Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15938

Search results for: the important architectural complex of Wang-An Hua-Zhai settlement

15938 The Quantitative Analysis of the Traditional Rural Settlement Plane Boundary

Authors: Yifan Dong, Xincheng Pu

Abstract:

Rural settlements originate from the accumulation of residential building elements, and their agglomeration forms the settlement pattern and defines the relationship between the settlement and the inside and outside. The settlement boundary is an important part of the settlement pattern. Compared with the simplification of the urban settlement boundary, the settlement of the country is more complex, fuzzy and uncertain, and then presents a rich and diverse boundary morphological phenomenon. In this paper, China traditional rural settlements plane boundary as the research object, using fractal theory and fractal dimension method, quantitative analysis of planar shape boundary settlement, and expounds the research for the architectural design, ancient architecture protection and renewal and development and the significance of the protection of settlements.

Keywords: rural settlement, border, fractal, quantification

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15937 The Collective Memory, Node Reconstruction and Local Belongingness in the Settlement of Outlying Islands: By Taking the Important Architectural Complex of Wang-an Hua-Zhai Settlement as an Example

Authors: Shu-Yen Wang, Shyh-Huei Hwang

Abstract:

Designated as an important architectural complex of settlement by the Ministry of Culture, Hua-Zhai Settlement located in Wang-An Township, Peng-Hu County, of Taiwan has been progressively restored year by year and is now at the revitalization and reutilization stage. Over the last 5 years, YunTech has participated in the restoration project while being in compliance with the Bureau of Cultural Heritage’s spirit of 'Living Heritage Conservation'. In this study, reflections have been made to evaluate the contemporariness of traditional settlement development from the aspects of revitalization and reutilization. On the one hand, the connection between settlers’ experiences and emotions have been clarified through the living nodes, collective memory, and social-cultural connotation. On the other hand, activity design has promoted the reconstruction of living nodes and facilitated the reconnection of collective memory, enabling us to explore the contemporariness of living nodes after the reconstruction. With the adoption of literature review, participant observation, and interview analysis methods, this study concludes the following results: 1) The node reconstruction brings back the memories and makes emotional connections: the spatial collective memory is composed of different components. During the reconstruction of node space, villagers participated not only in the narration of the history but also in the restoration of the space. This process enables villagers to bring back their memories and make emotional connections thereto. 2) Villagers’ understanding towards revitalization has been facilitated through node reconstruction: as a medium of this project, activity design has facilitated node reconstruction by offering villagers a natural environment to build up emotional connections to the settlement. This also enables us to better understand the meaning of settlement activation for the local community. 3) New connections are established in life between villagers and the university through the construction of living nodes: through the local implementation of node reconstruction, new connections have been established in life between villagers who participated in the project and the university. In the meantime, the university’s entrance to the community has also been revalued.

Keywords: collective memory, local sense of belonging, reconstruction of living nodes, the important architectural complex of Wang-An Hua-Zhai settlement

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15936 Evaluation of Settlement of Coastal Embankments Using Finite Elements Method

Authors: Sina Fadaie, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini

Abstract:

Coastal embankments play an important role in coastal structures by reducing the effect of the wave forces and controlling the movement of sediments. Many coastal areas are underlain by weak and compressible soils. Estimation of during construction settlement of coastal embankments is highly important in design and safety control of embankments and appurtenant structures. Accordingly, selecting and establishing of an appropriate model with a reasonable level of complication is one of the challenges for engineers. Although there are advanced models in the literature regarding design of embankments, there is not enough information on the prediction of their associated settlement, particularly in coastal areas having considerable soft soils. Marine engineering study in Iran is important due to the existence of two important coastal areas located in the northern and southern parts of the country. In the present study, the validity of Terzaghi’s consolidation theory has been investigated. In addition, the settlement of these coastal embankments during construction is predicted by using special methods in PLAXIS software by the help of appropriate boundary conditions and soil layers. The results indicate that, for the existing soil condition at the site, some parameters are important to be considered in analysis. Consequently, a model is introduced to estimate the settlement of the embankments in such geotechnical conditions.

