Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 138

Search results for: isotope dating

138 Dating Violence and Cultural Acceptance among Mexican High School Students

Authors: Libia Yanelli Yanez-Penunuri, Carlos Alejandro Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Cesar Armando Rey-Anacona


Cultural and social norms have a great influence on individual behavior, including the use of violence. In this way, culture can protect against violence, but it can also support and encourage the use of violence. The aim of this study was to analyze differences in cultural acceptance and dating violence among Mexican high school students. A Cross-sectional study was carried out with 867 adolescent Mexican students of high school aged 14 to 18 years old in a dating relationship for at least a month in Guzman City, Mexico. To measure cultural acceptance and dating violence, the questionnaire abuse in dating (CMO) was applied. Informed consent to parents and students was requested. Analyses of descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Participants were adolescent girls (61.4%) and adolescent boys (38.6%). About 63.7% of adolescents reported cultural acceptance of dating violence in their dating relationships. Associations between physical, sexual, economical dating violence and cultural acceptance were found. No association was found between psychological dating violence and cultural acceptance. The effect size in all dimensions was small. For future research, it is very important to take into consideration the change and evaluation of culture norms to prevent dating violence among adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents, culture, social norms, dating violence, students

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137 Effect of Salinity on Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Chamomile

Authors: Mehdi Ghanavati


The Effects of salinity level and duration on carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) of Matricaria chamomilla and Matricaria aurea were evaluated. Four ecotypes of M. chamomilla and four ecotypes of M. aurea were grown at different NaCl concentrations (control, 6, 12 and 18 dS/m) in sand culture condition. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) varied significantly (p<0.001) among ecotypes. The amount of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) increased in first salinity level (6 dS/m), but in other levels (12 and 18 dS/m) it did not increase. Stages of salinity treatments (two stages: first from seedling stage until the end of the experiment and second stage of stress exertion began at stem elongation and seedlings emergence from rosette stage to harvest) had not a significant difference. Study of two spices of chamomile showed the M. aurea had a higher amount of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) (22.9%) than M. chamomilla (22.48%).

Keywords: salinity, carbon isotope discrimination, Matricaria chamomilla, Matricaria aurea

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136 Loving is Universal, Dating is not: Dating Experiences of International Students in Vancouver

Authors: Nel Jayson Santos


The growing number of international students in post-secondary institutions in Canada has positively contributed to the country’s economy and educational systems while also enriching cultural diversity in the classrooms. However, international students face social and relational challenges as they try to adapt to their host nation’s culture. One specific area of cultural adaptation among international students that has yet to be studied extensively is dating experiences and romantic relationships. Although numerous studies have been done regarding the relational challenges and dating experiences of American international students, only a few studies have focused on international students based in Canada. Hence, this study examines the dating preferences, dating challenges, and dating adaptations of international students based in Vancouver, Canada. Using a social constructivist approach, a semi-structured interview was conducted among fifteen heterosexual international college students. Inductive thematic analysis was then used to analyze the gathered data and identify common themes. Findings suggest that students’ (1) preferences were influenced by racial background and parental approval of dating partners; (2) students experienced language barriers and cultural differences; (3) students adapted through constant communication and being open-minded. Finally, the analysis intends to help counselors and psychologists in various colleges to help understand the issues of international students in terms of intimate and romantic relationships.

Keywords: higher education, international students, dating experiences, cultural adaptation

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
135 Re-Os Application to Petroleum System: Implications from the Geochronology and Oil-Source Correlation of Duvernay Petroleum System, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

Authors: Junjie Liu, David Selby, Mark Obermajer, Andy Mort


The inaugural application of Re-Os dating, which is based on the beta decay of 187Re to 187Os with a long half-life of 41.577 ± 0.12 Byr and initially used for sulphide minerals and organic rich rocks, to petroleum systems was performed on bitumen of the Polaris Mississippi Valley Type Pb-Zn deposit, Canada. To further our understanding of the Re-Os system and its application to petroleum systems, here we present a study on Duvernay Petroleum System, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. The Late Devonian Duvernay Formation organic-rich shales are the only source of the petroleum system. The Duvernay shales reached maturation only during the Laramide Orogeny (80 – 35 Ma) and the generated oil migrated short distances into the interfingering Leduc reefs and overlying Nisku carbonates with no or little secondary alteration post oil-generation. Although very low in Re and Os, the asphaltenes of Duvernay-sourced Leduc and Nisku oils define a Laramide Re-Os age. In addition, the initial Os isotope compositions of the oil samples are similar to that of the Os isotope composition of the Duvernay Formation at the time of oil generation, but are very different to other oil-prone intervals of the basin, showing the ability of the Os isotope composition as an inorganic oil-source correlation tool. In summary, the ability of the Re-Os geochronometer to record the timing of oil generation and trace the source of an oil is confirmed in the Re-Os study of Duvernay Petroleum System.

Keywords: Duvernay petroleum system, oil generation, oil-source correlation, Re-Os

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134 Unconventional Dating of Old Peepal Tree of Chandigarh (India) Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence

Authors: Rita Rani, Ramesh Kumar


The intend of the current study is to date an old grand Peepal tree that is still alive. The tree is situated in Kalibard village, Sector 9, Chandigarh (India). Due to its huge structure, it has got the status of ‘Heritage tree.’ Optically Stimulated Luminescence of sediments beneath the roots is used to determine the age of the tree. Optical dating is preferred over conventional dating methods due to more precession. The methodology includes OSL of quartz grain using SAR protocol for accumulated dose measurement. The age determination of an alive tree using sedimentary quartz is in close agreement with the approximated age provided by the related agency. This is the first attempt at using optically stimulated luminescence in the age determination of alive trees in this region. The study concludes that the Luminescence dating of alive trees is the nondestructive and more precise method.

