Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1358

Search results for: vacuum insulation panel

1358 Measurement of VIP Edge Conduction Using Vacuum Guarded Hot Plate

Authors: Bongsu Choi, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is a promising thermal insulator for buildings, refrigerator, LNG carrier and so on. In general, it has the thermal conductivity of 2~4 mW/m•K. However, this thermal conductivity is that measured at the center of VIP. The total effective thermal conductivity of VIP is larger than this value due to the edge conduction through the envelope. In this paper, the edge conduction of VIP is examined theoretically, numerically and experimentally. To confirm the existence of the edge conduction, numerical analysis is performed for simple two-dimensional VIP model and a theoretical model is proposed to calculate the edge conductivity. Also, the edge conductivity is measured using the vacuum guarded hot plate and the experiment is validated against numerical analysis. The results show that the edge conductivity is dependent on the width of panel and thickness of Al-foil. To reduce the edge conduction, it is recommended that the VIP should be made as big as possible or made of thin Al film envelope.

Keywords: envelope, edge conduction, thermal conductivity, vacuum insulation panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
1357 Current Developments in Flat-Plate Vacuum Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde, Paul Henshall, Phillip Eames, Roger Moss, Stan Shire

Abstract:

Vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors offer several advantages over other collectors namely the excellent optical and thermal characteristics they exhibit due to a combination of their wide surface area and high vacuum thermal insulation. These characteristics can offer a variety of applications for industrial process heat as well as for building integration as they are much thinner than conventional collectors making installation possible in limited spaces. However, many technical challenges which need to be addressed to enable wide scale adoption of the technology still remain. This paper will discuss the challenges, expectations and requirements for the flat-plate vacuum solar collector development. In addition, it will provide an overview of work undertaken in Ulster University, Loughborough University, and the University of Warwick on flat-plate vacuum solar thermal collectors. Finally, this paper will present a detailed experimental investigation on the development of a vacuum panel with a novel sealing method which will be used to accommodate a novel slim hydroformed solar absorber.

Keywords: hot box calorimeter, infrared thermography, solar thermal collector, vacuum insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
1356 Experimental Measurements of Evacuated Enclosure Thermal Insulation Effectiveness for Vacuum Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Paul Henshall, Philip Eames, Roger Moss, Stan Shire, Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde

Abstract:

Encapsulating the absorber of a flat plate solar thermal collector in vacuum by an enclosure that can be evacuated can result in a significant increase in collector performance and achievable operating temperatures. This is a result of the thermal insulation effectiveness of the vacuum layer surrounding the absorber, as less heat is lost during collector operation. This work describes experimental thermal insulation characterization tests of prototype vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors that demonstrate the improvement in absorber heat loss coefficients. Furthermore, this work describes the selection and sizing of a getter, suitable for maintaining the vacuum inside the enclosure for the lifetime of the collector, which can be activated at low temperatures.

Keywords: vacuum, thermal, flat-plate solar collector, insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
1355 Analysis of Combined Heat Transfer through the Core Materials of VIPs with Various Scattering Properties

Authors: Jaehyug Lee, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) can achieve very low thermal conductivity by evacuating its inner space. Heat transfer in the core materials of highly-evacuated VIP occurs by conduction through the solid structure and radiation through the pore. The effect of various scattering modes in combined conduction-radiation in VIP is investigated through numerical analysis. The discrete ordinates interpolation method (DOIM) incorporated with the commercial code FLUENT® is employed. It is found that backward scattering is more effective in reducing the total heat transfer while isotropic scattering is almost identical with pure absorbing/emitting case of the same optical thickness. For a purely scattering medium, the results agree well with additive solution with diffusion approximation, while a modified term is added in the effect of optical thickness to backward scattering is employed. For other scattering phase functions, it is also confirmed that backwardly scattering phase function gives a lower effective thermal conductivity. Thus, the materials with backward scattering properties, with radiation shields are desirable to lower the thermal conductivity of VIPs.