Keywords: consolidation, settlement, coastal embankments, numerical methods, finite elements method

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15935 Settlement Prediction for Tehran Subway Line-3 via FLAC3D and ANFIS

Authors: S. A. Naeini, A. Khalili

Abstract:

Nowadays, tunnels with different applications are developed, and most of them are related to subway tunnels. The excavation of shallow tunnels that pass under municipal utilities is very important, and the surface settlement control is an important factor in the design. The study sought to analyze the settlement and also to find an appropriate model in order to predict the behavior of the tunnel in Tehran subway line-3. The displacement in these sections is also determined by using numerical analyses and numerical modeling. In addition, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) method is utilized by Hybrid training algorithm. The database pertinent to the optimum network was obtained from 46 subway tunnels in Iran and Turkey which have been constructed by the new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) with similar parameters based on type of their soil. The surface settlement was measured, and the acquired results were compared to the predicted values. The results disclosed that computing intelligence is a good substitute for numerical modeling.

Keywords: settlement, Subway Line, FLAC3D, ANFIS Method

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15934 Settlement Performance of Soft Clay Reinforced with Granular Columns

Authors: Muneerah Jeludin, V. Sivakumar

Abstract:

Numerous laboratory-based research studies on the behavior of ground improved with granular columns with respect to bearing capacity have been well-documented. However, information on its settlement performance is still scarce. Laboratory model study on the settlement behavior of soft clay reinforced with granular columns was conducted and results are presented. The investigation uses a soft kaolin clay sample of 300 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length. The clay samples were reinforced with single and multiple granular columns of various lengths using the displacement and replacement installation method. The results indicated that that no settlement reduction was achieved for a short single floating column. The settlement reduction factors reported for L/d ratios of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 are in the range of 1 to 2. The findings obtained in this research showed that the reduction factors are considerably less and that load-sharing mechanism between columns and surrounding clay is complex, particularly for column groups and is affected by other factors such as negative skin friction.

Keywords: ground improvement, model test, reinforced soil, settlement

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15933 Study on the Model Predicting Post-Construction Settlement of Soft Ground

Authors: Pingshan Chen, Zhiliang Dong

Abstract:

In order to estimate the post-construction settlement more objectively, the power-polynomial model is proposed, which can reflect the trend of settlement development based on the observed settlement data. It was demonstrated by an actual case history of an embankment, and during the prediction. Compared with the other three prediction models, the power-polynomial model can estimate the post-construction settlement more accurately with more simple calculation.

Keywords: prediction, model, post-construction settlement, soft ground

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15932 Foundation Settlement Determination: A Simplified Approach

Authors: Adewoyin O. Olusegun, Emmanuel O. Joshua, Marvel L. Akinyemi

Abstract:

The heterogeneous nature of the subsurface requires the use of factual information to deal with rather than assumptions or generalized equations. Therefore, there is need to determine the actual rate of settlement possible in the soil before structures are built on it. This information will help in determining the type of foundation design and the kind of reinforcement that will be necessary in constructions. This paper presents a simplified and a faster approach for determining foundation settlement in any type of soil using real field data acquired from seismic refraction techniques and cone penetration tests. This approach was also able to determine the depth of settlement of each strata of soil. The results obtained revealed the different settlement time and depth of settlement possible.

Keywords: heterogeneous, settlement, foundation, seismic, technique

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15931 Effect of Adjacent Footings on Elastic Settlement of Shallow Foundations

Authors: Mustafa Aytekin

Abstract:

In this study, impact of adjacent footings is considered on the estimation of elastic settlement of shallow foundations. In the estimation of elastic settlement, the Schmertmann’s method that is a very popular method in the elastic settlement estimation of shallow foundations is employed. In order to consider affect of neighboring footings on elastic settlement of main footing in different configurations, a MATLAB script has been generated. Elastic settlements of the various configurations are estimated by the script and several conclusions have been reached.

