Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2255

Search results for: states boundedness

2255 Stability Analysis of DFIG Stator Powers Control Based on Sliding Mode Approach

Authors: Abdelhak Djoudi, Hachemi Chekireb, El Madjid Berkouk

Abstract:

The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) received recently an important consideration in medium and high power wind energy conversion systems integration, due to its advantages compared to other generators types. The stator power sliding mode control (SPSMC) proves a great efficiency judge against other control laws and schemes. In the SPSMC laws elaborated by several authors, only the slide surface tracking conditions are elaborated using Lyapunov functions, and the boundedness of the DFIG states is never treated. Some works have validated theirs approaches by experiments results in the case of specified machines, but these verifications stay insufficient to generalize to other machines range. Adding to this argument, the DFIG states boundedness demonstration is widely suggested in goal to ensure that in the application of the SPSMC, the states evaluates within theirs tolerable bounds. Our objective in the present paper is to highlight the efficiency of the SPSMC by stability analysis. The boundedness of the DFIG states such as the stator current and rotor flux is discussed. Moreover, the states trajectories are finding using analytical proves taking into consideration the SPSMC gains.

Keywords: Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Stator Powers Sliding Mode Control (SPSMC), lyapunov function, stability, states boundedness, trajectories mathematical proves

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2254 A Study of Mandarin Ba Constructions from the Perspective of Event Structure

Authors: Changyin Zhou

Abstract:

Ba constructions are a special type of constructions in Chinese. Their syntactic behaviors are closely related to their event structural properties. The existing study which treats the semantic function of Ba as causative meets difficulty in treating the discrepancy between Ba constructions and their corresponding constructions without Ba in expressing causativity. This paper holds that Ba in Ba constructions is a functional category expressing affectedness. The affectedness expressed by Ba can be positive or negative. The functional category Ba expressing negative affectedness has the semantic property of being 'expected'. The precondition of Ba construction is the boundedness of the event concerned. This paper, holding the parallelism between motion events and change-of-state events, proposes a syntactic model based on the notions of boundedness and affectedness, discusses the transformations between Ba constructions and the related resultative constructions, and derivates the various Ba constructions concerned.

Keywords: affectedness, Ba constructions, boundedness, event structure, resultative constructions

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2253 Demonstration of Logical Inconsistency in the Discussion of the Problem of Evil

Authors: Mohammad Soltani Renani

Abstract:

The problem of evil is one of the heated battlegrounds of the idea of theism and its critics. Since time immemorial and in various philosophical schools and religions, the belief in an Omniscient, Omnipotent, and Absolutely Good God has been considered inconsistent with the existence of the evil in the universe. The theist thinkers have generally adopted one of the following four ways for answering this problem: denial of the existence of evil or considering it to be relative, privation theory of evil, attribution of evil to something other than God, and depiction of an alternative picture of God. Defense or criticism of these alternative answers have given rise to an extensive and unending dispute. However, evaluation of the presupposition and context upon/in which a question is raised precedes offering an answer to it. This point in the discussion of the problem of evil is of paramount importance for both parties, i.e., questioners and answerers, that the attributes of knowledge, power, love, good-will, among others, can be supposed to be infinite only in the essence of the attributed and the domain of potentiality but what can be realized in the domain of actuality is always finite. Therefore, infinite nature of Divine Attributes and realization of evil belong to two spheres. Divine Attributes are infinite (absolute) in Divine Essence, but when they are created, each one becomes bounded by the other. This boundedness is a result of the state of being surrounded of the attributes by each other in finite world of possibility. Evil also appears in this limited world. This inconsistency leads to the collapse of the problem of evil from within: the place of infinity of the Divine Attributes, in the words of Muslim mystics, lies in the Holiest Manifestation [Feyze Aqdas] while evil emerges in the Holy Manifestation where the Divine Attributes become bounded by each other. This idea is neither a new answer to the problem of evil nor a defense of theism; rather it reveals a logical inconsistency in the discussion of the problem of evil.

Keywords: problem of evil, infinity of divine attributes, boundedness of divine attributes, holiest manifestation, holy manifestation

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2252 Rough Oscillatory Singular Integrals on Rⁿ

Authors: H. M. Al-Qassem, L. Cheng, Y. Pan

Abstract:

In this paper we establish sharp bounds for oscillatory singular integrals with an arbitrary real polynomial phase P. Our kernels are allowed to be rough both on the unit sphere and in the radial direction. We show that the bounds grow no faster than log(deg(P)), which is optimal and was first obtained by Parissis and Papadimitrakis for kernels without any radial roughness. Among key ingredients of our methods are an L¹→L² estimate and extrapolation.

