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Search results for: Nikoloz Maisuradze

8 Jalovchat Gabbroic Intrusive of the Caucasus: Petrological Study, Geochemical Peculiarities and Formation Conditions

Authors: Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Tamara Tsutsunava, Nikoloz Maisuradze, Giorgi Beridze


The Jalovchat intrusive is built up of hornblende gabbros, gabbro-norites and norites. Within the intrusive hornblende-bearing gabbro-pegmatites are widespread. That is a coarse-grained rock with gigantic hornblende crystals. By its unusual composition, the Jalovchat intrusive has no analogue in the Caucasus. However, petrologically and geochemically, the intrusive rocks were studied insufficiently. For comprehensive investigations, the authors applied appropriate methodologies: Microscopic study of thin sections, petro- and geochemical analyses of the samples and also different petrogenic, rare and rare earth elements diagrams and spidergrams. Analytical study established that the Jalovchat intrusive by its composition corresponds mainly to the mid-ocean ridge basalts and according to geodynamic type belongs to the subduction type. In general, it is an anomalous phenomenon, as in the rocks of such composition crystallization of hornblende and especially of its gigantic crystals is atypical. The authors believe that the water-rich magma reservoir, which was necessary for the crystallization of gigantic hornblende crystals, appeared as a result of melting of water-rich mid-ocean ridge basaltic rocks during the subduction process in Bajocian time.

Keywords: gabbro-pegmatite, intrusive, petrogenesis, petrogeochemistry, the Caucasus

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7 Petrogeochemistry of Hornblende-Bearing Gabbro Intrusive, the Greater Caucasus

Authors: Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Tamara Tsutsunava, Nikoloz Maisuradze, Giorgi Beridze


The Jalovchat gabbro intrusive is exposed on the northern and southern slopes of Main Range zone of the Greater Caucasus, on an area about 25km2. It is intruded in Precambrian crystalline schists and amphibolites intensively metamorphose them along the contact zone. The intrusive is represented by hornblende-bearing gabbro, gabbro-norites and norites including thin vein bodies of gabbro-pegmatites, anorthosites and micro-gabbros. Especially should be noted the veins of gabbro-pegmatites with the gigantic (up to 0.5m) hornblende crystals. From this point of view, the Jalovchat gabbroid intrusive is particularly interesting and by its unusual composition has no analog in the Caucasus overall. The comprehensive petrologic and geochemical study of the intrusive was carried out by the authors. The results of investigations are following. Amphiboles correspond to magnesiohastingsite and magnesiohornblende. In hastingsite and hornblende as a result of isovalent isomorphism of Fe2+ by Mg, content of the latter has been increased. By AMF and Na20+K diagrams the intrusive rocks correspond to tholeiitic basalts or to basalts close to it by composition. According to ACM-AMF double diagram the samples distributed in the fields of MORB and alkali cumulates. In TiO2/FeO+Fe2O3, Zr/Y-Zr and Ti-Cr/Ni diagrams and Ti-Cr-Y triangular diagram samples are arranged in the fields of island-arc and mid-oceanic basalts or along the trends reflecting mid-oceanic ridges or island arcs. K2O/TiO2 diagram shows that these rocks belong to normal and enriched MORB type. According to Th/Nb/Y ratio, the Jalovchat intrusive composition corresponds to depleted mantle, but by Sm/Y-Ce/Sm - to the MORB area. Th/Y and Nb/Y ratios coincide with the MORB composition, Th/Yb-Ta/Yb and La/Nb-Ti ratios correspond to N MORB, and Rb/Y and N/Y - to the lower crust formations. Exceptional are Ce/Pb-Ce and Nb/Th-Nb diagrams, showing the area of primitive mantle. Spidergrams are characterized by almost horizontal trend, weakly expressed Eu minimums and by a slight depletion of light REE. Similar are characteristic of typical tholeiit basalts. In comparison to MORB spidergrams, they are characterized by depletion of light REE. Their correlation to the spidergrams of Jalovchat intrusive proves that they are more depleted. The above cited points to the gradual depletion of mantle with the light REE in geological time. The RE and REE diagrams reveal unexpected regularity. In particular, petro-geochemical characteristics of Jalovchat gabbroid intrusive predominantly correspond to MORB, that usually is an anomalous phenomenon, since in ‘ophiolitic’ section magmatic formations represented mainly by gigantic prismatic hornblende-bearing gabbro and gabbro-pegmatite are not indicated. On the basis of petro-mineralogical and petro-geochemical data analysis, the authors consider that the Jalovchat intrusive belongs to the subduction geodynamic type. In the depleted mantle rich in water the MORB rock system has subducted, where the favorable conditions for crystallization of hornblende and especially for its gigantic crystals occurred. It is considered that the Jalovchat intrusive was formed in deep horizons of the Earth’s crust as a result of crystallization of water-bearing Bajocian basalt magma.

