Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8547

Search results for: hybrid dynamical systems

8547 Dynamical Systems and Fibonacci Numbers

Authors: Vandana N. Purav

Abstract:

The Dynamical systems concept is a mathematical formalization for any fixed rule that describes the time dependence of a points position in its ambient space. e.g. pendulum of a clock, the number of fish each spring in a lake, the number of rabbits spring in an enclosure, etc. The Dynamical system theory used to describe the complex nature that is dynamical systems with differential equations called continuous dynamical system or dynamical system with difference equations called discrete dynamical system. The concept of dynamical system has its origin in Newtonian mechanics.

Keywords: dynamical systems, Fibonacci numbers, Newtonian mechanics, discrete dynamical system

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8546 Calculating Non-Unique Sliding Modes for Switched Dynamical Systems

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arkadi Ponossov

Abstract:

Ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities constitute a very useful tool in many applications. The solutions of such equations can usually be calculated analytically if they cross the discontinuities transversally. Otherwise, one has trajectories that slides along the discontinuity, and the calculations become less straightforward in this case. For instance, one of the problems one faces is non-uniqueness of the sliding modes. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid dynamical systems to calculate the solutions that are ‘hidden’ in the discontinuities. Roughly, one equips the underlying switched system with an explicitly designed discrete dynamical system (‘automaton’), which governs the dynamics of the switched system. This construction ‘splits’ the dynamics, which, as it is shown in the presentation, gives uniqueness of the resulting hybrid trajectories and at the same time provides explicit formulae for them. Projecting the hybrid trajectories back onto the original continuous system explains non-uniqueness of its trajectories. The automaton is designed with the help of the attractors of the specially constructed adjoint dynamical system. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which supports the efficiency of the suggested scheme. The method can be of interest in control theory, gene regulatory networks, neural field models and other fields, where switched dynamics is a part of the analysis.

Keywords: hybrid dynamical systems, singular perturbation analysis, sliding modes, switched dynamics

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8545 Projective Lag Synchronization in Drive-Response Dynamical Networks via Hybrid Feedback Control

Authors: Mohd Salmi Md Noorani, Ghada Al-Mahbashi, Sakhinah Abu Bakar

Abstract:

This paper investigates projective lag synchronization (PLS) behavior in drive response dynamical networks (DRDNs) model with identical nodes. A hybrid feedback control method is designed to achieve the PLS with mismatch and without mismatch terms. The stability of the error dynamics is proven theoretically using the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, analytical results show that the states of the dynamical network with non-delayed coupling can be asymptotically synchronized onto a desired scaling factor under the designed controller. Moreover, the numerical simulations results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

Keywords: drive-response dynamical network, projective lag synchronization, hybrid feedback control, stability theory

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8544 Solving Ill-Posed Initial Value Problems for Switched Differential Equations

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arcady Ponosov

Abstract:

To model gene regulatory networks one uses ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities, where the initial value problem is known to be well-posed if the trajectories cross the discontinuities transversally. Otherwise, the initial value problem is usually ill-posed, which lead to theoretical and numerical complications. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid dynamical systems, rather than switched ones, to regularize the problem. 'Hybridization' of the switched system means that one attaches a dynamic discrete component ('automaton'), which follows the trajectories of the original system and governs its dynamics at the points of ill-posedness of the initial value problem making it well-posed. The construction of the automaton is based on the classification of the attractors of the specially designed adjoint dynamical system. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which support the suggested analysis. The method can also be of interest in other applied fields, where differential equations contain switchings, e.g. in neural field models.

Keywords: hybrid dynamical systems, ill-posed problems, singular perturbation analysis, switching nonlinearities

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8543 Model-Free Distributed Control of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Javad Khazaei, Rick Blum

Abstract:

Distributed control is an efficient and flexible approach for coordination of multi-agent systems. One of the main challenges in designing a distributed controller is identifying the governing dynamics of the dynamical systems. Data-driven system identification is currently undergoing a revolution. With the availability of high-fidelity measurements and historical data, model-free identification of dynamical systems can facilitate the control design without tedious modeling of high-dimensional and/or nonlinear systems. This paper develops a distributed control design using consensus theory for linear and nonlinear dynamical systems using sparse identification of system dynamics. Compared with existing consensus designs that heavily rely on knowing the detailed system dynamics, the proposed model-free design can accurately capture the dynamics of the system with available measurements and input data and provide guaranteed performance in consensus and tracking problems. Heterogeneous damped oscillators are chosen as examples of dynamical system for validation purposes.

