Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3634

Search results for: urban traffic

3634 Research on Evaluation Method of Urban Road Section Traffic Safety Status Based on Video Information

Authors: Qiang Zhang, Xiaojian Hu

Abstract:

Aiming at the problem of the existing real-time evaluation methods for traffic safety status, a video information-based urban road section traffic safety status evaluation method was established, and the rapid detection method of traffic flow parameters based on video information is analyzed. The concept of the speed dispersion of the road section that affects the traffic safety state of the urban road section is proposed, and the method of evaluating the traffic safety state of the urban road section based on the speed dispersion of the road section is established. Experiments show that the proposed method can reasonably evaluate the safety status of urban roads in real-time, and the evaluation results can provide a corresponding basis for the traffic management department to formulate an effective urban road section traffic safety improvement plan.

Keywords: intelligent transportation system, road traffic safety, video information, vehicle speed dispersion

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3633 On Flow Consolidation Modelling in Urban Congested Areas

Authors: Serban Stere, Stefan Burciu

Abstract:

The challenging and continuously growing competition in the urban freight transport market emphasizes the need for optimal planning of transportation processes in terms of identifying the solution of consolidating traffic flows in congested urban areas. The aim of the present paper is to present the mathematical framework and propose a methodology of combining urban traffic flows between the distribution centers located at the boundary of a congested urban area. The three scenarios regarding traffic flow between consolidation centers that are taken into consideration in the paper are based on the same characteristics of traffic flows. The scenarios differ in terms of the accessibility of the four consolidation centers given by the infrastructure, the connections between them, and the possibility of consolidating traffic flows for one or multiple destinations. Also, synthetical indicators will allow us to compare the scenarios considered and chose the indicated for our distribution system.

Keywords: distribution system, single and multiple destinations, urban consolidation centers, traffic flow consolidation schemes

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
3632 Proposed Alternative System for Existing Traffic Signal System

Authors: Alluri Swaroopa, L. V. N. Prasad

Abstract:

Alone with fast urbanization in world, traffic control problem became a big issue in urban construction. Having an efficient and reliable traffic control system is crucial to macro-traffic control. Traffic signal is used to manage conflicting requirement by allocating different sets of mutually compatible traffic movement during distinct time interval. Many approaches have been made proposed to solve this discrete stochastic problem. Recognizing the need to minimize right-of-way impacts while efficiently handling the anticipated high traffic volumes, the proposed alternative system gives effective design. This model allows for increased traffic capacity and reduces delays by eliminating a step in maneuvering through the freeway interchange. The concept proposed in this paper involves construction of bridges and ramps at intersection of four roads to control the vehicular congestion and to prevent traffic breakdown.

Keywords: bridges, junctions, ramps, urban traffic control

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3631 A Study of the Interactions between the Inter-City Traffic System and the Spatial Structure Evolution in the Yangtze River Delta from Time and Space Dimensions

Authors: Zhang Cong, Cai Runlin, Jia Fengjiao

Abstract:

The evolution of the urban agglomeration spatial structure requires strong support of the inter-city traffic system. And the inter-city traffic system can not only meet the demand of the urban agglomeration transportation but also guide the economic development. To correctly understand the relationship between inter-city traffic planning and urban agglomeration can help the urban agglomeration coordinated developing with the inter-city traffic system. The Yangtze River Delta is one of the most representative urban agglomerations in China with strong economic vitality, high city levels, diversified urban space form, and improved transport infrastructure. With the promotion of industrial division in the Yangtze River Delta and the regional travel facilitation brought by inter-city traffic, the urban agglomeration is characterized by highly increasing of inter-city transportation demand, the urbanization of regional traffic, adjacent regional transportation links breaking administrative boundaries, the networked channels and so on. Therefore, the development of inter-city traffic system presents new trends and challenges. This paper studies the interactions between inter-city traffic system and regional economic growth, regional factor flow, and regional spatial structure evolution in the Yangtze River Delta from two dimensions of time and space. On this basis, the adaptability of inter-city traffic development mode and urban agglomeration space structure is analyzed. First of all, the coordination between urban agglomeration planning and inter-city traffic planning is judged from the planning level. Secondly, the coordination between inter-city traffic elements and industries and population distributions is judged from the perspective of space. Finally, the coordination of the cross-regional planning and construction of inter-city traffic system is judged. The conclusions can provide an empirical reference for intercity traffic planning in Yangtze River Delta region and other urban agglomerations, and it is also of great significance to optimize the allocation of urban agglomerations and the overall operational efficiency.

