made of the state vectors of the position and orbital velocity of the considered planets in order to determine the optimal trajectories of the probe. For this purpose, computer codes were developed and implemented to obtain the orbital elements of the Mariner 10 (Mercury), Magellan (Venus), Mars Global Surveyor (Mars) and Voyager 1 (Jupiter and Saturn) missions, as an exercise in corroborating the algorithms. This exercise gives validity to computational codes, allowing to find the orbital elements and the simulations of trajectories of three future interplanetary missions with specific launch windows.

Keywords: gravitational assistance, Hohmann’s trajectories, interplanetary mission, orbital elements

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1955 Design of a Chaotic Trajectory Generator Algorithm for Mobile Robots

Authors: J. J. Cetina-Denis, R. M. López-Gutiérrez, R. Ramírez-Ramírez, C. Cruz-Hernández

Abstract:

This work addresses the problem of designing an algorithm capable of generating chaotic trajectories for mobile robots. Particularly, the chaotic behavior is induced in the linear and angular velocities of a Khepera III differential mobile robot by infusing them with the states of the H´enon chaotic map. A possible application, using the properties of chaotic systems, is patrolling a work area. In this work, numerical and experimental results are reported and analyzed. In addition, two quantitative numerical tests are applied in order to measure how chaotic the generated trajectories really are.

Keywords: chaos, chaotic trajectories, differential mobile robot, Henon map, Khepera III robot, patrolling applications

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1954 The Ballistics Case Study of the Enrica Lexie Incident

Authors: Diego Abbo

Abstract:

On February 15, 2012 off the Indian coast of Kerala, in position 091702N-0760180E by the oil tanker Enrica Lexie, flying the Italian flag, bursts of 5.56 x45 caliber shots were fired from assault rifles AR/70 Italian-made Beretta towards the Indian fisher boat St. Anthony. The shots that hit the St. Anthony fishing boat were six, of which two killed the Indian fishermen Ajesh Pink and Valentine Jelestine. From the analysis concerning the kinematic engagement of the two ships and from the autopsy and ballistic results of the Indian judicial authorities it is possible to reconstruct the trajectories of the six aforementioned shots. This essay reconstructs the trajectories of the six shots that cannot be of direct shooting but have undergone a rebound on the water. The investigation carried out scientifically demonstrates the rebound of the blows on the water, the gyrostatic deviation due to the rebound and the tumbling effect always due to the rebound as regards intermediate ballistics. In consideration of the four shots that directly impacted the fishing vessel, the current examination proves, with scientific value, that the trajectories could not be downwards but upwards. Also, the trajectory of two shots that hit to death the two fishermen could not be downwards but only upwards. In fact, this paper demonstrates, with scientific value: The loss of speed of the projectiles due to the rebound on the water; The tumbling effect in the ballistic medium within the two victims; The permanent cavities subject to the injury ballistics and the related ballistic trauma that prevented homeostasis causing bleeding in one case; The thermo-hardening deformation of the bullet found in Valentine Jelestine's skull; The upward and non-downward trajectories. The paper constitutes a tool in forensic ballistics in that it manages to reconstruct, from the final spot of the projectiles fired, all phases of ballistics like the internal one of the weapons that fired, the intermediate one, the terminal one and the penetrative structural one. In general terms the ballistics reconstruction is based on measurable parameters whose entity is contained with certainty within a lower and upper limit. Therefore, quantities that refer to angles, speed, impact energy and firing position of the shooter can be identified within the aforementioned limits. Finally, the investigation into the internal bullet track, obtained from any autopsy examination, offers a significant “lesson learned” but overall a starting point to contain or mitigate bleeding as a rescue from future gunshot wounds.

Keywords: impact physics, intermediate ballistics, terminal ballistics, tumbling effect

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1953 Optimal Trajectories for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Christian Rathgeber, Franz Winkler, Xiaoyu Kang, Steffen Müller

Abstract:

In this contribution two approaches for calculating optimal trajectories for highly automated vehicles are presented and compared. The first one is based on a non-linear vehicle model, used for evaluation. The second one is based on a simplified model and can be implemented on a current ECU. In usual driving situations both approaches show very similar results.