Keywords: luminescence, dose rate, optical dating, sediments

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133 Studying the Moisture Sources and the Stable Isotope Characteristic of Moisture in Northern Khorasan Province, North-Eastern Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad, Hamid Ghalibaf Mohammadabadi


Iran is a semi-arid and arid country in south-western Asia in the Middle East facing intense climatological drought from the early times. Therefore, studying the precipitation events and the moisture sources and air masses causing precipitation has great importance in this region. In this study, the moisture sources and stable isotope content of precipitation moisture in three main events in 2015 have been studied in North-Eastern Iran. HYSPLIT model backward trajectories showed that the Caspian Sea and the mixture of the Caspian and Mediterranean Seas are dominant moisture sources for the studied events. This showed the role of cP (Siberian) and Mediterranean (MedT) air masses. Stable isotope studies showed that precipitation events originated from the Caspian Sea with lower Sea Surface Temperature (SST) have more depleted isotope values. However, precipitation events sourced from the mixture of the Caspian and the Mediterranean Seas (with higher SST) showed more enriched isotope values.

Keywords: HYSPLIT, Iran, Northern Khorasan, stable isotopes

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132 Comparison between Radiocarbon and Dendrochronology Ages Obtained on a 700 Years Tree-Ring Sequence from Northern Romania

Authors: G. Sava, I. Popa, T. Sava, A. Ion, M. Ilie, C. Manailescu, A. Robu


At the RoAMS laboratory in Bucharest we have looked for a head-to-head meeting between AMS radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology dating, aiming to point out and explain any differences or similarities that might appear between their output results. As a subject of this investigation, we have fixed our attention on a sequence of tree rings spanning on a period of 700 years, starting with 1000 AD. The samples were collected from the northern Romanian territory within Moldavia region, and were provided by the ‘Marin Dracea - National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry’. All the 23 single ring wood samples were radiocarbon dated using alpha-cellulose extraction, followed by graphitization in an AGE3 installation. A wiggle matching procedure was applied to reduce the radiocarbon uncertainties for the calibrated ages. The results showed a good agreement on 3 out of 4 wood cores, the age-shifting of one of the wood cores being interpreted as an uncertain dendrochronology matching, which was further corrected.

Keywords: wiggle matching, tree-ring radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology, AMS radiocarbon dating, radiocarbon dating in Romania

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131 Study on Hydrogen Isotope Permeability of High Entropy Alloy Coating

Authors: Long Wang, Yongjin Feng, Xiaofang Luo


Tritium permeation through structural materials is a significant issue for fusion demonstration (DEMO) reactor blankets in terms of fuel cycle efficiency and radiological safety. Reduced activation ferritic (RAFM) steel CLF-1 is a prime candidate for the China’s CFETR blanket structural material, facing high permeability of hydrogen isotopes at reactor operational temperature. To confine tritium as much as possible in the reactor, surface modification of the steels including fabrication of tritium permeation barrier (TPB) attracts much attention. As a new alloy system, high entropy alloy (HEA) contains at least five principal elements, each of which ranges from 5 at% to 35 at%. This high mixing effect entitles HEA extraordinary comprehensive performance. So it is attractive to lead HEA into surface alloying for protective use. At present, studies on the hydrogen isotope permeability of HEA coatings is still insufficient and corresponding mechanism isn’t clear. In our study, we prepared three kinds of HEA coatings, including AlCrTaTiZr, (AlCrTaTiZr)N and (AlCrTaTiZr)O. After comprehensive characterization of SEM, XPS, AFM, XRD and TEM, the structure and composition of the HEA coatings were obtained. Deuterium permeation tests were conducted to evaluate the hydrogen isotope permeability of AlCrTaTiZr, (AlCrTaTiZr)N and (AlCrTaTiZr)O HEA coatings. Results proved that the (AlCrTaTiZr)N and (AlCrTaTiZr)O HEA coatings had better hydrogen isotope permeation resistance. Through analyzing and characterizing the hydrogen isotope permeation results of the corroded samples, an internal link between hydrogen isotope permeation behavior and structure of HEA coatings was established. The results provide valuable reference in engineering design of structural and TPB materials for future fusion device.

Keywords: high entropy alloy, hydrogen isotope permeability, tritium permeation barrier, fusion demonstration reactor

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130 Quantum Sieving for Hydrogen Isotope Separation

Authors: Hyunchul Oh


One of the challenges in modern separation science and technology is the separation of hydrogen isotopes mixtures since D2 and H2 consist of almost identical size, shape and thermodynamic properties. Recently, quantum sieving of isotopes by confinement in narrow space has been proposed as an alternative technique. Despite many theoretical suggestions, however, it has been difficult to discover a feasible microporous material up to now. Among various porous materials, the novel class of microporous framework materials (COFs, ZIFs and MOFs) is considered as a promising material class for isotope sieving due to ultra-high porosity and uniform pore size which can be tailored. Hence, we investigate experimentally the fundamental correlation between D2/H2 molar ratio and pore size at optimized operating conditions by using different ultramicroporous frameworks. The D2/H2 molar ratio is strongly depending on pore size, pressure and temperature. An experimentally determined optimum pore diameter for quantum sieving lies between 3.0 and 3.4 Å which can be an important guideline for designing and developing feasible microporous frameworks for isotope separation. Afterwards, we report a novel strategy for efficient hydrogen isotope separation at technologically relevant operating pressure through the development of quantum sieving exploited by the pore aperture engineering. The strategy involves installation of flexible components in the pores of the framework to tune the pore surface.

Keywords: gas adsorption, hydrogen isotope, metal organic frameworks(MOFs), quantum sieving

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129 Cold Stunned Sea Turtle Diet Analysis In Cape Cod Bay from 2015-2020

Authors: Lucille McWilliams


As water temperatures drop in November, Kemp’s Ridley, Loggerhead, and Green sea turtles cold-stun in Cape Cod Bay. The foraging ecology of these sea turtles remains an understudied area of research. In this study, we aim to assess the diet of these turtles using a multi-tissue stable isotope analysis of cold-stunned kemp’s ridley, loggerhead, and green sea turtles stranded from 2015 to 2020. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen were measured in blood, front and rear flipper, liver, muscle, skin, and scute tissue samples. We predict an elevated level of Nitrogen isotope ratios in kemp’s ridley and loggerhead turtles compared to green turtles due to the carnivorous loggerheads and kemp ridleys’ carnivorous diet and the greens herbivorous diet. We anticipate empty stomachs due to starvation while stranded, and a variety of foraging strategies, migration patterns, and trophic positions between these species. Data collected from this study will add to the knowledge of these turtles’ prey species and aid managers in the preservation of these species as a mitigation strategy for these turtles' extinction.

