Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 520

Search results for: tectonic sheet

520 Dynamics of Understanding Earthquake Precursors-A Review

Authors: Sarada Nivedita Bhuyan


Earthquake is the sudden, rapid movement of the earth’s crust and is the natural means of releasing stress. Tectonic plates play a major role for earthquakes as tectonic plates are the crust of the planet. The boundary lines of tectonic plates are usually known as fault lines. To understand an earthquake before its occurrence, different types of earthquake precursors are studied by different researchers. Surface temperature, strange cloud cover, earth’s electric field, geomagnetic phenomena, ground water level, active faults, ionospheric anomalies, tectonic movements are taken as parameters for earthquake study by different researchers. In this paper we tried to gather complete and helpful information of earthquake precursors which have been studied until now.

Keywords: earthquake precursors, earthquake, tectonic plates, fault

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
519 Simulation of the Effect of Sea Water using Ground Tank to the Flexural Capacity of GFRP Sheet Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Arbain Tata, Rita Irmawaty


The study conducted a simulation of the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the concrete beams using a simulation tank. As it well known that, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has been applied to many purposes for civil engineering structures not only for new structures but also for strengthening of the deteriorated structures. The FRP has advantages such as its corrosion resistance, as well as high tensile strength, to weight ratio. Glass composed FRP (GFRP) sheet is most commonly used due to its relatively lower cost compared to the other FRP materials. GFRP sheet is applied externally by bonding it on the concrete surface. Many studies have been done to investigate the bonding of GFRP sheet. However, it is still very rarely studies on the effect of sea water to the bonding capacity of GFRP sheet on the strengthened beams due to flexural loadings. This is important to be clarified for the wider application of GFRP sheet especially on the flexural structure that directly contact to the sea environment. To achieve the objective of the study, a series of concrete beams strengthened with GFRP sheet on extreme tension surface were prepared. The beams then were stored on the sea water tank for six months. Results indicated the bonding capacity decreased after six months exposed to the sea water.

Keywords: GFRP sheet, sea water, concrete beams, bonding

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
518 Towards a Complete Automation Feature Recognition System for Sheet Metal Manufacturing

Authors: Bahaa Eltahawy, Mikko Ylihärsilä, Reino Virrankoski, Esko Petäjä


Sheet metal processing is automated, but the step from product models to the production machine control still requires human intervention. This may cause time consuming bottlenecks in the production process and increase the risk of human errors. In this paper we present a system, which automatically recognizes features from the CAD-model of the sheet metal product. By using these features, the system produces a complete model of the particular sheet metal product. Then the model is used as an input for the sheet metal processing machine. Currently the system is implemented, capable to recognize more than 11 of the most common sheet metal structural features, and the procedure is fully automated. This provides remarkable savings in the production time, and protects against the human errors. This paper presents the developed system architecture, applied algorithms and system software implementation and testing.

Keywords: feature recognition, automation, sheet metal manufacturing, CAD, CAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
517 Experimental Study and Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector with Various Reflectors

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, Balram Manoj Kumar


A solar powered air heating system using parabolic trough collector was experimentally investigated. In this experimental setup, the reflected solar radiations were focused on absorber tube which was placed at focal length of the parabolic trough. In this setup, air was used as working fluid which collects the heat from absorber tube. To enhance the performance of parabolic trough, collector with different type of reflectors were used. It was observed for aluminum sheet maximum temperature is 52.3ºC, which 24.22% more than steel sheet as reflector and 8.5% more than aluminum foil as reflector, also efficiency by using Aluminum sheet as reflector compared to steel sheet as reflector is 61.18% more. Efficiency by using aluminum sheet as reflector compared to aluminum foil as reflector is 18.98% more.