Keywords: combined conduction and radiation, discrete ordinates interpolation method, scattering phase function, vacuum insulation panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
1354 Investigation of Long-Term Thermal Insulation Performance of Vacuum Insulation Panels with Various Enveloping Methods

Authors: Inseok Yeo, Tae-Ho Song

Abstract:

To practically apply vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) to buildings or home appliances, VIPs have demanded long-term lifespan with outstanding insulation performance. Service lives of VIPs enveloped with Al-foil and three-layer Al-metallized envelope are calculated. For Al-foil envelope, the service life is longer but edge conduction is too large compared with the Al metallized envelope. To increase service life even more, the proposed double enveloping method and metal-barrier-added enveloping method are further analyzed. The service lives of the VIP to employ two enveloping methods are calculated. Also, pressure increase and thermal insulation performance characteristics are investigated. For the metal- barrier-added enveloping method, effective thermal conductivity increase with time is close to that of Al-foil envelope, especially, for getter-inserted VIPs. For the double enveloping method, if water vapor is perfectly adsorbed, the effect of service life enhancement becomes much greater. From these methods, the VIP can be guaranteed for the service life of more than 20 years.

Keywords: vacuum insulation panels, service life, double enveloping, metal-barrier-added enveloping, edge conduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
1353 Influence of Insulation System Methods on Dissipation Factor and Voltage Endurance

Authors: Farzad Yavari, Hamid Chegini, Saeed Lotfi

Abstract:

This paper reviews the comparison of Resin Rich (RR) and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) insulation system qualities for stator bar of rotating electrical machines. Voltage endurance and tangent delta are two diagnostic tests to determine the quality of insulation systems. The paper describes the trend of dissipation factor while performing voltage endurance test for different stator bar samples made with RR and VPI insulation system methods. Some samples were made with the same strands and insulation thickness but with different main wall material to prove the influence of insulation system methods on stator bar quality. Also, some of the samples were subjected to voltage at the temperature of their insulation class, and their dissipation factor changes were measured and studied.

Keywords: VPI, resin rich, insulation, stator bar, dissipation factor, voltage endurance

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
1352 Hygrothermal Assessment of Internally Insulated Prefabricated Concrete Wall in Polish Climatic Condition

Authors: D. Kaczorek

Abstract:

Internal insulation of external walls is often problematic due to increased moisture content in the wall and interstitial or surface condensation risk. In this paper, the hygrothermal performance of prefabricated, concrete, large panel, external wall typical for WK70 system, commonly used in Poland in the 70’s, with inside, additional insulation was investigated. Thermal insulation board made out of hygroscopic, natural materials with moisture buffer capacity and extruded polystyrene (EPS) board was used as interior insulation. Experience with this natural insulation is rare in Poland. The analysis was performed using WUFI software. First of all, the impact of various standard boundary conditions on the behavior of the different wall assemblies was tested. The comparison of results showed that the moisture class according to the EN ISO 13788 leads to too high values of total moisture content in the wall since the boundary condition according to the EN 15026 should be usually applied. Then, hygrothermal 1D-simulations were conducted by WUFI Pro for analysis of internally added insulation, and the weak point like the joint of the wall with the concrete ceiling was verified using 2D simulations. Results showed that, in the Warsaw climate and the indoor conditions adopted in accordance with EN 15026, in the tested wall assemblies, regardless of the type of interior insulation, there would not be any problems with moisture - inside the structure and on the interior surface.

Keywords: concrete large panel wall, hygrothermal simulation, internal insulation, moisture related issues

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
1351 Improvement of GVPI Insulation System Characteristics by Curing Process Modification

Authors: M. Shadmand

Abstract:

The curing process of insulation system for electrical machines plays a determinative role for its durability and reliability. Polar structure of insulating resin molecules and used filler of insulation system can be taken as an occasion to leverage it to enhance overall characteristics of insulation system, mechanically and electrically. The curing process regime for insulating system plays an important role for its mechanical and electrical characteristics by arranging the polymerization of chain structure for resin. In this research, the effect of electrical field application on in-curing insulating system for Global Vacuum Pressurized Impregnation (GVPI) system for traction motor was considered by performing the dissipation factor, polarization and de-polarization current (PDC) and voltage endurance (aging) measurements on sample test objects. Outcome results depicted obvious improvement in mechanical strength of the insulation system as well as higher electrical characteristics with routing and long-time (aging) electrical tests. Coming together, polarization of insulation system during curing process would enhance the machine life time. 