Keywords: trajectory planning, direct method, indirect method, highly automated driving

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1952 Static vs. Stream Mining Trajectories Similarity Measures

Authors: Musaab Riyadh, Norwati Mustapha, Dina Riyadh

Abstract:

Trajectory similarity can be defined as the cost of transforming one trajectory into another based on certain similarity method. It is the core of numerous mining tasks such as clustering, classification, and indexing. Various approaches have been suggested to measure similarity based on the geometric and dynamic properties of trajectory, the overlapping between trajectory segments, and the confined area between entire trajectories. In this article, an evaluation of these approaches has been done based on computational cost, usage memory, accuracy, and the amount of data which is needed in advance to determine its suitability to stream mining applications. The evaluation results show that the stream mining applications support similarity methods which have low computational cost and memory, single scan on data, and free of mathematical complexity due to the high-speed generation of data.

Keywords: global distance measure, local distance measure, semantic trajectory, spatial dimension, stream data mining

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1951 Calculating Non-Unique Sliding Modes for Switched Dynamical Systems

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arkadi Ponossov

Abstract:

Ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities constitute a very useful tool in many applications. The solutions of such equations can usually be calculated analytically if they cross the discontinuities transversally. Otherwise, one has trajectories that slides along the discontinuity, and the calculations become less straightforward in this case. For instance, one of the problems one faces is non-uniqueness of the sliding modes. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid dynamical systems to calculate the solutions that are ‘hidden’ in the discontinuities. Roughly, one equips the underlying switched system with an explicitly designed discrete dynamical system (‘automaton’), which governs the dynamics of the switched system. This construction ‘splits’ the dynamics, which, as it is shown in the presentation, gives uniqueness of the resulting hybrid trajectories and at the same time provides explicit formulae for them. Projecting the hybrid trajectories back onto the original continuous system explains non-uniqueness of its trajectories. The automaton is designed with the help of the attractors of the specially constructed adjoint dynamical system. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which supports the efficiency of the suggested scheme. The method can be of interest in control theory, gene regulatory networks, neural field models and other fields, where switched dynamics is a part of the analysis.

Keywords: hybrid dynamical systems, singular perturbation analysis, sliding modes, switched dynamics

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1950 Particle and Photon Trajectories near the Black Hole Immersed in the Nonstatic Cosmological Background

Authors: Elena M. Kopteva, Pavlina Jaluvkova, Zdenek Stuchlik

Abstract:

The question of constructing a consistent model of the cosmological black hole remains to be unsolved and still attracts the interest of cosmologists as far as it is important in a wide set of research problems including the problem of the black hole horizon dynamics, the problem of interplay between cosmological expansion and local gravity, the problem of structure formation in the early universe etc. In this work, the model of the cosmological black hole is built on the basis of the exact solution of the Einstein equations for the spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust distribution in the approach of the mass function use. Possible trajectories for massive particles and photons near the black hole immersed in the nonstatic dust cosmological background are investigated in frame of the obtained model. The reference system of distant galaxy comoving to cosmological expansion combined with curvature coordinates is used, so that the resulting metric becomes nondiagonal and involves both proper ‘cosmological’ time and curvature spatial coordinates. For this metric the geodesic equations are analyzed for the test particles and photons, and the respective trajectories are built.

Keywords: exact solutions for Einstein equations, Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution, cosmological black holes, particle and photon trajectories

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
1949 Predicting Shot Making in Basketball Learnt Fromadversarial Multiagent Trajectories

Authors: Mark Harmon, Abdolghani Ebrahimi, Patrick Lucey, Diego Klabjan

Abstract:

In this paper, we predict the likelihood of a player making a shot in basketball from multiagent trajectories. Previous approaches to similar problems center on hand-crafting features to capture domain-specific knowledge. Although intuitive, recent work in deep learning has shown, this approach is prone to missing important predictive features. To circumvent this issue, we present a convolutional neural network (CNN) approach where we initially represent the multiagent behavior as an image. To encode the adversarial nature of basketball, we use a multichannel image which we then feed into a CNN. Additionally, to capture the temporal aspect of the trajectories, we use “fading.” We find that this approach is superior to a traditional FFN model. By using gradient ascent, we were able to discover what the CNN filters look for during training. Last, we find that a combined FFN+CNN is the best performing network with an error rate of 39%.