Keywords: parabolic trough collector, reflectors, air flow rates, solar power, aluminum sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
516 Regional Metamorphism of the Loki Crystalline Massif Allochthonous Complex of the Caucasus

Authors: David Shengelia, Giorgi Chichinadze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Beridze, Irakli Javakhishvili


The Loki pre-Alpine crystalline massif crops out within the Caucasus region. The massif basement is represented by the Upper Devonian gneissose quartz-diorites, the Lower-Middle Paleozoic metamorphic allochthonous complex, and different magmatites. Earlier, the metamorphic complex was considered as indivisible set represented by the series of different temperature metamorphits. The degree of metamorphism of separate parts of the complex is due to different formation conditions. This fact according to authors of the abstract was explained by the allochthonous-flaky structure of the complex. It was stated that the complex thrust over the gneissose quartz diorites before the intrusion of Sudetic granites. During the detailed mapping, the authors turned out that the metamorphism issues need to be reviewed and additional researches to be carried out. Investigations were accomplished by using the following methodologies: finding of key sections, a sampling of rocks, microscopic description of the material, analytical determination of elements in the rocks, microprobe analysis of minerals and new interpretation of obtained data. According to the author’s recent data within the massif four tectonic plates: Lower Gorastskali, Sapharlo-Lok-Jandari, Moshevani and “mélange” overthrust sheets have been mapped. They differ from each other by composition, the degree of metamorphism and internal structure. It is confirmed that the initial rocks of the tectonic plates formed in different geodynamic conditions during overthrusting due to tectonic compression form a thick tectonic sheet. Based on the detailed laboratory investigations additional mineral assemblages were established, temperature limits were specified, and a renewed trend of metamorphism facies and subfacies was elaborated. The results are the following: 1. The Lower Gorastskali overthrust sheet is a fragment of ophiolitic association corresponding to the Paleotethys oceanic crust. The main rock-forming minerals are carbonate, chlorite, spinel, epidote, clinoptilolite, plagioclase, hornblende, actinolite, hornblende, albite, serpentine, tremolite, talc, garnet, and prehnite. Regional metamorphism of rocks corresponds to the greenschist facies lowest stage. 2. The Sapharlo-Lok-Jandari overthrust sheet metapelites are represented by chloritoid, chlorite, phengite, muscovite, biotite, garnet, ankerite, carbonate, and quartz. Metabasites containing actinolite, chlorite, plagioclase, calcite, epidote, albite, actinolitic hornblende and hornblende are also present. The degree of metamorphism corresponds to the greenschist high-temperature chlorite, biotite, and low-temperature garnet subfacies. Later the rocks underwent the contact influence of Late Variscan granites. 3. The Moshevani overthrust sheet is represented mainly by metapelites and rarely by metabasites. Main rock-forming minerals of metapelites are muscovite, biotite, chlorite, quartz, andalusite, plagioclase, garnet and cordierite and of metabasites - plagioclase, green and blue-green hornblende, chlorite, epidote, actinolite, albite, and carbonate. Metamorphism level corresponds to staurolite-andalusite subfacies of staurolite facies and partially to facies of biotite muscovite gneisses and hornfelse facies as well. 4. The “mélange” overthrust sheet is built of different size rock fragments and blocks of Moshevani and Lower Gorastskali overthrust sheets. The degree of regional metamorphism of first and second overthrust sheets of the Loki massif corresponds to chlorite, biotite, and low-temperature garnet subfacies, but of the third overthrust sheet – to staurolite-andalusite subfacies of staurolite facies and partially to facies of biotite muscovite gneisses and hornfelse facies.

Keywords: regional metamorphism, crystalline massif, mineral assemblages, the Caucasus

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515 Study of Hydraulic and Tectonic Fracturation within Zemlet El Beidha Area (North Chott Range)

Authors: Nabil Abaab, Dhaou Akrout, Riadh Ahmadi, Mabrouk Montacer


The study of fluid pressure and its evolution have a critical importance as they lead to understanding the tectonic history of the region. Therefore, the present work focuses on a microtectonic study of tectonic and hydraulic fracture at the anticline structure of Zemlet El Beidha (North Chott range). The study and the analysis of several stations of tectonic and hydraulic fracture allow revealing the witnesses of a paléosurpression in the deposits of Lower Cretaceous (Bouhedma Formation). In fact, we noticed that the overpressure is directly involved in the creation of various types of fractures as evidenced by the different measures and the stereographic projections. Thus, the orientations of fibers of mineralization that fills the Beefs type fracture have the same direction as the main constraint. Furthermore, we discussed the different overpressure build-up mechanisms. The results showed that tectonics is likely, responsible for this anomaly. This is confirmed by the description of the fibers and the projection of the different measurements of Beefs. The mineralization transformation from gypsum to anhydrite is heavily involved in this stress regime especially in the presence of all necessary conditions of dehydration of gypsum.