Keywords: The Greater Caucasus, gabbro-pegmatite, hornblende-bearing gabbro, petrogenesis

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6 Comparative Study of Stability of Crude and Purified Red Pigments of Pokeberry (Phytolacca Americana L.) Fruits

Authors: Nani Mchedlishvili, Nino Omiadze, Marine Abutidze, Jose Neptuno Rodriguez-Lopez, Tinatin Sadunishvili, Nikoloz Pruidze, Giorgi Kvesitadze


Recently, there is an increased interest in the development of food natural colorants as alternatives to synthetic dyes because of both legislative action and consumer concern. Betalains are widely used in the food industry as an alternative of synthetic colorants. The interest of betalains are caused not only by their coloring effect but also by their beneficial properties. The aim of the work was to study of stability of crude and purified red pigments of pokeberry (Phytolacca america L.). The pokeberry fruit juice was filtrated and concentrated by rotary vacuum evaporator up to 25% and the concentrated juice was passed through the Sepadex-25(fine) column (20×1.1 cm). From the column the pigment elution rate was 18 ml/hr. 1.5ml fractions of pigment were collected. In the fractions the coloring substances were determined using CuS04 x 7 H2O as a standard. From the Sephadex G-25 column only one fraction of the betalain red pigment was eluted with the absorption maximum at 538 nm. The degree of pigment purification was 1.6 and pigment yield from the column was 15 %. It was shown that thermostability of pokeberry fruit red pigment was significantly decreased after the purification. For example, during incubation at 100C for 10 min crude pigment retained 98 % of its color while under the same conditions only 72% of the color of purified pigment was retained. The purified pigment was found to be characterized by less storage stability too. The storage of the initial crude juice and the pigment fraction obtained after the gelfiltration for 10 days at 4°C showed the lost of color by 29 and 74 % respectively. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that during the gelfiltration the pokeberry fruit red pigment gets separated from such substances that cause its stabilization in the crude juice.

Keywords: betalains, gelfiltration, pokeberry fruit, stability

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5 Spark Plasma Sintering/Synthesis of Alumina-Graphene Composites

Authors: Nikoloz Jalabadze, Roin Chedia, Lili Nadaraia, Levan Khundadze


Nanocrystalline materials in powder condition can be manufactured by a number of different methods, however manufacture of composite materials product in the same nanocrystalline state is still a problem because the processes of compaction and synthesis of nanocrystalline powders go with intensive growth of particles – the process which promotes formation of pieces in an ordinary crystalline state instead of being crystallized in the desirable nanocrystalline state. To date spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been considered as the most promising and energy efficient method for producing dense bodies of composite materials. An advantage of the SPS method in comparison with other methods is mainly low temperature and short time of the sintering procedure. That finally gives an opportunity to obtain dense material with nanocrystalline structure. Graphene has recently garnered significant interest as a reinforcing phase in composite materials because of its excellent electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in particular have attracted much interest as reinforcements for ceramic matrix composites (mostly in Al2O3, Si3N4, TiO2, ZrB2 a. c.). SPS has been shown to fully densify a variety of ceramic systems effectively including Al2O3 and often with improvements in mechanical and functional behavior. Alumina consolidated by SPS has been shown to have superior hardness, fracture toughness, plasticity and optical translucency compared to conventionally processed alumina. Knowledge of how GNPs influence sintering behavior is important to effectively process and manufacture process. In this study, the effects of GNPs on the SPS processing of Al2O3 are investigated by systematically varying sintering temperature, holding time and pressure. Our experiments showed that SPS process is also appropriate for the synthesis of nanocrystalline powders of alumina-graphene composites. Depending on the size of the molds, it is possible to obtain different amount of nanopowders. Investigation of the structure, physical-chemical, mechanical and performance properties of the elaborated composite materials was performed. The results of this study provide a fundamental understanding of the effects of GNP on sintering behavior, thereby providing a foundation for future optimization of the processing of these promising nanocomposite systems.