Keywords: elastic (immediate) settlement, Schmertman Method, adjacent footings, shallow foundations

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15930 Understanding Informal Settlements: The Role of Geo-Information Tools

Authors: Musyimi Mbathi

Abstract:

Information regarding social, political, demographic, economic and other attributes of human settlement is important for decision makers at all levels of planning, as they have to grapple with dynamic environments often associated with settlements. At the local level, it is particularly important for both communities and urban managers to have accurate and reliable information regarding all planning attributes. Settlement mapping, in particular, informal settlements mapping in Kenya, has over the past few years been carried out using modern tools like Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing for spatial data analysis and planning. GIS tools offer a platform for integration of spatial and non-spatial data as well as visualisation of the settlements. The capabilities offered by these tools have enabled communities to participate especially in the planning and management of new infrastructure as well as settlement upgrading. Land tenure based projects within informal settlements have also relied on GIS and related tools with considerable success. Additionally, the adoption of participatory approaches and use of geo-information tools helped to provide a basis for all inclusive planning thus promoting accountability, transparency, legitimacy, and other dimensions of governance within human settlement planning. The paper examines the context and application of geo-information tools for planning within low-income settlements of Kenya. A case study of Kiambiu settlement will be used to demonstrate how the tools have been applied for planning and decision-making purposes.

Keywords: informal settlements, GIS, governance, modern tools

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15929 Investigation of the Effect of Excavation Step in NATM on Surface Settlement by Finite Element Method

Authors: Seyed Mehrdad Gholami

Abstract:

Nowadays, using rail transport system (Metro) is increased in most cities of The world, so the need for safe and economical way of building tunnels and subway stations is felt more and more. One of the most commonly used methods for constructing underground structures in urban areas is NATM (New Austrian tunneling method). In this method, there are some key parameters such as excavation steps and cross-sectional area that have a significant effect on the surface settlement. Settlement is a very important control factor related to safe excavation. In this paper, Finite Element Method is used by Abaqus. R6 station of Tehran Metro Line 6 is built by NATM and the construction of that is studied and analyzed. Considering the outcomes obtained from numerical modeling and comparison with the results of the instrumentation and monitoring of field, finally, the excavation step of 1 meter and longitudinal distance of 14 meters between side drifts is suggested to achieve safe tunneling with allowable settlement.

Keywords: excavation step, NATM, numerical modeling, settlement.

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15928 Study of the Behavior of Geogrid Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls Under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Yongzhe Zhao, Ying Liu, Zhiyong Liu, Hui You

Abstract:

The soil behind retaining wall is normally subjected to cyclic loading, for example traffic loading. Geotextile has been widely used to reinforce the soil for the purpose of reducing the settlement of the soil. A series of physical model tests were performed to investigate the settlement of footing under cyclic loading. The settlement of the footing, ground deformation and the vertical earth pressure in subsoil were presented and discussed under different types of geotextiles. The results indicate that including geotextiles significantly decreases the footing settlement and the stiffer the geotextile, the less the settlement. Under cyclic loading, the soil below the footing shows dilation within certain depths and beyond that it experiences contraction. The location of footing relative to the retaining wall has important effects on the deformation behavior of the soil in the ground, and the closer the footing to the retaining wall, the greater the contraction soil shows. This is because the retaining wall experienced greater lateral displacement.

Keywords: physical model tests, reinforced retaining wall, cyclic loading, footing

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15927 The Impact of Community Settlement on Leisure Time Use and Body Composition in Determining Physical Lifestyles among Women

Authors: Mawarni Mohamed, Sharifah Shahira A. Hamid

Abstract:

Leisure time is an important component to offset the sedentary lifestyle of the people. Women tend to benefit from leisure activities not only to reduce stress but also to provide opportunities for well-being and self-satisfaction. This study was conducted to investigate body composition and leisure time use among women in Selangor from the influences of community settlement. A total of 419 women aged 18-65 years were selected to participate in this study. Descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze the level of physical activity and the relationship between leisure-time use and body composition were made to analyze the physical lifestyles. The results showed that women with normal body composition seem to be involved in more passive activities than women with less weight gain and obesity. Thus, the study recommended that the government and other health and recreational agencies should develop more places and activities suitable for leisure preference for women in their community settlement so they become more interested to engage in more active recreational and physical activities.