Keywords: evolution, interaction, inter-city traffic system, spatial structure

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3630 Traffic Congestion: Causes, Consequences, and Planning Solutions

Authors: Raj Kumar Kama, Rajshree Kamat

Abstract:

Traffic congestion is a serious problem that is to be considered, and it is increasing day-by-day in urban areas that is seriously affecting the urban society. From the study, it is understood that increased urbanization and growth of population are the principal causes of congestion. It has adverse effects on society, economy, environment, and health. This study mainly focussed on studying and understanding the causes of congestion, consequences faced by urban society, and planning solutions to mitigate congestion. Techniques like transit oriented development (TOD) and integrated transport systems are more effective in mitigating traffic congestion.

Keywords: traffic congestion, transit oriented development, integrated transport system, urbanization

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3629 Research on Road Openness in the Old Urban Residential District Based on Space Syntax: A Case Study on Kunming within the First Loop Road

Authors: Haoyang Liang, Dandong Ge

Abstract:

With the rapid development of Chinese cities, traffic congestion has become more and more serious. At the same time, there are many closed old residential area in Chinese cities, which seriously affect the connectivity of urban roads and reduce the density of urban road networks. After reopening the restricted old residential area, the internal roads in the original residential area were transformed into urban roads, which was of great help to alleviate traffic congestion. This paper uses the spatial syntactic theory to analyze the urban road network and compares the roads with the integration and connectivity degree to evaluate whether the opening of the roads in the residential areas can improve the urban traffic. Based on the road network system within the first loop road in Kunming, the Space Syntax evaluation model is established for status analysis. And comparative analysis method will be used to compare the change of the model before and after the road openness of the old urban residential district within the first-ring road in Kunming. Then it will pick out the areas which indicate a significant difference for the small dimensions model analysis. According to the analyzed results and traffic situation, the evaluation of road openness in the old urban residential district will be proposed to improve the urban residential districts.

Keywords: Space Syntax, Kunming, urban renovation, traffic jam

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3628 A Survey on Intelligent Traffic Management with Cooperative Driving in Urban Roads

Authors: B. Karabuluter, O. Karaduman

Abstract:

Traffic management and traffic planning are important issues, especially in big cities. Due to the increase of personal vehicles and the physical constraints of urban roads, the problem of transportation especially in crowded cities over time is revealed. This situation reduces the living standards, and it can put human life at risk because the vehicles such as ambulance, fire department are prevented from reaching their targets. Even if the city planners take these problems into account, emergency planning and traffic management are needed to avoid cases such as traffic congestion, intersections, traffic jams caused by traffic accidents or roadworks. In this study, in smart traffic management issues, proposed solutions using intelligent vehicles acting in cooperation with urban roads are examined. Traffic management is becoming more difficult due to factors such as fatigue, carelessness, sleeplessness, social behavior patterns, and lack of education. However, autonomous vehicles, which remove the problems caused by human weaknesses by providing driving control, are increasing the success of practicing the algorithms developed in city traffic management. Such intelligent vehicles have become an important solution in urban life by using 'swarm intelligence' algorithms and cooperative driving methods to provide traffic flow, prevent traffic accidents, and increase living standards. In this study, studies conducted in this area have been dealt with in terms of traffic jam, intersections, regulation of traffic flow, signaling, prevention of traffic accidents, cooperation and communication techniques of vehicles, fleet management, transportation of emergency vehicles. From these concepts, some taxonomies were made out of the way. This work helps to develop new solutions and algorithms for cities where intelligent vehicles that can perform cooperative driving can take place, and at the same time emphasize the trend in this area.

Keywords: intelligent traffic management, cooperative driving, smart driving, urban road, swarm intelligence, connected vehicles

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3627 Traffic Congestion Analysis and Modeling for Urban Roads of Srinagar City

Authors: Adinarayana Badveeti, Mohammad Shafi Mir

Abstract:

In Srinagar City, in India, traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queuing. Traffic congestion is conventionally measured using indicators such as roadway level-of-service, the Travel Time Index and their variants. Several measures have been taken in order to counteract congestion like road pricing, car pooling, improved traffic management, etc. While new road construction can temporarily relieve congestion in the longer term, it simply encourages further growth in car traffic through increased travel and a switch away from public transport. The full paper report, on which this abstract is based, aims to provide policymakers and technical staff with the real-time data, conceptual framework and guidance on some of the engineering tools necessary to manage congestion in such a way as to reduce its overall impact on individuals, families, communities, and societies dynamic, affordable, liveable and attractive urban regions will never be free of congestion. Road transport policies, however, should seek to manage congestion on a cost-effective basis with the aim of reducing the burden that excessive congestion imposes upon travellers and urban dwellers throughout the urban road network.

