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Paper Count: 37

Search results for: the Caucasus

37 The Tourism in the Regional Development of South Caucasus

Authors: Giorgi Sulashvili, Vladimer Kekenadze, Olga Khutsishvili, Bela Khotenashvili, Tsiuri Phkhakadze, Besarion Tsikhelashvili


The article dealt with the South Caucasus is a complex economic policy, which consists of strands: The process of deepening economic integration in the South Caucasus region; deepening economic integration with the EU in the framework of "Neighbourhood policy with Europe" and in line with the Maastricht criteria; the development of bilateral trade and economic relations with many countries of the world community; the development of sufficient conditions for the integration of the South Caucasus region in the world to enter the market. According to the author, to determine the place of Georgia in the regional policy of the South Caucasus, it is necessary to consider two views about Georgia: The first is the view of Georgia, as a part of global economic and political processes and the second look at Georgia, as a country located in the geo-economic and geopolitical space of the South Caucasus. Such approaches reveal the place of Georgia in two dimensions; in the global and regional economies. In the countries of South Caucasus, the tourism has been developing fast and has a great social and economic importance. Tourism influences deeply on the social and economic growth of the regions of the country. Tourism development formulates thousand new jobs, fixes the positions of small and middle businesses, ensures the development of the education and culture of the population. In the countries of South Caucasus, the Tourist Industry can be specified as the intersectoral complex, which consists of travel transport and it’s technical service network, tourist enterprises which are specialized in various types, wide network services. Tourists have a chance to enjoy all of these services. At the transitional stage of shifting to the market economy, tourism is among the priorities in the development of the national economy of our country. It is true that the Georgian tourism faces a range of problems at present, but its recognition and the necessity for its development may be considered as a fact. Besides, we would underline that the revitalization of the Georgian tourism is not only the question of time. This area can bring a lot of benefits as to private firms, as to specific countries. It also has many negative effects were conducted fundamental research and studies to consider both, positive and negative impacts of tourism. In the future such decisions will be taken that will bring, the maximum benefit at minimum cost, in order for tourism to take its place in Georgia it is necessary to understand the role of the tourism sector in the economic structure.

Keywords: transitional stage, national economy, Georgian tourism, positive and negative impacts

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36 Imperial/Royal Renewal in Byzantium and Medieval Georgia: Case of Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) and Davit IV the Builder (r. 1089–1125)

Authors: Sandro Nikolaishvili


The end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth century was a transitional period for the Byzantine empire as well as for the Caucasus. The empire was struggling for its survival under Alexios I Komnenos while Medieval Georgia was emerging as a dominant player in the Caucasus under Davit IV the Builder. The reigns of these two rulers were periods of renewal and transformation. I aim to compare the imperial image of Alexios I Komnenos with the renewed kingship ideology under Davit IV. I will hypothesize about the possible translation of the Byzantine political culture into the Medieval Georgia.

Keywords: Byzantium, Georgia, imperial, image

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35 Jalovchat Gabbroic Intrusive of the Caucasus: Petrological Study, Geochemical Peculiarities and Formation Conditions

Authors: Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Tamara Tsutsunava, Nikoloz Maisuradze, Giorgi Beridze


The Jalovchat intrusive is built up of hornblende gabbros, gabbro-norites and norites. Within the intrusive hornblende-bearing gabbro-pegmatites are widespread. That is a coarse-grained rock with gigantic hornblende crystals. By its unusual composition, the Jalovchat intrusive has no analogue in the Caucasus. However, petrologically and geochemically, the intrusive rocks were studied insufficiently. For comprehensive investigations, the authors applied appropriate methodologies: Microscopic study of thin sections, petro- and geochemical analyses of the samples and also different petrogenic, rare and rare earth elements diagrams and spidergrams. Analytical study established that the Jalovchat intrusive by its composition corresponds mainly to the mid-ocean ridge basalts and according to geodynamic type belongs to the subduction type. In general, it is an anomalous phenomenon, as in the rocks of such composition crystallization of hornblende and especially of its gigantic crystals is atypical. The authors believe that the water-rich magma reservoir, which was necessary for the crystallization of gigantic hornblende crystals, appeared as a result of melting of water-rich mid-ocean ridge basaltic rocks during the subduction process in Bajocian time.

Keywords: gabbro-pegmatite, intrusive, petrogenesis, petrogeochemistry, the Caucasus

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34 On the Lithology of Paleocene-Lower Eocene Deposits of the Achara-Trialeti Fold Zone: The Lesser Caucasus

Authors: Nino Kobakhidze, Endi Varsimashvili, Davit Makadze


The Caucasus is a link of the Alpine-Himalayan fold belt and involves the Greater Caucasus and the Lesser Caucasus fold systems and the Intermountain area. The study object is located within the northernmost part of the Lesser Caucasus orogen, in the eastern part of Achara-Trialeti fold -thrust belt. This area was rather well surveyed in 70th of the twentieth century in terms of oil-and-gas potential, but to our best knowledge, detailed sedimentological studies have not been conducted so far. In order to fill this gap, the authors of the present thesis started research in this direction. One of the objects selected for the research was the deposits of the Kavtura river valley situated on the northern slope of the Trialeti ridge. Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits known in scientific literature as ‘Borjomi Flysch’ (Turbidites) are exposed in the mentioned area. During the research, the following methodologies were applied: selection of key cross sections, a collection of rock samples, microscopic description of thin sections, mineralogical and petrological analysis of material and identification of trace fossils. The study of Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits starts with Kavtura river valley in the east, where they are well characterized by microfauna. The cross-section of the deposits starts with Danian variegated marlstone conformably overlain by the alternation of thick and thin-bedded sandstones (thickness 40-50 cm). They are continued with interbedded of thin-bedded sandstones and shales(thickness 4-5 m). On the sole surface of sandstones ichnogenera ‘Helmintopsis’ and ‘Scolicia’ are recorded and within the bed –‘Chondrites’ is found. Towards the Riverhead, there is a 1-2 m gap in sedimentation; then again the Paleocene-Lower Eocene sediments crop out. They starting with alternation of grey-green medium-grained sandstones and shales enclosing dark color plant detritus. They are overlain by the interbedded of calcareous sandstones and marls, where the thickness of sandstones is variable (20-70 cm). Ichnogenus – ‘Scolicia’ is found here. Upwards the above-mentioned deposits pass into Middle Eocenian volcanogenic-sedimentary suits. In the Kavtura river valley, the thickness of the Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits is 300-400 m. In the process of research, the following activities are conducted: the facial analysis of host rocks, correlation of the study section with other cross sections and interpretation of depositional environment of the area. In the area the authors have found and described ichnogenera; their preliminary determination have shown that they belong to pre-depositional (‘Helmintopsis’) and post-depositional (‘Chondrites’) forms. As known, during the Cretaceous-Paleogene time, the Achara-Trialeti fold-thrust belt extensional basin was the accumulation area with great thicknesses (from shallow to deep marine sediments). It is confirmed once more by the authors investigations preliminary results of paleoichnological studies inclusive.

Keywords: flysh deposits, lithology, The Lesser Caucasus, trace fossils

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33 Climate Change Impact on Water Resources above the Territory of Georgia

Authors: T. Davitashvili


At present impact of global climate change on the territory of Georgia is evident at least on the background of the Caucasus glaciers melting which during the last century have decreased to half their size. Glaciers are early indicators of ongoing global and regional climate change. Knowledge of the Caucasus glaciers fluctuation (melting) is an extremely necessary tool for planning hydro-electric stations and water reservoir, for development tourism and agriculture, for provision of population with drinking water and for prediction of water supplies in more arid regions of Georgia. Otherwise, the activity of anthropogenic factors has resulted in decreasing of the mowing, arable, unused lands, water resources, shrubs and forests, owing to increasing the production and building. Transformation of one type structural unit into another one has resulted in local climate change and its directly or indirectly impacts on different components of water resources on the territory of Georgia. In the present paper, some hydrological specifications of Georgian water resources and its potential pollutants on the background of regional climate change are presented. Some results of Georgian’s glaciers pollution and its melting process are given. The possibility of surface and subsurface water pollution owing to accidents at oil pipelines or railway routes are discussed. The specific properties of regional climate warming process in the eastern Georgia are studied by statistical methods. The effect of the eastern Georgian climate change upon water resources is investigated.