Keywords: body composition, community settlement, leisure time, physical lifestyles

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15926 Dynamic Study on the Evaluation of the Settlement of Soil under Sea Dam

Authors: Faroudja Meziani, Amar Kahil

Abstract:

In order to study the variation in settlement of soil under a dyke dam, the modelisation in our study consists of applying an imposed displacement at the base of the mass of soil (consisting of a saturated sand). The imposed displacement follows the evolution of acceleration of the earthquake of Boumerdes 2003 in Algeria. Moreover, the gravity load is taken into consideration by taking account the specific weight of the materials constituting the dyke. The results obtained show that the gravity loads have a direct influence on the evolution of settlement, especially at the center of the dyke where these loads are higher.

Keywords: settlement, dynamic analysis, rockfill dam, effect of earthquake, soil dynamics

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15925 Site Formation Processes at a New Kingdom Settlement at Sai Island, Sudan

Authors: Sean Taylor, Sayantani Neogi, Julia Budka

Abstract:

The important Egyptian New Kingdom settlement at Sai Island Sudan presents a complex stratigraphic archaeological record. This study takes the theoretic stance that it, not just the archaeological material being retrieved from the deposits but the sediments themselves that reflect human agency. These anthropogenic sediments reflect the use life of the buildings and spaces between and the post-depositional processes which operate to complicate the archaeological record. The application of soil micromorphology is a technique that takes intact block samples of sediment and analyses them in thin section under a petrological microscope. A detailed understanding of site formation processes and a contextualized knowledge of the material culture can be understood through careful and systematic observation of the changing facies. The major findings of the study are that soil and sedimentary information can provide valuable insights to the use of space during the New Kingdom and elucidate the complexities of site formation processes.

Keywords: anthropogenic sediment, New Kingdom, site formation processes, soil micromorphology

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15924 Assessing Land Cover Change Trajectories in Olomouc, Czech Republic

Authors: Mukesh Singh Boori, Vít Voženílek

Abstract:

Olomouc is a unique and complex landmark with widespread forestation and land use. This research work was conducted to assess important and complex land use change trajectories in Olomouc region. Multi-temporal satellite data from 1991, 2001 and 2013 were used to extract land use/cover types by object oriented classification method. To achieve the objectives, three different aspects were used: (1) Calculate the quantity of each transition; (2) Allocate location based landscape pattern (3) Compare land use/cover evaluation procedure. Land cover change trajectories shows that 16.69% agriculture, 54.33% forest and 21.98% other areas (settlement, pasture and water-body) were stable in all three decade. Approximately 30% of the study area maintained as a same land cove type from 1991 to 2013. Here broad scale of political and socio-economic factors was also affect the rate and direction of landscape changes. Distance from the settlements was the most important predictor of land cover change trajectories. This showed that most of landscape trajectories were caused by socio-economic activities and mainly led to virtuous change on the ecological environment.

Keywords: remote sensing, land use/cover, change trajectories, image classification

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15923 Positivism Legal Controversy: Dilemma Carok as Madura’s Culture through Indigenous Dispute Settlement in Indonesia

Authors: M. Yasin Al-Arif, Mohammad Faisol Soleh

Abstract:

The Indonesia’s Constitution in Article 18b explained that the state recognizes and respects indigenous peoples and their traditional rights that are guaranteed by the law. Despite already guaranteed its existence; in practice such indigenous law is often considered contrary to positive law by legal experts. It is because of legal positivism paradigm which requires the written law as the main reference for the settlement of legal disputes. Carok’s culture is one of the indigenous cultures of Madura to resolve legal disputes that still thrives until today. Carok’s culture is in outside the legal process, and through a fight between the disputing parties until one dies. On the other hand, the legal positivism does not give place to accommodate Carok as indigenous dispute settlement, until it must be solved through trial. This way of settlement has not been successfully satisfying the indigenous people, thus although it has been done through its verdict in the trial, but Carok still be used by them. From the explanation above, Carok’s culture must be accommodated as the main settlement process and legal process of law as the alternative to the effectiveness of dispute resolution in Madura Indonesia.