Keywords: traffic congestion, modeling, traffic management, travel time index

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3626 The Traffic Congestion in Biskra in Algeria

Authors: Selatnia Khaled Grine Ikram

Abstract:

The city of Biskra, like other Algerian cities, knows of urban traffic congestion. The concentration of investments especially in the secondary and tertiary sectors in the Wilaya has attracted a large rural population. The latter, combined with the high rate of natural growing, favored the imbalance of the spatial frame of wilayal system and consequently the traffic congestion of the primate city (Biskra). This urban disease is explained by a two-tier development. The capital of Wilaya growing faster than its others centers body and takes measurements of proportion to the whole. The consequences can only be negative. The pressure on the roads, the growth of the fleet, overloading of equipment and activities have become the characteristics of the city of Biskra, which can no longer meet the needs of its inhabitants. This research attempts to show the relationship between urban congestion of the primate city and the imbalance of the spatial structure of the micro-regional urban system.

Keywords: traffic congestion, spatial structure, pressure on the roads, equipment and activities

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3625 Congestion Mitigation on an Urban Arterial through Infrastructure Intervention

Authors: Attiq Ur Rahman Dogar, Sohaib Ishaq

Abstract:

Pakistan had experienced rapid motorization in the last decade. Due to the soft leasing schemes of banks and increase in average household income, even the middle class can now afford cars. The public transit system is inadequate and sparse. Due to these reasons, traffic demand on urban arterials has increased manifold. Poor urban transit planning and aging transportation systems have resulted in traffic congestion. The focus of this study is to improve traffic flow on a section of N-5 passing through the Rawalpindi downtown. Present efforts aim to carry out the analysis of traffic conditions on this section and to investigate the impact of traffic signal co-ordination on travel time. In addition to signal co-ordination, we also examined the effect of different infrastructure improvements on the travel time. After the economic analysis of alternatives and discussions, the improvement plan for Rawalpindi downtown urban arterial section is proposed for implementation.

Keywords: signal coordination, infrastructure intervention, infrastructure improvement, cycle length, fuel consumption cost, travel time cost, economic analysis, travel time, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, traffic signals

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3624 A Study on the Planning of Urban Road Traffic Signs Based on the Leisure Involvement of Self-Driving Tourists

Authors: Chun-Lin Zhang, Min Wan

Abstract:

With the upgrade development of the tourism industry from the simple sightseeing tour to the leisure and vacation, people's travel idea has undergone a fundamental change. More and more people begin to pursue liberal and personal tourism, so self-driving tourism has become the main form of current tourism activities. With the self-driving tourism representing the general trend, the importance of convenient tourism transportation and perfect road traffic signs have become more and more prominent. A clear urban road traffic signs can help visitors quickly identify the direction and distance to the tourism destination. The purpose of this article is analyzing the planning of urban road traffic signs which can bring positive impact on the participation in the recreation involved of self-driving tourists. The content of this article is divided into three parts. Based on the literature review and theoretical analysis, the first part constructs a structural variance model. The model is from three dimensions: the attention of the self-driving tourists to the urban traffic signs along the road, the perception of the self-driving tourists to the road traffic signs itself, the perceptions of the self-driving tourists to the tourism destination information on the traffic signs. Through this model, the paper aims to explore the influence of the urban road traffic signs to the leisure psychological involvement and leisure behavior involvement of the self-driving tourists. The second part aims to verify through the hypothesis model the questionnaire survey and come to preliminary conclusions. The preliminary conclusions are as follows: firstly, the color, shape, size, setting mode and occurrence frequency of urban road traffic sign have significant influence on the leisure psychological involvement and leisure behavior involvement of the self-driving tourists. Secondly, the influence on the leisure behavior involvement is obviously higher than the influence on the leisure psychological involvement. Thirdly, the information about the tourism destination marked on the urban road traffic signs has not obviously influence on the leisure psychological involvement, but it has distinct influence on the leisure behavior involvement of self-driving tourists. The third part puts forward that the planning of urban road traffic signs should focus on the angle of the impact of road traffic signs on people's psychology and behavior. On the basis of the above conclusions, the paper researches the color, shape, size, setting mode and information labeling of urban road traffic signs so that they can preferably satisfy the demand of the leisure involvement of self-driving tourists.