Keywords: Zemlet El Beidha, overpressure, tectonic fracture, hydraulic fracture, gypsum beefs

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
514 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar


In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: OMR, image processing, hough circle trans-form, interpolation, detection, binary thresholding

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
513 Digital Geological Map of the Loki Crystalline Massif (The Caucasus) and Its Multi-Informative Explanatory Note

Authors: Irakli Gamkrelidze, David Shengelia, Giorgi Chichinadze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Beridze, Tamara Tsamalashvili, Ketevan Tedliashvili, Irakli Javakhishvili


The Caucasus is situated between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates and represents a component of the Mediterranean (Alpine-Himalayan) collision belt. The Loki crystalline massif crops out within one of the terranes of the Caucasus – Baiburt-Sevanian terrane. By the end of 2018, a digital geological map (1:50 000) of the Loki massif was compiled. The presented map is of great importance for the region since there is no large-scale geological map which reflects the present standards of the geological study of the massif up to the last time. The existing State Geological Map of the Loki massif is very outdated. A new map drown by using GIS (Geographic Information System) technology is loaded with multi-informative details that include: specified contours of geological units and separate tectonic scales, key mineral assemblages and facies of metamorphism, temperature conditions of metamorphism, ages of metamorphism events and the massif rocks, genetic-geodynamic types of magmatic rocks. Explanatory note, attached to the map includes the large specter of scientific information. It contains characterization of the geological setting, composition and petrogenetic and geodynamic models of the massif formation. To create a geological map of the Loki crystalline massif, appropriate methodologies were applied: a sampling of rocks, GIS technology-based mapping of geological units, microscopic description of the material, composition analysis of rocks, microprobe analysis of minerals and a new interpretation of obtained data. To prepare a digital version of the map the appropriated activities were held including the creation of a common database. Finally, the design was created that includes the elaboration of legend and the final visualization of the map. The results of the study presented in the explanatory note are given below. The autochthonous gneissose quartz diorites of normal alkalinity and sub-alkaline gabbro-diorites included in them belong to different phases of magmatism. They represent “igneous” granites corresponding to mixed mantle-crustal type granites. Four tectonic plates of the allochthonous metamorphic complex–Lower Gorastskali, Sapharlo–Lok-Jandari, Moshevani, and Lower Gorastskali differ from each other by structure and degree of metamorphism. The initial rocks of these plates are formed in different geodynamic conditions and during the Early Bretonian orogeny while overthrusting due to tectonic compression they form a thick tectonic sheet. The Lower Gorastskali overthrust sheet is a fragment of ophiolitic association corresponding to the Paleotethys oceanic crust. The protolith of the ophiolitic complex basites corresponds to the tholeiitic series of basalts. The Sapharlo–Lok-Jandari overthrust sheet is metapelites, metamorphosed in conditions of greenschist facies of regional metamorphism. The regional metamorphism of Moshevani overthrust sheet crystalline schists quartzites corresponds to a range from greenschist to hornfels facies. The “mélange” is built of rock fragments and blocks of above-mentioned overthrust sheets. Sub-alkaline and normal alkaline post-metamorphic granites of the Loki crystalline massif belong to “igneous” and rarely to “sialic” and “anorogenic” types of granites.

Keywords: digital geological map, 1:50 000 scale, crystalline massif, the caucasus

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512 Interface Analysis of Annealed Al/Cu Cladded Sheet

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha


Effect of aging treatment on microstructural aspects of interfacial layers of the Cu/Al clad sheet produced by Differential Speed Rolling (DSR) process were studied by Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD). Clad sheet of Al/Cu has been fabricated by using DSR, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100°C with speed ratio of 2, in which the total thickness reduction was 45%. Interface layers of clad sheet were analyzed by EBSD after subsequent annealing at 400°C for 30 to 120 min. With increasing annealing time, thickness of interface layer and fraction of high angle grain boundary were increased and average grain size was decreased.