Keywords: carok, dispute settlement, legal positivism, madura’s culture

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15922 The Effect of Foundation on the Earth Fill Dam Settlement

Authors: Masoud Ghaemi, Mohammadjafar Hedayati, Faezeh Yousefzadeh, Hoseinali Heydarzadeh

Abstract:

Careful monitoring in the earth dams to measure deformation caused by settlement and movement has always been a concern for engineers in the field. In order to measure settlement and deformation of earth dams, usually, the precision instruments of settlement set and combined Inclinometer that is commonly referred to IS instrument will be used. In some dams, because the thickness of alluvium is high and there is no possibility of alluvium removal (technically and economically and in terms of performance), there is no possibility of placing the end of IS instrument (precision instruments of Inclinometer-settlement set) in the rock foundation. Inevitably, have to accept installing pipes in the weak and deformable alluvial foundation that leads to errors in the calculation of the actual settlement (absolute settlement) in different parts of the dam body. The purpose of this paper is to present new and refine criteria for predicting settlement and deformation in earth dams. The study is based on conditions in three dams with a deformation quite alluvial (Agh Chai, Narmashir and Gilan-e Gharb) to provide settlement criteria affected by the alluvial foundation. To achieve this goal, the settlement of dams was simulated by using the finite difference method with FLAC3D software, and then the modeling results were compared with the reading IS instrument. In the end, the caliber of the model and validate the results, by using regression analysis techniques and scrutinized modeling parameters with real situations and then by using MATLAB software and CURVE FITTING toolbox, new criteria for the settlement based on elasticity modulus, cohesion, friction angle, the density of earth dam and the alluvial foundation was obtained. The results of these studies show that, by using the new criteria measures, the amount of settlement and deformation for the dams with alluvial foundation can be corrected after instrument readings, and the error rate in reading IS instrument can be greatly reduced.

Keywords: earth-fill dam, foundation, settlement, finite difference, MATLAB, curve fitting

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15921 A Review of Deformation and Settlement Monitoring on the Field: Types and Applications

Authors: Hassan Ali, Abdulrahman Hamid

Abstract:

This paper discusses using of instruments to monitor deformation and settlement. Specifically, it concentrates on field instruments such as inclinometer and plate load test and their applications in the field. Inclinometer has been used effectively to monitor lateral earth movements and settlement in landslide areas, embankments and foundations. They are also used to monitor the deflection of retaining walls and piles under load. This paper is reviewing types of inclinometer systems, comparison between systems, applications, field accuracy and correction. The paper also will present a case study of using inclinometer to monitor the creep movements within the ancient landslide on The Washington Park Station. Furthermore, the application of deformation and settlement instruments in Saudi Arabia will be discussed in this manuscript.

Keywords: inclinometer, plate load test, backfills, sand, deformation and settlement

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15920 Numerical Static and Seismic Evaluation of Pile Group Settlement: A Case Study

Authors: Seyed Abolhassan Naeini, Hamed Yekehdehghan

Abstract:

Shallow foundations cannot be used when the bedding soil is soft. A suitable method for constructing foundations on soft soil is to employ pile groups to transfer the load to the bottom layers. The present research used results from tests carried out in northern Iran (Langarud) and the FLAC3D software to model a pile group for investigating the effects of various parameters on pile cap settlement under static and seismic conditions. According to the results, changes in the strength parameters of the soil, groundwater level, and the length of and distance between the piles affect settlement differently.

Keywords: FLACD 3D software, pile group, settlement, soil

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15919 Settlement Analysis of Axially Loaded Bored Piles: A Case History

Authors: M. Mert, M. T. Ozkan

Abstract:

Pile load tests should be applied to check the bearing capacity calculations and to determine the settlement of the pile corresponding to test load. Strain gauges can be installed into pile in order to determine the shaft resistance of the piles for every soil layer respectively. Detailed results can be obtained by means of strain gauges placed at certain levels into test piles. In the scope of this study, pile load test data obtained from two different projects are examined.  Instrumented static pile load tests were applied on totally 7 test bored piles of different diameters (80 cm, 150 cm, and 200 cm) and different lengths (between 30-76 m) in two different project site. Settlement analysis of test piles is done by using some of load transfer methods and finite element method. Plaxis 3D which is a three-dimensional finite element program is also used for settlement analysis of the test piles. In this study, firstly bearing capacity of test piles are determined and compared with strain gauge data which is required for settlement analysis. Then, settlement values of the test piles are estimated by using load transfer methods developed in recent years and finite element method. The aim of this study is to show similarities and differences between the results obtained from settlement analysis methods and instrumented pile load tests.