Keywords: climate, droughts, pollution, water resources

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32 Petrogeochemistry of Hornblende-Bearing Gabbro Intrusive, the Greater Caucasus

Authors: Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Tamara Tsutsunava, Nikoloz Maisuradze, Giorgi Beridze


The Jalovchat gabbro intrusive is exposed on the northern and southern slopes of Main Range zone of the Greater Caucasus, on an area about 25km2. It is intruded in Precambrian crystalline schists and amphibolites intensively metamorphose them along the contact zone. The intrusive is represented by hornblende-bearing gabbro, gabbro-norites and norites including thin vein bodies of gabbro-pegmatites, anorthosites and micro-gabbros. Especially should be noted the veins of gabbro-pegmatites with the gigantic (up to 0.5m) hornblende crystals. From this point of view, the Jalovchat gabbroid intrusive is particularly interesting and by its unusual composition has no analog in the Caucasus overall. The comprehensive petrologic and geochemical study of the intrusive was carried out by the authors. The results of investigations are following. Amphiboles correspond to magnesiohastingsite and magnesiohornblende. In hastingsite and hornblende as a result of isovalent isomorphism of Fe2+ by Mg, content of the latter has been increased. By AMF and Na20+K diagrams the intrusive rocks correspond to tholeiitic basalts or to basalts close to it by composition. According to ACM-AMF double diagram the samples distributed in the fields of MORB and alkali cumulates. In TiO2/FeO+Fe2O3, Zr/Y-Zr and Ti-Cr/Ni diagrams and Ti-Cr-Y triangular diagram samples are arranged in the fields of island-arc and mid-oceanic basalts or along the trends reflecting mid-oceanic ridges or island arcs. K2O/TiO2 diagram shows that these rocks belong to normal and enriched MORB type. According to Th/Nb/Y ratio, the Jalovchat intrusive composition corresponds to depleted mantle, but by Sm/Y-Ce/Sm - to the MORB area. Th/Y and Nb/Y ratios coincide with the MORB composition, Th/Yb-Ta/Yb and La/Nb-Ti ratios correspond to N MORB, and Rb/Y and N/Y - to the lower crust formations. Exceptional are Ce/Pb-Ce and Nb/Th-Nb diagrams, showing the area of primitive mantle. Spidergrams are characterized by almost horizontal trend, weakly expressed Eu minimums and by a slight depletion of light REE. Similar are characteristic of typical tholeiit basalts. In comparison to MORB spidergrams, they are characterized by depletion of light REE. Their correlation to the spidergrams of Jalovchat intrusive proves that they are more depleted. The above cited points to the gradual depletion of mantle with the light REE in geological time. The RE and REE diagrams reveal unexpected regularity. In particular, petro-geochemical characteristics of Jalovchat gabbroid intrusive predominantly correspond to MORB, that usually is an anomalous phenomenon, since in ‘ophiolitic’ section magmatic formations represented mainly by gigantic prismatic hornblende-bearing gabbro and gabbro-pegmatite are not indicated. On the basis of petro-mineralogical and petro-geochemical data analysis, the authors consider that the Jalovchat intrusive belongs to the subduction geodynamic type. In the depleted mantle rich in water the MORB rock system has subducted, where the favorable conditions for crystallization of hornblende and especially for its gigantic crystals occurred. It is considered that the Jalovchat intrusive was formed in deep horizons of the Earth’s crust as a result of crystallization of water-bearing Bajocian basalt magma.

Keywords: The Greater Caucasus, gabbro-pegmatite, hornblende-bearing gabbro, petrogenesis

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31 Biotite from Contact-Metamorphosed Rocks of the Dizi Series of the Greater Caucasus

Authors: Irakli Javakhishvili, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Beridze


The Caucasus is a component of the Mediterranean collision belt. The Dizi series is situated within the Greater Caucasian region of the Caucasus and crops out in the core of the Svaneti anticlinorium. The series was formed in the continental slope conditions on the southern passive margin of the small ocean basin. The Dizi series crops out on about 560 square km with the thickness 2000-2200 m. The rocks are faunally dated from the Devonian to the Triassic inclusive. The series is composed of terrigenous phyllitic schists, sandstones, quartzite aleurolites and lenses and interlayers of marbleized limestones. During the early Cimmerian orogeny, they underwent regional metamorphism of chlorite-sericite subfacies of greenschist facies. Typical minerals of metapelites are chlorite, sericite, augite, quartz, and tourmaline, but of basic rocks - actinolite, fibrolite, prehnite, calcite, and chlorite are developed. Into the Dizi series, polyphase intrusions of gabbros, diorites, quartz-diorites, syenite-diorites, syenites, and granitoids are intruded. Their K-Ar age dating (176-165Ma) points out that their formation corresponds to the Bathonian orogeny. The Dizi series is well-studied geologically, but very complicated processes of its regional and contact metamorphisms are insufficiently investigated. The aim of the authors was a detailed study of contact metamorphism processes of the series rocks. Investigations were accomplished applying the following methodologies: finding of key sections, a collection of material, microscopic study of samples, microprobe and structural analysis of minerals and X-ray determination of elements. The Dizi series rocks formed under the influence of the Bathonian magmatites on metapelites and carbonate-enriched rocks. They are represented by quartz, biotite, sericite, graphite, andalusite, muscovite, plagioclase, corundum, cordierite, clinopyroxene, hornblende, cummingtonite, actinolite, and tremolite bearing hornfels, marbles, and skarns. The contact metamorphism aureole reaches 350 meters. Biotite is developed only in contact-metamorphosed rocks and is a rather informative index mineral. In metapelites, biotite is formed as a result of the reaction between phengite, chlorite, and leucoxene, but in basites, it replaces actinolite or actinolite-hornblende. To study the compositional regularities of biotites, they were investigated from both - metapelites and metabasites. In total, biotite from the basites is characterized by an increased of titanium in contrast to biotite from metapelites. Biotites from metapelites are distinguished by an increased amount of aluminum. In biotites an increased amount of titanium and aluminum is observed as they approximate the contact, while their magnesia content decreases. Metapelite biotites are characterized by an increased amount of alumina in aluminum octahedrals, in contrast to biotite of the basites. In biotites of metapelites, the amount of tetrahedric aluminum is 28–34%, octahedral - 15–26%, and in basites tetrahedral aluminum is 28–33%, and octahedral 7–21%. As a result of the study of minerals, including biotite, from the contact-metamorphosed rocks of the Dizi series three exocontact zones with corresponding mineral assemblages were identified. It was established that contact metamorphism in the aureole of the Dizi series intrusions is going on at a significantly higher temperature and lower pressure than the regional metamorphism preceding the contact metamorphism.

Keywords: biotite, contact metamorphism, Dizi series, the Greater Caucasus

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30 Digital Geological Map of the Loki Crystalline Massif (The Caucasus) and Its Multi-Informative Explanatory Note

Authors: Irakli Gamkrelidze, David Shengelia, Giorgi Chichinadze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Beridze, Tamara Tsamalashvili, Ketevan Tedliashvili, Irakli Javakhishvili