Keywords: insulation system, GVPI, PDC, aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
1350 Theoretical Study of Flexible Edge Seals for Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde

Abstract:

The development of vacuum glazing represents a significant advancement in the area of low heat loss glazing systems with the potential to substantially reduce building heating and cooling loads. Vacuum glazing consists of two or more glass panes hermetically sealed together around the edge with a vacuum gap between the panes. To avoid the glass panes from collapsing and touching each other under the influence of atmospheric pressure an array of support pillars is provided between the glass panes. A high level of thermal insulation is achieved by evacuating the spaces between the glass panes to a very low pressure which greatly reduces conduction and convection within the space; therefore heat transfer through this kind of glazing is significantly lower when compared with conventional insulating glazing. However, vacuum glazing is subject to inherent stresses due to atmospheric pressure and temperature differentials which can lead to fracture of the glass panes and failure of the edge seal. A flexible edge seal has been proposed to minimise the impact of these issues. In this paper, vacuum glazing system with rigid and flexible edge seals is theoretically studied and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

Keywords: flexible edge seal, stress, support pillar, vacuum glazing

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1349 Experımental Study of Structural Insulated Panel under Lateral Load

Authors: H. Abbasi, K. Sennah

Abstract:

A Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) is a structural element contains of foam insulation core sandwiched between two oriented-strand boards (OSB), plywood boards, steel sheets or fibre cement boards. Superior insulation, exceptional strength and fast insulation are the specifications of a SIP-based structure. There are also many other benefits such as less total construction costs, speed of construction, less expensive HVAC equipment required, favourable energy-efficient mortgages comparing to wood-framed houses. This paper presents the experimental analysis on selected foam-timber SIPs to study their structural behaviour when used as walls in residential construction under lateral loading. The experimental program has also taken several stud panels in order to compare the performance of SIP with conventional wood-frame system. The results of lateral tests performed in this study established a database that can be used further to develop design tables of SIP wall subjected to lateral loading caused by wind or earthquake. A design table for walls subjected to lateral loading was developed. Experimental results proved that the tested SIPs are ‘as good as’ the conventional wood-frame system.

Keywords: structural insulated panel, experimental study, lateral load, design tables

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1348 Insulation Properties of Rod-Plane Electrode Covered with ATH/SIR Nano-Composite in Dry-Air

Authors: Jae-Yong Sim, Jung-Hun Kwon, Ji-Sung Park, Kee-Joe Lim

Abstract:

One of the latest trends for insulation systems to improve the insulation performance is the use of eco-friendly hybrid insulation using compressed dry-air. Despite the excellent insulation performance of sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) gas, its use has been restricted due to the problems with significant global warming potential (GWP). Accordingly, lightning impulse performance of the hybrid insulation system covered with an aluminum trihydrate/silicone rubber (ATH/SIR) nanocomposite was examined in air at atmospheric pressure and in compressed air at pressures between 0.2 and 0.6 MPa. In the experiments, the most common breakdown path took place along the surface of the covered rod. The insulation reliability after several discharges should be guaranteed in hybrid insulation. On the other hand, the surface of the covered rod was carbonized after several discharges. Therefore, nanoscale ATH can be used as a reinforcement of covered dielectrics to inhibit carbonization on the surface of a covered rod. The results were analyzed in terms of the surface resistivity of the cover dielectrics.

Keywords: nanocomposite, hybrid insulation, ATH, dry-air

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
1347 The Effect of Glass Thickness on Stress in Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde, Andrea Trevisi, Paolo Basso, Danilo Bardaro

Abstract:

Heat transfer through multiple pane windows can be reduced by creating a vacuum pressure less than 0.1 Pa between the glass panes, with low emittance coatings on one or more of the internal surfaces. Fabrication of vacuum glazing (VG) requires the formation of a hermetic seal around the periphery of the glass panes together with an array of support pillars between the panes to prevent them from touching under atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure and temperature differentials induce stress which can affect the integrity of the glazing. Several parameters define the stresses in VG including the glass thickness, pillar specifications, glazing dimensions and edge seal configuration. Inherent stresses in VG can result in fractures in the glass panes and failure of the edge seal. In this study, stress in VG with different glass thicknesses is theoretically studied using Finite Element Modelling (FEM). Based on the finding in this study, suggestions are made to address problems resulting from the use of thinner glass panes in the fabrication of VG. This can lead to the development of high performance, light and thin VG.