Keywords: failure, finite element method, monitoring and instrumentation, pile, settlement

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15918 Effect of Preloading on Long-Term Settlement of Closed Landfills: A Numerical Analysis

Authors: Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hajar Share Isfahani, Hadi Khabbaz

Abstract:

In recent years, by developing cities and increasing population, reconstructing on closed landfill sites in some regions is unavoidable. Long-term settlement is one of the major concerns associated with reconstruction on landfills after closure. The purpose of this research is evaluating the effect of preloading in various patterns of height and time on long-term settlements of closed landfills. In this regard, five scenarios of surcharge from 1 to 3 m high within 3, 4.5 and 6 months of preloading time have been modeled using PLAXIS 2D software. Moreover, the numerical results have been compared to those obtained from analytical methods, and a good agreement has been achieved. The findings indicate that there is a linear relationship between settlement and surcharge height. Although, long-term settlement decreased by applying a longer and higher preloading, the time of preloading was found to be a more effective factor compared to preloading height.

Keywords: preloading, long-term settlement, landfill, PLAXIS 2D

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15917 Settlement of Group of Stone Columns

Authors: Adel Hanna, Tahar Ayadat, Mohammad Etezad, Cyrille Cros

Abstract:

A number of theoretical methods have been developed over the years to calculate the amount settlement of the soil reinforced with group of stone columns. The results deduced from these methods sometimes show large disagreement with the experimental observations. The reason of this divergence might be due to the fact that many of the previous methods assumed the deform shape of the columns which is different with the actual case. A new method to calculate settlement of the ground reinforced with group of stone columns is presented in this paper which overcomes the restrictions made by previous theories. This method is based on results deduced from numerical modeling. Results obtained from the model are validated.

Keywords: stone columns, group, soft soil, settlement, prediction

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15916 Effectiveness of Lowering the Water Table as a Mitigation Measure for Foundation Settlement in Liquefiable Soils Using 1-g Scale Shake Table Test

Authors: Kausar Alam, Mohammad Yazdi, Peiman Zogh, Ramin Motamed

Abstract:

An earthquake is an unpredictable natural disaster. It induces liquefaction, which causes considerable damage to the structure, life support, and piping systems because of ground settlement. As a result, people are incredibly concerned about how to resolve the situation. Previous researchers adopted different ground improvement techniques to reduce the settlement of the structure during earthquakes. This study evaluates the effectiveness of lowering the water table as a technique to mitigate foundation settlement in liquefiable soil. The performance will be evaluated based on foundation settlement and the reduction of excessive pore water pressure. In this study, a scaled model was prepared based on a full-scale shale table experiment conducted at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The model ground consists of three soil layers having a relative density of 55%, 45%, and 90%, respectively. A shallow foundation is seated over an unsaturated crust layer. After preparation of the model ground, the water table was measured to be at 45, 40, and 35 cm (from the bottom). Then, the input motions were applied for 10 seconds, with a peak acceleration of 0.25g and a constant frequency of 2.73 Hz. Based on the experimental results, the effectiveness of the lowering water table in reducing the foundation settlement and excess pore water pressure was evident. The foundation settlement was reduced from 50 mm to 5 mm. In addition, lowering the water table as a mitigation measure is a cost-effective way to decrease liquefaction-induced building settlement.

Keywords: foundation settlement, ground water table, liquefaction, hake table test

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15915 Experimental Stress Analysis on Pipeline in Condition of Frost Heave and Thaw Settlement

Authors: Zhiqiang Cheng, Qingliang He, Lu Li, Jie Ren

Abstract:

The safety of pipelines in the condition of frost heave or thaw settlement is necessarily evaluated. A full-scale experiment pipe with the typical structure configuration in station pipeline is constructed, the residual stress is tested with X-ray residual stress device, and the residual stress field of pipe is analyzed. The evolution of pipe strain with pressure in the scope of maximum allowable operation pressure (MAOP) is investigated by both strain gauge and X-ray methods. Load caused by frost heave or thaw settlement is simulated by two ways of lifting jack. The relation of maximum stress of pipe and clearances between supporter and pipe is studied in case of frost heave. The relation of maximum stress of pipe and maximum deformation of pipe on the ground is studied in case of thaw settlement. The study methods and results are valuable for safety assessment of station pipeline according to clearances or deformation in the condition of frost heave or thaw settlement.