Keywords: consensus tracking, distributed control, model-free control, sparse identification of dynamical systems

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8542 On the Topological Entropy of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

Authors: Graziano Chesi

Abstract:

The topological entropy plays a key role in linear dynamical systems, allowing one to establish the existence of stabilizing feedback controllers for linear systems in the presence of communications constraints. This paper addresses the determination of a robust value of the topological entropy in nonlinear dynamical systems, specifically the largest value of the topological entropy over all linearized models in a region of interest of the state space. It is shown that a sufficient condition for establishing upper bounds of the sought robust value of the topological entropy can be given in terms of a semidefinite program (SDP), which belongs to the class of convex optimization problems.

Keywords: non-linear system, communication constraint, topological entropy

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8541 A Dynamical Approach for Relating Energy Consumption to Hybrid Inventory Level in the Supply Chain

Authors: Benga Ebouele, Thomas Tengen

Abstract:

Due to long lead time, work in process (WIP) inventory can manifest within the supply chain of most manufacturing system. It implies that there are lesser finished good on hand and more in the process because the work remains in the factory too long and cannot be sold to either customers The supply chain of most manufacturing system is then considered as inefficient as it take so much time to produce the finished good. Time consumed in each operation of the supply chain has an associated energy costs. Such phenomena can be harmful for a hybrid inventory system because a lot of space to store these semi-finished goods may be needed and one is not sure about the final energy cost of producing, holding and delivering the good to customers. The principle that reduces waste of energy within the supply chain of most manufacturing firms should therefore be available to all inventory managers in pursuit of profitability. Decision making by inventory managers in this condition is a modeling process, whereby a dynamical approach is used to depict, examine, specify and even operationalize the relationship between energy consumption and hybrid inventory level. The relationship between energy consumption and inventory level is established, which indicates a poor level of control and hence a potential for energy savings.

Keywords: dynamic modelling, energy used, hybrid inventory, supply chain

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8540 A Hybrid Method for Determination of Effective Poles Using Clustering Dominant Pole Algorithm

Authors: Anuj Abraham, N. Pappa, Daniel Honc, Rahul Sharma

Abstract:

In this paper, an analysis of some model order reduction techniques is presented. A new hybrid algorithm for model order reduction of linear time invariant systems is compared with the conventional techniques namely Balanced Truncation, Hankel Norm reduction and Dominant Pole Algorithm (DPA). The proposed hybrid algorithm is known as Clustering Dominant Pole Algorithm (CDPA) is able to compute the full set of dominant poles and its cluster center efficiently. The dominant poles of a transfer function are specific eigenvalues of the state space matrix of the corresponding dynamical system. The effectiveness of this novel technique is shown through the simulation results.

Keywords: balanced truncation, clustering, dominant pole, Hankel norm, model reduction

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8539 Overview of Different Approaches Used in Optimal Operation Control of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: K. Kusakana

Abstract:

A hybrid energy system is a combination of renewable energy sources with back up, as well as a storage system used to respond to given load energy requirements. Given that the electrical output of each renewable source is fluctuating with changes in weather conditions, and since the load demand also varies with time; one of the main attributes of hybrid systems is to be able to respond to the load demand at any time by optimally controlling each energy source, storage and back-up system. The induced optimization problem is to compute the optimal operation control of the system with the aim of minimizing operation costs while efficiently and reliably responding to the load energy requirement. Current optimization research and development on hybrid systems are mainly focusing on the sizing aspect. Thus, the aim of this paper is to report on the state-of-the-art of optimal operation control of hybrid renewable energy systems. This paper also discusses different challenges encountered, as well as future developments that can help in improving the optimal operation control of hybrid renewable energy systems.