Keywords: vacuum glazing, stress, vacuum insulation, support pillars

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
1346 Soft Ground Improved by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with Vacuum and Thermal Preloading

Authors: Gia Lam Le, Dennis T. Bergado, Thi Ngoc Truc Nguyen

Abstract:

This study focuses on behaviors of improved soft clay using prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) combined with vacuum and electro-osmotic preloading. Large-scale consolidations of reconstituted soft Bangkok clay were conducted for PVD improvement with vacuum (vacuum-PVD), and vacuum combined with heat (vacuum-thermo-PVD). The research revealed that vacuum-thermo-PVD gives high efficiency of the consolidation rate compared to the vacuum-PVD. In addition, the magnitude of settlement of the specimen improved by the vacuum-thermo-PVD is higher than the vacuum-PVD because the assistance of heat causes the collapse of the clay structure. Particularly, to reach 90% degree of consolidation, the thermal-vacuum-PVD reduced about 58% consolidation time compared to the vacuum-PVD. The increase in consolidation rate is resulted from the increase in horizontal coefficient of consolidation, Ch, the reduction of the smear effect expressed by the ratio of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the undisturbed zone, kh, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the smeared zone, ks. Furthermore, the shear strength, Su, increased about 100% when compared using the vacuum-thermal-PVD to the vacuum PVD. In addition, numerical simulations gave reasonable results compared to the laboratory data.

Keywords: PVD improvement, vacuum preloading, prefabricated vertical drain, thermal PVD

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
1345 Holistic Approach to Assess the Potential of Using Traditional and Advance Insulation Materials for Energy Retrofit of Office Buildings

Authors: Marco Picco, Mahmood Alam

Abstract:

Improving the energy performance of existing buildings can be challenging, particularly when facades cannot be modified, and the only available option is internal insulation. In such cases, the choice of the most suitable material becomes increasingly complex, as in addition to thermal transmittance and capital cost, the designer needs to account for the impact of the intervention on the internal spaces, and in particular the loss of usable space due to the additional layers of materials installed. This paper explores this issue by analysing a case study of an average office building needing to go through a refurbishment in order to reach the limits imposed by current regulations to achieve energy efficiency in buildings. The building is simulated through dynamic performance simulation under three different climate conditions in order to evaluate its energy needs. The use of Vacuum Insulated Panels as an option for energy refurbishment is compared to traditional insulation materials (XPS, Mineral Wool). For each scenario, energy consumptions are calculated and, in combination with their expected capital costs, used to perform a financial feasibility analysis. A holistic approach is proposed, taking into account the impact of the intervention on internal space by quantifying the value of the lost usable space and used in the financial feasibility analysis. The proposed approach highlights how taking into account different drivers will lead to the choice of different insulation materials, showing how accounting for the economic value of space can make VIPs an attractive solution for energy retrofitting under various climate conditions.

Keywords: vacuum insulated panels, building performance simulation, payback period, building energy retrofit

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
1344 A New Perspective: The Use of Low-Cost Phase Change Material in Building Envelope System

Authors: Andrey A. Chernousov, Ben Y. B. Chan

Abstract:

The use of the low-cost paraffinic phase change material can be rather effective in smart building envelopes in the South China region. Particular attention has to be paid to the PCM optimization as an exploitation conditions and the envelope insulation changes its thermal characteristics. The studied smart building envelope consists of a reinforced aluminum exterior, polymeric insulation foam, phase change material and reinforced interior gypsum board. A prototype sample was tested to validate the numerical scheme using EnergryPlus software. Three scenarios of insulation thermal resistance loss (ΔR/R = 0%, 25%, 50%) were compared with the different PCM thicknesses (tP=0, 1, 2.5, 5 mm). The comparisons were carried out for a west facing enveloped office building (50 storey). PCM optimization was applied to find the maximum efficiency for the different ΔR/R cases. It was found, during the optimization, that the PCM is an important smart component, lowering the peak energy demand up to 2.7 times. The results are not influenced by the insulation aging in terms of ΔR/R during long-term exploitation. In hot and humid climates like Hong Kong, the insulation core of the smart systems is recommended to be laminated completely. This can be very helpful in achieving an acceptable payback period.