The Caucasus is situated between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates and represents a component of the Mediterranean (Alpine-Himalayan) collision belt. The Loki crystalline massif crops out within one of the terranes of the Caucasus – Baiburt-Sevanian terrane. By the end of 2018, a digital geological map (1:50 000) of the Loki massif was compiled. The presented map is of great importance for the region since there is no large-scale geological map which reflects the present standards of the geological study of the massif up to the last time. The existing State Geological Map of the Loki massif is very outdated. A new map drown by using GIS (Geographic Information System) technology is loaded with multi-informative details that include: specified contours of geological units and separate tectonic scales, key mineral assemblages and facies of metamorphism, temperature conditions of metamorphism, ages of metamorphism events and the massif rocks, genetic-geodynamic types of magmatic rocks. Explanatory note, attached to the map includes the large specter of scientific information. It contains characterization of the geological setting, composition and petrogenetic and geodynamic models of the massif formation. To create a geological map of the Loki crystalline massif, appropriate methodologies were applied: a sampling of rocks, GIS technology-based mapping of geological units, microscopic description of the material, composition analysis of rocks, microprobe analysis of minerals and a new interpretation of obtained data. To prepare a digital version of the map the appropriated activities were held including the creation of a common database. Finally, the design was created that includes the elaboration of legend and the final visualization of the map. The results of the study presented in the explanatory note are given below. The autochthonous gneissose quartz diorites of normal alkalinity and sub-alkaline gabbro-diorites included in them belong to different phases of magmatism. They represent “igneous” granites corresponding to mixed mantle-crustal type granites. Four tectonic plates of the allochthonous metamorphic complex–Lower Gorastskali, Sapharlo–Lok-Jandari, Moshevani, and Lower Gorastskali differ from each other by structure and degree of metamorphism. The initial rocks of these plates are formed in different geodynamic conditions and during the Early Bretonian orogeny while overthrusting due to tectonic compression they form a thick tectonic sheet. The Lower Gorastskali overthrust sheet is a fragment of ophiolitic association corresponding to the Paleotethys oceanic crust. The protolith of the ophiolitic complex basites corresponds to the tholeiitic series of basalts. The Sapharlo–Lok-Jandari overthrust sheet is metapelites, metamorphosed in conditions of greenschist facies of regional metamorphism. The regional metamorphism of Moshevani overthrust sheet crystalline schists quartzites corresponds to a range from greenschist to hornfels facies. The “mélange” is built of rock fragments and blocks of above-mentioned overthrust sheets. Sub-alkaline and normal alkaline post-metamorphic granites of the Loki crystalline massif belong to “igneous” and rarely to “sialic” and “anorogenic” types of granites.

Keywords: digital geological map, 1:50 000 scale, crystalline massif, the caucasus

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29 Complete Chloroplast DNA Sequences of Georgian Endemic Polyploid Wheats

Authors: M. Gogniashvili, I. Maisaia, A. Kotorashvili, N. Kotaria, T. Beridze


Three types of plasmon (A, B and G) is typical for genus Triticum. In polyploid species - Triticum turgidum L. and Triticum aestivum L. plasmon B is detected. In the forthcoming paper, complete nucleotide sequence of chloroplast DNA of 11 representatives of Georgian wheat polyploid species, carrying plasmon B was determined. Sequencing of chloroplast DNA was performed on an Illumina MiSeq platform. Chloroplast DNA molecules were assembled using the SOAPdenovo computer program. All contigs were aligned to the reference chloroplast genome sequence using BLASTN. For detection of SNPs and Indels and phylogeny tree construction computer programs Mafft and Blast were used. Using Triticum aestivum L. subsp. macha (Dekapr. & Menabde) Mackey var. paleocolchicum Dekapr. et Menabde as a reference, 5 SNPs can be identified in chloroplast DNA of Georgian endemic polyploid wheat. The number of noncoding substitutions is 2, coding substitutions - 3. In comparison with reference DNA two - 38 bp and 56 bp inversions were observed in paleocolchicum subspecies. There were six 1 bp indels detected in Georgian polyploid wheats, all of them at microsatellite stretches. The phylogeny tree shows that subspecies macha, carthlicum and paleocolchicum occupy different positions. According to the simplified scheme based on SNP and indel data, the ancestral, female parent of the all studied polyploid wheat is unknown X predecesor, from which four lines were formed. 1 SNP and two inversions (38 bp and 56 bp) caused the formation of subsp. paleocolchicum. Three other lines are macha, durum and carthlicum lines. Macha line is further divided into two sublines (M_1 and M_4). Carthlicum line includes subsp.carthlicum and T.aestivum - C_1 - C_2 - A_1. One of the central question of wheat domestication is which people(s) participated in wheat domestication? It is proposed that the predecessors of Georgian peoples (Proto-Kartvelians) must be placed, on the evidence of archaic lexical and toponymic data, in the mountainous regions of the western and central part of the Little Caucasus (the Transcaucasian foothills) at least 4,000 years ago. One of the possibility to explain the ‘wheat puzzle’ is that Kartvelian speakers brought domesticated wheat species and subspecis from Fertile Crescent further north to South Caucasus.

Keywords: chloroplast DNA, sequencing, SNP, triticum

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28 On Regional Climate Singularity: On Example of the Territory of Georgia

Authors: T. Davitashvili


In this paper, some results of numerical simulation of the air flow dynamics in the troposphere over the Caucasus Mountains taking place in conditions of nonstationarity of large-scale undisturbed background flow are presented. Main features of the atmospheric currents changeability while air masses are transferred from the Black Sea to the land’s surface had been investigated. In addition, the effects of thermal and advective-dynamic factors of atmosphere on the changes of the West Georgian climate have been studied. It was shown that non-proportional warming of the Black Sea and Colkhi lowland provokes the intensive strengthening of circulation and effect of climate cooling in the western Georgia.

Keywords: regional climate, numerical simulation, local circulation, orographic effect

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27 Extremophilic Amylases of Mycelial Fungi Strains Isolated in South Caucasus for Starch Processing

Authors: T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, L. Kutateladze, M. Jobava, T. Burduli, T. Alexidze


There is an increasing interest in reliable, wasteless, ecologically friendly technologies. About 40% of enzymes produced all over the world are used for production of syrups with high concentration of glucose-fructose. One of such technologies complies obtaining fermentable sugar glucose from raw materials containing starch by means of amylases. In modern alcohol-producing factories this process is running in two steps, involving two enzymes of different origin: bacterial α-amylase and fungal glucoamylase, as generally fungal amylases are less thermostable as compared to bacterial amylases. Selection of stable and operable at 700С and higher temperatures enzyme preparation with both α- and glucoamylase activities will allow conducting this process in one step. S. Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology owns unique collection of mycelial fungi, isolated from different ecological niches of Caucasus. As a result of screening our collection 39 strains poducing amylases were revealed. Most of them belong to the genus Aspergillus. Optimum temperatures of action of selected amylases from three producers were estableshed to be within the range 67-80°C. A. niger B-6 showed higher α-amylase activity at 67°C, and glucoamylase activity at 62°C, A. niger 6-12 showed higher α-amylase activity at 72°C, and glucoamylase activity at 65°C, Aspergillus niger p8-3 showed higher activities at 82°C and 70°C, for α-amylase and glucoamylase activities, respectively. Exhaustive hydrolysis process of starch solutions of different concentrations (3, 5, 15, and 30 %) with cultural liquid and technical preparation of Aspergillus niger p8-3 enzyme was studied. In case of low concentrations exhaustive hydrolysis of starch lasts 40–60 minutes, in case of high concentrations hydrolysis takes longer time. 98, 6% yield of glucose can be reached at incubation during 12 hours with enzyme cultural liquid and 8 hours incubation with technical preparation of the enzyme at gradual increase of temperature from 50°C to 82°C during the first 20 minutes and further decrease of temperature to 70°C. Temperature setting for high yield of glucose and high hydrolysis (pasteurizing), optimal for activity of these strains is the prerequisite to be able to carry out hydrolysis of starch to glucose in one step, and consequently, using one strain, what will be economically justified.