Keywords: basketball, computer vision, image processing, convolutional neural network

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1948 The Use of the Limit Cycles of Dynamic Systems for Formation of Program Trajectories of Points Feet of the Anthropomorphous Robot

Authors: A. S. Gorobtsov, A. S. Polyanina, A. E. Andreev

Abstract:

The movement of points feet of the anthropomorphous robot in space occurs along some stable trajectory of a known form. A large number of modifications to the methods of control of biped robots indicate the fundamental complexity of the problem of stability of the program trajectory and, consequently, the stability of the control for the deviation for this trajectory. Existing gait generators use piecewise interpolation of program trajectories. This leads to jumps in the acceleration at the boundaries of sites. Another interpolation can be realized using differential equations with fractional derivatives. In work, the approach to synthesis of generators of program trajectories is considered. The resulting system of nonlinear differential equations describes a smooth trajectory of movement having rectilinear sites. The method is based on the theory of an asymptotic stability of invariant sets. The stability of such systems in the area of localization of oscillatory processes is investigated. The boundary of the area is a bounded closed surface. In the corresponding subspaces of the oscillatory circuits, the resulting stable limit cycles are curves having rectilinear sites. The solution of the problem is carried out by means of synthesis of a set of the continuous smooth controls with feedback. The necessary geometry of closed trajectories of movement is obtained due to the introduction of high-order nonlinearities in the control of stabilization systems. The offered method was used for the generation of trajectories of movement of point’s feet of the anthropomorphous robot. The synthesis of the robot's program movement was carried out by means of the inverse method.

Keywords: control, limits cycle, robot, stability

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1947 A Method to Compute Efficient 3D Helicopters Flight Trajectories Based On a Motion Polymorph-Primitives Algorithm

Authors: Konstanca Nikolajevic, Nicolas Belanger, David Duvivier, Rabie Ben Atitallah, Abdelhakim Artiba

Abstract:

Finding the optimal 3D path of an aerial vehicle under flight mechanics constraints is a major challenge, especially when the algorithm has to produce real-time results in flight. Kinematics models and Pythagorian Hodograph curves have been widely used in mobile robotics to solve this problematic. The level of difficulty is mainly driven by the number of constraints to be saturated at the same time while minimizing the total length of the path. In this paper, we suggest a pragmatic algorithm capable of saturating at the same time most of dimensioning helicopter 3D trajectories’ constraints like: curvature, curvature derivative, torsion, torsion derivative, climb angle, climb angle derivative, positions. The trajectories generation algorithm is able to generate versatile complex 3D motion primitives feasible by a helicopter with parameterization of the curvature and the climb angle. An upper ”motion primitives’ concatenation” algorithm is presented based. In this article we introduce a new way of designing three-dimensional trajectories based on what we call the ”Dubins gliding symmetry conjecture”. This extremely performing algorithm will be soon integrated to a real-time decisional system dealing with inflight safety issues.

Keywords: robotics, aerial robots, motion primitives, helicopter

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1946 Mathematical Description of Functional Motion and Application as a Feeding Mode for General Purpose Assistive Robots

Authors: Martin Leroux, Sylvain Brisebois

Abstract:

Eating a meal is among the Activities of Daily Living, but it takes a lot of time and effort for people with physical or functional limitations. Dedicated technologies are cumbersome and not portable, while general-purpose assistive robots such as wheelchair-based manipulators are too hard to control for elaborate continuous motion like eating. Eating with such devices has not previously been automated, since there existed no description of a feeding motion for uncontrolled environments. In this paper, we introduce a feeding mode for assistive manipulators, including a mathematical description of trajectories for motions that are difficult to perform manually such as gathering and scooping food at a defined/desired pace. We implement these trajectories in a sequence of movements for a semi-automated feeding mode which can be controlled with a very simple 3-button interface, allowing the user to have control over the feeding pace. Finally, we demonstrate the feeding mode with a JACO robotic arm and compare the eating speed, measured in bites per minute of three eating methods: a healthy person eating unaided, a person with upper limb limitations or disability using JACO with manual control, and a person with limitations using JACO with the feeding mode. We found that the feeding mode allows eating about 5 bites per minute, which should be sufficient to eat a meal under 30min.