Keywords: smart building envelope, thermal performance, phase change material, energy efficiency, large-scale sandwich panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 514
1343 Modelling of Lunar Lander’s Thruster’s Exhaust Plume Impingement in Vacuum

Authors: Mrigank Sahai, R. Sri Raghu

Abstract:

This paper presents the modelling of rocket exhaust plume flow field and exhaust plume impingement in vacuum for the liquid apogee engine and attitude control thrusters of the lunar lander. Analytic formulations for rarefied gas kinetics has been taken as reference for modelling the plume flow field. The plume has been modelled as high speed, collision-less, axi-symmetric gas jet, expanding into vacuum and impinging at a normally set diffusive circular plate. Specular reflections have not been considered for the present study. Different parameters such as number density, temperature, pressure, flow velocity, heat flux etc., have been calculated and have been plotted against and compared to Direct Simulation Monte Carlo results. These analyses have provided important information for the placement of critical optical instruments and design of optimal thermal insulation for the hardware that may come in contact with the thruster exhaust.

Keywords: collision-less gas, lunar lander, plume impingement, rarefied exhaust plume

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1342 Effect of Upper Face Sheet Material on Flexural Strength of Polyurethane Foam Hybrid Sandwich Material

Authors: M. Atef Gabr, M. H. Abdel Latif, Ramadan El Gamsy

Abstract:

Sandwich panels comprise a thick, light-weight plastic foam such as polyurethane (PU) sandwiched between two relatively thin faces. One or both faces may be flat, lightly profiled or fully profiled. Until recently sandwich panel construction in Egypt has been widely used in cold-storage buildings, cold trucks, prefabricated buildings and insulation in construction. Recently new techniques are used in mass production of Sandwich Materials such as Reaction Injection Molding (RIM) and Vacuum bagging technique. However, in recent times their use has increased significantly due to their widespread structural applications in building systems. Structural sandwich panels generally used in Egypt comprise polyurethane foam core and thinner (0.42 mm) and high strength about 550 MPa (yield strength) flat steel faces bonded together using separate adhesives and By RIM technique. In this paper, we will use a new technique in sandwich panel preparation by using different face sheet materials in combination with polyurethane foam to form sandwich panel structures. Previously, PU Foam core with same thin 2 faces material was used, but in this work, we use different face materials and thicknesses for the upper face sheet such as Galvanized steel sheets (G.S),Aluminum sheets (Al),Fiberglass sheets (F.G) and Aluminum-Rubber composite sheets (Al/R) with polyurethane foam core 10 mm thickness and 45 Kg/m3 Density and Galvanized steel as lower face sheet. Using Aluminum-Rubber composite sheets as face sheet is considered a hybrid composite sandwich panel which is built by Hand-Layup technique by using PU glue as adhesive. This modification increases the benefits of the face sheet that will withstand different working environments with relatively small increase in its weight and will be useful in several applications. In this work, a 3-point bending test is used assistant professor to measure the most important factor in sandwich materials that is strength to weight ratio(STW) for different combinations of sandwich structures and make a comparison to study the effect of changing the face sheet material on the mechanical behavior of PU sandwich material. Also, the density of the different prepared sandwich materials will be measured to obtain the specific bending strength.