Keywords: oscillatory singular integral, rough kernel, singular integral, Orlicz spaces, Block spaces, extrapolation, L^{p} boundedness

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2251 Sharp Estimates of Oscillatory Singular Integrals with Rough Kernels

Authors: H. Al-Qassem, L. Cheng, Y. Pan

Abstract:

In this paper, we establish sharp bounds for oscillatory singular integrals with an arbitrary real polynomial phase P. Our kernels are allowed to be rough both on the unit sphere and in the radial direction. We show that the bounds grow no faster than log (deg(P)), which is optimal and was first obtained by Parissis and Papadimitrakis for kernels without any radial roughness. Our results substantially improve many previously known results. Among key ingredients of our methods are an L¹→L² sharp estimate and using extrapolation.

Keywords: oscillatory singular integral, rough kernel, singular integral, orlicz spaces, block spaces, extrapolation, L^{p} boundedness

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2250 Boundedness and Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions for Gierer-Meinhardt Systems

Authors: S. Henine, A. Youkana

Abstract:

This work is devoted to study the global existence and asymptotic behavior of solutions for Gierer-Meinhardt systems arising in biological phenomena. We prove that the solutions are global and uniformly bounded by a positive constant independent of the time. Our technique is based on Lyapunov functional argument. Under suitable conditions, we established a result on the asymptotic behavior of solutions. These results are valid for any positive continuous initial data, and improve some recently results established.

Keywords: asymptotic behavior, Gierer-Meinhardt systems, global existence, Lyapunov functional

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2249 Sliding Mode Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

Authors: Ahmad Forouzantabar, Mohammad Azadi, Alireza Alesaadi

Abstract:

This paper describes a sliding mode controller for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The dynamic of AUV model is highly nonlinear because of many factors, such as hydrodynamic drag, damping, and lift forces, Coriolis and centripetal forces, gravity and buoyancy forces, as well as forces from thruster. To address these difficulties, a nonlinear sliding mode controller is designed to approximate the nonlinear dynamics of AUV and improve trajectory tracking. Moreover, the proposed controller can profoundly attenuate the effects of uncertainties and external disturbances in the closed-loop system. Using the Lyapunov theory the boundedness of AUV tracking errors and the stability of the proposed control system are also guaranteed. Numerical simulation studies of an AUV are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.

Keywords: lyapunov stability, autonomous underwater vehicle, sliding mode controller, electronics engineering

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2248 Sliding Mode Control of Bilateral Teleoperation System with Time Delay

Authors: Ahmad Forouzantabar, Mohammad Azadi

Abstract:

This paper presents sliding mode controller for bilateral teleoperation systems with robotic master and slave under constant communication delays. We extend the passivity-based coordination architecture to enhance position and force tracking in the presence of offset in initial conditions, environmental contacts and unknown parameters such as friction coefficient. To address these difficulties, a nonlinear sliding mode controller is designed to approximate the nonlinear dynamics of master and slave robots and improve both position and force tracking. Using the Lyapunov theory, the boundedness of master- slave tracking errors and the stability of the teleoperation system are also guaranteed. Numerical simulations show that proposed controller position and force tracking performances are superior to that of conventional coordination controller tracking performances.

Keywords: Lyapunov stability, teleoperation system, time delay, sliding mode controller

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2247 Lambda-Levelwise Statistical Convergence of a Sequence of Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: F. Berna Benli, Özgür Keskin

Abstract:

Lately, many mathematicians have been studied the statistical convergence of a sequence of fuzzy numbers. We know that Lambda-statistically convergence is a kind of convergence between ordinary convergence and statistical convergence. In this paper, we will introduce the new kind of convergence such as λ-levelwise statistical convergence. Then, we will define the concept of the λ-levelwise statistical cluster and limit points of a sequence of fuzzy numbers. Also, we will discuss the relations between the sets of λ-levelwise statistical cluster points and λ-levelwise statistical limit points of sequences of fuzzy numbers. This work has been extended in this paper, where some relations have been considered such that when lambda-statistical limit inferior and lambda-statistical limit superior for lambda-statistically convergent sequences of fuzzy numbers are equal. Furthermore, lambda-statistical boundedness condition for different sequences of fuzzy numbers has been studied.