Keywords: sea turtles, kemp's ridleys, greens, loggerheads, cold-stunning, diet analysis, stable isotope analysis, environmental science, marine biology

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128 Tinder as a Queer Identity Building Tool: An Ethnographic Study of How Dating Apps Are Used as Identity Markers among Queer Women in Bologna, Italy

Authors: Lovis Ingrid Hakala


This paper provides an example of how the dating app Tinder can be used as a tool in queer research and what the use of the app among lesbians can tell us about the production of particular kinds of lesbian identities paired with technology. This study seeks to understand the ways in which the app is understood by lesbian women and how it is brought into their understandings of what being a lesbian means. Dating apps are becoming increasingly common as tools for meeting a potential partner and research has shown how these apps gain new meaning depending on the context. This paper will show both how Tinder has gained a particular meaning in a lesbian context in Bologna, and also how the use of Tinder produces specific ideas of what lesbians are and how they act. While doing ethnographic fieldwork among young lesbians (20-30 years old) in Bologna in the autumn of 2017, as a part of the research methodology, Tinder was used together with interviews and participant observation. By signing up on Tinder and contacting potential informants on the app the aim was to reach women who were not necessarily involved in the queer activist spaces in the city and who might thus provide a different perspective than their activist counterparts. Using Tinder as a tool in research proved to be a useful methodology both when it came to contacting potential informants as well as in gaining a better understanding for queer identity building, and the role Tinder played in defining lesbianism in Bologna. The app itself was often deemed useless, and informants often complained about the lack of women on the app who had their profile showing an interest in women. Apart from being away for the interlocutors to get in touch with potential romantic or sexual partners, the app did provide a concrete object around which to define particular lesbian behavior. Lesbians were described to be slow at answering and not being very eager to meet. This placed lesbian women, in contrast to gay men who were seen as doing the opposite, using dating apps a lot and be quick to propose meetings. Tinder among lesbians in Bologna thus proved to have a dual function as both a way of creating connections between queer women but also as a tool to define what a lesbian is. This paper provides insight into the ways in which dating apps provides a community and identity building function and how a certain behavior on said apps can be a part of defining identity. This work stands out among other literature on dating apps since it does not only focus on the methodological aspects of using Tinder as a tool in research but also provides an insight in how the way in which individuals use the app comes to add to an understanding of what a lesbian is.

Keywords: dating apps, identity, Italy, lesbian, queer

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127 Assisting Dating of Greek Papyri Images with Deep Learning

Authors: Asimina Paparrigopoulou, John Pavlopoulos, Maria Konstantinidou


Dating papyri accurately is crucial not only to editing their texts but also for our understanding of palaeography and the history of writing, ancient scholarship, material culture, networks in antiquity, etc. Most ancient manuscripts offer little evidence regarding the time of their production, forcing papyrologists to date them on palaeographical grounds, a method often criticized for its subjectivity. By experimenting with data obtained from the Collaborative Database of Dateable Greek Bookhands(, Baylor University) and the PapPal(, University of Heidelberg) online collections of objectively dated Greek papyri, this study shows that deep learning dating models, pre-trained on generic images and fine-tuned on a training subset of the data, can achieve accurate chronological estimates for a test subset (67,97% accuracy for bookhands and 55,25% for documents). To compare the estimates of our models with those of humans, experts were asked to complete a questionnaire with samples of literary and documentary hands, which had to be sorted chronologically by century. The same samples were dated by the models in question. This paper presents and analyses the results.

Keywords: dating papyri images, deep neural image models, handwritten text image classification, transfer learning

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126 Studying the Spatial Variations of Stable Isotopes (18O and 2H) in Precipitation and Groundwater Resources in Zagros Region

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad


Zagros mountain range is a very important precipitation zone in Iran as it receives high average annual precipitation compared to other parts of this country. Although this region is important precipitation zone in semi-arid an arid country like Iran, accurate method to study water resources in this region has not been applied yet. In this study, stable isotope δ18O content of precipitation and groundwater resources showed spatial variations across Zagros region as southern parts of Zagros region showed more enriched isotope values compared to the northern parts. This is normal as southern Zagros region is much drier with higher air temperature and evaporation compared to northern parts. In addition, the spatial variations of stable isotope δ18O in precipitation in Zagros region have been simulated by the models which consider the altitude and latitude variations as input to simulate δ18O in precipitation.

Keywords: groundwater, precipitation, simulation, stable isotopes, Zagros region

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125 Isotope Effects on Inhibitors Binding to HIV Reverse Transcriptase

Authors: Agnieszka Krzemińska, Katarzyna Świderek, Vicente Molinier, Piotr Paneth


In order to understand in details the interactions between ligands and the enzyme isotope effects were studied between clinically used drugs that bind in the active site of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reverse Transcriptase, HIV-1 RT, as well as triazole-based inhibitor that binds in the allosteric pocket of this enzyme. The magnitudes and origins of the resulting binding isotope effects were analyzed. Subsequently, binding isotope effect of the same triazole-based inhibitor bound in the active site were analyzed and compared. Together, these results show differences in binding origins in two sites of the enzyme and allow to analyze binding mode and place of newly synthesized inhibitors. Typical protocol is described below on the example of triazole ligand in the allosteric pocket. Triazole was docked into allosteric cavity of HIV-1 RT with Glide using extra-precision mode as implemented in Schroedinger software. The structure of HIV-1 RT was obtained from Protein Data Bank as structure of PDB ID 2RKI. The pKa for titratable amino acids was calculated using PROPKA software, and in order to neutralize the system 15 Cl- were added using tLEaP package implemented in AMBERTools ver.1.5. Also N-terminals and C-terminals were build using tLEaP. The system was placed in 144x160x144Å3 orthorhombic box of water molecules using NAMD program. Missing parameters for triazole were obtained at the AM1 level using Antechamber software implemented in AMBERTools. The energy minimizations were carried out by means of a conjugate gradient algorithm using NAMD. Then system was heated from 0 to 300 K with temperature increment 0.001 K. Subsequently 2 ns Langevin−Verlet (NVT) MM MD simulation with AMBER force field implemented in NAMD was carried out. Periodic Boundary Conditions and cut-offs for the nonbonding interactions, range radius from 14.5 to 16 Å, are used. After 2 ns relaxation 200 ps of QM/MM MD at 300 K were simulated. The triazole was treated quantum mechanically at the AM1 level, protein was described using AMBER and water molecules were described using TIP3P, as implemented in fDynamo library. Molecules 20 Å apart from the triazole were kept frozen, with cut-offs established on range radius from 14.5 to 16 Å. In order to describe interactions between triazole and RT free energy of binding using Free Energy Perturbation method was done. The change in frequencies from ligand in solution to ligand bounded in enzyme was used to calculate binding isotope effects.