Keywords: frost heave, pipeline, stress analysis, thaw settlement

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15914 Villar Settlement Farm School for the Aetas: Assimilation through American Colonial Education in Zambales, Philippines

Authors: Julian E. Abuso, Alberto T. Paala Jr.

Abstract:

The creation of settlement farm schools at the outset of American colonization of the Philippines was not a matter of accident; rather, their establishment was a major component of a grand plan on public education based on the benevolent assimilation policy of the United States. This argument is illustrated by the case of Villar Settlement Farm School, a school for the Aetas as a non-Christian tribal community in 1907. The study aims to: (1) identify and describe the antecedents for the establishment of Settlement Farm School, (2) explicate the cultural conflicts encountered by Aetas in school, (3) appraise the consequences of education as acculturation among Aeta population. The study made use of the following: historical data based on primary and secondary sources and life histories from primary informants. The Settlement Farm School for the Aetas was borne out of the American’s change in policy from military to civilian authority, recognition of education as a tool for benevolent assimilation. The narratives of informants manifested resistance to certain aspects of the educational process.

Keywords: settlement farm school Aetas, tribe, colonial education, Aeta, non-Christian tribal community

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15913 Seismic Resistant Columns of Buildings against the Differential Settlement of the Foundation

Authors: Romaric Desbrousses, Lan Lin

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine how Canadian seismic design provisions affect the column axial load resistance of moment-resisting frame reinforced concrete buildings subjected to the differential settlement of their foundation. To do so, two four-storey buildings are designed in accordance with the seismic design provisions of the Canadian Concrete Design Standards. One building is located in Toronto, which is situated in a moderate seismic hazard zone in Canada, and the other in Vancouver, which is in Canada’s highest seismic hazard zone. A finite element model of each building is developed using SAP 2000. A 100 mm settlement is assigned to the base of the building’s center column. The axial load resistance of the column is represented by the demand capacity ratio. The analysis results show that settlement-induced tensile axial forces have a particularly detrimental effect on the conventional settling columns of the Toronto buildings which fail at a much smaller settlement that those in the Vancouver buildings. The results also demonstrate that particular care should be taken in the design of columns in short-span buildings.

Keywords: Columns, Demand, Foundation differential settlement, Seismic design, Non-linear analysis

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15912 Auroville; Landscapes of Life, Living and Being

Authors: Anandit Sachdev

Abstract:

Auroville, a settlement in Tamil Nadu, India, is based on the principles of ‘human unity’as defined by Indian philosopher Sri Aurobindo. The settlement was conceptualized on these principles by Sri Aurobindo’s spiritual partner Mirra Alfassa, known as ‘The Mother’ to the Aurovillians. In common perception, the settlement is an experiment in achieving ‘human unity’ through sustainable living. Since its inception in late 1960s, the settlement has attracted people from a variety of nationalities, each understanding, seeking, and rendering ‘human unity’ in their own unique way. This multiplicity of inhabitation has created and continues to create complex and layered human and more-than-human geographies, which are collectively understood as Auroville. This essay builds on these multiple narratives of local metaphysical and every inhabitation of spiritual and philosophical ideas of Sri Aurobindo as rendered in materiality by the Mother. The research aims to assess how theseforms of everyday spirituality conflict, interact, and engage with the principles of Auroville. The research further aims to understands how, if at all, the diverse landscapes of social, cultural, and infrastructural conflictssynthesizewhen perceived through the lens of spirituality. The research does so by detailing the different forms of the built environment which evoke the transcendental and its underlying processes. While doing so, it aims to understand how different manifestations of interiority within the Aurovillian landscape tie back to the self and its entanglements. By analysing the settlement through a spiritual lens, the research ultimately ties together questions relating to the built environment and ontology and asks how each facilitates a continuous synthesis with the other. Lastly, the paper enquires if these ongoing processes of synthesis of built space and ontological entanglements are what can be conceptualized as ‘human unity’ as perceived by Sri Aurobindo himself.