Keywords: assistive robotics, automated feeding, elderly care, trajectory design, human-robot interaction

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1945 Novel Two-Level Graph Causality Analysis and Mathematical Modeling for Cybersecurity Data

Authors: Van Trieu-Do, Shouhuai Xu, Yusheng Feng

Abstract:

Tracking attack trajectories can be difficult with limited information about the nature of the attack. Even more difficult as attack information is collected by Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs), but the current IDSs have some limitations in identifying malicious and anomalous traffic. Moreover, IDSs only point out the suspicious events but do not show how the events relate to each other or which event cause the other event to happen. Because of this, it is important to investigate new methods that can perform the tracking attack trajectories task quickly with less attack information and dependency on IDSs, to prioritize actions during incident responds. This paper proposes a novel two-level graph causality framework for tracking attack trajectories in internet networks by leveraging observable malicious behaviors to detect what is the most probable attack event that can cause another event occurred in the system. Technically, given the timeseries of malicious events, the framework will filter events with useful features, such as attack time and port number, to apply into the conditional independent tests to detect the relationship between attack events. Using the two academic datasets collected by IDSs, experimental results show that the framework can quickly detect the causal pairs that offer meaningful insights into the nature of the internet network, given only reasonable restrictions on network size and structure. Without the framework’s guidance, these insights would not be able to discover by the existing tools, such as IDSs, and it would cost expert human analysts a significant time to find out. The computational results from the proposed two-level graph network model reveal the obvious pattern and trends. In fact, more than 80% of causal pairs have the average time difference between the caused events and the being caused events in both computed and observed data are equivalent. This result can be used as a preventive measure against future attacks. Although the forecast may be short, from 0.2 second to 4.5 seconds, it is long enough to design a prevention protocol to block those attacks.

Keywords: causality, multilevel graph, cybersecurity, mathematical modeling, visualization

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1944 Analysis of the Inverse Kinematics for 5 DOF Robot Arm Using D-H Parameters

Authors: Apurva Patil, Maithilee Kulkarni, Ashay Aswale

Abstract:

This paper proposes an algorithm to develop the kinematic model of a 5 DOF robot arm. The formulation of the problem is based on finding the D-H parameters of the arm. Brute Force iterative method is employed to solve the system of non linear equations. The focus of the paper is to obtain the accurate solutions by reducing the root mean square error. The result obtained will be implemented to grip the objects. The trajectories followed by the end effector for the required workspace coordinates are plotted. The methodology used here can be used in solving the problem for any other kinematic chain of up to six DOF.

Keywords: 5 DOF robot arm, D-H parameters, inverse kinematics, iterative method, trajectories

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1943 Energy Benefits of Urban Platooning with Self-Driving Vehicles

Authors: Eduardo F. Mello, Peter H. Bauer

Abstract:

The primary focus of this paper is the generation of energy-optimal speed trajectories for heterogeneous electric vehicle platoons in urban driving conditions. Optimal speed trajectories are generated for individual vehicles and for an entire platoon under the assumption that they can be executed without errors, as would be the case for self-driving vehicles. It is then shown that the optimization for the “average vehicle in the platoon” generates similar transportation energy savings to optimizing speed trajectories for each vehicle individually. The introduced approach only requires the lead vehicle to run the optimization software while the remaining vehicles are only required to have adaptive cruise control capability. The achieved energy savings are typically between 30% and 50% for stop-to-stop segments in cities. The prime motivation of urban platooning comes from the fact that urban platoons efficiently utilize the available space and the minimization of transportation energy in cities is important for many reasons, i.e., for environmental, power, and range considerations.