Keywords: leisure involvement, self-driving tourism, structural equation, urban road traffic signs

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3623 The Kidney-Spine Traffic System: Future Cities, Ensuring World Class Civic Amenities in Urban India

Authors: Abhishek Srivastava, Jeevesh Nandan, Manish Kumar

Abstract:

The study was taken to analyse the alternative source of traffic system for effective and more convenient traffic flow by reducing points of conflicts as well as angle of conflict and keeping in view to minimize the problem of unnecessarily long waiting time, delays, congestion, traffic jam and geometric delays due to intersection between circular and straight lanes. It is a twin kidney-spine type structure system with special allowance for Highway users for quicker passes. Thus reduction in number and intensity of accidents, significance reduction in traffic jam, conservation of valuable time.

Keywords: traffic system, collision reduction of vehicles, smooth flow of vehicles, traffic jam

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
3622 Transport Related Air Pollution Modeling Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: K. D. Sharma, M. Parida, S. S. Jain, Anju Saini, V. K. Katiyar

Abstract:

Air quality models form one of the most important components of an urban air quality management plan. Various statistical modeling techniques (regression, multiple regression and time series analysis) have been used to predict air pollution concentrations in the urban environment. These models calculate pollution concentrations due to observed traffic, meteorological and pollution data after an appropriate relationship has been obtained empirically between these parameters. Artificial neural network (ANN) is increasingly used as an alternative tool for modeling the pollutants from vehicular traffic particularly in urban areas. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to model traffic air pollution, specifically CO concentration using neural networks. In case of CO concentration, two scenarios were considered. First, with only classified traffic volume input and the second with both classified traffic volume and meteorological variables. The results showed that CO concentration can be predicted with good accuracy using artificial neural network (ANN).

Keywords: air quality management, artificial neural network, meteorological variables, statistical modeling

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3621 Impact of Unbalanced Urban Structure on the Traffic Congestion in Biskra, Algeria

Authors: Khaled Selatnia

Abstract:

Nowadays, the traffic congestion becomes increasingly a chronic problem. Sometimes, the cause is attributed to the recurrent road works that create barriers to the efficient movement. But congestion, which usually occurs in cities, can take diverse forms and magnitudes. The case study of Biskra city in Algeria and the diagnosis of its road network show that throughout all the micro regional system, the road network seems at first quite dense. However, this density although it is important, does not cover all areas. A major flow is concentrated in the axis Sidi Okba – Biskra – Tolga. The largest movement of people in the Wilaya (prefecture) revolves around these three centers and their areas of influence. Centers farthest from the trio are very poorly served. This fact leads us to ask questions about the extent of congestion in Biskra city and its relationship to the imbalance of the urban framework. The objective of this paper is to highlight the impact of the urban fact on the traffic congestion.

Keywords: congestion, urban framework, regional, urban and regional studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
3620 Density Based Traffic System Using Pic Microcontroller

Authors: Tatipamula Samiksha Goud, .A.Naveena, M.sresta

Abstract:

Traffic congestion is a major issue in many cities throughout the world, particularly in urban areas, and it is past time to switch from a fixed timer mode to an automated system. The current traffic signalling system is a fixed-time system that is inefficient if one lane is more functional than the others. A structure for an intelligent traffic control system is being designed to address this issue. When traffic density is higher on one side of a junction, the signal's green time is extended in comparison to the regular time. This study suggests a technique in which the signal's time duration is assigned based on the amount of traffic present at the time. Infrared sensors can be used to do this.