Keywords: aluminium/copper clad sheet, differential speed rolling, interface layer, microstructure, annealing, electron back scattered diffraction

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511 Lateral Heterogeneity of 1/Q in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia

Authors: Ufuk Aydın


The Coda attenuation and frequency dependency of seismic wave are strongly dependent on the effective stresses structures within the upper crust. In this study, the data of three different stations were used to examine the lateral variation of stress. The tectonic structures of these three areas have been examined comparatively using lateral coda tomography. In the study using the single scatter method, the window length selected to be 20 second. Coda values 80 with 94 and frequency dependency values obtained between 0.69 and 1.21. The 1/QC values for the three regions ranged from 0.0012 to 0.017, highlighting the regional differences in the seismotectonic activity of the crust. The lowest absorption values obtained from Erzurum station when the highest absorption values obtained at the Kemaliye station. The low Qc and high frequency dependency values obtained Kemaliye, which indicates that it has highest tectonic activity than other two regions. The seismo-dynamics data obtained from the study found to be in agreement with the tectonic structure of the region.

Keywords: regional coda attenuation, tectonic stress, crustal deformation

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510 Study on the Non-Contact Sheet Resistance Measuring of Silver Nanowire Coated Film Using Terahertz Wave

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Wan-Ho Chung, Hak-Sung Kim


In this work, non-destructive evaluation was conducted to measure the sheet resistance of silver nanowire coated film and find a damage of that film using terahertz (THz) wave. Pulse type THz instrument was used, and the measurement was performed under transmission and pitch-catch reflection modes with 30 degree of incidence angle. In the transmission mode, the intensity of the THz wave was gradually increased as the conductivity decreased. Meanwhile, the intensity of THz wave was decreased as the conductivity decreased in the pitch-catch reflection mode. To confirm the conductivity of the film, sheet resistance was measured by 4-point probe station. Interaction formula was drawn from a relation between the intensity and the sheet resistance. Through substituting sheet resistance to the formula and comparing the resultant value with measured maximum THz wave intensity, measurement of sheet resistance using THz wave was more suitable than that using 4-point probe station. In addition, the damage on the silver nanowire coated film was detected by applying the THz image system. Therefore, the reliability of the entire film can be also be ensured. In conclusion, real-time monitoring using the THz wave can be applied in the transparent electrodes with detecting the damaged area as well as measuring the sheet resistance.

Keywords: terahertz wave, sheet resistance, non-destructive evaluation, silver nanowire

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509 An Automatic Feature Extraction Technique for 2D Punch Shapes

Authors: Awais Ahmad Khan, Emad Abouel Nasr, H. M. A. Hussein, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari


Sheet-metal parts have been widely applied in electronics, communication and mechanical industries in recent decades; but the advancement in sheet-metal part design and manufacturing is still behind in comparison with the increasing importance of sheet-metal parts in modern industry. This paper presents a methodology for automatic extraction of some common 2D internal sheet metal features. The features used in this study are taken from Unipunch ™ catalogue. The extraction process starts with the data extraction from STEP file using an object oriented approach and with the application of suitable algorithms and rules, all features contained in the catalogue are automatically extracted. Since the extracted features include geometry and engineering information, they will be effective for downstream application such as feature rebuilding and process planning.

Keywords: feature extraction, internal features, punch shapes, sheet metal

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508 A Note on MHD Flow and Heat Transfer over a Curved Stretching Sheet by Considering Variable Thermal Conductivity

Authors: M. G. Murtaza, E. E. Tzirtzilakis, M. Ferdows


The mixed convective flow of MHD incompressible, steady boundary layer in heat transfer over a curved stretching sheet due to temperature dependent thermal conductivity is studied. We use curvilinear coordinate system in order to describe the governing flow equations. Finite difference solutions with central differencing have been used to solve the transform governing equations. Numerical results for the flow velocity and temperature profiles are presented as a function of the non-dimensional curvature radius. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number at the surface of the curved sheet are discussed as well.

Keywords: curved stretching sheet, finite difference method, MHD, variable thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
507 Bearing Capacity of Sheet Hanger Connection to the Trapezoidal Metal Sheet

Authors: Kateřina Jurdová


Hanging to the trapezoidal sheet by decking hanger is a very widespread solution used in civil engineering to lead the distribution of energy, sanitary, air distribution system etc. under the roof or floor structure. The trapezoidal decking hanger is usually a part of the whole installation system for specific distribution medium. The leading companies offer installation systems for each specific distribution e.g. pipe rings, sprinkler systems, installation channels etc. Every specific part is connected to the base connector which is decking hanger. The own connection has three main components: decking hanger, threaded bar with nuts and web of trapezoidal sheet. The aim of this contribution is determinate the failure mechanism of each component in connection. Load bearing capacity of most components in connection could be calculated by formulas in European codes. This contribution is focused on problematic of bearing resistance of threaded bar in web of trapezoidal sheet. This issue is studied by experimental research and numerical modelling. This contribution presented the initial results of experiment which is compared with numerical model of specimen.