Keywords: amylase, glucose hydrolisis, stability, starch

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26 Regional Metamorphism of the Loki Crystalline Massif Allochthonous Complex of the Caucasus

Authors: David Shengelia, Giorgi Chichinadze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Beridze, Irakli Javakhishvili


The Loki pre-Alpine crystalline massif crops out within the Caucasus region. The massif basement is represented by the Upper Devonian gneissose quartz-diorites, the Lower-Middle Paleozoic metamorphic allochthonous complex, and different magmatites. Earlier, the metamorphic complex was considered as indivisible set represented by the series of different temperature metamorphits. The degree of metamorphism of separate parts of the complex is due to different formation conditions. This fact according to authors of the abstract was explained by the allochthonous-flaky structure of the complex. It was stated that the complex thrust over the gneissose quartz diorites before the intrusion of Sudetic granites. During the detailed mapping, the authors turned out that the metamorphism issues need to be reviewed and additional researches to be carried out. Investigations were accomplished by using the following methodologies: finding of key sections, a sampling of rocks, microscopic description of the material, analytical determination of elements in the rocks, microprobe analysis of minerals and new interpretation of obtained data. According to the author’s recent data within the massif four tectonic plates: Lower Gorastskali, Sapharlo-Lok-Jandari, Moshevani and “mélange” overthrust sheets have been mapped. They differ from each other by composition, the degree of metamorphism and internal structure. It is confirmed that the initial rocks of the tectonic plates formed in different geodynamic conditions during overthrusting due to tectonic compression form a thick tectonic sheet. Based on the detailed laboratory investigations additional mineral assemblages were established, temperature limits were specified, and a renewed trend of metamorphism facies and subfacies was elaborated. The results are the following: 1. The Lower Gorastskali overthrust sheet is a fragment of ophiolitic association corresponding to the Paleotethys oceanic crust. The main rock-forming minerals are carbonate, chlorite, spinel, epidote, clinoptilolite, plagioclase, hornblende, actinolite, hornblende, albite, serpentine, tremolite, talc, garnet, and prehnite. Regional metamorphism of rocks corresponds to the greenschist facies lowest stage. 2. The Sapharlo-Lok-Jandari overthrust sheet metapelites are represented by chloritoid, chlorite, phengite, muscovite, biotite, garnet, ankerite, carbonate, and quartz. Metabasites containing actinolite, chlorite, plagioclase, calcite, epidote, albite, actinolitic hornblende and hornblende are also present. The degree of metamorphism corresponds to the greenschist high-temperature chlorite, biotite, and low-temperature garnet subfacies. Later the rocks underwent the contact influence of Late Variscan granites. 3. The Moshevani overthrust sheet is represented mainly by metapelites and rarely by metabasites. Main rock-forming minerals of metapelites are muscovite, biotite, chlorite, quartz, andalusite, plagioclase, garnet and cordierite and of metabasites - plagioclase, green and blue-green hornblende, chlorite, epidote, actinolite, albite, and carbonate. Metamorphism level corresponds to staurolite-andalusite subfacies of staurolite facies and partially to facies of biotite muscovite gneisses and hornfelse facies as well. 4. The “mélange” overthrust sheet is built of different size rock fragments and blocks of Moshevani and Lower Gorastskali overthrust sheets. The degree of regional metamorphism of first and second overthrust sheets of the Loki massif corresponds to chlorite, biotite, and low-temperature garnet subfacies, but of the third overthrust sheet – to staurolite-andalusite subfacies of staurolite facies and partially to facies of biotite muscovite gneisses and hornfelse facies.

Keywords: regional metamorphism, crystalline massif, mineral assemblages, the Caucasus

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25 'Caucasian Mountaineer / Scottish Highlander': Correlation between Semantics and Culture

Authors: Natalia M. Nepomniashchikh


The research focuses on Russian and English linguoculturemes Caucasian mountaineer and Scottish Highlander, the effort of comparative-contrastive analysis was made. In order to reach the aim, the analysis of the vocabulary definitions of the concepts under consideration was taken, which made it possible to build the lexical-semantic fields of both lexical items in Russian and English. This stage of research helped to turn to the linguistic-cultural fields construction. To build these fields, literary pieces containing the concepts under consideration and the items directly related to them were taken from the works about the Caucasus mountains and mountaineers living there by M. Yu. Lermontov and the ones by W. Scott devoted to the Scottish Highlands and their inhabitants. All collected data was systematized in schemes and tables reflecting the differences and intercrossing areas.

Keywords: lexemes, lexical items, lexical-semantic field, linguistic-cultural field, linguoculturemes

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24 Petrology, Geochemistry and Formation Conditions of Metaophiolites of the Loki Crystalline Massif (the Caucasus)

Authors: Irakli Gamkrelidze, David Shengelia, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Chichinadze, Giorgi Beridze, Ketevan Tedliashvili, Tamara Tsamalashvili


The Loki crystalline massif crops out in the Caucasian region and the geological retrospective represent the northern marginal part of the Baiburt-Sevanian terrain (island arc), bordering with the Paleotethys oceanic basin in the north. The pre-Alpine basement of the massif is built up of Lower-Middle Paleozoic metamorphic complex (metasedimentary and metabasite rocks), Upper Devonian quartz-diorites and Late Variscan granites. Earlier metamorphic complex was considered as an indivisible set including suites with different degree of metamorphism. Systematic geologic, petrologic and geochemical investigations of the massif’s rocks suggest the different conception on composition, structure and formation conditions of the massif. In particular, there are two main rock types in the Loki massif: the oldest autochthonous series of gneissic quartz-diorites and cutting them granites. The massif is flanked on its western side by a volcano-sedimentary sequence, metamorphosed to low-T facies. Petrologic, metamorphic and structural differences in this sequence prove the existence of a number of discrete units (overthrust sheets). One of them, the metabasic sheet represents the fragment of ophiolite complex. It comprises transition types of the second and third layers of the Paleooceanic crust: the upper noncumulated part of the third layer gabbro component and the following lowest part of the parallel diabase dykes of the second layer. The ophiolites are represented by metagabbros, metagabbro-diabases, metadiabases and amphibolite schists. According to the content of petrogenic components and additive elements in metabasites is stated that the protolith of metabasites belongs to petrochemical type of tholeiitic series of basalts. The parental magma of metaophiolites is of E-MORB composition, and by petrochemical parameters, it is very close to the composition of intraplate basalts. The dykes of hypabissal leucocratic siliceous and medium magmatic rocks associated with the metaophiolite sheet form the separate complex. They are granitoids with the extremely low content of CaO and quartz-diorite porphyries. According to various petrochemical parameters, these rocks have mixed characteristics. Their formation took place in spreading conditions or in the areas of manifestation of plumes most likely of island arc type. The metamorphism degree of the metaophiolites corresponds to a very low stage of green schist facies. The rocks of the metaophiolite complex are obducted from the Paleotethys Ocean. Geological and paleomagnetic data show that the primary location of the ocean is supposed to be to the north of the Loki crystalline massif.

Keywords: the Caucasus, crystalline massif, ophiolites, tectonic sheet

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23 Sedimentation and Morphology of the Kura River-Deltaic System in the Southern Caucasus under Anthropogenic and Sea-Level Controls

Authors: Elmira Aliyeva, Dadash Huseynov, Robert Hoogendoorn, Salomon Kroonenberg


The Kura River is the major water artery in the Southern Caucasus; it is a third river in the Caspian Sea basin in terms of length and size of the catchment area, the second in terms of the water budget, and the first in the volume of sediment load. Understanding of major controls on the Kura fluvial- deltaic system is valuable for efficient management of the highly populated river basin and coastal zone. We have studied grain size of sediments accumulated in the river channels and delta and dated by 210Pb method, astrophotographs, old topographic and geological maps, and archive data. At present time sediments are supplied by the Kura River to the Caspian Sea through three distributary channels oriented north-east, south-east, and south-west. The river is dominated by the suspended load - mud, silt, very fine sand. Coarse sediments are accumulated in the distributaries, levees, point bar, and delta front. The annual suspended sediment budget in the time period 1934-1952 before construction of the Mingechavir water reservoir in 1953 in the Kura River midstream area was 36 mln.t/yr. From 1953 to 1964, the suspended load has dropped to 12 mln.t/yr. After regulation of the Kura River discharge the volume of suspended load transported via north-eastern channel reduced from 35% of the total sediment amount to 4%, and through the main south-eastern channel increased from 65% to 96% with further fall to 56% due to creation of new south-western channel in 1964. Between 1967-1976 the annual sediment budget of the Kura River reached 22,5 mln. t/yr. From 1977 to 1986, the sediment load carried by the Kura River dropped to 17,6 mln.t/yr. The historical data show that between 1860 and 1907, during relatively stable Caspian Sea level two channels - N and SE, appear to have distributed an equal amount of sediments as seen from the bilateral geometry of the delta. In the time period 1907-1929, two new channels - E and NE, appeared. The growth of three delta lobes - N, NE, and SE, and rapid progradation of the delta has occurred on the background of the Caspian Sea level rise as a result of very high sediment supply. Since 1929 the Caspian Sea level decline was followed by the progradation of the delta occurring along the SE channel. The eastern and northern channels have been silted up. The slow rate of progradation at its initial stage was caused by the artificial reduction in the sediment budget. However, the continuous sea-level fall has brought to this river bed gradient increase, high erosional rate, increase in the sediment supply, and more rapid progradation. During the subsequent sea-level rise after 1977 accompanied by the decrease in the sediment budget, the southern part of the delta has turned into a complex of small, shallow channels oriented to the south. The data demonstrate that behaviour of the Kura fluvial – deltaic system and variations in the sediment budget besides anthropogenic regulation are strongly governed by the Caspian Sea level very rapid changes.