Keywords: infrared sensors, micro-controllers, LEDs, oscillators

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3619 Multi-Objective Optimization of Intersections

Authors: Xiang Li, Jian-Qiao Sun

Abstract:

As the crucial component of city traffic network, intersections have significant impacts on urban traffic performance. Despite of the rapid development in transportation systems, increasing traffic volumes result in severe congestions especially at intersections in urban areas. Effective regulation of vehicle flows at intersections has always been an important issue in the traffic control system. This study presents a multi-objective optimization method at intersections with cellular automata to achieve better traffic performance. Vehicle conflicts and pedestrian interference are considered. Three categories of the traffic performance are studied including transportation efficiency, energy consumption and road safety. The left-turn signal type, signal timing and lane assignment are optimized for different traffic flows. The multi-objective optimization problem is solved with the cell mapping method. The optimization results show the conflicting nature of different traffic performance. The influence of different traffic variables on the intersection performance is investigated. It is observed that the proposed optimization method is effective in regulating the traffic at the intersection to meet multiple objectives. Transportation efficiency can be usually improved by the permissive left-turn signal, which sacrifices safety. Right-turn traffic suffers significantly when the right-turn lanes are shared with the through vehicles. The effect of vehicle flow on the intersection performance is significant. The display pattern of the optimization results can be changed remarkably by the traffic volume variation. Pedestrians have strong interference with the traffic system.

Keywords: cellular automata, intersection, multi-objective optimization, traffic system

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3618 Micro-Transformation Strategy Of Residential Transportation Space Based On The Demand Of Residents: Taking A Residential District In Wuhan, China As An Example

Authors: Hong Geng, Zaiyu Fan

Abstract:

With the acceleration of urbanization and motorization in China, the scale of cities and the travel distance of residents are constantly expanding, and the number of cars is continuously increasing, so the urban traffic problem is more and more serious. Traffic congestion, environmental pollution, energy consumption, travel safety and direct interference between traffic and other urban activities are increasingly prominent problems brought about by motorized development. This not only has a serious impact on the lives of the residents but also has a major impact on the healthy development of the city. The paper found that, in order to solve the development of motorization, a number of problems will arise; urban planning and traffic planning and design in residential planning often take into account the development of motorized traffic but neglects the demand for street life. This kind of planning has resulted in the destruction of the traditional communication space of the residential area, the pollution of noise and exhaust gas, and the potential safety risks of the residential area, which has disturbed the previously quiet and comfortable life of the residential area, resulting in the inconvenience of residents' life and the loss of street vitality. Based on these facts, this paper takes a residential area in Wuhan as the research object, through the actual investigation and research, from the perspective of micro-transformation analysis, combined with the concept of traffic micro-reconstruction governance. And research puts forward the residential traffic optimization strategies such as strengthening the interaction and connection between the residential area and the urban street system, street traffic classification and organization.

Keywords: micro-transformation, residential traffic, residents demand, traffic microcirculation

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3617 Feasibility Study of Distributed Lightless Intersection Control with Level 1 Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Bo Yang, Christopher Monterola

Abstract:

Urban intersection control without the use of the traffic light has the potential to vastly improve the efficiency of the urban traffic flow. For most proposals in the literature, such lightless intersection control depends on the mass market commercialization of highly intelligent autonomous vehicles (AV), which limits the prospects of near future implementation. We present an efficient lightless intersection traffic control scheme that only requires Level 1 AV as defined by NHTSA. The technological barriers of such lightless intersection control are thus very low. Our algorithm can also accommodate a mixture of AVs and conventional vehicles. We also carry out large scale numerical analysis to illustrate the feasibility, safety and robustness, comfort level, and control efficiency of our intersection control scheme.

Keywords: intersection control, autonomous vehicles, traffic modelling, intelligent transport system

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
3616 Speed Characteristics of Mixed Traffic Flow on Urban Arterials

Authors: Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra

Abstract:

Speed and traffic volume data are collected on different sections of four lane and six lane roads in three metropolitan cities in India. Speed data are analyzed to fit the statistical distribution to individual vehicle speed data and all vehicles speed data. It is noted that speed data of individual vehicle generally follows a normal distribution but speed data of all vehicle combined at a section of urban road may or may not follow the normal distribution depending upon the composition of traffic stream. A new term Speed Spread Ratio (SSR) is introduced in this paper which is the ratio of difference in 85th and 50th percentile speed to the difference in 50th and 15th percentile speed. If SSR is unity then speed data are truly normally distributed. It is noted that on six lane urban roads, speed data follow a normal distribution only when SSR is in the range of 0.86 – 1.11. The range of SSR is validated on four lane roads also.