Keywords: sacrality, sacred, spirituality, philosophy, Indian philosophy, auroville, India

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15911 Effects of the Slope Embankment Variation on Influence Areas That Causes the Differential Settlement around of Embankment

Authors: Safitri W. Nur, Prathisto Panuntun L. Unggul, M. Ivan Adi Perdana, R. Dary Wira Mahadika

Abstract:

On soft soil areas, high embankment as a preloading needed to improve the bearing capacity of the soil. For sustainable development, the construction of embankment must not disturb the area around of them. So, the influence area must be known before the contractor applied their embankment design. For several cases in Indonesia, the area around of embankment construction is housing resident and other building. So that, the influence area must be identified to avoid the differential settlement occurs on the buildings around of them. Differential settlement causes the building crack. Each building has a limited tolerance for the differential settlement. For concrete buildings, the tolerance is 0,002 – 0,003 m and for steel buildings, the tolerance is 0,006 – 0,008 m. If the differential settlement stands on the range of that value, building crack can be avoided. In fact, the settlement around of embankment is assumed as zero. Because of that, so many problems happen when high embankment applied on soft soil area. This research used the superposition method combined with plaxis analysis to know the influences area around of embankment in some location with the differential characteristic of the soft soil. The undisturbed soil samples take on 55 locations with undisturbed soil samples at some soft soils location in Indonesia. Based on this research, it was concluded that the effects of embankment variation are if more gentle the slope, the influence area will be greater and vice versa. The largest of the influence area with h initial embankment equal to 2 - 6 m with slopes 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8 is 32 m from the edge of the embankment.

Keywords: differential settlement, embankment, influence area, slope, soft soil

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15910 Analysis of Reinforced Granular Pile in Soft Soil

Authors: G. Nitesh

Abstract:

Stone column or granular pile is a proven technique to mitigate settlement in soft soil. Granular pile increases both rate of consolidation and stiffness of the ground. In this paper, a method to analyze further reduction in settlement of granular column reinforced with lime pile is presented treating the system as a unit cell and considering one-dimensional compression approach. The core of the granular pile is stiffened with a steel rod or lime column. Influence of a wide range of parameters such as area ratio of granular pile-soft soil, area ratio of lime pile-granular pile, modular ratio of granular pile and modular ratio of lime pile with respect to granular pile on settlement reduction factor, etc. are obtained and presented.

Keywords: lime pile, granular pile, soft soil, settlement

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15909 Departures from Anatolian Seljuk Building Complex with Iwan/Eyvan: The Tradition of Iwan Tombs

Authors: Mehmet Uysal, Yavuz Arat, Uğur Tuztaşı

Abstract:

As man constructed the spaces that he lived in he also designed spaces where their dead will stay according to their belief systems. These spaces are sometimes monumentalized by the means of a stone on the top of a mountain, sometimes signed by totems and sometimes became structures to protect graves and symbolize the person or make him unforgettable. Various grave monuments have been constructed from the earliest primitive societies to developed societies. Every belief system built structures for itself; Pyramids for pharaohs, grave monuments for kings and emperors, temples and tombs for important men of religion. These spaces are also architectural works like a school or a dwelling and have importance in history of architecture. After Turks embraced Islamism, examples of very beautiful tombs are built in Middle Asia during the Seljuk Period. By the time Seljuks came to Anatolia they built important tombs having peerless architectural characteristics firstly around Ahlat. After Anatolia Seljuks made Konya the capital city and Konya became administrative, cultural and scientific center, very important tombs were built in Konya. Different from the local tomb architecture, the architecture of tombs with half-open “eyvan/Iwan” is significant. Although iwan buildings is vastly used in Anatolian civil architecture and monumental buildings its best exmaples are observed in 13th century Medrese buildings. The iwan tomb tradition which was observed during the time period when this building typology was shaped and departed from the resident tradition in the form of iwan tombs are rarely represented. However, similar tombs were build in resemblance to this tradition. This study provides information on samples of iwan tombs (Gömeç Hatun Tomb, Emir Yavaştagel Tomb, and Beşparmak Tomb) and evaluates the departures from iwan building complexes in view of architectural language. This paper also gives information about iwan tombs among tombs having importance in Islamic Architectural Heritage.

Keywords: Seljuk Building Complex, Eyvan/Iwan, Anatolia, Islamic Architectural Heritage, tomb

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