Keywords: anthropogenic control on sediment budget, Caspian sea-level variations, Kura river sediment load, morphology of the Kura river delta, sedimentation in the Kura river delta

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22 The Late Bronze Age Archeometallurgy of Copper in Mountainous Colchis (Lechkhumi), Georgia

Authors: Nino Sulava, Brian Gilmour, Nana Rezesidze, Tamar Beridze, Rusudan Chagelishvili


Studies of ancient metallurgy are a subject of worldwide current interest. Georgia with its famous early metalworking traditions is one of the central parts of in the Caucasus region. The aim of the present study is to introduce the results of archaeometallurgical investigations being undertaken in the mountain region of Colchis, Lechkhumi (the Tsageri Municipality of western Georgia) and establish their place in the existing archaeological context. Lechkhumi (one of the historic provinces of Georgia known from Georgian, Greek, Byzantine and Armenian written sources as Lechkhumi/Skvimnia/Takveri) is the part of the Colchian mountain area. It is one of the important but little known centres of prehistoric metallurgy in the Caucasian region and of Colchian Bronze Age culture. Reconnaissance archaeological expeditions (2011-2015) revealed significant prehistoric metallurgical sites in Lechkhumi. Sites located in the vicinity of Dogurashi Village (Tsageri Municipality) have become the target area for archaeological excavations. During archaeological excavations conducted in 2016-2018 two archaeometallurgical sites – Dogurashi I and Dogurashi II were investigated. As a result of an interdisciplinary (archaeological, geological and geophysical) survey, it has been established that at both prehistoric Dogurashi mountain sites, it was copper that was being smelted and the ore sources are likely to be of local origin. Radiocarbon dating results confirm they were operating between about the 13th and 9th century BC. More recently another similar site has been identified in this area (Dogurashi III), and this is about to undergo detailed investigation. Other prehistoric metallurgical sites are being located and investigated in the Lechkhumi region as well as chance archaeological finds (often in hoards) – copper ingots, metallurgical production debris, slag, fragments of crucibles, tuyeres (air delivery pipes), furnace wall fragments and other related waste debris. Other chance finds being investigated are the many copper, bronze and (some) iron artefacts that have been found over many years. These include copper ingots, copper, bronze and iron artefacts such as tools, jewelry, and decorative items. These show the important but little known or understood the role of Lechkhumi in the late Bronze Age culture of Colchis. It would seem that mining and metallurgical manufacture form part of the local agricultural yearly lifecycle. Colchian ceramics have been found and also evidence for artefact production, small stone mould fragments and encrusted material from the casting of a fylfot (swastika) form of Colchian bronze buckle found in the vicinities of the early settlements of Tskheta and Dekhviri. Excavation and investigation of previously unknown archaeometallurgical sites in Lechkhumi will contribute significantly to the knowledge and understanding of prehistoric Colchian metallurgy in western Georgia (Adjara, Guria, Samegrelo, and Svaneti) and will reveal the importance of this region in the study of ancient metallurgy in Georgia and the Caucasus. Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (grant FR # 217128).

Keywords: archaeometallurgy, Colchis, copper, Lechkhumi

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21 Fungal Cellulase/Xylanase Complex and Their Industrial Applications

Authors: L. Kutateldze, T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, N. Zakariashvili, I. Khokhashvili, T. Sadunishvili


Microbial cellulase/xylanase have shown their potential application in various industries including pulp and paper, textile, laundry, biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, and agriculture. Extremophilic micromycetes and their enzymes that are resistant to critical values of temperature and pH, and retaining enzyme activity for a long time are of great industrial interest. Among strains of microscopic fungi from the collection of S. Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, strains isolated from different ecological niches of Southern Caucasus-active producers of cellulase/xylanase have been selected by means of screening under deep cultivation conditions. Extremophilic micromycetes and their enzymes that are resistant to critical values of temperature and pH, and retaining enzyme activity for a long time are of great industrial interest. Among strains of microscopic fungi from the collection of S. Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, strains isolated from different ecological niches of Southern Caucasus-active producers of cellulase/xylanase have been selected by means of screening under deep cultivation conditions. Representatives of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma are outstanding by relatively high activities of these enzymes. Among the producers were revealed thermophilic strains, representatives of the genus Aspergillus-Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus wentii, also strains of Sporotrichum pulverulentum and Chaetomium thermophile. As a result of optimization of cultivation media and conditions, activities of enzymes produced by the strains have been increased by 4 -189 %. Two strains, active producers of cellulase/xylanase – Penicillium canescence E2 (mesophile) and Aspergillus versicolor Z17 (thermophile) were chosen for further studies. Cellulase/xylanase enzyme preparations from two different genera of microscopic fungi Penicillium canescence E2 and Aspergillus versicolor Z 17 were obtained with activities 220 U/g /1200 U/g and 125 U/g /940 U/g, correspondingly. Main technical characteristics were as follows: the highest enzyme activities were obtained for mesophilic strain Penicillium canescence E2 at 45-500C, while almost the same enzyme activities were fixed for the thermophilic strain Aspergillus versicolor Z 17 at temperature 60-65°C, exceeding the temperature optimum of the mesophile by 150C. Optimum pH of action of the studied cellulase/xylanases from mesophileic and thermophilic strains were similar and equaled to 4.5-5.0 It has been shown that cellulase/xylanase technical preparations from selected strains of Penicillium canescence E2 and Aspergillus versicolor Z17 hydrolyzed cellulose of untreated wheat straw to reducible sugars by 46-52%, and to glucose by 22-27%. However the thermophilic enzyme preparations from the thermophilic A.versicolor strains conducted the process at 600C higher by 100C as compared to mesophlic analogue. Rate of hydrolyses of the pretreated substrate by the same enzyme preparations to reducible sugars and glucose conducted at optimum for their action 60 and 500C was 52-61% and 29-33%, correspondingly. Thus, maximum yield of glucose and reducible sugars form untreated and pretreated wheat straw was achieved at higher temperature (600C) by enzyme preparations from thermophilic strain, which gives advantage for their industrial application.

Keywords: cellulase/xylanase, cellulose hydrolysis, microscopic fungi, thermophilic strain

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20 Global Processes and Georgian Economic Policy

Authors: Anzor Abralava, Ketevan Kokrashvili, Rusudan Kutateladze, Nino Pailodze, Ketevan Kutateladze, Giorgi Sulashvili


Nowadays when the integration of states is growing fast, it is urgent to study the rules of behavior which they resort to in case of conflicts and disagreements. The reason of disagreement in many ways is the Foreign policy carried out by separate countries, as the market participants define production and export capacity and structure as well as level of international division of labor due to the competition among them. We can say over and over again that outbreak of conflicts in Georgia displays the serious controversy between political and economic powerhouses. However, to tell the truth existence of the unsolved conflicts in Georgia is the result of weakness and inadequacy of Georgian politics. Today the main task of political quarters in Georgia should be a direction to Caucasus, as to the region burdened with the most complicated problems which blockade the settlement of conflicts and farther development of our country (or vice versa). In this situation rehabilitation of our authority, leading role and hegemony; expansion and consolidation of peacekeeping and other missions are considered as the exact activities for accomplishing all Georgian economic and political goals.