Keywords: decking hanger, concentrated load, connection, load bearing capacity, trapezoidal metal sheet

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506 Hydro-Mechanical Forming of AZ31 Sheet

Authors: Yong-Nam Kwon


In the present study, we have designed the hydro-mechanical forming in which AZ31 sheet was drawn to a kind of preform step following gas blow forming for accurate geometry. In order to judge a formability enhancement of AZ31 sheet, model geometry came from a practical automotive part which had quite depth with complicated curvatures, which was proven that a single sheet forming could not gave a successful part. Experimentally, we succeeded to make the model part with accurate dimension. The optimum forming conditions for respective forming steps were considered most important technical features of this hydro-mechanical and would be discussed in details. Also, the effort to avoid detrimental abnormal grain growth was given and discussed for a practical application.

Keywords: hydro-mechanical forming, AZ31, abnormal grain growth, model geometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
505 Parametrical Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Process to Control the Localized Thinning

Authors: Hatem Mrad, Alban Notin, Mohamed Bouazara


Sheet metal forming process has a multiple successive steps starting from sheets fixation to sheets evacuation. Often after forming operation, the sheet has defects requiring additional corrections steps. For example, in the drawing process, the formed sheet may have several defects such as springback, localized thinning and bends. All these defects are directly dependent on process, geometric and material parameters. The prediction and elimination of these defects requires the control of most sensitive parameters. The present study is concerned with a reliable parametric study of deep forming process in order to control the localized thinning. The proposed approach will be based on stochastic finite element method. Especially, the polynomial Chaos development will be used to establish a reliable relationship between input (process, geometric and material parameters) and output variables (sheet thickness). The commercial software Abaqus is used to conduct numerical finite elements simulations. The automatized parametrical modification is provided by coupling a FORTRAN routine, a PYTHON script and input Abaqus files.

Keywords: sheet metal forming, reliability, localized thinning, parametric simulation

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504 Flow and Heat Transfer over a Shrinking Sheet: A Stability Analysis

Authors: Anuar Ishak


The characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer over a permeable shrinking sheet is studied. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. Numerical results show that dual solutions are possible for a certain range of the suction parameter. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.

Keywords: dual solutions, heat transfer, shrinking sheet, stability analysis

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503 Effect of Gas Boundary Layer on the Stability of a Radially Expanding Liquid Sheet

Authors: Soumya Kedia, Puja Agarwala, Mahesh Tirumkudulu


Linear stability analysis is performed for a radially expanding liquid sheet in the presence of a gas medium. A liquid sheet can break up because of the aerodynamic effect as well as its thinning. However, the study of the aforementioned effects is usually done separately as the formulation becomes complicated and is difficult to solve. Present work combines both, aerodynamic effect and thinning effect, ignoring the non-linearity in the system. This is done by taking into account the formation of the gas boundary layer whilst neglecting viscosity in the liquid phase. Axisymmetric flow is assumed for simplicity. Base state analysis results in a Blasius-type system which can be solved numerically. Perturbation theory is then applied to study the stability of the liquid sheet, where the gas-liquid interface is subjected to small deformations. The linear model derived here can be applied to investigate the instability for sinuous as well as varicose modes, where the former represents displacement in the centerline of the sheet and the latter represents modulation in sheet thickness. Temporal instability analysis is performed for sinuous modes, which are significantly more unstable than varicose modes, for a fixed radial distance implying local stability analysis. The growth rates, measured for fixed wavenumbers, predicated by the present model are significantly lower than those obtained by the inviscid Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and compare better with experimental results. Thus, the present theory gives better insight into understanding the stability of a thin liquid sheet.