Keywords: fuzzy number, λ-levelwise statistical cluster points, λ-levelwise statistical convergence, λ-levelwise statistical limit points, λ-statistical cluster points, λ-statistical convergence, λ-statistical limit points

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2246 Spin Coherent States Without Squeezing

Authors: A. Dehghani, S. Shirin

Abstract:

We propose in this article a new configuration of quantum states, |α, β> := |α>×|β>. Which are composed of vector products of two different copies of spin coherent states, |α> and |β>. Some mathematical as well as physical properties of such states are discussed. For instance, it has been shown that the cross products of two coherent vectors remain coherent again. They admit a resolution of the identity through positive definite measures on the complex plane. They represent packets similar to the true coherent states, in other words we would not expect to take spin squeezing in any of the field quadratures Lˆx, Lˆy and Lˆz. Depending on the particular choice of parameters in the above scenarios, they can be converted into the so-called Dicke states which minimize the uncertainty relations of each pair of the angular momentum components.

Keywords: vector (Cross-)products, minimum uncertainty, angular momentum, measurement, Dicke states

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2245 Periodicity of Solutions to Impulsive Equations

Authors: Jin Liang, James H. Liu, Ti-Jun Xiao

Abstract:

It is known that there exist many physical phenomena where abrupt or impulsive changes occur either in the system dynamics, for example, ad-hoc network, or in the input forces containing impacts, for example, the bombardment of space antenna by micrometeorites. There are many other examples such as ultra high-speed optical signals over communication networks, the collision of particles, inventory control, government decisions, interest changes, changes in stock price, etc. These are impulsive phenomena. Hence, as a combination of the traditional initial value problems and the short-term perturbations whose duration can be negligible in comparison with the duration of the process, the systems with impulsive conditions (i.e., impulsive systems) are more realistic models for describing the impulsive phenomenon. Such a situation is also suitable for the delay systems, which include some of the past states of the system. So far, there have been a lot of research results in the study of impulsive systems with delay both in finite and infinite dimensional spaces. In this paper, we investigate the periodicity of solutions to the nonautonomous impulsive evolution equations with infinite delay in Banach spaces, where the coefficient operators (possibly unbounded) in the linear part depend on the time, which are impulsive systems in infinite dimensional spaces and come from the optimal control theory. It was indicated that the study of periodic solutions for these impulsive evolution equations with infinite delay was challenging because the fixed point theorems requiring some compactness conditions are not applicable to them due to the impulsive condition and the infinite delay. We are happy to report that after detailed analysis, we are able to combine the techniques developed in our previous papers, and some new ideas in this paper, to attack these impulsive evolution equations and derive periodic solutions. More specifically, by virtue of the related transition operator family (evolution family), we present a Poincaré operator given by the nonautonomous impulsive evolution system with infinite delay, and then show that the operator is a condensing operator with respect to Kuratowski's measure of non-compactness in a phase space by using an Amann's lemma. Finally, we derive periodic solutions from bounded solutions in view of the Sadovskii fixed point theorem. We also present a relationship between the boundedness and the periodicity of the solutions of the nonautonomous impulsive evolution system. The new results obtained here extend some earlier results in this area for evolution equations without impulsive conditions or without infinite delay.

Keywords: impulsive, nonautonomous evolution equation, optimal control, periodic solution

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2244 Electronic States at SnO/SnO2 Heterointerfaces

Authors: A. Albar, U. Schwingenschlogel

Abstract:

Device applications of transparent conducting oxides require a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the involved interfaces. We use ab-initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at the SnO/SnO2 hetero-interface. Tin dioxide and monoxide are transparent materials with high n-type and p-type mobilities, respectively. This work aims at exploring the modifications of the electronic states, in particular the charge transfer, in the vicinity of the hetero-interface. The (110) interface is modeled by a super-cell approach in order to minimize the mismatch between the lattice parameters of the two compounds. We discuss the electronic density of states as a function of the distance to the interface.