Keywords: binding isotope effects, molecular dynamics, HIV, reverse transcriptase

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124 Selective and Highly Sensitive Measurement of ¹⁵NH₃ Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Environmental Applications

Authors: Emily Awuor, Helga Huszar, Zoltan Bozoki


Isotope analysis has found numerous applications in the environmental science discipline, most common being the tracing of environmental contaminants on both regional and global scales. Many environmental contaminants contain ammonia (NH₃) since it is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere and its largest sources are from agricultural and industrial activities. NH₃ isotopes (¹⁴NH₃ and ¹⁵NH₃) are therefore important and can be used in the traceability studies of these atmospheric pollutants. The goal of the project is the construction of a photoacoustic spectroscopy system that is capable of measuring ¹⁵NH₃ isotope selectively in terms of its concentration. A further objective is for the system to be robust, easy-to-use, and automated. This is provided by using two telecommunication type near-infrared distributed feedback (DFB) diode lasers and a laser coupler as the light source in the photoacoustic measurement system. The central wavelength of the lasers in use was 1532 nm, with the tuning range of ± 1 nm. In this range, strong absorption lines can be found for both ¹⁴NH₃ and ¹⁵NH₃. For the selective measurement of ¹⁵NH₃, wavelengths were chosen where the cross effect of ¹⁴NH₃ and water vapor is negligible. We completed the calibration of the photoacoustic system, and as a result, the lowest detectable concentration was 3.32 ppm (3Ϭ) in the case of ¹⁵NH₃ and 0.44 ppm (3Ϭ) in the case of ¹⁴NH₃. The results are most useful in the environmental pollution measurement and analysis.

Keywords: ammonia isotope, near-infrared DFB diode laser, photoacoustic spectroscopy, environmental monitoring

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123 Heroin and Opiates Metabolites Tracing by Gas-Chromatography Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Yao-Te Yen, Chao-Hsin Cheng, Meng-Shun Huang, Shan-Zong Cyue


'Poppy-seed defense' has been a serious problem all over the world, that is because the opiates metabolites in urine are difficult to distinguish where they come from precisely. In this research, a powerful analytic method has been developed to trace the opiates metabolites in urine by Gas-Chromatography Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS). In order to eliminate the interference of synthesis to heroin or metabolism through human body, opiates metabolites in urine and sized heroin were hydrolyzed to morphine. Morphine is the key compound for tracing between opiates metabolites and seized heroin in this research. By matching δ13C and δ15N values through morphine, it is successful to distinguish the opiates metabolites coming from heroin or medicine. We tested seven heroin abuser’s metabolites and seized heroin in crime sites, the result showed that opiates metabolites coming from seized heroin, the variation of δ13C and δ15N for morphine are within 0.2 and 2.5‰, respectively. The variation of δ13C and δ15N for morphine are reasonable with the result of matrix match experiments. Above all, the uncertainty of 'Poppy-seed defense' can be solved easily by this analytic method, it provides the direct evidence for judge to make accurate conviction without hesitation.

Keywords: poppy-seed defense, heroin, opiates metabolites, isotope ratio mass spectrometry

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122 Adolescents' Perspectives on Parental Responses to Teen Dating Violence

Authors: Beverly Black


Teen dating violence (TDV) is a significant public health problem with severe negative impact on youths’ mental and physical health and well-being. Exacerbating the negative impact of TDV victimization is the fact that teens rarely report the violence. They are fearful to tell friends or family, especially parents. The family context is the first place where children learn about interpersonal relationships, and therefore, parental response of teens’ life experiences influences teens’ actions and development. This study examined youths’ perspectives on parental responses to TDV. Effective parental responses to TDV may increase the likelihood that youth will leave abusive relationships. Method. Eleven gender-separate focus groups were conducted with 27 females and 28 males, ages 12 to 17, to discuss parental responses to teen dating violence. Youth were recruited from a metropolitan community in the southwestern part of the United States. Focus groups questions asked the middle and high school youth how they would want their parents to respond to them if they approached them about various incidents of dating violence. All focus groups were transcribed. Using QSR-N10, two researchers’ analyzed data first using open and axial coding techniques to find overarching themes. Researchers triangulated the coded data to ensure accurate interpretations of the participants’ messages and used the scenario questions to structure the coded results. Results. Most youths suggested that parents should simply talk with them; they recognized the importance of communication. Teens wanted parents to ask questions, educate them about healthy relationships, share their personal experiences, and give teens advice (tell them to break up, limit contact with perpetrator, go to police). Younger youth expressed more willingness to listen to parental advice. Older youth wanted their parents to give them the opportunity to make their decisions. Many of the teens’ comments focused on the importance of parents protecting the teen, providing support and empathy for the teen, and especially refraining from overreacting (not yelling, not getting angry and staying calm). Implications. Parents need to know how to effectively respond to youth needing to leave unhealthy relationships. Demanding that their children end a relationship may not be a realistic approach to TDV. A parent’s ineffective response, when approached by an adolescent for assistance in TDV, may influence a youth to dismiss parents and other adults as viable options for seeking assistance. Parents and prevention educators can learn from hearing youths’ voices about effective responses to TDV.