Keywords: renewable energies, hybrid systems, optimization, operation control

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8538 Numerical Regularization of Ill-Posed Problems via Hybrid Feedback Controls

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arkadi Ponossov

Abstract:

Many mathematical models used in biological and other applications are ill-posed. The reason for that is the nature of differential equations, where the nonlinearities are assumed to be step functions, which is done to simplify the analysis. Prominent examples are switched systems arising from gene regulatory networks and neural field equations. This simplification leads, however, to theoretical and numerical complications. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid feedback controls to regularize the problem. Roughly speaking, one attaches a finite state control (‘automaton’), which follows the trajectories of the original system and governs its dynamics at the points of ill-posedness. The construction of the automaton is based on the classification of the attractors of the specially designed adjoint dynamical system. This ‘hybridization’ is shown to regularize the original switched system and gives rise to efficient hybrid numerical schemes. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which supports the suggested analysis. The method can be of interest in other applied fields, where differential equations contain step-like nonlinearities.

Keywords: hybrid feedback control, ill-posed problems, singular perturbation analysis, step-like nonlinearities

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8537 Parameter Estimation in Dynamical Systems Based on Latent Variables

Authors: Arcady Ponosov

Abstract:

A novel mathematical approach is suggested, which facilitates a compressed representation and efficient validation of parameter-rich ordinary differential equation models describing the dynamics of complex, especially biology-related, systems and which is based on identification of the system's latent variables. In particular, an efficient parameter estimation method for the compressed non-linear dynamical systems is developed. The method is applied to the so-called 'power-law systems' being non-linear differential equations typically used in Biochemical System Theory.

Keywords: generalized law of mass action, metamodels, principal components, synergetic systems

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8536 Modeling and Controlling Nonlinear Dynamical Effects in Non-Contact Superconducting and Diamagnetic Suspensions

Authors: Sergey Kuznetsov, Yuri Urman

Abstract:

We present an approach to investigate non-linear dynamical effects occurring in the noncontact superconducting and diamagnetic suspensions, when levitated body has finite size. This approach is based on the calculation of interaction energy between spherical finite size superconducting or diamagnetic body with external magnetic field. Effects of small deviations from spherical shape may be also taken into account by introducing small corrections to the energy. This model allows investigating dynamical effects important for practical applications, such as nonlinear resonances, change of vibration plane, coupling of rotational and translational motions etc. We also show how the geometry of suspension affects various dynamical effects and how an inverse problem may be formulated to enforce or diminish various dynamical effects.

Keywords: levitation, non-linear dynamics, superconducting, diamagnetic stability

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8535 Network Connectivity Knowledge Graph Using Dwave Quantum Hybrid Solvers

Authors: Nivedha Rajaram

Abstract:

Hybrid Quantum solvers have been given prime focus in recent days by computation problem-solving domain industrial applications. D’Wave Quantum Computers are one such paragon of systems built using quantum annealing mechanism. Discrete Quadratic Models is a hybrid quantum computing model class supplied by D’Wave Ocean SDK - a real-time software platform for hybrid quantum solvers. These hybrid quantum computing modellers can be employed to solve classic problems. One such problem that we consider in this paper is finding a network connectivity knowledge hub in a huge network of systems. Using this quantum solver, we try to find out the prime system hub, which acts as a supreme connection point for the set of connected computers in a large network. This paper establishes an innovative problem approach to generate a connectivity system hub plot for a set of systems using DWave ocean SDK hybrid quantum solvers.

Keywords: quantum computing, hybrid quantum solver, DWave annealing, network knowledge graph

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8534 Distributed Energy System - Microgrid Integration of Hybrid Power Systems

Authors: Pedro Esteban

Abstract:

Planning a hybrid power system (HPS) that integrates renewable generation sources, non-renewable generation sources and energy storage, involves determining the capacity and size of various components to be used in the system to be able to supply reliable electricity to the connected load as required. Nowadays it is very common to integrate solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants for renewable generation as part of HPS. The solar PV system is usually balanced via a second form of generation (renewable such as wind power or using fossil fuels such as a diesel generator) or an energy storage system (such as a battery bank). Hybrid power systems can also provide other forms of power such as heat for some applications. Modern hybrid power systems combine power generation and energy storage technologies together with real-time energy management and innovative power quality and energy efficiency improvement functionalities. These systems help customers achieve targets for clean energy generation, they add flexibility to the electrical grid, and they optimize the installation by improving its power quality and energy efficiency.