Keywords: normal distribution, percentile speed, speed spread ratio, traffic volume

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3615 Deep Learning-Based Object Detection on Low Quality Images: A Case Study of Real-Time Traffic Monitoring

Authors: Jean-Francois Rajotte, Martin Sotir, Frank Gouineau

Abstract:

The installation and management of traffic monitoring devices can be costly from both a financial and resource point of view. It is therefore important to take advantage of in-place infrastructures to extract the most information. Here we show how low-quality urban road traffic images from cameras already available in many cities (such as Montreal, Vancouver, and Toronto) can be used to estimate traffic flow. To this end, we use a pre-trained neural network, developed for object detection, to count vehicles within images. We then compare the results with human annotations gathered through crowdsourcing campaigns. We use this comparison to assess performance and calibrate the neural network annotations. As a use case, we consider six months of continuous monitoring over hundreds of cameras installed in the city of Montreal. We compare the results with city-provided manual traffic counting performed in similar conditions at the same location. The good performance of our system allows us to consider applications which can monitor the traffic conditions in near real-time, making the counting usable for traffic-related services. Furthermore, the resulting annotations pave the way for building a historical vehicle counting dataset to be used for analysing the impact of road traffic on many city-related issues, such as urban planning, security, and pollution.

Keywords: traffic monitoring, deep learning, image annotation, vehicles, roads, artificial intelligence, real-time systems

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3614 Classification of Traffic Complex Acoustic Space

Authors: Bin Wang, Jian Kang

Abstract:

After years of development, the study of soundscape has been refined to the types of urban space and building. Traffic complex takes traffic function as the core, with obvious design features of architectural space combination and traffic streamline. The acoustic environment is strongly characterized by function, space, material, user and other factors. Traffic complex integrates various functions of business, accommodation, entertainment and so on. It has various forms, complex and varied experiences, and its acoustic environment is turned rich and interesting with distribution and coordination of various functions, division and unification of the mass, separation and organization of different space and the cross and the integration of multiple traffic flow. In this study, it made field recordings of each space of various traffic complex, and extracted and analyzed different acoustic elements, including changes in sound pressure, frequency distribution, steady sound source, sound source information and other aspects, to make cluster analysis of each independent traffic complex buildings. It divided complicated traffic complex building space into several typical sound space from acoustic environment perspective, mainly including stable sound space, high-pressure sound space, rhythm sound space and upheaval sound space. This classification can further deepen the study of subjective evaluation and control of the acoustic environment of traffic complex.

Keywords: soundscape, traffic complex, cluster analysis, classification

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3613 Road Traffic Accidents Analysis in Mexico City through Crowdsourcing Data and Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Gabriela V. Angeles Perez, Jose Castillejos Lopez, Araceli L. Reyes Cabello, Emilio Bravo Grajales, Adriana Perez Espinosa, Jose L. Quiroz Fabian

Abstract:

Road traffic accidents are among the principal causes of traffic congestion, causing human losses, damages to health and the environment, economic losses and material damages. Studies about traditional road traffic accidents in urban zones represents very high inversion of time and money, additionally, the result are not current. However, nowadays in many countries, the crowdsourced GPS based traffic and navigation apps have emerged as an important source of information to low cost to studies of road traffic accidents and urban congestion caused by them. In this article we identified the zones, roads and specific time in the CDMX in which the largest number of road traffic accidents are concentrated during 2016. We built a database compiling information obtained from the social network known as Waze. The methodology employed was Discovery of knowledge in the database (KDD) for the discovery of patterns in the accidents reports. Furthermore, using data mining techniques with the help of Weka. The selected algorithms was the Maximization of Expectations (EM) to obtain the number ideal of clusters for the data and k-means as a grouping method. Finally, the results were visualized with the Geographic Information System QGIS.

Keywords: data mining, k-means, road traffic accidents, Waze, Weka

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3612 Investigating the Effective Parameters in Determining the Type of Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

Abstract:

Traffic congestion pricing – as a strategy in travel demand management in urban areas to reduce traffic congestion, air pollution and noise pollution – has drawn many attentions towards itself. Unlike the satisfying findings in this method, there are still problems in determining the best functional congestion pricing scheme with regard to the situation. The so-called problems in this process will result in further complications and even the scheme failure. That is why having proper knowledge of the significance of congestion pricing schemes and the effective factors in choosing them can lead to the success of this strategy. In this study, first, a variety of traffic congestion pricing schemes and their components are introduced; then, their functional usage is discussed. Next, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations and advantages, the selection criteria of pricing schemes are described. The results, accordingly, show that the selection of the best scheme depends on various parameters. Finally, based on examining the effective parameters, it is concluded that the implementation of area-based schemes (cordon and zonal) has been more successful in non-diversion of traffic. That is considering the topology of the cities and the fact that traffic congestion is often created in the city centers, area-based schemes would be notably functional and appropriate.