Keywords: alumina oxide, ceramic matrix composites, graphene nanoplatelets, spark-plasma sintering

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4 Human’s Sensitive Reactions during Different Geomagnetic Activity: An Experimental Study in Natural and Simulated Conditions

Authors: Ketevan Janashia, Tamar Tsibadze, Levan Tvildiani, Nikoloz Invia, Elguja Kubaneishvili, Vasili Kukhianidze, George Ramishvili


This study considers the possible effects of geomagnetic activity (GMA) on humans situated on Earth by performing experiments concerning specific sensitive reactions in humans in both: natural conditions during different GMA and by the simulation of different GMA in the lab. The measurements of autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to different GMA via measuring the heart rate variability (HRV) indices and stress index (SI) and their comparison with the K-index of GMA have been presented and discussed. The results of experiments indicate an intensification of the sympathetic part of the ANS as a stress reaction of the human organism when it is exposed to high level of GMA as natural as well as in simulated conditions. Aim: We tested the hypothesis whether the GMF when disturbed can have effects on human ANS causing specific sensitive stress-reactions depending on the initial type of ANS. Methods: The study focuses on the effects of different GMA on ANS by comparing of HRV indices and stress index (SI) of n= 78, 18-24 years old healthy male volunteers. Experiments were performed as natural conditions on days of low (K= 1-3) and high (K= 5-7) GMA as well as in the lab by the simulation of different GMA using the device of geomagnetic storm (GMS) compensation and simulation. Results: In comparison with days of low GMA (K=1-3) the initial values of HRV shifted towards the intensification of the sympathetic part (SP) of the ANS during days of GMSs (K=5-7) with statistical significance p-values: HR (heart rate, p= 0.001), SDNN (Standard deviation of all Normal to Normal intervals, p= 0.0001), RMSSD (The square root of the arithmetical mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, p= 0.0001). In comparison with conditions during GMSs compensation mode (K= 0, B= 0-5nT), the ANS balance was observed to shift during exposure to simulated GMSs with intensities in the range of natural GMSs (K= 7, B= 200nT). However, the initial values of the ANS resulted in different dynamics in its variation depending of GMA level. In the case of initial balanced regulation type (HR > 80) significant intensification of SP was observed with p-values: HR (p= 0.0001), SDNN (p= 0.047), RMSSD (p= 0.28), LF/HF (p=0.03), SI (p= 0.02); while in the case of initial parasympathetic regulation type (HR < 80), an insignificant shift to the intensification of the parasympathetic part (PP) was observed. Conclusions: The results indicate an intensification of SP as a stress reaction of the human organism when it is exposed to high level of GMA in both natural and simulated conditions.