Keywords: boundary layer, gas-liquid interface, linear stability, thin liquid sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
502 Driver of Tectonic Plate Fracture and Movement

Authors: Xuguang Leng


The tectonic plates fracture, move and deform when an asteroid/comet collides with Earth. The enormous energy of an asteroid collision is dissipated through the fracture and movement of the tectonic plates, some of the energy is stored in the plate deformation. The deformation is like using brute-force to load up the spring, then, a slight disturbance can trigger the abrupt release of the stored energy in the form of plate movement/earthquake/tsunami. In addition, the sphere mass balance was disturbed by the merger of asteroid mass into Earth at random location in a violent manner, the resulting gravitational stress moves the tectonic plate to restore the sphere shape of the Earth. The gravitational stress is the interaction between Earth’s own gravity and the tidal force of the sun and Moon. The additional asteroid mass that entered Earth’s mantle also requires Earth’s crust to expand as Earth is becoming larger, which creates seams on the crust like Mariana Trench and Lake Baikal. Volcano is another pressure relief valve of Earth mantle expansion due to added mass of asteroids as well as restoration of sphere mass balance. Loose objects like asteroids and comets were more numerous in the formative years of the Earth when Jupiter were smaller, and protective effect was not as strong, thus, the collision was more frequent and intense.Tectonic plates moved farther and faster during the early years. As more and more loose objects are locked up in the planets, the collisions are becoming less frequent, resulting in less frequent and less intense earthquakes and volcano eruptions. The current path of tectonic plate movements is trying to resolve gravitational stress caused by past asteroid collisions. The path can be altered, new plate fractures can be created by future asteroid collisions and are not predetermined. Rocky asteroids add to the area size of the crust, while the icy comets add to the ocean water. The timing interval of random asteroid vs. comet collisions can cause Earth ocean level fluctuation.

Keywords: tectonic plate, movement, asteroid, collision

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501 A Mathematical Based Prediction of the Forming Limit of Thin-Walled Sheet Metals

Authors: Masoud Ghermezi


Studying the sheet metals is one of the most important research areas in the field of metal forming due to their extensive applications in the aerospace industries. A useful method for determining the forming limit of these materials and consequently preventing the rupture of sheet metals during the forming process is the use of the forming limit curve (FLC). In addition to specifying the forming limit, this curve also delineates a boundary for the allowed values of strain in sheet metal forming; these characteristics of the FLC along with its accuracy of computation and wide range of applications have made this curve the basis of research in the present paper. This study presents a new model that not only agrees with the results obtained from the above mentioned theory, but also eliminates its shortcomings. In this theory, like in the M-K theory, a thin sheet with an inhomogeneity as a gradient thickness reduction with a sinusoidal function has been chosen and subjected to two-dimensional stress. Through analytical evaluation, ultimately, a governing differential equation has been obtained. The numerical solution of this equation for the range of positive strains (stretched region) yields the results that agree with the results obtained from M-K theory. Also the solution of this equation for the range of negative strains (tension region) completes the FLC curve. The findings obtained by applying this equation on two alloys with the hardening exponents of 0.4 and 0.24 indicate the validity of the presented equation.

Keywords: sheet metal, metal forming, forming limit curve (FLC), M-K theory

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500 Music Note Detection and Dictionary Generation from Music Sheet Using Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Ammar, Talha Ali, Abdul Basit, Bakhtawar Rajput, Zobia Sohail


Music note detection is an area of study for the past few years and has its own influence in music file generation from sheet music. We proposed a method to detect music notes on sheet music using basic thresholding and blob detection. Subsequently, we created a notes dictionary using a semi-supervised learning approach. After notes detection, for each test image, the new symbols are added to the dictionary. This makes the notes detection semi-automatic. The experiments are done on images from a dataset and also on the captured images. The developed approach showed almost 100% accuracy on the dataset images, whereas varying results have been seen on captured images.

Keywords: music note, sheet music, optical music recognition, blob detection, thresholding, dictionary generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
499 Role of Inherited Structures during Inversion Tectonics: An Example from Tunisia, North Africa

Authors: Aymen Arfaoui, Abdelkader Soumaya, Ali Kadri, Noureddine Ben Ayed


The Tunisian dorsal backland is located on the Eastern Atlas side of the Maghrebides (North Africa). The analysis of collected field data in the Rouas and Ruissate mountains area allowed us to develop new interpretations for its structural framework. Our kinematic analysis of fault-slip data reveals the presence of an extensional tectonic regime with NE-SW Shmin, characterizing the Mesozoic times. In addition, geophysical data shows that the synsedimentary normal faulting is accompanied by thickness variations of sedimentary sequences and Triassic salt movements. Then, after the Eurasia-Africa plate’s convergence during the Eocene, compressive tectonic deformations affected and reactivated the inherited NW-SE and N-S trending normal faults as dextral strike-slip and reverse faults, respectively. This tectonic inversion, with compression to the transpressional tectonic regime and NW-SE SHmax, continued during the successive shortening phases of the upper Miocene and Quaternary. The geometry of the Rouas and Ruissate belt is expressed as a fault propagation fold, affecting Jurassic and Cretaceous deposits. The Triassic evaporates constitute the decollement levels, facilitating the detachment and deformation of the sedimentary cover. The backland of this thrust belt is defined by NNE-SSW trending imbrication features that are controlled by a basement N-S fault.