Keywords: microgrids, hybrid power systems, energy storage, grid code compliance

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8533 Efficient Neural and Fuzzy Models for the Identification of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Aouiche Abdelaziz, Soudani Mouhamed Salah, Aouiche El Moundhe

Abstract:

The present paper addresses the utilization of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Fuzzy Inference Systems (FISs) for the identification and control of dynamical systems with some degree of uncertainty. Because ANNs and FISs have an inherent ability to approximate functions and to adapt to changes in input and parameters, they can be used to control systems too complex for linear controllers. In this work, we show how ANNs and FISs can be put in order to form nets that can learn from external data. In sequence, it is presented structures of inputs that can be used along with ANNs and FISs to model non-linear systems. Four systems were used to test the identification and control of the structures proposed. The results show the ANNs and FISs (Back Propagation Algorithm) used were efficient in modeling and controlling the non-linear plants.

Keywords: non-linear systems, fuzzy set Models, neural network, control law

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8532 Developing NAND Flash-Memory SSD-Based File System Design

Authors: Jaechun No

Abstract:

This paper focuses on I/O optimizations of N-hybrid (New-Form of hybrid), which provides a hybrid file system space constructed on SSD and HDD. Although the promising potentials of SSD, such as the absence of mechanical moving overhead and high random I/O throughput, have drawn a lot of attentions from IT enterprises, its high ratio of cost/capacity makes it less desirable to build a large-scale data storage subsystem composed of only SSDs. In this paper, we present N-hybrid that attempts to integrate the strengths of SSD and HDD, to offer a single, large hybrid file system space. Several experiments were conducted to verify the performance of N-hybrid.

Keywords: SSD, data section, I/O optimizations, hybrid system

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8531 Time-Evolving Wave Packet in Phase Space

Authors: Mitsuyoshi Tomiya, Kentaro Kawamura, Shoichi Sakamoto

Abstract:

In chaotic billiard systems, scar-like localization has been found on time-evolving wave packet. We may call it the “dynamical scar” to separate it to the original scar in stationary states. It also comes out along the vicinity of classical unstable periodic orbits, when the wave packets are launched along the orbits, against the hypothesis that the waves become homogenous all around the billiard. Then time-evolving wave packets are investigated numerically in phase space. The Wigner function is adopted to detect the wave packets in phase space. The 2-dimensional Poincaré sections of the 4-dimensional phase space are introduced to clarify the dynamical behavior of the wave packets. The Poincaré sections of the coordinate (x or y) and the momentum (Px or Py) can visualize the dynamical behavior of the wave packets, including the behavior in the momentum degree also. For example, in “dynamical scar” states, a bit larger momentum component comes first, and then the a bit smaller and smaller components follow next. The sections made in the momentum space (Px or Py) elucidates specific trajectories that have larger contribution to the “dynamical scar” states. It is the fixed point observation of the momentum degrees at a specific fixed point(x0, y0) in the phase space. The accumulation are also calculated to search the “dynamical scar” in the Poincare sections. It is found the scars as bright spots in momentum degrees of the phase space.

Keywords: chaotic billiard, Poincaré section, scar, wave packet

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8530 Fractal Analysis of Some Bifurcations of Discrete Dynamical Systems in Higher Dimensions

Authors: Lana Horvat Dmitrović

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to study the box dimension as fractal property of bifurcations of discrete dynamical systems in higher dimensions. The paper contains the fractal analysis of the orbits near the hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic fixed points in discrete dynamical systems. It is already known that in one-dimensional case the orbit near the hyperbolic fixed point has the box dimension equal to zero. On the other hand, the orbit near the non-hyperbolic fixed point has strictly positive box dimension which is connected to the non-degeneracy condition of certain bifurcation. One of the main results in this paper is the generalisation of results about box dimension near the hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic fixed points to higher dimensions. In the process of determining box dimension, the restriction of systems to stable, unstable and center manifolds, Lipschitz property of box dimension and the notion of projective box dimension are used. The analysis of the bifurcations in higher dimensions with one multiplier on the unit circle is done by using the normal forms on one-dimensional center manifolds. This specific change in box dimension of an orbit at the moment of bifurcation has already been explored for some bifurcations in one and two dimensions. It was shown that specific values of box dimension are connected to appropriate bifurcations such as fold, flip, cusp or Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. This paper further explores this connection of box dimension as fractal property to some specific bifurcations in higher dimensions, such as fold-flip and flip-Neimark-Sacker. Furthermore, the application of the results to the unit time map of continuous dynamical system near hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic singularities is presented. In that way, box dimensions which are specific for certain bifurcations of continuous systems can be obtained. The approach to bifurcation analysis by using the box dimension as specific fractal property of orbits can lead to better understanding of bifurcation phenomenon. It could also be useful in detecting the existence or nonexistence of bifurcations of discrete and continuous dynamical systems.