Keywords: autonomic nervous system, device of magneto compensation/simulation, geomagnetic storms, heart rate variability

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3 Modified Graphene Oxide in Ceramic Composite

Authors: Natia Jalagonia, Jimsher Maisuradze, Karlo Barbakadze, Tinatin Kuchukhidze


At present intensive scientific researches of ceramics, cermets and metal alloys have been conducted for improving materials physical-mechanical characteristics. In purpose of increasing impact strength of ceramics based on alumina, simple method of graphene homogenization was developed. Homogeneous distribution of graphene (homogenization) in pressing composite became possible through the connection of functional groups of graphene oxide (-OH, -COOH, -O-O- and others) and alumina superficial OH groups with aluminum organic compounds. These two components connect with each other with -O-Al–O- bonds, and by their thermal treatment (300–500°C), graphene and alumina phase are transformed. Thus, choosing of aluminum organic compounds for modification is stipulated by the following opinion: aluminum organic compounds fragments fixed on graphene and alumina finally are transformed into an integral part of the matrix. By using of other elements as modifier on the matrix surface (Al2O3) other phases are transformed, which change sharply physical-mechanical properties of ceramic composites, for this reason, effect caused by the inclusion of graphene will be unknown. Fixing graphene fragments on alumina surface by alumoorganic compounds result in new type graphene-alumina complex, in which these two components are connected by C-O-Al bonds. Part of carbon atoms in graphene oxide are in sp3 hybrid state, so functional groups (-OH, -COOH) are located on both sides of graphene oxide layer. Aluminum organic compound reacts with graphene oxide at the room temperature, and modified graphene oxide is obtained: R2Al-O-[graphene]–COOAlR2. Remaining Al–C bonds also reacts rapidly with surface OH groups of alumina. In a result of these process, pressing powdery composite [Al2O3]-O-Al-O-[graphene]–COO–Al–O–[Al2O3] is obtained. For the purpose, graphene oxide suspension in dry toluene have added alumoorganic compound Al(iC4H9)3 in toluene with equimolecular ratio. Obtained suspension has put in the flask and removed solution in a rotary evaporate presence nitrogen atmosphere. Obtained powdery have been researched and used to consolidation of ceramic materials based on alumina. Ceramic composites are obtained in high temperature vacuum furnace with different temperature and pressure conditions. Received ceramics do not have open pores and their density reaches 99.5 % of TD. During the work, the following devices have been used: High temperature vacuum furnace OXY-GON Industries Inc (USA), device of spark-plasma synthesis, induction furnace, Electronic Scanning Microscopes Nikon Eclipse LV 150, Optical Microscope NMM-800TRF, Planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, Shimadzu Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester DUH-211S, Analysette 12 Dynasizer and others.

Keywords: graphene oxide, alumo-organic, ceramic

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2 Contamination by Heavy Metals of Some Environmental Objects in Adjacent Territories of Solid Waste Landfill

Authors: D. Kekelidze, G. Tsotadze, G. Maisuradze, L. Akhalbedashvili, M. Chkhaidze


Statement of Problem: The problem of solid wastes -dangerous sources of environmental pollution,is the urgent issue for Georgia as there are no waste-treatment and waste- incineration plants. Urban peripheral and rural areas, frequently along small rivers, are occupied by landfills without any permission. The study of the pollution of some environmental objects in the adjacent territories of solid waste landfill in Tbilisi carried out in 2020-2021, within the framework of project: “Ecological monitoring of the landfills surrounding areas and population health risk assessment”. Research objects: This research had goal to assess the ecological state of environmental objects (soil cover and surface water) in the territories, adjacent of solid waste landfill, on the base of changes heavy metals' (HM) concentration with distance from landfill. An open sanitary landfill for solid domestic waste in Tbilisi locates at suburb Lilo surrounded with densely populated villages. Content of following HM was determined in soil and river water samples: Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn. Methodology: The HM content in samples was measured, using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (spectrophotometer of firm Perkin-Elmer AAnalyst 200) in accordance with ISO 11466 and GOST Р 53218-2008. Results and discussion: Data obtained confirmed migration of HM mainly in terms of the distance from the polygon that can be explained by their areal emissions and storage in open state, they could also get into the soil cover under the influence of wind and precipitation. Concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn always increases with approaching to landfill. High concentrations of Pb, Cd are characteristic of the soil covers of the adjacent territories around the landfill at a distance of 250, 500 meters.They create a dangerous zone, since they can later migrate into plants, enter in rivers and lakes. The higher concentrations, compared to the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for surface waters of Georgia, are observed for Pb, Cd. One of the reasons for the low concentration of HM in river water may be high turbidity – as is known, suspended particles are good natural sorbents that causes low concentration of dissolved forms. Concentration of Cu, Ni, Mn increases in winter, since in this season the rivers are switched to groundwater feeding. Conclusion: Soil covers of the areas adjacent to the landfill in Lilo are contaminated with HM. High concentrations in soils are characteristic of lead and cadmium. Elevated concentrations in comparison with the MPC for surface waters adopted in Georgia are also observed for Pb, Cd at checkpoints along and below (1000 m) of the landfill downstream. Data obtained confirm migration of HM to the adjacent territories of the landfill and to the Lochini River. Since the migration and toxicity of metals depends also on the presence of their mobile forms in water bodies, samples of bottom sediments should be taken too. Bottom sediments reflect a long-term picture of pollution, they accumulate HM and represent a constant source of secondary pollution of water bodies. The study of the physicochemical forms of metals is one of the priority areas for further research.