Keywords: density of states, ab-initio calculations, interface states, charge transfer

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2243 Quantum Fisher Information of Bound Entangled W-Like States

Authors: Fatih Ozaydin

Abstract:

Quantum Fisher information (QFI) is a multipartite entanglement witness and recently it has been studied extensively with separability and entanglement in the focus. On the other hand, bound entanglement is a special phenomena observed in mixed entangled states. In this work, we study the QFI of W states under a four-dimensional entanglement binding channel. Starting with initally pure W states of several qubits, we find how the QFI decreases as two qubits of the W state is subject to entanglement binding. We also show that as the size of the W state increases, the effect of entanglement binding is decreased.

Keywords: Quantum Fisher information, W states, bound entanglement, entanglement binding

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2242 Hidden Markov Model for the Simulation Study of Neural States and Intentionality

Authors: R. B. Mishra

Abstract:

Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been used in prediction and determination of states that generate different neural activations as well as mental working conditions. This paper addresses two applications of HMM; one to determine the optimal sequence of states for two neural states: Active (AC) and Inactive (IA) for the three emission (observations) which are for No Working (NW), Waiting (WT) and Working (W) conditions of human beings. Another is for the determination of optimal sequence of intentionality i.e. Believe (B), Desire (D), and Intention (I) as the states and three observational sequences: NW, WT and W. The computational results are encouraging and useful.

Keywords: hiden markov model, believe desire intention, neural activation, simulation

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2241 The Withdrawal of African States from the International Criminal Court

Authors: Allwell Uwazuruike

Abstract:

With the withdrawal, in 2016, of 3 African states from the ICC, the discourse took an interesting twist. African states, or at least some of them, had now shown their resolve to part ways with the ICC and, by implication, focus on further enthroning regional control and governance through an improved continental justice system. A range of views has been expressed over the years on the allegations of bias by some African states and the continued membership of the ICC. While there may be a split on the merits of the allegations of bias, academic analysts have generally not opposed African states’ membership of the ICC nor been particularly optimistic about the prospects of an African criminal court. There is also a degree of ambivalence on whether there are positives to be taken from African states’ withdrawal from the ICC. This article examines the recent developments with the ICC and analyses whether these could be viewed from the positive (or, at least, alternative) spectrum of the AU’s spirited march towards regional sovereignty or entirely negatively from the point of view of African Heads-of-State seeking to enthrone an era of authoritarianism and non-accountability.

Keywords: international criminal court, Africa, regionalism, criminal justice

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2240 Elementary Education Outcome Efficiency in Indian States

Authors: Jyotsna Rosario, K. R. Shanmugam

Abstract:

Since elementary education is a merit good, considerable public resources are allocated to universalise it. However, elementary education outcomes vary across the Indian States. Evidences indicate that while some states are lagging in elementary education outcome primarily due to lack of resources and poor schooling infrastructure, others are lagging despite resource abundance and well-developed schooling infrastructure. Addressing the issue of efficiency, the study employs Stochastic Frontier Analysis for panel data of 27 Indian states from 2012-13 to 2017-18 to estimate the technical efficiency of State governments in generating enrolment. The mean efficiency of states was estimated to be 58%. Punjab, Meghalaya, and West Bengal were found to be the most efficient states. Whereas Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha are one of the most inefficient states. This study emphasizes the efficient utilisation of public resources and helps in the identification of best practices.

Keywords: technical efficiency, public expenditure, elementary education outcome, stochastic frontier analysis

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2239 Constructing the Density of States from the Parallel Wang Landau Algorithm Overlapping Data

Authors: Arman S. Kussainov, Altynbek K. Beisekov

Abstract:

This work focuses on building an efficient universal procedure to construct a single density of states from the multiple pieces of data provided by the parallel implementation of the Wang Landau Monte Carlo based algorithm. The Ising and Pott models were used as the examples of the two-dimensional spin lattices to construct their densities of states. Sampled energy space was distributed between the individual walkers with certain overlaps. This was made to include the latest development of the algorithm as the density of states replica exchange technique. Several factors of immediate importance for the seamless stitching process have being considered. These include but not limited to the speed and universality of the initial parallel algorithm implementation as well as the data post-processing to produce the expected smooth density of states.

Keywords: density of states, Monte Carlo, parallel algorithm, Wang Landau algorithm

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2238 Ties of China and the United States Regarding to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization on the Basis of Soft Power Theory

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

Abstract:

After a period of conflict between Russia and the West, new signs of confrontation between the United States and China are observed. China, as the most populous country in the world with a high rate of economic growth, neither stands the hegemonic power of the United States nor has the intention of direct confrontation with it. By raising the costs of the United States’ leadership at the international level, China seeks to find a better status without direct confrontation with the US. Meanwhile, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), as a soft balancing strategy against the hegemony of the United States is used as a tool to reach this goal. The authors by using a descriptive-analytical method try to explain the policies of China and the United States on Shanghai Cooperation Organization as well as confrontation between these two countries within the framework of 'balance of soft power theory'.