Keywords: hybrid sandwich panel, mechanical behavior, PU foam, sandwich panel, 3-point bending, flexural strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
1341 Experimental Investigation on Activated Carbon Based Cryosorption Pump

Authors: K. B. Vinay, K. G. Vismay, S. Kasturirengan, G. A. Vivek

Abstract:

Cryosorption pumps are considered to be safe, quiet and ultra-high vacuum production pumps which have their application from Semiconductor industries to ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] units. The principle of physisorption of gases over highly porous materials like activated charcoal at cryogenic temperatures (below -1500°C) is involved in determining the pumping speed of gases like Helium, Hydrogen, Argon and Nitrogen. This paper aims at providing detailed overview of development of Cryosorption pump which is the modern ultra-high vacuum pump and characterization of different activated charcoal materials that optimizes the performance of the pump. Different grades of charcoal were tested in order to determine the pumping speed of the pump and were compared with commercially available Varian cryopanel. The results for bare panel, bare panel with adhesive, cryopanel with pellets, and cryopanel with granules were obtained and compared. The comparison showed that cryopanel adhered with small granules gave better pumping speeds than large sized pellets.

Keywords: adhesive, cryopanel, granules, pellets

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
1340 Structure Design of Vacuum Vessel with Large Openings for Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

Authors: Han Xiao, Ruan Qi, Zhang Lei, Qi Yan

Abstract:

Space environment simulator is a facility used to conduct thermal test for spacecraft, and vacuum vessel is the main body of it. According to the requirements for thermal tests of the spacecraft and its solar array panels, the primary vessel and the side vessels are designed to be a combinative structure connected with aperture, which ratio reaches 0.7. Since the vacuum vessel suffers 0.1MPa external pressure during the process of thermal test, in order to ensure the simulator’s reliability and safety, it’s necessary to calculate the vacuum vessel’s intensity and stability. Based on the impact of large openings to vacuum vessel structure, this paper explored the reinforce design and analytical way of vacuum vessel with large openings, using a large space environment simulator’s vacuum vessel design as an example. Tests showed that the reinforce structure is effective to fulfill the requirements of external pressure and the gravity. This ensured the reliability of the space environment simulator, providing a guarantee for developing the spacecraft.

Keywords: vacuum vessel, large opening, space environment simulator, structure design

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
1339 Change of the Thermal Conductivity of Polystyrene Insulation in term of Temperature at the Mid Thickness of the Insulation Material: Impact on the Cooling Load

Authors: M. Khoukhi

Abstract:

Accurate prediction of the cooling/heating load and consequently, the sizing of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment require precise calculation of the heat transfer mainly by conduction through envelope components of a building. The thermal resistance of most thermal insulation materials depends on the operating temperature. The temperature to which the insulation materials are exposed varies, depending on the thermal resistance of the materials, the location of the insulation layer within the assembly system, and the effective temperature which depends on the amount of solar radiation received on the surface of the assembly. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the change of the thermal conductivity of polystyrene insulation material in terms of the temperature at the mid-thickness of the material and its effect on the cooling load required by the building.

Keywords: operating temperature, polystyrene insulation, thermal conductivity, cooling load

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
1338 Development of Water-Based Thermal Insulation Paints Using Silica Aerogel

Authors: Lu Yanru, Handojo Djati Utomo, Yin Xi Jiang, Li Xiaodong

Abstract:

Insulation plays a key role in the sustainable building due to the contribution of energy consumption reduction. Without sufficient insulation, a great amount of the energy used to heat or cool a building will be lost to the outdoors. In this study, we developed a highly efficient thermal insulation paint with the incorporation of silica aerogel. Silica aerogel, with a low thermal conductivity of 0.01 W/mK, has been successfully prepared from the solid waste from the incineration plants. It has been added into water-based paints to increase its thermal insulation properties. To investigate the thermal insulation performance of silica aerogel additive, the paint samples were mixed with silica aerogel at different sizes and with various portions. The thermal conductivity, water resistance, thermal stability and adhesion strength of the samples were tested and evaluated. The thermal diffusivity measurements proved that adding silica aerogel additive could improve the thermal insulation properties of the paint significantly. Up to 5 ˚C reductions were observed after applying paints with silica aerogel additive compare to the one without it. The results showed that the developed thermal insulation paints have great potential for an application in green and sustainable building.