Keywords: bifurcation, box dimension, invariant manifold, orbit near fixed point

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8529 The Properties of Na2CO3 and Ti Hybrid Modified LM 6 Alloy Using Ladle Metallurgy

Authors: M. N. Ervina Efzan, H. J. Kong, C. K. Kok

Abstract:

The present work deals with a study on the influences of hybrid modifier on LM 6 added through ladle metallurgy. In this study, LM 6 served as the reference alloy while Na2CO3 and Ti powders were used as the hybrid modifier. The effects of hybrid modifier on the micro structural enhancement of LM 6 were investigated using optical microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed fragmented Si-rich needles and strength enhanced petal/ globular-like structures without obvious formation of soft primary α-Al and β-Fe-rich inter metallic compound (IMC) after the hybrid modification. Hardness test was conducted to examine the mechanical improvement of hybrid modified LM 6. 10% of hardness improvement was recorded in the hybrid modified LM 6 through ladle metallurgy.

Keywords: Al-Si, hybrid modifier, ladle metallurgy, hardness

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8528 An Inverse Optimal Control Approach for the Nonlinear System Design Using ANN

Authors: M. P. Nanda Kumar, K. Dheeraj

Abstract:

The design of a feedback controller, so as to minimize a given performance criterion, for a general non-linear dynamical system is difficult; if not impossible. But for a large class of non-linear dynamical systems, the open loop control that minimizes a performance criterion can be obtained using calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In this paper, the open loop optimal trajectories, that minimizes a given performance measure, is used to train the neural network whose inputs are state variables of non-linear dynamical systems and the open loop optimal control as the desired output. This trained neural network is used as the feedback controller. In other words, attempts are made here to solve the “inverse optimal control problem” by using the state and control trajectories that are optimal in an open loop sense.

Keywords: inverse optimal control, radial basis function, neural network, controller design

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8527 Hybrid Diagrid System for High-Rise Buildings

Authors: Seyed Saeid Tabaee, Mohammad Afshari, Bahador Ziaeemehr, Omid Bahar

Abstract:

Nowadays, using modern structural systems with specific capabilities, like Diagrid, is emerging around the world. In this paper, a new resisting system, a combination of both Diagrid axial behavior and proper seismic performance of regular moment frames in tall buildings, named 'Hybrid Diagrid' is presented. The scaled specimen of the suggested hybrid system was built and tested using IIEES shaking table. The natural frequency and structural response of the analytical model were updated with the real experimental results. In order to compare its performance with the traditional Diagrid and moment frame systems, time history analysis was carried out. Extensive analysis shows the efficient seismic responses and economical behavior of Hybrid Diagrid structure with respect to the other two systems.

Keywords: hybrid diagrid system, moment frame, shaking table, tall buildings, time history analysis

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8526 Economic and Technical Study for Hybrid (PV/Wind) Power System in the North East of Algeria

Authors: Nabila Louai, Fouad Khaldi, Houria Benharchache

Abstract:

In this paper, the case of meeting a household’s electrical energy demand with hybrid systems has been examined. The objective is to study technological feasibility and economic viability of the electrification project by a hybrid system (PV/ wind) of a residential home located in Batna-Algeria and to reduce the emissions from traditional power by using renewable energy. An autonomous hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV)/battery power system and a PV/Wind grid connected system, has been carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) simulation software. As a result, it has been found that electricity from the grid can be supplied at a lower price than electricity from renewable energy at this moment.