Keywords: congestion pricing, demand management, flat toll, variable toll

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3611 Diagnostic and Analysis of the Performance of Freight Transportation on Urban Logistics System in the City of Sfax

Authors: Tarak Barhoumi, Younes Boujelbene

Abstract:

Nowadays, the problems of freight transport pose logistical constraints on the urban system in the city. The aim of this article is to gain a better understanding of the interactions between local traffic and interurban traffic on the one hand and between the location system and the transport system on the other hand. Thus, in a simulation and analysis approach cannot be restricted to the only transport system. The proposed approach is based on an assessment of the impact of freight transport, which is closely linked to the diagnostic method, based on two surveys carried out on the territory of the urban community of Sfax. These surveys are based on two main components 'establishment component' first and 'driver component' second. The results propose a reorganization of freight transport in the city of Sfax. First, an orientation of the heavy goods vehicles traffic towards the major axes of transport namely the ring roads (ring road N° 2, ring road N° 4 and ring road N° 11) and the penetrating news of the city. Then, the implementation of a retail goods delivery policy and the strengthening of logistics in the city. The creation of a logistics zone at the ring road N° 11 where various modes of freight transport meet, in order to decongest the roads of heavy goods traffic, reduce the cost of transport and thus improve the competitiveness of the economy regional.

Keywords: urban logistics systems, transport freight, diagnostics, evaluation

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3610 Grid Based Traffic Vulnerability Model Using Betweenness Centrality for Urban Disaster Management Information

Authors: Okyu Kwon, Dongho Kang, Byungsik Kim, Seungkwon Jung

Abstract:

We propose a technique to measure the impact of loss of traffic function in a particular area to surrounding areas. The proposed method is applied to the city of Seoul, which is the capital of South Korea, with a population of about ten million. Based on the actual road network in Seoul, we construct an abstract road network between 1kmx1km grid cells. The link weight of the abstract road network is re-adjusted considering traffic volume measured at several survey points. On the modified abstract road network, we evaluate the traffic vulnerability by calculating a network measure of betweenness centrality (BC) for every single grid cells. This study analyzes traffic impacts caused by road dysfunction due to heavy rainfall in urban areas. We could see the change of the BC value in all other grid cells by calculating the BC value once again when the specific grid cell lost its traffic function, that is, when the node disappeared on the grid-based road network. The results show that it is appropriate to use the sum of the BC variation of other cells as the influence index of each lattice cell on traffic. This research was supported by a grant (2017-MOIS31-004) from Fundamental Technology Development Program for Extreme Disaster Response funded by Korean Ministry of Interior and Safety (MOIS).

Keywords: vulnerability, road network, beweenness centrality, heavy rainfall, road impact

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3609 Perception of Risk toward Traffic Violence among Road Users in Makassar, Indonesia

Authors: Sulasmi Sudirman, Rachmadanty Mujah Hartika

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Traffic violence is currently a big issue in Indonesia. However, the road users perceived risk that is caused by traffic violence is low. The lack of safety driving awareness is one of the factors that road users committed to traffic violence. There are several lists of common traffic violence in Indonesia such as lack of physical fitness, not wearing helmet, unfasten seatbelt, breaking through the traffic light, not holding a driving license, and some more violence. This research sought to explore the perception of road users toward traffic violence. The participants were road users in Makassar, Indonesia who were using cars and motorbikes. The method of the research was a qualitative approach by using a personal interview to collect data. The research showed that there three main ideas of perceiving traffic violence which are motives, environment that supported traffic violence, and reinforcement. The road users committed traffic violence had particular motive, for example, rushing. The road users committed to traffic violence when other road users and significant other did the same. The road users committed traffic violence when the police were not there to give a ticket. It can be concluded that the perception of road users toward traffic violence determined by internal aspect, the social aspect, and regulation.

Keywords: perception, road users, traffic, violence

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3608 Implementation of Traffic Engineering Using MPLS Technology

Authors: Vishal H. Shukla, Sanjay B. Deshmukh

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Traffic engineering, at its center, is the ability of moving traffic approximately so that traffic from a congested link is moved onto the unused capacity on another link. Traffic Engineering ensures the best possible use of the resources. Now to support traffic engineering in the today’s network, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is being used which is very helpful for reliable packets delivery in an ongoing internet services. Here a topology is been implemented on GNS3 to focus on the analysis of the communication take place from one site to other through the ISP. The comparison is made between the IP network & MPLS network based on Bandwidth & Jitter which are one of the performance parameters using JPERF simulator.