Keywords: adolescents dating abuse, adolescent and parent communication, parental responses to teen dating violence, teen dating violence

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121 A Comparative Analysis of Courtship among Non-Mainstream Gays and Lesbians

Authors: Marian Ubaldo, Venise Gonzales, Aileen Lovendino


In response to an identified need in the psychological literature for current research on topics related to same-sex lived experiences, the study aims to give knowledge about Non-mainstream Gay and Non-mainstream Lesbian, or those homosexuals who do not conform with norms, in relation to courtship than to focus on heterosexuals’ courtship. Moreover, the aim of this study is to explore the experience of courtship as it is mediated by the personal meanings that Non-mainstream Homosexuals attribute to it. Also, a comparison of courtship between Non-mainstream Gays and Non-mainstream Lesbians covers the study. A total of ten self-identified Non-mainstream gay and lesbian participated in the study and was interviewed with an open ended question. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used in the study to capture the quality and texture of individual lived experiences. The results revealed similarities and differences in the lived experiences of Non-mainstream Gays and Lesbians when compared. The research findings have found that the research participants lived experiences in relation with Courtship are somehow similar and only differ in terms of sexual attraction. Non-mainstream Gays tend to follow a more sexual dating script while Non-mainstream Lesbians builds relationship through friendship or follows a ‘friendship’ script. Findings were compared with literature on dating and relationships with a large population of Gays and Lesbians to identify points of consistency and inconsistency. The implication of the results and recommendation for future researcher were given.

Keywords: non-mainstream gays, non-mainstream lesbian, courtship, heteronormativity, dating script

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
120 Device for Reversible Hydrogen Isotope Storage with Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Case

Authors: Igor P. Maximkin, Arkady A. Yukhimchuk, Victor V. Baluev, Igor L. Malkov, Rafael K. Musyaev, Damir T. Sitdikov, Alexey V. Buchirin, Vasily V. Tikhonov


Minimization of tritium diffusion leakage when developing devices handling tritium-containing media is key problems whose solution will at least allow essential enhancement of radiation safety and minimization of diffusion losses of expensive tritium. One of the ways to solve this problem is to use Al₂O₃ high-strength non-porous ceramics as a structural material of the bed body. This alumina ceramics offers high strength characteristics, but its main advantages are low hydrogen permeability (as against the used structural material) and high dielectric properties. The latter enables direct induction heating of an hydride-forming metal without essential heating of the pressure and containment vessel. The use of alumina ceramics and induction heating allows: - essential reduction of tritium extraction time; - several orders reduction of tritium diffusion leakage; - more complete extraction of tritium from metal hydrides due to its higher heating up to melting in the event of final disposal of the device. The paper presents computational and experimental results for the tritium bed designed to absorb 6 liters of tritium. Titanium was used as hydrogen isotope sorbent. Results of hydrogen realize kinetic from hydride-forming metal, strength and cyclic service life tests are reported. Recommendations are also provided for the practical use of the given bed type.

Keywords: aluminum oxide ceramic, hydrogen pressure, hydrogen isotope storage, titanium hydride

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119 Polygenetic Iron Mineralization in the Baba-Ali and Galali Deposits, Further Evidences from Stable (S, O, H) Isotope Data, NW Hamedan, Iran

Authors: Ghodratollah Rostami Paydar


The Baba-Ali and Galali iron deposits are located in northwest Hamedan and the Iranian Sanandaj-Sirjan geological structural zone. The host rocks of these deposits are metavolcanosedimentary successions of Songhor stratigraphic series with permo-trriassic age. Field investigation, ore geometry, textures and structures and paragenetic sequence of minerals, all indicate that the ore minerals are crystallized in four stages: primary volcanosedimentary stage, secondary regional metamorphism with formation of ductile shear zones, contact metamorphism and metasomatism stage and the finally late hydrothermal mineralization within uplift and exposure. Totally 29 samples of sulfide, oxide-silicate and carbonate minerals of iron orees and gangue has been purified for stable isotope analysis. The isotope ratio data assure that occurrence of dynamothermal metamorphism in these areas typically involves a lengthy period of time, which results in a tendency toward isotopic homogenization specifically in O and H stable isotopes and showing the role of metamorphic waters in mineralization process. Measurement of δ34S (CDT) in first generation of pyrite is higher than another ones, so it confirms the volcanogenic origin of primary iron mineralization. δ13C data measurements in Galali carbonate country rocks show a marine origin. δ18O in magnetite and skarn forming silicates, δ18O and δ13C in limestone and skarn calcite and δ34S in sulphides are all consistent with the interaction of a magmatic-equilibrated fluid with Galali limestone, and a dominantly magmatic source for S. All these data imply skarn formation and mineralisation in a magmatic-hydrothermal system that maintained high salinity to relatively late stages resulting in the formation of the regional Na metasomatic alteration halo. Late stage hydrothermal quartz-calcite veinlets are important for gold mineralization, but the economic evaluation is required to detailed geochemical studies.

Keywords: iron, polygenetic, stable isotope, BabaAli, Galali

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118 Identifying Dominant Anaerobic Microorganisms for Degradation of Benzene

Authors: Jian Peng, Wenhui Xiong, Zheng Lu


An optimal recipe of amendment (nutrients and electron acceptors) was developed and dominant indigenous benzene-degrading microorganisms were characterized in this study. Lessons were learnt from the development of the optimal amendment recipe: (1) salinity and substantial initial concentration of benzene were detrimental for benzene biodegradation; (2) large dose of amendments can shorten the lag time for benzene biodegradation occurrence; (3) toluene was an essential co-substance for promoting benzene degradation activity. The stable isotope probing study identified incorporation 13C from 13C-benzene into microorganisms, which can be considered as a direct evidence of the occurrence of benzene biodegradation. The dominant mechanism for benzene removal was identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to be nitrate reduction. Microbial analyses (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S ribosomal RNA) demonstrated that members of genus Dokdonella spp., Pusillimonas spp., and Advenella spp. were predominant within the microbial community and involved in the anaerobic benzene bioremediation.