Keywords: balance of soft power, Central Asia, Shanghai cooperation organization, terrorism

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2237 EU Integratıon Impact over the Real Convergence

Authors: Badoiu Mihaela Catalina

Abstract:

Main focus of COHESION policy was reducing social and economic disparities between member states and regions, sustainable development and equal opportunities. In this perspective, the present study intend to analyze the evolution of the European architecture and its direct impact over the real convergence in the member states.

Keywords: cooperation, European union, member states, cohesion policy

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2236 A Comparative Study of School Choice: China and the United States

Authors: Huizi Zeng

Abstract:

This paper delineates the historical retrospective and current status of school choice in China. Focusing on analyzing the similarities and differences in origin, evolution, public dispute, policy dynamics between China and the United States, the article depicts a panorama and explores possible causes. Both China and the United States continue to learn from historical legacy and invent new programs to perfect school choice policy but the outcomes are so different. On the one hand, the percentage of public schools in China remains high all along, while there is a considerably significant reduction in the United States. On the other hand, there is more governmental intervention in the United States with continuous and constant policy updates and adjustment. Finally, this article adopts public-private partnerships (PPP) to seek to provide insights into differences between the two countries and argue that school choice is not only the production of education marketization and corporation but also driven by political mechanism.

Keywords: China, United States, school choice, comparative analysis, policy, public private partnerships

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2235 Fragile States as the Fertile Ground for Non-State Actors: Colombia and Somalia

Authors: Giorgi Goguadze, Jakub Zajączkowski

Abstract:

This paper is written due to overview the connection between fragile states and non-state actors, we should take into account that fragile states may vary from weak, failing and failed. In this paper we will discuss about two countries, one of them is weak (Colombia/ second one is already failed- Somalia. We will try to understand what feeds ill non-state actors such as: terrorist organizations, criminal entities and other cells in these countries, what threats are they representing and how to eliminate these dangers in both national and international scope. This paper is mainly based on literature overview and personal attitude and doesn’t claim to be in scientific chain.

Keywords: fragile States, terrorism, tribalism, Somalia

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2234 The Visualization of Hydrological and Hydraulic Models Based on the Platform of Autodesk Civil 3D

Authors: Xiyue Wang, Shaoning Yan

Abstract:

Cities in China today is faced with an increasingly serious river ecological crisis accompanying with the development of urbanization: waterlogging on account of the fragmented urban natural hydrological system; the limited ecological function of the hydrological system caused by a destruction of water system and waterfront ecological environment. Additionally, the eco-hydrological processes of rivers are affected by various environmental factors, which are more complex in the context of urban environment. Therefore, efficient hydrological monitoring and analysis tools, accurate and visual hydrological and hydraulic models are becoming more important basis for decision-makers and an important way for landscape architects to solve urban hydrological problems, formulating sustainable and forward-looking schemes. The study mainly introduces the river and flood analysis model based on the platform of Autodesk Civil 3D. Taking the Luanhe River in Qian'an City of Hebei Province as an example, the 3D models of the landform, river, embankment, shoal, pond, underground stream and other land features were initially built, with which the water transfer simulation analysis, river floodplain analysis, and river ecology analysis were carried out, ultimately the real-time visualized simulation and analysis of rivers in various hypothetical scenarios were realized. Through the establishment of digital hydrological and hydraulic model, the hydraulic data can be accurately and intuitively simulated, which provides basis for rational water system and benign urban ecological system design. Though, the hydrological and hydraulic model based on Autodesk Civil3D own its boundedness: the interaction between the model and other data and software is unfavorable; the huge amount of 3D data and the lack of basic data restrict the accuracy and application range. The hydrological and hydraulic model based on Autodesk Civil3D platform provides more possibility to access convenient and intelligent tool for urban planning and monitoring, a solid basis for further urban research and design.