Keywords: silica aerogel, thermal insulation, water-based paints, water resistant

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1337 [Keynote Talk]: Thermal Performance of Common Building Insulation Materials: Operating Temperature and Moisture Effect

Authors: Maatouk Khoukhi

Abstract:

An accurate prediction of the heat transfer through the envelope components of building is required to achieve an accurate cooling/heating load calculation which leads to precise sizing of the hvac equipment. This also depends on the accuracy of the thermal conductivity of the building insulation material. The proper use of thermal insulation in buildings (k-value) contribute significantly to reducing the HVAC size and consequently the annual energy cost. The first part of this paper presents an overview of building thermal insulation and their applications. The second part presents some results related to the change of the polystyrene insulation thermal conductivity with the change of the operating temperature and the moisture. Best-fit linear relationship of the k-value in term of the operating temperatures and different percentage of moisture content by weight has been established. The thermal conductivity of the polystyrene insulation material increases with the increase of both operating temperature and humidity content.

Keywords: building insulation material, moisture content, operating temperature, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
1336 Drying Kinetics of Vacuum Dried Beef Meat Slices

Authors: Elif Aykin Dincer, Mustafa Erbas

Abstract:

The vacuum drying behavior of beef slices (10 x 4 x 0.2 cm3) was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C under 25 mbar ultimate vacuum pressure and the mathematical models (Lewis, Page, Midilli, Two-term, Wangh and Singh and Modified Henderson and Pabis) were used to fit the vacuum drying of beef slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. It took approximately 206, 180 and 157 min to dry beef slices from an initial moisture content to a final moisture content of 0.05 kg water/kg dry matter at 60, 70 and 80 °C of vacuum drying, respectively. It is also observed that the drying rate increased with increasing drying temperature. The coefficients (R2), the reduced chi-square (x²) and root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained by application of six models to the experimental drying data. The best model with the highest R2 and, the lowest x² and RMSE values was selected to describe the drying characteristics of beef slices. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivities of beef slices in the vacuum drying at 60 - 80 °C varied in the range of 1.05 – 1.09 x 10-10 m2/s. Consequently, this results can be used to simulate vacuum drying process of beef slices and improve efficiency of the drying process.

Keywords: beef slice, drying models, effective diffusivity, vacuum

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1335 Optimal Analysis of Structures by Large Wing Panel Using FEM

Authors: Byeong-Sam Kim, Kyeongwoo Park

Abstract:

In this study, induced structural optimization is performed to compare the trade-off between wing weight and induced drag for wing panel extensions, construction of wing panel and winglets. The aerostructural optimization problem consists of parameters with strength condition, and two maneuver conditions using residual stresses in panel production. The results of kinematic motion analysis presented a homogenization based theory for 3D beams and 3D shells for wing panel. This theory uses a kinematic description of the beam based on normalized displacement moments. The displacement of the wing is a significant design consideration as large deflections lead to large stresses and increased fatigue of components cause residual stresses. The stresses in the wing panel are small compared to the yield stress of aluminum alloy. This study describes the implementation of a large wing panel, aerostructural analysis and structural parameters optimization framework that couples a three-dimensional panel method.

Keywords: wing panel, aerostructural optimization, FEM, structural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
1334 Construction Technology of Modified Vacuum Pre-Loading Method for Slurry Dredged Soil

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Gao Ming-Jun, Mohamad Sharif

Abstract:

Slurry dredged soil at coastal area has a high water content, poor permeability, and low surface intensity. Hence, it is infeasible to use vacuum preloading method to treat this type of soil foundation. For the special case of super soft ground, a floating bridge is first constructed on muddy soil and used as a service road and platform for implementing the modified vacuum preloading method. The modified technique of vacuum preloading and its construction process for the super soft soil foundation improvement is then studied. Application of modified vacuum preloading method shows that the technology and its construction process are highly suitable for improving the super soft soil foundation in coastal areas.

Keywords: super soft foundation, dredger fill, vacuum preloading, foundation treatment, construction technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
1333 Upgrading of Old Large Turbo Generators

Authors: M. Shadmand, T. Enayaty Ahangar, S. Kazemi

Abstract:

Insulation system of electrical machineries is the most critical point for their durability. Depending on generator nominal voltage, its insulation system is designed. In this research, a new stator insulation system is designed by new type of mica tapes which will consequently enables us to decrease the nominal ground-wall insulation thickness for the same voltage level. By keeping constant the slot area, it will be possible to increase the copper value in stator bars which will consequently able us to increase the nominal output current of turbo-generator. This will affect the cooling capability of machinery to some extent. But by considering the thermal conductivity of new insulating system which is improved, it is possible to increase the output power of generator up to 6% more. This research is done practically on a 200 MVA and 15.75 kV turbo-generators which its insulating system is Resin Rich (RR).