Keywords: electric vehicles, energy efficiency, optimization, platooning, self-driving vehicles, urban traffic

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1942 Health Trajectory Clustering Using Deep Belief Networks

Authors: Farshid Hajati, Federico Girosi, Shima Ghassempour

Abstract:

We present a Deep Belief Network (DBN) method for clustering health trajectories. Deep Belief Network (DBN) is a deep architecture that consists of a stack of Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM). In a deep architecture, each layer learns more complex features than the past layers. The proposed method depends on DBN in clustering without using back propagation learning algorithm. The proposed DBN has a better a performance compared to the deep neural network due the initialization of the connecting weights. We use Contrastive Divergence (CD) method for training the RBMs which increases the performance of the network. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated extensively on the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) database. The University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal study that has surveyed more than 27,000 elderly and near-elderly Americans since its inception in 1992. Participants are interviewed every two years and they collect data on physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning. The dataset is publicly available and we use the RAND HRS version L, which is easy to use and cleaned up version of the data. The size of sample data set is 268 and the length of the trajectories is equal to 10. The trajectories do not stop when the patient dies and represent 10 different interviews of live patients. Compared to the state-of-the-art benchmarks, the experimental results show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method in clustering health trajectories.

Keywords: health trajectory, clustering, deep learning, DBN

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1941 Parental Drinking and Risky Alcohol Related Behaviors: Predicting Binge Drinking Trajectories and Their Influence on Impaired Driving among College Students

Authors: Shiran Bord, Assaf Oshri, Matthew W. Carlson, Sihong Liu

Abstract:

Background: Alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and binge drinking are major health concerns among college students. Although the link between binge drinking and AID is well established, knowledge regarding binge drinking patterns, the factors influencing binge drinking, and the associations between consumption patterns and alcohol-related risk behaviors is lacking. Aims: To examine heterogeneous trajectories of binge drinking during college and tests factors that might predict class membership as well as class membership outcomes. Methods: Data were obtained from a sample of 1,265 college students (Mage = 18.5, SD = .66) as part of the Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women (N = 1,265; 59.3% female; 69.2% white). Analyses were completed in three stages. First, a growth curve analysis was conducted to identify trajectories of binge drinking over time. Second, growth curve mixture modeling analyses were pursued to assess unobserved growth trajectories of binge drinking without predictors. Lastly, parental drinking variables were added to the model as predictors of class membership, and AID and being a passenger of a drunk driver were added to the model as outcomes. Results: Three binge drinking trajectories were identified: high-convex, medium concave and low-increasing. Parental drinking was associated with being in high-convex and medium-concave classes. Compared to the low-increasing class, the high convex and medium concave classes reported more AID and being a passenger of a drunk driver more frequently. Conclusions: Parental drinking may affect children’s later engagement in AID. Efforts should focus on parents' education regarding the consequences of parental modeling of alcohol consumption.

Keywords: alcohol impaired driving, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, college students, parental modeling

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1940 HBTOnto: An Ontology Model for Analyzing Human Behavior Trajectories

Authors: Heba M. Wagih, Hoda M. O. Mokhtar

Abstract:

Social Network has recently played a significant role in both scientific and social communities. The growing adoption of social network applications has been a relevant source of information nowadays. Due to its popularity, several research trends are emerged to service the huge volume of users including, Location-Based Social Networks (LBSN), Recommendation Systems, Sentiment Analysis Applications, and many others. LBSNs applications are among the highly demanded applications that do not focus only on analyzing the spatiotemporal positions in a given raw trajectory but also on understanding the semantics behind the dynamics of the moving object. LBSNs are possible means of predicting human mobility based on users social ties as well as their spatial preferences. LBSNs rely on the efficient representation of users’ trajectories. Hence, traditional raw trajectory information is no longer convenient. In our research, we focus on studying human behavior trajectory which is the major pillar in location recommendation systems. In this paper, we propose an ontology design patterns with their underlying description logics to efficiently annotate human behavior trajectories.