Keywords: Awara Group, political centers, administrative services, dynamic process

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19 Petrogenetic Model of Formation of Orthoclase Gabbro of the Dzirula Crystalline Massif, the Caucasus

Authors: David Shengelia, Tamara Tsutsunava, Manana Togonidze, Giorgi Chichinadze, Giorgi Beridze


Orthoclase gabbro intrusive exposes in the Eastern part of the Dzirula crystalline massif of the Central Transcaucasian microcontinent. It is intruded in the Baikal quartz-diorite gneisses as a stock-like body. The intrusive is characterized by heterogeneity of rock composition: variability of mineral content and irregular distribution of rock-forming minerals. The rocks are represented by pyroxenites, gabbro-pyroxenites and gabbros of different composition – K-feldspar, pyroxene-hornblende and biotite bearing varieties. Scientific views on the genesis and age of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive are considerably different. Based on the long-term pertogeochemical and geochronological investigations of the intrusive with such an extraordinary composition the authors came to the following conclusions. According to geological and geophysical data, it is stated that in the Saurian orogeny horizontal tectonic layering of the Earth’s crust of the Central Transcaucasian microcontinent took place. That is precisely this fact that explains the formation of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive. During the tectonic doubling of the Earth’s crust of the mentioned microcontinent thick tectonic nappes of mafic and sialic layers overlap the sialic basement (‘inversion’ layer). The initial magma of the intrusive was of high-temperature basite-ultrabasite composition, crystallization products of which are pyroxenites and gabbro-pyroxenites. Petrochemical data of the magma attest to its formation in the Upper mantle and partially in the ‘crustal astenolayer’. Then, a newly formed overheated dry magma with phenocrysts of clinopyrocxene and basic plagioclase intruded into the ‘inversion’ layer. From the new medium it was enriched by the volatile components causing the selective melting and as a result the formation of leucocratic quartz-feldspar material. At the same time in the basic magma intensive transformation of pyroxene to hornblende was going on. The basic magma partially mixed with the newly formed acid magma. These different magmas intruded first into the allochthonous basite layer without its significant transformation and then into the upper sialic layer and crystallized here at a depth of 7-10 km. By petrochemical data the newly formed leucocratic granite magma belongs to the S type granites, but the above mentioned mixed magma – to H (hybrid) type. During the final stage of magmatic processes the gabbroic rocks impregnated with high-temperature feldspar-bearing material forming anorthoclase or orthoclase. Thus, so called ‘orthoclase gabbro’ includes the rocks of various genetic groups: 1. protolith of gabbroic intrusive; 2. hybrid rock – K-feldspar gabbro and 3. leucocratic quartz-feldspar bearing rock. Petrochemical and geochemical data obtained from the hybrid gabbro and from the inrusive protolith differ from each other. For the identification of petrogenetic model of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive formation LA-ICP-MS- U-Pb zircon dating has been conducted in all three genetic types of gabbro. The zircon age of the protolith – mean 221.4±1.9 Ma and of hybrid K-feldspar gabbro – mean 221.9±2.2 Ma, records crystallization time of the intrusive, but the zircon age of quartz-feldspar bearing rocks – mean 323±2.9 Ma, as well as the inherited age (323±9, 329±8.3, 332±10 and 335±11 Ma) of hybrid K-feldspar gabbro corresponds to the formation age of Late Variscan granitoids widespread in the Dzirula crystalline massif.

Keywords: The Caucasus, isotope dating, orthoclase-bearing gabbro, petrogenetic model

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18 Assessment of Water Resources and Inculcation of Controlled Water Consumption System

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Vajha Neidze, Nana Kvirkvelia, Tamar Chichinadze


Deficiency of fresh water is a vital global problem today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia has signed the association agreement with Euro Union last year where the priority spheres of cooperation are the management of water resources, development of trans-boundary approach to the problem and active participation in the “Euro Union water initiative” component of “the East Europe, Caucasus and the Central Asia”. Fresh water resources are the main natural wealth of Georgia. According to the average water layer height, Georgia is behind such European countries only as Norway, Switzerland and Austria. The annual average water provision of Georgia is 4-8 times higher than in its neighbor countries Armenia and Azerbaijan. Despite abundant water resources in Georgia, there is considerable discrepancy between their volume and use in some regions because of the uneven territorial distribution. In the East Georgia, water supply of the territory and population is four times less than in the West Georgia.

Keywords: GIS, water consumption, water management, water resources

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17 Solar Photovoltaic System (PV) Usages on Residential Houses in the Absheron Peninsula Region of the Republic of Azerbaijan: Obstacles and Opportunities

Authors: Elnur Abbasov


Energy security and climate change comprise some of the most important concerns facing humankind today and probably in the future if they are not addressed appropriately. In order to stabilize the global climate, there is the need for the world to lessen its use of fossil energy, which requires enhancement of current energy efficiency as well as the development of novel energy sources, such as energy obtained from renewable sources. There is no doubt that the steady transition towards a solar-based economy is likely to result in the development of completely new sectors, behaviours, and jobs that are pro-environmental. Azerbaijan Republic as the largest nation state in the South Caucasus Region has the potential for using and developing the renewable sources of energy in order to support the environmental challenge resolution associated with the climate change, improving the environmental situation in the country. Solar PV comprises one of the direct usages of solar energy. In this paper, sustainable PV usage scenario in residential houses was introduced to reduce negative environmental effects of land use, water consumption, air pollution etc. It was recommended by an author that, PV systems can be part of function and design of residential building components: such as roofs, walls, windows.

Keywords: energy efficiency, environmentally friendly, photovoltaic engineering, sustainable energy usage scenario

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16 Islamic Art and Architecture on Religious Buildings of Dagestan, Russia

Authors: Anahita Shahrokhi, Hamed Kazemzadeh


Various issues are included in cultural relations between societies. Art styles along with architectural similarities are by far one of the most noticeable cultural-historic relations. The Dagestan Republic located in the south of Russia Federation in the North Caucasus has had cultural relations with historical Iran since long ago and is considered as a part of the Islamic world. From Sassanid era and Islamic Empire prior to Tsars’ government, such relations had been maintained largely due to Iran and Islam’s political and social dominance over the region. The presence of the Iranians, mostly for business and commerce, is evident through not only written documents but also other cultural elements including architecture and art. Southern Dagestan and northern provinces of Iran, not distant from each other by sea, have a lot of artistic and cultural aspects in common. The architecture used in some structures such as religious centers, Tekie and Saqa Nafars strongly resembles religious centers in the south of Dagestan. The majority of these similarities lie in the wooden carvings, engravings, and paintings of the interior decorations on the pillars, capitals, walls, and ceilings, as well as the similarity of the plans. Such designs were formed in Safavid dynasty first in Mazandaran and later in Dagestan so that this style is currently named Persiski, meaning Persian, in the Dagestan Republic. These similarities indicate the relationship between the artists and educated people from Iran and Dagestan and the Iranians’ role on the religious and cultural development of Dagestan from the 17th and 18th centuries.

Keywords: wooden works, Mazandaran, Dagestan, Saqa Nafar, ritual and Islamic architecture

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15 Numerical Modelling of Dust Propagation in the Atmosphere of Tbilisi City in Case of Western Background Light Air

Authors: N. Gigauri, V. Kukhalashvili, A. Surmava, L. Intskirveli, L. Gverdtsiteli


Tbilisi, a large city of the South Caucasus, is a junction point connecting Asia and Europe, Russia and republics of the Asia Minor. Over the last years, its atmosphere has been experienced an increasing anthropogenic load. Numerical modeling method is used for study of Tbilisi atmospheric air pollution. By means of 3D non-linear non-steady numerical model a peculiarity of city atmosphere pollution is investigated during background western light air. Dust concentration spatial and time changes are determined. There are identified the zones of high, average and less pollution, dust accumulation areas, transfer directions etc. By numerical modeling, there is shown that the process of air pollution by the dust proceeds in four stages, and they depend on the intensity of motor traffic, the micro-relief of the city, and the location of city mains. In the interval of time 06:00-09:00 the intensive growth, 09:00-15:00 a constancy or weak decrease, 18:00-21:00 an increase, and from 21:00 to 06:00 a reduction of the dust concentrations take place. The highly polluted areas are located in the vicinity of the city center and at some peripherical territories of the city, where the maximum dust concentration at 9PM is equal to 2 maximum allowable concentrations. The similar investigations conducted in case of various meteorological situations will enable us to compile the map of background urban pollution and to elaborate practical measures for ambient air protection.