Keywords: GNS3, JPERF, MPLS, traffic engineering, VMware

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3607 The Comparison between Modelled and Measured Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations in Cold and Warm Seasons in Kaunas

Authors: A. Miškinytė, A. Dėdelė

Abstract:

Road traffic is one of the main sources of air pollution in urban areas associated with adverse effects on human health and environment. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is considered as traffic-related air pollutant, which concentrations tend to be higher near highways, along busy roads and in city centres and exceedances are mainly observed in air quality monitoring stations located close to traffic. Atmospheric dispersion models can be used to examine emissions from many various sources and to predict the concentration of pollutants emitted from these sources into the atmosphere. The study aim was to compare modelled concentrations of nitrogen dioxide using ADMS-Urban dispersion model with air quality monitoring network in cold and warm seasons in Kaunas city. Modelled average seasonal concentrations of nitrogen dioxide for 2011 year have been verified with automatic air quality monitoring data from two stations in the city. Traffic station is located near high traffic street in industrial district and background station far away from the main sources of nitrogen dioxide pollution. The modelling results showed that the highest nitrogen dioxide concentration was modelled and measured in station located near intensive traffic street, both in cold and warm seasons. Modelled and measured nitrogen dioxide concentration was respectively 25.7 and 25.2 µg/m3 in cold season and 15.5 and 17.7 µg/m3 in warm season. While the lowest modelled and measured NO2 concentration was determined in background monitoring station, respectively 12.2 and 13.3 µg/m3 in cold season and 6.1 and 7.6 µg/m3 in warm season. The difference between monitoring station located near high traffic street and background monitoring station showed that better agreement between modelled and measured NO2 concentration was observed at traffic monitoring station.

Keywords: air pollution, nitrogen dioxide, modelling, ADMS-Urban model

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3606 Characteristics of Speed Dispersion in Urban Expressway

Authors: Fujian Wang, Shubin Ruan, Meiwei Dai

Abstract:

Speed dispersion has tight relation to traffic safety. In this paper, several kinds of indicating parameters (the standard speed deviation, the coefficient of variation, the deviation of V85 and V15, the mean speed deviations, and the difference between adjacent car speeds) are applied to investigate the characteristics of speed dispersion, where V85 and V15 are 85th and 15th percentile speed, respectively. Their relationships are into full investigations and the results show that: there exists a positive relation (linear) between mean speed and the deviation of V85 and V15; while a negative relation (quadratic) between traffic flow and standard speed deviation. The mean speed deviation grows exponentially with mean speed while the absolute speed deviation between adjacent cars grows linearly with the headway. The results provide some basic information for traffic management.

Keywords: headway, indicating parameters, speed dispersion, urban expressway

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3605 Construction Strategy of Urban Public Space in Driverless Era

Authors: Yang Ye, Hongfei Qiu, Yaqi Li

Abstract:

The planning and construction of traditional cities are oriented by cars, which leads to the problems of insufficient urban public space, fragmentation, and low utilization efficiency. With the development of driverless technology, the urban structure will change from the traditional single-core grid structure to the multi-core model. In terms of traffic organization, with the release of land for traffic facilities, public space will become more continuous and integrated with traffic space. In the context of driverless technology, urban public reconstruction is characterized by modularization and high efficiency, and its planning and layout features accord with points (service facilities), lines (smart lines), surfaces (activity centers). The public space of driverless urban roads will provide diversified urban public facilities and services. The intensive urban layout makes the commercial public space realize the functions of central activities and style display, respectively, in the interior (building atrium) and the exterior (building periphery). In addition to recreation function, urban green space can also utilize underground parking space to realize efficient dispatching of shared cars. The roads inside the residential community will be integrated into the urban landscape, providing conditions for the community public activity space with changing time sequence and improving the efficiency of space utilization. The intervention of driverless technology will change the thinking of traditional urban construction and turn it into a human-oriented one. As a result, urban public space will be richer, more connected, more efficient, and the urban space justice will be optimized. By summarizing the frontier research, this paper discusses the impact of unmanned driving on cities, especially urban public space, which is beneficial for landscape architects to cope with the future development and changes of the industry and provides a reference for the related research and practice.

Keywords: driverless, urban public space, construction strategy, urban design

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