Keywords: human behavior trajectory, location-based social network, ontology, social network

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1939 Cross-sectional Developmental Trajectories of Executive Function and Relations to Theory of Mind in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Evdokia Tagkouli, Vassiliki Ntre, Artemios Pehlivanidis, Stella Tsermentseli, Gerasimos Kolaitis, Katerina Papanikolaou

Abstract:

Executive Function (EF) is a set of goal-directed cognitive skills essentially needed in problem-solving and social behavior. Developmental EF research has indicated that EF emerges early in life and marks dramatic changes before the age of 5. Research evidence has suggested that it may continue to develop up to adolescence as well, following the development of the prefrontal cortex. Over the last decade, research evidence has suggested distinguished domains of cool and hot EF, but traditionally the development of EF in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been examined mainly with tasks that address the “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Thus, very little is known about the development of “hot” affective EF processes and whether the cross-sectional developmental pathways of cool and hot EF present similarities in ASD. Cool EF has also been proven to have a strong correlation with Theory of Mind (ToM) in young and middle childhood in typical development and in ASD, but information about the relationship of hot EF to ToM skills is minimal. The present study’s objective was to explore the age-related changes of cool and hot EF in ASD participants from middle childhood to adolescence, as well as their relationship to ToM. This study employed an approach of cross-sectional developmental trajectories to investigate patterns of cool and hot EF relative to chronological age within ASD. Eighty-two participants between 7 and 16 years of age were recruited to undertake measures that assessed cool EF (working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning & inhibition), hot EF (affective decision making & delay discounting) and ToM (false belief and mental state/emotion recognition). Results demonstrated that trajectories of all cool EF presented age-related changes in ASD (improvements with age). With regards to hot EF, affective decision-making presented age-related changes, but for delay discounting, there were no statistically significant changes found across younger and older ASD participants. ToM was correlated only to cool EF. Theoretical implications are discussed as the investigation of the cross-sectional developmental trajectories of the broader EF (cool and hot domains) may contribute to better defining cognitive phenotypes in ASD. These findings highlight the need to examine developmental trajectories of both hot and cool EF in research and clinical practice as they may aid in enhancing diagnosis or better-informed intervention programs.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, developmental trajectories, executive function, theory of mind

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1938 Hohmann Transfer and Bi-Elliptic Hohmann Transfer in TRAPPIST-1 System

Authors: Jorge L. Nisperuza, Wilson Sandoval, Edward. A. Gil, Johan A. Jimenez

Abstract:

In orbital mechanics, an active research topic is the calculation of interplanetary trajectories efficient in terms of energy and time. In this sense, this work concerns the calculation of the orbital elements for sending interplanetary probes in the extrasolar system TRAPPIST-1. Specifically, using the mathematical expressions of the circular and elliptical trajectory parameters, expressions for the flight time and the orbital transfer rate increase between orbits, the orbital parameters and the graphs of the trajectories of Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic for sending a probe from the innermost planet to all the other planets of the studied system, are obtained. The relationship between the orbital transfer rate increments and the relationship between the flight times for the two transfer types is found. The results show that, for all cases under consideration, the Hohmann transfer results to be the least energy and temporary cost, a result according to the theory associated with Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic transfers. Saving in the increase of the speed reaches up to 87% was found, and it happens for the transference between the two innermost planets, whereas the time of flight increases by a factor of up to 6.6 if one makes use of the bi-elliptic transfer, this for the case of sending a probe from the innermost planet to the outermost.

Keywords: bi-elliptic Hohmann transfer, exoplanet, extrasolar system, Hohmann transfer, TRAPPIST-1

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1937 Using Wavelet Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics: From Trajectories Foam to Newtonian Determinism

Authors: Paulo Castro, J. R. Croca, M. Gatta, R. Moreira

Abstract:

Owing to the development of quantum mechanics, we will contextualize the foundations of the theory on the Fourier analysis framework, thus stating the unavoidable philosophical conclusions drawn by Niels Bohr. We will then introduce an alternative way of describing the undulatory aspects of quantum entities by using gaussian Morlet wavelets. The description has its roots in de Broglie's realistic program for quantum physics. It so happens that using wavelets it is possible to formulate a more general set of uncertainty relations. A set from which it is possible to theoretically describe both ends of the behavioral spectrum in reality: the indeterministic quantum trajectorial foam and the perfectly drawn Newtonian trajectories.