Keywords: visualization, hydrological and hydraulic model, Autodesk Civil 3D, urban river

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2233 Efficient Subgoal Discovery for Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning Using Local Computations

Authors: Adrian Millea

Abstract:

In hierarchical reinforcement learning, one of the main issues encountered is the discovery of subgoal states or options (which are policies reaching subgoal states) by partitioning the environment in a meaningful way. This partitioning usually requires an expensive global clustering operation or eigendecomposition of the Laplacian of the states graph. We propose a local solution to this issue, much more efficient than algorithms using global information, which successfully discovers subgoal states by computing a simple function, which we call heterogeneity for each state as a function of its neighbors. Moreover, we construct a value function using the difference in heterogeneity from one step to the next, as reward, such that we are able to explore the state space much more efficiently than say epsilon-greedy. The same principle can then be applied to higher level of the hierarchy, where now states are subgoals discovered at the level below.

Keywords: exploration, hierarchical reinforcement learning, locality, options, value functions

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2232 The Economic Impact of the Elimination of Preferential Trade Arrangements in the Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States

Authors: Natasha Lalla

Abstract:

The impact of free trade on growth has been highly debated and studies have generated varying results. Since the 1970s the Caribbean has engaged in asymmetrical trade with some European states characterized by the Lomé Conventions (1975-1999). These agreements allowed for Caribbean products such as sugar and banana to enter some European countries duty-free and above market prices. With the onset of the World Trade Organization by the mid-1990s, the EU’s banana trade regime was considered illegitimate. Lomé was replaced by the Cotonou agreement (2000-2007), in order to phase out preferences and ensure that the Caribbean trade arrangements were consistent with the international economic environment of trade liberalization. This agreement facilitated signing of the Economic Partnership Agreement in 2008 by both trade blocs whereby Caribbean states must implement freer trade by 2033. The current study is an exploration of how the Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States, the smallest, economically and ecologically vulnerable states of the Caribbean have restructured their trade policies towards the end of preferences and what has been the economic developmental impact of this. This is done by analyzing key reports to understand how these states restructured policies towards freer trade. Secondly, to determine the impact of this, data collected for specific economic indicators were analyzed in a fixed effects panel data framework for the period 1979-2016 on six states of the Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States. The study, therefore, found that freer trade has resulted in negative growth in these states.

Keywords: free trade, growth, OECS, small island developing states

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2231 Unitary Federalism in Nigeria: Implications for Continued Corporate Existence of Nigeria

Authors: Chukwudi S. Osondu

Abstract:

Currently, the two most economically viable states in Nigeria, Lagos State and Rivers, are challenging the National Government over the legality of the latter’s continued collection and disbursement of the Value Added Tax (VAT) in their respective states. These states recently enacted laws empowering their respective states agencies to collect and administer the Value Added Tax (VAT) in their states. Before now, it was the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) that is mandated by the National Government to collect VAT throughout the Federation, and have same administered by the Federal Revenue Mobilization Allocation and Fiscal Commission, another Federal agency. Most states in the South-South and South-West geopolitical zones and a handful of states in the South-East are supportive of the actions taken by Lagos and Rivers states and are ready to follow suit. This action is seen as the beginning of resistance by the states over the continued strangulating over-centralized systems operating in the country. The Nigeria Federation has over the years operated a unitary system with grave consequences for development and possible implosion of the polity. The Quota System, the Federal Character policy, the control of the natural resources, and the security infrastructure by the National Government have been in place for decades with the attendant misgivings by some sections in the Nigeria Project. This paper evaluates the impact of the over-centralization power on the National Government with reference to fiscal policies, security, resource exploitation, infrastructural development, and national cohesion. It concludes that “unitary federalism” scuttles national development, inflames disunity, and stokes dissatisfaction among states in the federation. The paper concludes by suggesting a federation where power is devolved to the states, with the states as the federating units allowed to, each develop at its own pace.

Keywords: peace, conflict, insecurity, corporate existence, sustainable development, peaceful coexistence

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2230 Clean Energy and Free Trade: Redefining 'Like Products' to Account for Climate Change

Authors: M. Barsa

Abstract:

This paper argues that current jurisprudence under the Dormant Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution and the WTO should be altered to allow states to more freely foster clean energy production. In particular, free trade regimes typically prevent states from discriminating against 'like' products, and whether these products are considered 'like' is typically measured by how they appear to the consumer. This makes it challenging for states to discriminate in favor of clean energy, such as low-carbon fuels. However, this paper points out that certain courts in the US—and decisions of the WTO—have already begun taking into account how a product is manufactured in order to determine whether a state may discriminate against it. There are also compelling reasons for states to discriminate against energy sources with high carbon footprints in order to allow those states to protect themselves against climate change. In other words, fuel sources with high and low carbon footprints are not, in fact, 'like' products, and courts should more freely recognize this in order to foster clean energy production.