Keywords: landfill, pollution, heavy metals, migration

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1 Recent Findings of Late Bronze Age Mining and Archaeometallurgy Activities in the Mountain Region of Colchis (Southern Lechkhumi, Georgia)

Authors: Rusudan Chagelishvili, Nino Sulava, Tamar Beridze, Nana Rezesidze, Nikoloz Tatuashvili


The South Caucasus is one of the most important centers of prehistoric metallurgy, known for its Colchian bronze culture. Modern Lechkhumi – historical Mountainous Colchis where the existence of prehistoric metallurgy is confirmed by the discovery of many artifacts is a part of this area. Studies focused on prehistoric smelting sites, related artifacts and ore deposits have been conducted during the last ten years in Lechkhumi. More than 20 prehistoric smelting sites and artifacts associated with metallurgical activities (ore roasting furnaces, slags, crucible, and tuyères fragments) have been identified so far. Within the framework of integrated studies was established that these sites were operating in 13-9 centuries B.C. and used for copper smelting. Palynological studies of slags revealed that chestnut (Castanea sativa) and hornbeam (Carpinus sp.) wood was used as smelting fuel. Geological exploration-analytical studies revealed that copper ore mining, processing and smelting sites were distributed close to each other. Despite recent complex data, the signs of prehistoric mines (trenches) haven’t been found in this part of the study area so far. Since 2018 the archaeological-geological exploration has been focused on the southern part of Lechkhumi and covered the areas of villages Okureshi and Opitara. Several copper smelting sites (Okureshi 1 and 2, Opitara 1), as well as a Colchian Bronze culture settlement, have been identified here. Three mine workings have been found in the narrow gorge of the river Rtkhmelebisgele in the vicinities of the village Opitara. In order to establish a link between the Opitara-Okureshi archaeometallurgical sites, Late Bronze Age settlement and mines, various scientific analytical methods - mineralized rock and slags petrography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) analysis have been applied. The careful examination of Opitara mine workings revealed that there is a striking difference between mine #1 on the right bank of the river and mine #2 and #3 on the left bank. The first one has all characteristic features of the Soviet period mine working (e. g. high portal with angular ribs and roof showing signs of blasting). In contrast, mines #2 and #3, which are located very close to each other, have round-shaped portals/entrances, low roofs and fairly smooth ribs and are filled with thick layers of river sediments and collapsed weathered rock mass. A thorough review of the publications related to prehistoric mine workings and revealed some striking similarities between mines #2 and #3 with their worldwide analogs. Apparently, the ore extraction from these mines was conducted by fire-setting applying primitive tools. It was also established that mines are cut in Jurassic mineralized volcanic rocks. Ore minerals (chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena) are related to calcite and quartz veins. The results obtained through the petrochemical and petrography studies of mineralized rock samples from Opitara mines and prehistoric slags are in complete correlation with each other, establishing the direct link between copper mining, and smelting within the study area. This work was supported by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (grant # FR-19-13022).

Keywords: archaeometallurgy, mountainous Colchis, mining, ore minerals

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