Keywords: philosophy of quantum mechanics, quantum realism, morlet wavelets, uncertainty relations, determinism

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1936 Data Presentation of Lane-Changing Events Trajectories Using HighD Dataset

Authors: Basma Khelfa, Antoine Tordeux, Ibrahima Ba

Abstract:

We present a descriptive analysis data of lane-changing events in multi-lane roads. The data are provided from The Highway Drone Dataset (HighD), which are microscopic trajectories in highway. This paper describes and analyses the role of the different parameters and their significance. Thanks to HighD data, we aim to find the most frequent reasons that motivate drivers to change lanes. We used the programming language R for the processing of these data. We analyze the involvement and relationship of different variables of each parameter of the ego vehicle and the four vehicles surrounding it, i.e., distance, speed difference, time gap, and acceleration. This was studied according to the class of the vehicle (car or truck), and according to the maneuver it undertook (overtaking or falling back).

Keywords: autonomous driving, physical traffic model, prediction model, statistical learning process

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1935 Motion of an Infinitesimal Particle in Binary Stellar Systems: Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-16, Kepler-413

Authors: Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah

Abstract:

The present research was motivated by the recent discovery of the binary star systems. In this paper, we use the restricted three-body problem in the binary stellar systems, considering photogravitational effects of both the stars. The aim of this study is to investigate the motion of the infinitesimal mass in the vicinity of the Lagrangian points. The stability and periodic orbits of collinear points and the stability and trajectories of the triangular points are studied in stellar binary systems Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413 and Kepler-16 systems. A detailed comparison is made among periodic orbits and trajectories.

Keywords: exoplanetary systems, lagrangian points, periodic orbit, restricted three body problem, stability

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1934 Accelerated Molecular Simulation: A Convolution Approach

Authors: Jannes Quer, Amir Niknejad, Marcus Weber

Abstract:

Computational Drug Design is often based on Molecular Dynamics simulations of molecular systems. Molecular Dynamics can be used to simulate, e.g., the binding and unbinding event of a small drug-like molecule with regard to the active site of an enzyme or a receptor. However, the time-scale of the overall binding event is many orders of magnitude longer than the time-scale of simulation. Thus, there is a need to speed-up molecular simulations. In order to speed up simulations, the molecular dynamics trajectories have to be ”steared” out of local minimizers of the potential energy surface – the so-called metastabilities – of the molecular system. Increasing the kinetic energy (temperature) is one possibility to accelerate simulated processes. However, with temperature the entropy of the molecular system increases, too. But this kind ”stearing” is not directed enough to stear the molecule out of the minimum toward the saddle point. In this article, we give a new mathematical idea, how a potential energy surface can be changed in such a way, that entropy is kept under control while the trajectories are still steared out of the metastabilities. In order to compute the unsteared transition behaviour based on a steared simulation, we propose to use extrapolation methods. In the end we mathematically show, that our method accelerates the simulations along the direction, in which the curvature of the potential energy surface changes the most, i.e., from local minimizers towards saddle points.

Keywords: extrapolation, Eyring-Kramers, metastability, multilevel sampling

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1933 Application of Fourier Series Based Learning Control on Mechatronic Systems

Authors: Sandra Baßler, Peter Dünow, Mathias Marquardt

Abstract:

A Fourier series based learning control (FSBLC) algorithm for tracking trajectories of mechanical systems with unknown nonlinearities is presented. Two processes are introduced to which the FSBLC with PD controller is applied. One is a simplified service robot capable of climbing stairs due to special wheels and the other is a propeller driven pendulum with nearly the same requirements on control. Additionally to the investigation of learning the feed forward for the desired trajectories some considerations on the implementation of such an algorithm on low cost microcontroller hardware are made. Simulations of the service robot as well as practical experiments on the pendulum show the capability of the used FSBLC algorithm to perform the task of improving control behavior for repetitive task of such mechanical systems.