Keywords: benzene, enhanced anaerobic bioremediation, stable isotope probing, biosep biotrap

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117 Groundwater Recharge Pattern in East and West Coast of India: Evidence of Dissimilar Moisture Sources

Authors: Ajit Kumar Behera, Saranya P., Sudhir Kumar, Krishnakumar A


The stable isotope (δ¹⁸ O and δ²H) composition of groundwater of the coastal areas of Periyar and Mahanadi basins falling along East and West coast of India during North-East (NE) monsoon season have been studied. The east and west coast regions are surrounded by the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea respectively, which are considered to be the primary sources for precipitation over India. The major difference between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is that a number of large rivers feed the Bay of Bengal, whereas the Arabian Sea is fed by very few small rivers, resulting in enriched stable isotopic composition of the Arabian Sea than the Bay of Bengal. Previous studies have reported depleted ratios of stable isotopes during Northeast monsoon along East and West coasts due to the influence of the Bay of Bengal moisture source. The isotopic composition of groundwater of the Mahanadi delta in the east coast region varies from -6.87 ‰ to -3.40 ‰ for δ¹⁸ O and -45.42 ‰ to -22.43‰ for δ²H. However, the groundwater of the Periyar basin in the west coast has enriched stable isotope value varying from -4.3‰ to -2.5 ‰ for δ¹⁸ O and for δ²H from -23.7 to -6.4 ‰ which is a characteristic of South-West monsoon season. This suggests the groundwater system of the Mahanadi delta and the Periyar basins are influenced by dissimilar moisture sources. The δ¹⁸ O and δ² H relationship (δ²H= 6.513 δ¹⁸ O - 1.39) and d-excess value (< 10) in the east coast region indicates the influence of NE monsoon implying the quick groundwater recharge after precipitation with significant amount of evaporation. In contrast, the δ¹⁸ O and δ²H regression line (δ²H= 8.408 δ¹⁸ O + 11.71) with high d-excess value (>10) in the west coast region implies delayed recharge due to SW monsoon. The observed isotopic enrichment in west coast suggests that NE winter monsoon rainfall does not replenish groundwater quick enough to produce isotopic depletion during the season.

Keywords: Arabian sea, bay of Bengal, groundwater, monsoon, stable isotope

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116 Measuring Biobased Content of Building Materials Using Carbon-14 Testing

Authors: Haley Gershon


The transition from using fossil fuel-based building material to formulating eco-friendly and biobased building materials plays a key role in sustainable building. The growing demand on a global level for biobased materials in the building and construction industries heightens the importance of carbon-14 testing, an analytical method used to determine the percentage of biobased content that comprises a material’s ingredients. This presentation will focus on the use of carbon-14 analysis within the building materials sector. Carbon-14, also known as radiocarbon, is a weakly radioactive isotope present in all living organisms. Any fossil material older than 50,000 years will not contain any carbon-14 content. The radiocarbon method is thus used to determine the amount of carbon-14 content present in a given sample. Carbon-14 testing is performed according to ASTM D6866, a standard test method developed specifically for biobased content determination of material in solid, liquid, or gaseous form, which requires radiocarbon dating. Samples are combusted and converted into a solid graphite form and then pressed onto a metal disc and mounted onto a wheel of an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) machine for the analysis. The AMS instrument is used in order to count the amount of carbon-14 present. By submitting samples for carbon-14 analysis, manufacturers of building materials can confirm the biobased content of ingredients used. Biobased testing through carbon-14 analysis reports results as percent biobased content, indicating the percentage of ingredients coming from biomass sourced carbon versus fossil carbon. The analysis is performed according to standardized methods such as ASTM D6866, ISO 16620, and EN 16640. Products 100% sourced from plants, animals, or microbiological material are therefore 100% biobased, while products sourced only from fossil fuel material are 0% biobased. Any result in between 0% and 100% biobased indicates that there is a mixture of both biomass-derived and fossil fuel-derived sources. Furthermore, biobased testing for building materials allows manufacturers to submit eligible material for certification and eco-label programs such as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) BioPreferred Program. This program includes a voluntary labeling initiative for biobased products, in which companies may apply to receive and display the USDA Certified Biobased Product label, stating third-party verification and displaying a product’s percentage of biobased content. The USDA program includes a specific category for Building Materials. In order to qualify for the biobased certification under this product category, examples of product criteria that must be met include minimum 62% biobased content for wall coverings, minimum 25% biobased content for lumber, and a minimum 91% biobased content for floor coverings (non-carpet). As a result, consumers can easily identify plant-based products in the marketplace.

Keywords: carbon-14 testing, biobased, biobased content, radiocarbon dating, accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, materials

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115 Ytterbium Advantages for Brachytherapy

Authors: S. V. Akulinichev, S. A. Chaushansky, V. I. Derzhiev


High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a method of contact radiotherapy, when a single sealed source with an activity of about 10 Ci is temporarily inserted in the tumor area. The isotopes Ir-192 and (much less) Co-60 are used as active material for such sources. The other type of brachytherapy, the low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy, implies the insertion of many permanent sources (up to 200) of lower activity. The pulse dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy can be considered as a modification of HDR brachytherapy, when the single source is repeatedly introduced in the tumor region in a pulse regime during several hours. The PDR source activity is of the order of one Ci and the isotope Ir-192 is currently used for these sources. The PDR brachytherapy is well recommended for the treatment of several tumors since, according to oncologists, it combines the medical benefits of both HDR and LDR types of brachytherapy. One of the main problems for the PDR brachytherapy progress is the shielding of the treatment area since the longer stay of patients in a shielded canyon is not enough comfortable for them. The use of Yb-169 as an active source material is the way to resolve the shielding problem for PDR, as well as for HRD brachytherapy. The isotope Yb-169 has the average photon emission energy of 93 KeV and the half-life of 32 days. Compared to iridium and cobalt, this isotope has a significantly lower emission energy and therefore requires a much lighter shielding. Moreover, the absorption cross section of different materials has a strong Z-dependence in that photon energy range. For example, the dose distributions of iridium and ytterbium have a quite similar behavior in the water or in the body. But the heavier material as lead absorbs the ytterbium radiation much stronger than the iridium or cobalt radiation. For example, only 2 mm of lead layer is enough to reduce the ytterbium radiation by a couple of orders of magnitude but is not enough to protect from iridium radiation. We have created an original facility to produce the start stable isotope Yb-168 using the laser technology AVLIS. This facility allows to raise the Yb-168 concentration up to 50 % and consumes much less of electrical power than the alternative electromagnetic enrichment facilities. We also developed, in cooperation with the Institute of high pressure physics of RAS, a new technology for manufacturing high-density ceramic cores of ytterbium oxide. Ceramics density reaches the limit of the theoretical values: 9.1 g/cm3 for the cubic phase of ytterbium oxide and 10 g/cm3 for the monoclinic phase. Source cores from this ceramics have high mechanical characteristics and a glassy surface. The use of ceramics allows to increase the source activity with fixed external dimensions of sources.