Keywords: clean energy, climate change, discrimination, free trade

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2229 Search for EEG Correlates of Mental States Using EEG Neurofeedback Paradigm

Authors: Cyril Kaplan

Abstract:

26 participants played 4 EEG neurofeedback (NF) games encouraged to find their strategies to control the specific NF parameter. Mixed method analysis of performance in the games and post-session interviews led to the identification of states of consciousness that correlated with success in the game. We found that increase in left frontal beta activity was facilitated by evoking interest in observed surroundings, by wondering what is happening behind the window or what lies in a drawer in front.

Keywords: EEG neurofeedback, states of consciousness, frontal beta activity, mixed methods

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2228 Spatio-Temporal Properties of p53 States Raised by Glucose

Authors: Md. Jahoor Alam

Abstract:

Recent studies suggest that Glucose controls several lifesaving pathways. Glucose molecule is reported to be responsible for the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species). In the present work, a p53-MDM2-Glucose model is developed in order to study spatiotemporal properties of the p53 pathway. The systematic model is mathematically described. The model is numerically simulated using high computational facility. It is observed that the variation in glucose concentration level triggers the system at different states, namely, oscillation death (stabilized), sustain and damped oscillations which correspond to various cellular states. The transition of these states induced by glucose is phase transition-like behaviour. Further, the amplitude of p53 dynamics with the variation of glucose concentration level follows power law behaviour, As(k) ~ kϒ, where, ϒ is a constant. Further Stochastic approach is needed for understanding of realistic behaviour of the model. The present model predicts the variation of p53 states under the influence of glucose molecule which is also supported by experimental facts reported by various research articles.

Keywords: oscillation, temporal behavior, p53, glucose

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2227 An Optimized Approach to Generate the Possible States of Football Tournaments Final Table

Authors: Mouslem Damkhi

Abstract:

This paper focuses on possible states of a football tournament final table according to the number of participating teams. Each team holds a position in the table with which it is possible to determine the highest and lowest points for that team. This paper proposes an optimized search space based on the minimum and maximum number of points which can be gained by each team to produce and enumerate the possible states for a football tournament final table. The proposed search space minimizes producing the invalid states which cannot occur during a football tournament. The generated states are filtered by a validity checking algorithm which seeks to reach a tournament graph based on a generated state. Thus, the algorithm provides a way to determine which team’s wins, draws and loses values guarantee a particular table position. The paper also presents and discusses the experimental results of the approach on the tournaments with up to eight teams. Comparing with a blind search algorithm, our proposed approach reduces generating the invalid states up to 99.99%, which results in a considerable optimization in term of the execution time.

Keywords: combinatorics, enumeration, graph, tournament

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2226 One year later after the entry into force of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW): Reviewing Legal Impact and Implementation

Authors: Cristina Siserman-Gray

Abstract:

TheTreaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons(TPNW)will mark in January 2022 one year since the entry into force of the treaty. TPNW provides that within one year of entry into force, the 86 countries that have signed it so far will convene to discuss and take decisions on the treaty’s implementation at the first meeting of states-parties. Austria has formally offered to host the meeting in Vienna in the spring of 2022. At this first meeting, the States Parties would need to work. Among others, on the interpretations of some of the provisions of the Treaty, disarmament timelines under Article 4, and address universalization of the Treaty. The main objective of this paper is to explore the legal implications of the TPNW for States-Parties and discuss how these will impact non-State Parties, particularly the United States. In a first part, the article will address the legal requirements that States Parties to this treaty must adhere to by illustrating some of the progress made by these states regarding the implementation of the TPNW. In a second part, the paper will address the challenges and opportunities for universalizing the treaty and will focus on the response of Nuclear Weapons States, and particularly the current US administration. Since it has become clear that TPNW has become a new and important element to the nonproliferation and disarmament architecture, the article will provide a number of suggestions regarding ways US administration could positively contribute to the international discourse on TPNW.

Keywords: disarmament, arms control and nonproliferation, legal regime, TPNW

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