Keywords: air pollution, dust, numerical modeling, urban

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14 Geochemical Studies of Mud Volcanoes Fluids According to Petroleum Potential of the Lower Kura Depression (Azerbaijan)

Authors: Ayten Bakhtiyar Khasayeva


Lower Kura depression is a part of the South Caspian Basin (SCB), located between the folded regions of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus. The region is characterized by thick sedimentary cover 22 km (SCB up to 30 km), high sedimentation rate, low geothermal gradient (average value corresponds to 2 °C / 100m). There is Quaternary, Pliocene, Miocene and Oligocene deposits take part in geological structure. Miocene and Oligocene deposits are opened by prospecting and exploratory wells in the areas of Kalamaddin and Garabagli. There are 25 mud volcanoes within the territory of the Lower Kura depression, which are the unique source of information about hydrocarbons contenting great depths. During the wells data research, solid erupted products and mud volcano fluids, and according to the geological and thermal characteristics of the region, it was determined that the main phase of the hydrocarbon generation (MK1-AK2) corresponds to a wide range of depths from 10 to 14 km, which corresponds to the Pliocene-Miocene sediments, and to the "oil and gas windows" according to the intended meaning of R0 ≈ 0,65-0,85%. Fluids of mud volcanoes comprise by the following phases - gas, water. Gas phase consists mainly of methane (99%) of heavy hydrocarbons (С2+ hydrocarbons), CO2, N2, inert components He, Ar. The content of the С2+ hydrocarbons in the gases of mud volcanoes associated with oil deposits is increased. Carbon isotopic composition of methane for the Lower Kura depression varies from -40 ‰ to -60 ‰. Water of mud volcanoes are represented by all four genetic types. However the most typical types of water are HCN type. According to the Mg-Li geothermometer formation of mud waters corresponds to the temperature range from 20 °C to 140 °C (PC2). The solid product emissions of mud volcanoes identified 90 minerals and 30 trace elements. As a result geochemical investigation, thermobaric and geological conditions, zone oil and gas generation - the prospect of the Lower Kura depression is projected to depths greater than 10 km.

Keywords: geology, geochemistry, mud volcanoes, petroleum potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
13 Representation of Emotions and Characters in Turkish and Indian Series

Authors: Lienjang Zeite


Over the past few years, Turkish and Indian series have been distributed worldwide to countless households and have found ardent followers across different age group. The series have captured numerous hearts. Turkish and Indian series have become not only one of the best means of entertainment and relaxation but also a platform to learn and appreciate shared emotions and social messages. The popularity of the series has created a kind of interest in representing human emotions and stories like never before. The demands for such series have totally shifted the entertainment industry at a new level. The interest and vibe created by the series have had impacts on various departments spanning from technology to the fashion industry and it has also become the bridge to connect viewers across the globe. The series have amassed avid admirers who find solace in the beautiful visual representations of human relationships whether it is of lovers, family or friendship. The influence of Turkish and Indian series in many parts of the world has created a cultural phenomenon that has taken viewers beyond cultural and language differences. From China to Latin America, Arab countries and the Caucasus region, the series have been accepted and loved by millions of viewers. It has captivated audiences ranging from grandmothers to teenagers. Issues like language barrier are easily solved by means of translation or dubbing making it easier to understand and enjoy the series. Turkey and India are two different countries with their own unique culture and traditions. Both the countries are exporters of series in large scale. The series function as a platform to reveal the plots and shed lights on characters of all kinds. Both the countries produce series that are more or less similar in nature. However, there are also certain issues that are shown in different ways and light. The paper will discuss how emotions are represented in Turkish and Indian series. It will also discuss the ways the series have impacted the art of representing emotions and characters in the digital era. The representation of culture through Turkish and Indian series will be explored as well. The paper will also locate the issue of gender roles and how relationships are forged or abandoned in the series. The issue of character formation and importance of moral factors will be discussed. It will also examine the formula and ingredients of turning human emotions and characters into a much loved series.

Keywords: characters, cultural phenomenon, emotions, Turkish and Indian series

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12 Petrographic Properties of Sedimentary-Exhalative Type Ores of Filizchay Polymetallic Deposit

Authors: Samir Verdiyev, Fuad Huseynov, Islam Guliyev, Coşqun İsmayıl


The Filizchay polymetallic deposit is located on the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range, northwest of Azerbaijan in the Balaken district. Filizchay is the largest polymetallic deposit in the region and the second-largest polymetallic deposit in Europe. The mineral deposits in the region are associated with two different geodynamic evolutions that began with the Mesozoic collision along the Eurasian continent and the formation of a magmatic arc after the collision and continued with subduction in the Cenozoic. The bedrocks associated with Filizchay mineralization are Early Jurassic aged. The stratigraphic sequence of the deposit is consisting of black metamorphic clay shales, sandstones, and ore layers. Shales, sandstones, and siltstones are encountered in the upper and middle sections of the ore body, while only shales are observed at the lowest ranges. The ore body is mainly layered by the geometric structure of the bedrock; folding can be observed in the ore layers along with the bedrock foliation, and just in few points indirect laying due to the metamorphism. This suggests that the Filizchay ore mineralization is syngenetic, which is proved by the mineralization by the bedrock. To determine the ore petrography properties of the Filizchay deposit, samples were collected from the region where the ore is concentrated, and a polished section was prepared. These collected samples were examined under the mineralogical microscope to reveal the paragenesis of the mineralization and to explain the relation of ore minerals to each other. In this study, macroscopically observed minerals and textures of these minerals were used in the cores revealed during drilling exploration made by AzerGold CJS company. As a result of all these studies, it has been determined that there are three main mineralization types in the Filizchay deposit: banded, massive, and veinlet ores. The mineralization is in the massive pyrite; furthermore, the basis of the ore-mass contains pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena. The pyrite in some parts of the ore body transformed to pyrrhotite as a result of metamorphism. Pyrite-chalcopyrite, pyrite-sphalerite-galena, pyrite-pyrrhotite mineral assemblages were determined during microscopic studies of mineralization. The replacement texture is more developed in Filizchay ores. The banded polymetallic type mineralization and near bedrocks are cut by quartz-carbonate veins. The geotectonic position and lithological conditions of the Filizchay deposit, the texture, and interrelationship of the sulfide mineralization indicate that it is a sedimentary-exhalative type of Au-Cu-Ag-Zn-Pb polymetallic deposit that is genetically related to the massive sulfide deposits.

Keywords: Balaken, Filizchay, metamorphism, polymetallic mineralization

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11 Structural-Lithological Conditions of Formation of Epithermal Gold Sulphide Satellite Deposits in the North Part of Chovdar Ore Area

Authors: Nabat Gojaeva, Mikayil Naghiyev, Sultan Jafarov, Gular Mikayilova


Chovdar ore area is located in the contact of Dashkesan caldera and Shamkir horst-graben uplift, which comprises the central part of Lok-Karabakh Island arcs of South Caucasus metallogenic province in terms of regional tectonics. One of the main structural features of formation of the Mereh and Aghyokhush group of low sulfidation epithermal gold deposits, locating in the north peripheric part of the ore area, is involving the crossing areas of ore-hosting and ore-forming Pan-Caucasian-direction structurally-compound faults with the meridional, rhombically shaped faults. In addition, another significant feature is the temporally two- or three-stage ore formation. In the first stage -an early phase of Upper Bathonian age, sulfides are the dominant minerals, in the second stage- late ‘productive’ phase of Upper Bathonian age, mainly gold mineralization is formed. Also, in the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous ages, rarely-encountered Cu-polymetallic ore formations are documented. Finally, in the last stage, the re-dislocation of ore-formation is foreseen in the previously-formed mineralization areas. The faults in the strike and dip directions formed shearing, brecciation, sulfide mineralization aureoles, and hydrothermal alteration zones in the wall rocks along with the local depression blocks. The geological-structural analysis of the area shows that multiple and various morphogenetic volcano-tectonically fault systems have developed in the area. These fault systems have played a trap role for ore-formation in the intersected parts of faults mentioned above. Thus, in the referred parts, mostly predominance of felsic volcanism and metasomatic alteration (silicification, argillitic, etc.) of wall rocks, as well as the products of this volcanism, account for the inclusion of hydrothermal ore-forming fluids along these faults. It is possible to determine temporally and lithological-structural connection between the ore-formation along with local depression blocks and faults as borders for products of felsic volcanism of Upper Cretaceous-Lesser Jurassic ages, in the results of the replacement of hydrothermal alteration zones with relatively low-temperature metasomatic alterations while moving from the felsic parts to the margins, and due to being non-ore bearing intermediate and intermediate-felsic magmatic facies.