Keywords: brachytherapy, high, pulse dose rates, radionuclides for therapy, ytterbium sources

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114 Serological Screening of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Sudanese Patients with Leukemia, Breast and Prostate Cancers at Radiation-Isotope Center in Khartoum

Authors: Abuelquasim. M. Hassan, Namarig .S. Mohammed, Samah F. Mohammed, Wafaa. A. Mohammed, Wafaa M. Edriss, Amel A. Ahmed, Elfadil M. Abass


Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common virus, usually causes asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent hosts; however, it may lead to serious complications especially in cancer patients. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among leukemia, breast and prostate cancer patients attending at Radiation Isotope-Center-Khartoum (RICK) from April to August 2016. Material and Methods: A total of 91 subjects were included: 30 leukemic, 22 breast cancer and 29 prostate cancer patients.10 of them were healthy and used as control group, serum samples were collected and tested for CMV IgG & IgM using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Result: Of the control group, 9/10 (9.9%) were seropositive for CMV IgG and 1/10 (1.09%) were sero positive for IgM. Also, all cancer groups demonstrated presence of IgG antibody classes as: The percentage of positive results in prostate, breast cancer and leukemia were 35.8 %, 37.2%, and 35.3% respectively. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between leukemia, breast, prostate and HCMV.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, serodiagnostic, breast cancer, leukemia

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113 Adolescents’ Reports of Dating Abuse: Mothers’ Responses

Authors: Beverly Black


Background: Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) is widespread throughout the world and negatively impacts many adolescents. ADA is associated with lower self-esteem, poorer school performance, lower employment opportunities, higher rates of depression, absenteeism from school, substance abuse, bullying, smoking, suicide, pregnancy, eating disorders, and risky sexual behaviors, and experiencing domestic violence later in life. ADA prevention is sometimes addressed through school programming; yet, parental responses to ADA can also be an important vehicle for its prevention. In this exploratory study, the author examined how mothers, including abused mothers, responded to scenarios of ADA involving their children. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted between December, 2013 and June, 2014 with mothers (n=31) in the southern part of the United States. Three of the focus groups were comprised of mothers (n=17) who had been abused by their partners. Mothers were recruited from local community family agencies. Participants were provided a series of four scenarios about ADA and they were asked to explain how they would respond. Focus groups lasted approximately 45 minutes. All participants were given a gift card to a major retailer as a ‘thank you’. Using QSR-N10, two researchers’ analyzed the focus group data first using open and axial coding techniques to find overarching themes. Researchers triangulated the coded data to ensure accurate interpretations of the participants’ messages and used the scenario questions to structure the coded results. Results: Almost 30% of 699 comments coded as mothers’ recommendations for responding to ADA focused on the importance of providing advice to their children. Advice included breaking up, going to police, ignoring or avoiding the abusive partner, and setting boundaries in relationships. About 22% of comments focused on the need for educating teens about healthy and unhealthy relationships and seeking additional information. About 13% of the comments reflected the view that parents should confront abuser and/or abusers’ parents, and less than 2% noted the need to take their child to counseling. Mothers who had been abused offered similar responses as parents who had not experienced abuse. However, their responses were more likely to focus on sharing their own experience exercising caution in their responses, as they knew from their own experiences that authoritarian responses were ineffective. Over half of the comments indicated that parents would react stronger, quicker, and angrier if a girl was being abused by a boy than vice versa; parents expressed greater fear for their daughters than their sons involved in ADA. Conclusions. Results suggest that mothers have ideas about how to respond to ADA. Mothers who have been abused draw from their experiences and are aware that responding in an authoritarian manner may not be helpful. Because parental influence on teens is critical in their development, it is important for all parents to respond to ADA in a helpful manner to break the cycle of violence. Understanding responses to ADA can inform prevention programming to work with parents in responding to ADA.

Keywords: abused mothers' responses to dating abuse, adolescent dating abuse, mothers' responses to dating abuse, teen dating violence

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112 The Potential for Cyclotron and Generator-produced Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals: An Overview

Authors: Ng Yen, Shafii Khamis, Rehir Bin Dahalan


Cyclotrons in the energy range 10-30 MeV are widely used for the production of clincally relevant radiosiotopes used in positron emission tomography (PET) nuclear imaging. Positron emmision tomography is a powerful nuclear imaging tool that produces high quality 3-dimentional images of functional processes of body. The advantage of PET among all other imaging devices is that it allows the study of an impressive array of discrete biochemical and physiologic processes, within a single imaging session. The number of PET scanner increases every year globally due to high clinical demand. However, not all PET centers can afford a cyclotron, due to the expense associated with operation of an in-house cyclotron. Therefore, current research has also focused on the development of parent/daughter generators that can reliably provide PET nuclides. These generators (68Ge/68Ga generator, 62Zn/62Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, etc) can provide even short-lived radionuclides at any time on demand, without the need of an ‘in-house cyclotron’. The parent isotope is produced at a cyclotron/reactor facility, and can be shipped to remote clinical sites (regionally/overseas), where the daughter isotope is eluted, a model similar to the 99Mo/99mTc generator system. The specific aim for this presentation is to talk about the potential for both of the cyclotron and generator-produced PET radiopharmaceuticals used in clinical imaging.