Keywords: insulation system, resin rich, VPI, upgrading

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
1332 Electrical Power Distribution Reliability Improvement by Retrofitting 4.16 kV Vacuum Contactor in Badak LNG Plant

Authors: David Hasurungan

Abstract:

This paper objective is to assess the power distribution reliability improvement by retrofitting obsolete vacuum contactor. The case study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant is presented in this paper. To support plant operational, Badak LNG is equipped with 4.16 kV switchgear for supplying the storage and loading facilities, utilities facilities, and train facilities. However, there is a problem in two switch gears of sixteen switch gears. The problem is the obsolescence issue in its vacuum contactor. Not only that, but the same switchgear also has suffered from electrical fault due to contact fingering misalignment. In order to improve the reliability in switchgear, the vacuum contactor retrofit project is done. The retrofit will introduce new vacuum contactor design. The comparison between existing design and the new design is presented in this paper. Meanwhile, The reliability assessment and calculation are performed using software Reliasoft 7.

Keywords: reliability, obsolescence, retrofit, vacuum contactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1331 STC Parameters versus Real Time Measured Parameters to Determine Cost Effectiveness of PV Panels

Authors: V. E. Selaule, R. M. Schoeman H. C. Z. Pienaar

Abstract:

Research has shown that solar energy is a renewable energy resource with the most potential when compared to other renewable energy resources in South Africa. There are many makes of Photovoltaic (PV) panels on the market and it is difficult to assess which to use. PV panel manufacturers use Standard Test Conditions (STC) to rate their PV panels. STC conditions are different from the actual operating environmental conditions were the PV panels are used. This paper describes a practical method to determine the most cost effective available PV panel. The method shows that PV panel manufacturer STC ratings cannot be used to select a cost effective PV panel.

Keywords: PV orientation, PV panel, PV STC, Solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
1330 Assessing the Risk of Condensation and Moisture Accumulation in Solid Walls: Comparing Different Internal Wall Insulation Options

Authors: David Glew, Felix Thomas, Matthew Brooke-Peat

Abstract:

Improving the thermal performance of homes is seen as an essential step in achieving climate change, fuel security, fuel poverty targets. One of the most effective thermal retrofits is to insulate solid walls. However, it has been observed that applying insulation to the internal face of solid walls reduces the surface temperature of the inner wall leaf, which may introduce condensation risk and may interrupt seasonal moisture accumulation and dissipation. This research quantifies the extent to which the risk of condensation and moisture accumulation in the wall increases (which can increase the risk of timber rot) following the installation of six different types of internal wall insulation. In so doing, it compares how risk is affected by both the thermal resistance, thickness, and breathability of the insulation. Thermal bridging, surface temperatures, condensation risk, and moisture accumulation are evaluated using hygrothermal simulation software before and after the thermal upgrades. The research finds that installing internal wall insulation will always introduce some risk of condensation and moisture. However, it identifies that risks were present prior to insulation and that breathable materials and insulation with lower resistance have lower risks than alternative insulation options. The implications of this may be that building standards that encourage the enhanced thermal performance of solid walls may be introducing moisture risks into homes.

Keywords: condensation risk, hygrothermal simulation, internal wall insulation, thermal bridging

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1329 Efficiency Enhancement in Solar Panel

Authors: R. S. Arun Raj

Abstract:

In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental issues, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is the solar energy. The SUN provides every hour as much energy as mankind consumes in one year. This paper clearly explains about the solar panel design and new models and methodologies that can be implemented for better utilization of solar energy. Minimisation of losses in solar panel as heat is my innovative idea revolves around. The pay back calculations by implementation of solar panels is also quoted.

Keywords: on-grid and off-grid systems, pyro-electric effect, pay-back calculations, solar panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 494