Keywords: Aghyokhush, fault, gold deposit, Mereh

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
10 Thorium Resources of Georgia – Is It Its Future Energy ?

Authors: Avtandil Okrostsvaridze, Salome Gogoladze


In the light of exhaustion of hydrocarbon reserves of new energy resources, its search is of vital importance problem for the modern civilization. At the time of energy resource crisis, the radioactive element thorium (232Th) is considered as the main energy resource for the future of our civilization. Modern industry uses thorium in high-temperature and high-tech tools, but the most important property of thorium is that like uranium it can be used as fuel in nuclear reactors. However, thorium has a number of advantages compared to this element: Its concentration in the earth crust is 4-5 times higher than uranium; extraction and enrichment of thorium is much cheaper than of uranium; it is less radioactive; its waste products complete destruction is possible; thorium yields much more energy than uranium. Nowadays, developed countries, among them India and China, have started intensive work for creation of thorium nuclear reactors and intensive search for thorium reserves. It is not excluded that in the next 10 years these reactors will completely replace uranium reactors. Thorium ore mineralization is genetically related to alkaline-acidic magmatism. Thorium accumulations occur as in endogen marked as in exogenous conditions. Unfortunately, little is known about the reserves of this element in Georgia, as planned prospecting-exploration works of thorium have never been carried out here. Although, 3 ore occurrences of this element are detected: 1) In the Greater Caucasus Kakheti segment, in the hydrothermally altered rocks of the Lower Jurassic clay-shales, where thorium concentrations varied between 51 - 3882g/t; 2) In the eastern periphery of the Dzirula massif, in the hydrothermally alteration rocks of the cambrian quartz-diorite gneisses, where thorium concentrations varied between 117-266 g/t; 3) In active contact zone of the Eocene volcanites and syenitic intrusive in Vakijvari ore field of the Guria region, where thorium concentrations varied between 185 – 428 g/t. In addition, geological settings of the areas, where thorium occurrences were fixed, give a theoretical basis on possible accumulation of practical importance thorium ores. Besides, the Black Sea Guria region magnetite sand which is transported from Vakijvari ore field, should contain significant reserves of thorium. As the research shows, monazite (thorium containing mineral) is involved in magnetite in the form of the thinnest inclusions. The world class thorium deposit concentrations of this element vary within the limits of 50-200 g/t. Accordingly, on the basis of these data, thorium resources found in Georgia should be considered as perspective ore deposits. Generally, we consider that complex investigation of thorium should be included into the sphere of strategic interests of the state, because future energy of Georgia, will probably be thorium.

Keywords: future energy, Georgia, ore field, thorium

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9 Upper Jurassic Foraminiferal Assemblages and Palaeoceanographical Changes in the Central Part of the East European Platform

Authors: Clementine Colpaert, Boris L. Nikitenko


The Upper Jurassic foraminiferal assemblages of the East European Platform have been strongly investigated through the 20th century with biostratigraphical and in smaller degree palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical purposes. Over the Late Jurassic, the platform was a shallow epicontinental sea that extended from Tethys to the Artic through the Pechora Sea and further toward the northeast in the West Siberian Sea. Foraminiferal assemblages of the Russian Sea were strongly affected by sea-level changes and were controlled by alternated Boreal to Peritethyan influences. The central part of the East European Platform displays very rich and diverse foraminiferal assemblages. Two sections have been analyzed; the Makar'yev Section in the Moscow Depression and the Gorodishi Section in the Yl'yanovsk Depression. Based on the evolution of foraminiferal assemblages, palaeoenvironment has been reconstructed, and sea-level changes have been refined. The aim of this study is to understand palaeoceanographical changes throughout the Oxfordian – Kimmeridgian of the central part of the Russian Sea. The Oxfordian was characterized by a general transgressive event with intermittency of small regressive phases. The platform was connected toward the south with Tethys and Peritethys. During the Middle Oxfordian, opening of a pathway of warmer water from the North-Tethys region to the Boreal Realm favoured the migration of planktonic foraminifera and the appearance of new benthic taxa. It is associated with increased temperature and primary production. During the Late Oxfordian, colder water inputs associated with the microbenthic community crisis may be a response to the closure of this warm-water corridor and the disappearance of planktonic foraminifera. The microbenthic community crisis is probably due to the increased sedimentation rate in the transition from the maximum flooding surface to a second-order regressive event, increasing productivity and inputs of organic matter along with sharp decrease of oxygen into the sediment. It is following during the Early Kimmeridgian by a replacement of foraminiferal assemblages. The almost all Kimmeridgian is characterized by the abundance of many common with Boreal and Subboreal Realm. Connections toward the South began again dominant after a small regressive event recorded during the Late Kimmeridgian and associated with the abundance of many common taxa with Subboreal Realm and Peritethys such as Crimea and Caucasus taxa. Foraminiferal assemblages of the East European Platform are strongly affected by palaeoecological changes and may display a very good model for biofacies typification under Boreal and Subboreal environments. The East European Platform appears to be a key area for the understanding of Upper Jurassic big scale palaeoceanographical changes, being connected with Boreal to Peritethyan basins.

Keywords: foraminifera, palaeoceanography, palaeoecology, upper jurassic

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8 STR and SNP Markers of Y-Chromosome Unveil Similarity between the Gene Pool of Kurds and Yezidis

Authors: M. Chukhryaeva, R. Skhalyakho, J. Kagazegeva, E. Pocheshkhova, L. Yepiskopossyan, O. Balanovsky, E. Balanovska


The Middle East is crossroad of different populations at different times. The Kurds are of particular interest in this region. Historical sources suggested that the origin of the Kurds is associated with Medes. Therefore, it was especially interesting to compare gene pool of Kurds with other supposed descendants of Medes-Tats. Yezidis are ethno confessional group of Kurds. Yezidism as a confessional teaching was formed in the XI-XIII centuries in Iraq. Yezidism has caused reproductively isolation of Yezidis from neighboring populations for centuries. Also, isolation helps to retain Yezidian caste system. It is unknown how the history of Yezidis affected its genу pool because it has never been the object of researching. We have examined the Y-chromosome variation in Yezidis and Kurdish males to understand their gene pool. We collected DNA samples from 90 Yezidi males and 24 Kurdish males together with their pedigrees. We performed Y-STR analysis of 17 loci in the samples collected (Yfiler system from Applied Biosystems) and analysis of 42 Y-SNPs by real-time PCR. We compared our data with published data from other Kurdish groups and from European, Caucasian, and West Asian populations. We found that gene pool of Yezidis contains haplogroups common in the Middle East (J-M172(xM67,M12)- 24%, E-M35(xM78)- 9%) and in South Western Asia (R-M124- 8%) and variant with wide distribution area - R-M198(xM458- 9%). The gene pool of Kurdish has higher genetic diversity than Yezidis. Their dominants haplogroups are R-M198- 20,3 %, E-M35- 9%, J-M172- 9%. Multidimensional scaling also shows that the Kurds and Yezidis are part of the same frontier Asian cluster, which, in addition, included Armenians, Iranians, Turks, and Greeks. At the same time, the peoples of the Caucasus and Europe form isolated clusters that do not overlap with the Asian clusters. It is noteworthy that Kurds from our study gravitate towards Tats, which indicates that most likely these two populations are descendants of ancient Medes population. Multidimensional scaling also reveals similarity between gene pool of Yezidis, Kurds with Armenians and Iranians. The analysis of Yezidis pedigrees and their STR variability did not reveal a reliable connection between genetic diversity and caste system. This indicates that the Yezidis caste system is a social division and not a biological one. Thus, we showed that, despite many years of isolation, the gene pool of Yezidis retained a common layer with the gene pool of Kurds, these populations have common spectrum of haplogroups, but Yezidis have lower genetic diversity than Kurds. This study received primary support from the RSF grant No. 16-36-00122 to MC and grant No. 16-06-00364 to EP.

Keywords: gene pool, haplogroup, Kurds, SNP and STR markers, Yezidis

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