Keywords: Tunisian dorsal backland, fault slip data; synsedimentary faults, tectonic inversion, decollement level, fault propagation fold

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498 A Detailed Experimental Study and Evaluation of Springback under Stretch Bending Process

Authors: A. Soualem


The design of multi stage deep drawing processes requires the evaluation of many process parameters such as the intermediate die geometry, the blank shape, the sheet thickness, the blank holder force, friction, lubrication etc..These process parameters have to be determined for the optimum forming conditions before the process design. In general sheet metal forming may involve stretching drawing or various combinations of these basic modes of deformation. It is important to determine the influence of the process variables in the design of sheet metal working process. Especially, the punch and die corner for deep drawing will affect the formability. At the same time the prediction of sheet metals springback after deep drawing is an important issue to solve for the control of manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the importance of this problem increases because of the use of steel sheeting with high stress and also aluminum alloys. The aim of this paper is to give a better understanding of the springback and its effect in various sheet metals forming process such as expansion and restraint deep drawing in the cup drawing process, by varying radius die, lubricant for two commercially available materials e.g. galvanized steel and Aluminum sheet. To achieve these goals experiments were carried out and compared with other results. The original of our purpose consist on tests which are ensured by adapting a U-type stretching-bending device on a tensile testing machine, where we studied and quantified the variation of the springback.

Keywords: springback, deep drawing, expansion, restricted deep drawing

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
497 Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall

Authors: C. J. W. Habets, D. J. Peters, J. G. de Gijt, A. V. Metrikine, S. N. Jonkman


Conventional seismic designs of quay walls in ports are mostly based on pseudo-static analysis. A more advanced alternative is the Performance-Based Design (PBD) method, which evaluates permanent deformations and amounts of (repairable) damage under seismic loading. The aim of this study is to investigate the suitability of this method for anchored sheet pile quay walls that were not purposely designed for seismic loads. A research methodology is developed in which pseudo-static, permanent-displacement and finite element analysis are employed, calibrated with an experimental reference case that considers a typical anchored sheet pile wall. A reduction factor that accounts for deformation behaviour is determined for pseudo-static analysis. A model to apply traditional permanent displacement analysis on anchored sheet pile walls is proposed. Dynamic analysis is successfully carried out. From the research it is concluded that PBD evaluation can effectively be used for seismic analysis and design of this type of structure.

Keywords: anchored sheet pile quay wall, simplified dynamic analysis, performance-based design, pseudo-static analysis

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496 Multi-Scale Damage and Mechanical Behavior of Sheet Molding Compound Composites Subjected to Fatigue, Dynamic, and Post-Fatigue Dynamic Loadings

Authors: M. Shirinbayan, J. Fitoussi, N. Abbasnezhad, A. Lucas, A. Tcharkhtchi


Sheet Molding Compounds (SMCs) with special microstructures are very attractive to use in automobile structures especially when they are accidentally subjected to collision type accidents because of their high energy absorption capacity. These are materials designated as standard SMC, Advanced Sheet Molding Compounds (A-SMC), Low-Density SMC (LD-SMC) and etc. In this study, testing methods have been performed to compare the mechanical responses and damage phenomena of SMC, LD-SMC, and A-SMC under quasi-static and high strain rate tensile tests. The paper also aims at investigating the effect of an initial pre-damage induced by fatigue on the tensile dynamic behavior of A-SMC. In the case of SMCs and A-SMCs, whatever the fibers orientation and applied strain rate are, the first observed phenomenon of damage corresponds to decohesion of the fiber-matrix interface which is followed by coalescence and multiplication of these micro-cracks and their propagations. For LD-SMCs, damage mechanisms depend on the presence of Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) and fibers orientation.