Keywords: climbing stairs, FSBLC, ILC, service robot

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1932 Using Divergent Nozzle with Aerodynamic Lens to Focus Nanoparticles

Authors: Hasan Jumaah Mrayeh, Fue-Sang Lien

Abstract:

ANSYS Fluent will be used to simulate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for an efficient lens and nozzle design which will be explained in this paper. We have designed and characterized an aerodynamic lens and a divergent nozzle for focusing flow that transmits sub 25 nm particles through the aerodynamic lens. The design of the lens and nozzle has been improved using CFD for particle trajectories. We obtained a case for calculating nanoparticles (25 nm) flowing through the aerodynamic lens and divergent nozzle. Nanoparticles are transported by air, which is pumped into the aerodynamic lens through the nozzle at 1 atmospheric pressure. We have also developed a computational methodology that can determine the exact focus characteristics of aerodynamic lens systems. Particle trajectories were traced using the Lagrange approach. The simulation shows the ability of the aerodynamic lens to focus on 25 nm particles after using a divergent nozzle.

Keywords: aerodynamic lens, divergent nozzle, ANSYS Fluent, Lagrange approach

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1931 Pre-Grade R Numerosity Levels and Gaps: A Case of South African Learners in the Eastern Cape

Authors: Nellie Nosisi Feza

Abstract:

Developing young students' number sense is a priority if the aim is to build a rich mathematical foundation for successful schooling and future innovative careers. Capturing students’ interests is crucial while mediating counting concepts. This paper reports South African young children number concepts demonstrated before entering the reception class. It indicates the diverse knowledge attained in different settings before entering formal schooling. The findings indicate that their start is uneven with fully and partly attained number concepts. The findings suggest pre-schooling stimulation that provides rich mathematical experiences and purposeful play towards the attainment of core foundational concepts. Literature directs practice on important core concepts that are foundational in developing number sense.

Keywords: numeracy, learning trajectories, innate abilities, counting, Grade R/reception class

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1930 Comparison of Developed Statokinesigram and Marker Data Signals by Model Approach

Authors: Boris Barbolyas, Kristina Buckova, Tomas Volensky, Cyril Belavy, Ladislav Dedik

Abstract:

Background: Based on statokinezigram, the human balance control is often studied. Approach to human postural reaction analysis is based on a combination of stabilometry output signal with retroreflective marker data signal processing, analysis, and understanding, in this study. The study shows another original application of Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST), too. Methods: In this study, the participants maintained quiet bipedal standing for 10 s on stabilometry platform. Consequently, bilateral vibration stimuli to Achilles tendons in 20 s interval was applied. Vibration stimuli caused that human postural system took the new pseudo-steady state. Vibration frequencies were 20, 60 and 80 Hz. Participant's body segments - head, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles and little fingers were marked by 12 retroreflective markers. Markers positions were scanned by six cameras system BTS SMART DX. Registration of their postural reaction lasted 60 s. Sampling frequency was 100 Hz. For measured data processing were used Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory. Regression analysis of developed statokinesigram trajectory (DST) data and retroreflective marker developed trajectory (DMT) data were used to find out which marker trajectories most correlate with stabilometry platform output signals. Scaling coefficients (λ) between DST and DMT by linear regression analysis were evaluated, too. Results: Scaling coefficients for marker trajectories were identified for all body segments. Head markers trajectories reached maximal value and ankle markers trajectories had a minimal value of scaling coefficient. Hips, knees and ankles markers were approximately symmetrical in the meaning of scaling coefficient. Notable differences of scaling coefficient were detected in head and shoulders markers trajectories which were not symmetrical. The model of postural system behavior was identified by MDST. Conclusion: Value of scaling factor identifies which body segment is predisposed to postural instability. Hypothetically, if statokinesigram represents overall human postural system response to vibration stimuli, then markers data represented particular postural responses. It can be assumed that cumulative sum of particular marker postural responses is equal to statokinesigram.

Keywords: center of pressure (CoP), method of developed statokinesigram trajectory (MDST), model of postural system behavior, retroreflective marker data

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
1929 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy Aly, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Navier-stokes equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD modelling, transonic store separation, quasi-steady flow, moving-body trajectories

Procedia PDF Downloads 311