Keywords: positron emission tomography, radiopharmaceutical, cyclotron, generator

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111 Petrogenetic Model of Formation of Orthoclase Gabbro of the Dzirula Crystalline Massif, the Caucasus

Authors: David Shengelia, Tamara Tsutsunava, Manana Togonidze, Giorgi Chichinadze, Giorgi Beridze


Orthoclase gabbro intrusive exposes in the Eastern part of the Dzirula crystalline massif of the Central Transcaucasian microcontinent. It is intruded in the Baikal quartz-diorite gneisses as a stock-like body. The intrusive is characterized by heterogeneity of rock composition: variability of mineral content and irregular distribution of rock-forming minerals. The rocks are represented by pyroxenites, gabbro-pyroxenites and gabbros of different composition – K-feldspar, pyroxene-hornblende and biotite bearing varieties. Scientific views on the genesis and age of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive are considerably different. Based on the long-term pertogeochemical and geochronological investigations of the intrusive with such an extraordinary composition the authors came to the following conclusions. According to geological and geophysical data, it is stated that in the Saurian orogeny horizontal tectonic layering of the Earth’s crust of the Central Transcaucasian microcontinent took place. That is precisely this fact that explains the formation of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive. During the tectonic doubling of the Earth’s crust of the mentioned microcontinent thick tectonic nappes of mafic and sialic layers overlap the sialic basement (‘inversion’ layer). The initial magma of the intrusive was of high-temperature basite-ultrabasite composition, crystallization products of which are pyroxenites and gabbro-pyroxenites. Petrochemical data of the magma attest to its formation in the Upper mantle and partially in the ‘crustal astenolayer’. Then, a newly formed overheated dry magma with phenocrysts of clinopyrocxene and basic plagioclase intruded into the ‘inversion’ layer. From the new medium it was enriched by the volatile components causing the selective melting and as a result the formation of leucocratic quartz-feldspar material. At the same time in the basic magma intensive transformation of pyroxene to hornblende was going on. The basic magma partially mixed with the newly formed acid magma. These different magmas intruded first into the allochthonous basite layer without its significant transformation and then into the upper sialic layer and crystallized here at a depth of 7-10 km. By petrochemical data the newly formed leucocratic granite magma belongs to the S type granites, but the above mentioned mixed magma – to H (hybrid) type. During the final stage of magmatic processes the gabbroic rocks impregnated with high-temperature feldspar-bearing material forming anorthoclase or orthoclase. Thus, so called ‘orthoclase gabbro’ includes the rocks of various genetic groups: 1. protolith of gabbroic intrusive; 2. hybrid rock – K-feldspar gabbro and 3. leucocratic quartz-feldspar bearing rock. Petrochemical and geochemical data obtained from the hybrid gabbro and from the inrusive protolith differ from each other. For the identification of petrogenetic model of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive formation LA-ICP-MS- U-Pb zircon dating has been conducted in all three genetic types of gabbro. The zircon age of the protolith – mean 221.4±1.9 Ma and of hybrid K-feldspar gabbro – mean 221.9±2.2 Ma, records crystallization time of the intrusive, but the zircon age of quartz-feldspar bearing rocks – mean 323±2.9 Ma, as well as the inherited age (323±9, 329±8.3, 332±10 and 335±11 Ma) of hybrid K-feldspar gabbro corresponds to the formation age of Late Variscan granitoids widespread in the Dzirula crystalline massif.

Keywords: The Caucasus, isotope dating, orthoclase-bearing gabbro, petrogenetic model

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110 A Study on Evaluation for Performance Verification of Ni-63 Radioisotope Betavoltaic Battery

Authors: Youngmok Yun, Bosung Kim, Sungho Lee, Kyeongsu Jeon, Hyunwook Hwangbo, Byounggun Choi


A betavoltaic battery converts nuclear energy released as beta particles (β-) directly into electrical energy. Betavoltaic cells are analogous to photovoltaic cells. The beta particle’s kinetic energy enters a p-n junction and creates electron-hole pairs. Subsequently, the built-in potential of the p-n junction accelerates the electrons and ions to their respective collectors. The major challenges are electrical conversion efficiencies and exact evaluation. In this study, the performance of betavoltaic battery was evaluated. The betavoltaic cell was evaluated in the same condition as radiation from radioactive isotope using by FE-SEM(field emission scanning electron microscope). The average energy of the radiation emitted from the Ni-63 radioisotope is 17.42 keV. FE-SEM is capable of emitting an electron beam of 1-30keV. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate betavoltaic cell without radioactive isotopes. The betavoltaic battery consists of radioisotope that is physically connected on the surface of Si-based PN diode. The performance of betavoltaic battery can be estimated by the efficiency of PN diode unit cell. The current generated by scanning electron microscope with fixed accelerating voltage (17keV) was measured by using faraday cup. Electrical characterization of the p-n junction diode was performed by using Nano Probe Work Station and I-V measurement system. The output value of the betavoltaic cells developed by this research team was 0.162 μw/cm2 and the efficiency was 1.14%.

Keywords: betavoltaic, nuclear, battery, Ni-63, radio-isotope

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109 Attributes That Influence Respondents When Choosing a Mate in Internet Dating Sites: An Innovative Matching Algorithm

Authors: Moti Zwilling, Srečko Natek


This paper aims to present an innovative predictive analytics analysis in order to find the best combination between two consumers who strive to find their partner or in internet sites. The methodology shown in this paper is based on analysis of consumer preferences and involves data mining and machine learning search techniques. The study is composed of two parts: The first part examines by means of descriptive statistics the correlations between a set of parameters that are taken between man and women where they intent to meet each other through the social media, usually the internet. In this part several hypotheses were examined and statistical analysis were taken place. Results show that there is a strong correlation between the affiliated attributes of man and woman as long as concerned to how they present themselves in a social media such as "Facebook". One interesting issue is the strong desire to develop a serious relationship between most of the respondents. In the second part, the authors used common data mining algorithms to search and classify the most important and effective attributes that affect the response rate of the other side. Results exhibit that personal presentation and education background are found as most affective to achieve a positive attitude to one's profile from the other mate.

Keywords: dating sites, social networks, machine learning, decision trees, data mining

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