Keywords: SMC, Sheet Molding Compound, LD-SMC, Low-Density SMC, A-SMC, Advanced Sheet Molding Compounds, HGM, Hollow Glass Microspheres, damage

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495 The Effect on Rolling Mill of Waviness in Hot Rolled Steel

Authors: Sunthorn Sittisakuljaroen


The edge waviness in hot rolled steel is a common defect. Variables that effect for such defect include as raw material and machine. These variables are necessary to consider. This research studied the defect of edge waviness for SS 400 of metal sheet manufacture. Defect of metal sheets divided into two groups. The specimens were investigated on chemical composition and mechanical properties to find the difference. The results of investigate showed that not different to a standard significantly. Therefore the roll milled machine for sample need to adjustable rollers for press on metal sheet which was more appropriate to adjustable at both ends.

Keywords: edge waviness, hot rolling steel, metal sheet defect, SS 400, roll leveller

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494 Unsteady Stagnation-Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Radiation Effect

Authors: F. M. Ali, R. Nazar, N. M. Arifin, I. Pop


In this paper, the problem of unsteady stagnation-point flow and heat transfer induced by a shrinking sheet in the presence of radiation effect is studied. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically by the shooting method. The influence of radiation, unsteadiness and shrinking parameters, and the Prandtl number on the reduced skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer coefficient, as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed in detail. It is found that dual solutions exist and the temperature distribution becomes less significant with radiation parameter.

Keywords: heat transfer, radiation effect, shrinking sheet unsteady flow

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493 MHD Stagnation Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Suction in an Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) Fluid

Authors: K. Jafar, R. Nazar, A. Ishak, I. Pop


The present analysis considers the steady stagnation point flow and heat transfer towards a permeable sheet in an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) electrically conducting fluid, with a constant magnetic field applied in the transverse direction to flow, and a local heat generation within the boundary layer with a heat generation rate proportional to (T-T_inf)^p. Using a similarity transformation, the governing system of partial differential equations is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical results are obtained for the flow and thermal fields for various values of the shrinking/stretching parameter lambda, the magnetic parameter M, the elastic parameter K, the Prandtl number Pr, the suction parameter s, the heat generation parameter Q, and the exponent p. The results indicate the existence of dual solutions for the shrinking sheet up to a critical value lambda_c whose value depends on the value of M, K, and s. In the presence of internal heat absorbtion (Q<0), the surface heat transfer rate decreases with increasing p but increases with parameter Q and s, when the sheet is either stretched or shrunk.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), boundary layer flow, UCM fluid, stagnation point, shrinking sheet

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492 Experimental Verification of Different Types of Shear Connectors on Composite Slab

Authors: A. Siva, R. Senthil, R. Banupriya, R. Saravanakumar


Cold-formed steel sheets are widely used as primary tension reinforcement in composite slabs. It also performs as formwork for concreting and better ceiling surface. The major type of failure occurring in composite slab is shear failure. When the composite slab is flexurally loaded, the longitudinal shear is generated and transferred to the steel sheet concrete interface. When the load increases, the interface slip occurs. The slip failure can be resisted by mechanical interface interlock by shear studs. In this paper, the slip failure has been resisted by shear connectors and geometry of the steel sheet alone. The geometry of the sheet is kept constant for all the specimens and the type of shear connectors has been varied. Totally, three types of shear connectors (viz., straight headed, U and J) are bolted to the trapezoidal profile sheet and the concrete is casted over it. After curing, the composite slab is subjected to flexure load and the test results are compared with the numerical results analysed by ABAQUS software. The test result shows that the U-shaped bolted stud has higher flexure strength than the other two types of shear connectors.

Keywords: cold formed steel sheet, headed studs, mechanical interlock, shear connectors, shear failure, slip failure

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491 Magnetohydrodynamic Flow over an Exponentially Stretching Sheet

Authors: Raj Nandkeolyar, Precious Sibanda


The flow of a viscous, incompressible, and electrically conducting fluid under the influence of aligned magnetic field acting along the direction of fluid flow over an exponentially stretching sheet is investigated numerically. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the flow model is transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformation and the solution is obtained using a local linearization method followed by the Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The effects of various parameters affecting the flow and heat transfer as well as the induced magnetic field are discussed using suitable graphs and tables.

Keywords: aligned magnetic field, exponentially stretching sheet, induced magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 324