Keywords: batna, household, hybrid system, renewable energy, techno-economy

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8525 A Combined Error Control with Forward Euler Method for Dynamical Systems

Authors: R. Vigneswaran, S. Thilakanathan

Abstract:

Variable time-stepping algorithms for solving dynamical systems performed poorly for long time computations which pass close to a fixed point. To overcome this difficulty, several authors considered phase space error controls for numerical simulation of dynamical systems. In one generalized phase space error control, a step-size selection scheme was proposed, which allows this error control to be incorporated into the standard adaptive algorithm as an extra constraint at negligible extra computational cost. For this generalized error control, it was already analyzed the forward Euler method applied to the linear system whose coefficient matrix has real and negative eigenvalues. In this paper, this result was extended to the linear system whose coefficient matrix has complex eigenvalues with negative real parts. Some theoretical results were obtained and numerical experiments were carried out to support the theoretical results.

Keywords: adaptivity, fixed point, long time simulations, stability, linear system

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8524 An Analytical Study of FRP-Concrete Bridge Superstructures

Authors: Wael I. Alnahhal

Abstract:

It is a major challenge to build a bridge superstructure that has long-term durability and low maintenance requirements. A solution to this challenge may be to use new materials or to implement new structural systems. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have continued to play an important role in solving some of persistent problems in infrastructure applications because of its high specific strength, light weight, and durability. In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems is applied to a bridge superstructure. The hybrid FRP-concrete bridge superstructure is intended to have durable, structurally sound, and cost effective hybrid system that will take full advantage of the inherent properties of both FRP materials and concrete. In this study, two hybrid FRP-concrete bridge systems were investigated. The first system consists of trapezoidal cell units forming a bridge superstructure. The second one is formed by arch cells. The two systems rely on using cellular components to form the core of the bridge superstructure, and an outer shell to warp around those cells to form the integral unit of the bridge. Both systems were investigated analytically by using finite element (FE) analysis. From the rigorous FE studies, it was concluded that first system is more efficient than the second.

Keywords: bridge superstructure, hybrid system, fiber reinforced polymer, finite element analysis

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8523 Reconstruction and Rejection of External Disturbances in a Dynamical System

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, A. Benallegue, A. El Hadri

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed an observer for the reconstruction and a control law for the rejection application of unknown bounded external disturbance in a dynamical system. The strategy of both the observer and the controller is designed like a second order sliding mode with a proportional-integral (PI) term. Lyapunov theory is used to prove the exponential convergence and stability. Simulations results are given to show the performance of this method.

Keywords: non-linear systems, sliding mode observer, disturbance rejection, nonlinear control

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8522 H∞ Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy State-Derivative Feedback Control Design for Nonlinear Dynamic Systems

Authors: N. Kaewpraek, W. Assawinchaichote

Abstract:

This paper considers an H TS fuzzy state-derivative feedback controller for a class of nonlinear dynamical systems. A Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model is used to approximate a class of nonlinear dynamical systems. Then, based on a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, we design an HTS fuzzy state-derivative feedback control law which guarantees L2-gain of the mapping from the exogenous input noise to the regulated output to be less or equal to a prescribed value. We derive a sufficient condition such that the system with the fuzzy controller is asymptotically stable and H performance is satisfied. Finally, we provide and simulate a numerical example is provided to illustrate the stability and the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

Keywords: h-infinity fuzzy control, an LMI approach, Takagi-Sugano (TS) fuzzy system, the photovoltaic systems

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8521 Optimal Design of a PV/Diesel Hybrid System for Decentralized Areas through Economic Criteria

Authors: David B. Tsuanyo, Didier Aussel, Yao Azoumah, Pierre Neveu

Abstract:

An innovative concept called “Flexy-Energy”is developing at 2iE. This concept aims to produce electricity at lower cost by smartly mix different available energies sources in accordance to the load profile of the region. With a higher solar irradiation and due to the fact that Diesel generator are massively used in sub-Saharan rural areas, PV/Diesel hybrid systems could be a good application of this concept and a good solution to electrify this region, provided they are reliable, cost effective and economically attractive to investors. Presentation of the developed approach is the aims of this paper. The PV/Diesel hybrid system designed consists to produce electricity and/or heat from a coupling between Diesel gensets and PV panels without batteries storage, while ensuring the substitution of gasoil by bio-fuels available in the area where the system will be installed. The optimal design of this system is based on his technical performances; the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Levelized Cost of Energy are developed and use as economic criteria. The Net Present Value (NPV), the internal rate of return (IRR) and the discounted payback (DPB) are also evaluated according to dual electricity pricing (in sunny and unsunny hours). The PV/Diesel hybrid system obtained is compared to the standalone Diesel gensets. The approach carried out in this paper has been applied to Siby village in Mali (Latitude 12 ° 23'N 8 ° 20'W) with 295 kWh as daily demand. This approach provides optimal physical characteristics (size of the components, number of component) and dynamical characteristics in real time (number of Diesel generator on, their load rate, fuel specific consumptions, and PV penetration rate) of the system. The system obtained is slightly cost effective; but could be improved with optimized tariffing strategies.

Keywords: investments criteria, optimization, PV hybrid, sizing, rural electrification

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8520 Investigation on Performance of Change Point Algorithm in Time Series Dynamical Regimes and Effect of Data Characteristics

Authors: Farhad Asadi, Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi

Abstract:

In this paper, Bayesian online inference in models of data series are constructed by change-points algorithm, which separated the observed time series into independent series and study the change and variation of the regime of the data with related statistical characteristics. variation of statistical characteristics of time series data often represent separated phenomena in the some dynamical system, like a change in state of brain dynamical reflected in EEG signal data measurement or a change in important regime of data in many dynamical system. In this paper, prediction algorithm for studying change point location in some time series data is simulated. It is verified that pattern of proposed distribution of data has important factor on simpler and smother fluctuation of hazard rate parameter and also for better identification of change point locations. Finally, the conditions of how the time series distribution effect on factors in this approach are explained and validated with different time series databases for some dynamical system.

Keywords: time series, fluctuation in statistical characteristics, optimal learning, change-point algorithm

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8519 The Potential of 48V HEV in Real Driving Operation

Authors: Mark Schudeleit, Christian Sieg, Ferit Küçükay

Abstract:

This publication focuses on the limits and potentials of 48V hybrid systems, which are especially due to the cost advantages an attractive alternative, compared to established high volt-age HEVs and thus will gain relevant market shares in the future. Firstly, at market overview is given which shows the current known 48V hybrid concepts and demonstrators. These topologies will be analyzed and evaluated regarding the system power and the battery capacity as well as their implemented hybrid functions. The potential in fuel savings and CO2 reduction is calculated followed by the customer-relevant dimensioning of the electric motor and the battery. For both measured data of the real customer operation is used. Subsequently, the CO2 saving potentials of the customer-oriented dimensioned powertrain will be presented for the NEDC and the customer operation. With a comparison of the newly defined drivetrain with existing 48V systems the question can be answered whether current systems are dimensioned optimally for the customer operation or just for legislated driving cycles.

Keywords: 48V hybrid systems, market comparison, requirements and potentials in customer operation, customer-oriented dimensioning, CO2 savings

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8518 X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction 'Third Order Nonlinear Renninger Effect'

Authors: Minas Balyan

Abstract:

Nowadays X-ray nonlinear diffraction and nonlinear effects are investigated due to the presence of the third generation synchrotron sources and XFELs. X-ray third order nonlinear dynamical diffraction is considered as well. Using the nonlinear model of the usual visible light optics the third-order nonlinear Takagi’s equations for monochromatic waves and the third-order nonlinear time-dependent dynamical diffraction equations for X-ray pulses are obtained by the author in previous papers. The obtained equations show, that even if the Fourier-coefficients of the linear and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities are zero (forbidden reflection), the dynamical diffraction in the nonlinear case is related to the presence in the nonlinear equations the terms proportional to the zero order and the second order nonzero Fourier coefficients of the third order nonlinear susceptibility. Thus, in the third order nonlinear Bragg diffraction case a nonlinear analogue of the well-known Renninger effect takes place. In this work, the 'third order nonlinear Renninger effect' is considered theoretically.

Keywords: Bragg diffraction, nonlinear Takagi’s equations, nonlinear Renninger effect, third order nonlinearity

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