Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4635

Search results for: 1:50 000 scale

4635 Developing of Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale in Turkey

Authors: Ayşegül Bilge, Merve Uğuryol, Şeyda Dülgerler, Mustafa Yıldız

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to prove the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale reliability and validity. The research is a methodological type of research that has been planned to determine the validity and reliability of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale. The scale has been developed by the researchers. In the scale, there are 23 questions including complementary and modern therapies individuals apply when they have health problems 4-item Likert-type evaluation has been carried out in preparing the questionnaire. High score obtained from the scale indicates a positive attitude towards complementary therapies. In the course of validity assessment of the scale, expert opinion has been received, and the content validity of the scale has been determined by using Kendall coefficient correlation test (Wa=0.200, p = 0.460). In the course of the reliability assessment of the scale, total score correlations of 23 materials have been examined, and those under 0.20 correlation limit has been removed from the scale correlation. As a result, the scale was left to be 13 items. In the internal consistency tests of the analyses, Cronbach's alpha value has been found to be 0.79. As a result, of the validity analyses of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale, the content and language validity analyses has been found to be at the expected level. It has been determined to be a highly reliable scale as the result of the reliability analyses. In conclusion, Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale is a valid and reliable scale.

Keywords: alternative health care, complementary treatment, instrument development, nursing practice

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4634 Pharmaceutical Scale up for Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: A. Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra

Abstract:

Scale-up is defined as the process of increasing batch size. Scale-up of a process viewed as a procedure for applying the same process to different output volumes. There is a subtle difference between these two definitions: batch size enlargement does not always translate into a size increase of the processing volume. In mixing applications, scale-up is indeed concerned with increasing the linear dimensions from the laboratory to the plant size. On the other hand, processes exist (e.g., tableting) where the term ‘scale-up’ simply means enlarging the output by increasing the speed. To complete the picture, one should point out special procedures where an increase of the scale is counterproductive and ‘scale-down’ is required to improve the quality of the product. In moving from Research and Development (R&D) to production scale, it is sometimes essential to have an intermediate batch scale. This is achieved at the so-called pilot scale, which is defined as the manufacturing of drug product by a procedure fully representative of and simulating that used for full manufacturing scale. This scale also makes it possible to produce enough products for clinical testing and to manufacture samples for marketing. However, inserting an intermediate step between R&D and production scales does not, in itself, guarantee a smooth transition. A well-defined process may generate a perfect product both in the laboratory and the pilot plant and then fail quality assurance tests in production.

Keywords: scale up, research, size, batch

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4633 Delamination of Scale in a Fe Carbon Steel Surface by Effect of Interface Roughness and Oxide Scale Thickness

Authors: J. M. Lee, W. R. Noh, C. Y. Kim, M. G. Lee

Abstract:

Delamination of oxide scale has been often discovered at the interface between Fe carbon steel and oxide scale. Among several mechanisms of this delamination behavior, the normal tensile stress to the substrate-scale interface has been described as one of the main factors. The stress distribution at the interface is also known to be affected by thermal expansion mismatch between substrate and oxide scale, creep behavior during cooling and the geometry of the interface. In this study, stress states near the interface in a Fe carbon steel with oxide scale have been investigated using FE simulations. The thermal and mechanical properties of oxide scales are indicated in literature and Fe carbon steel is measured using tensile testing machine. In particular, the normal and shear stress components developed at the interface during bending are investigated. Preliminary numerical sensitivity analyses are provided to explain the effects of the interface geometry and oxide thickness on the delamination behavior.

Keywords: oxide scale, delamination, Fe analysis, roughness, thickness, stress state

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4632 Development of the ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’

Authors: Riin Seema

Abstract:

Guidance and counseling as a whole-school responsibility is a global trend. Counseling is a specific competence, that consist of cognitive, emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral components. To authors best knowledge, there are no self-assessment scales for teachers in the whole world to measure teachers’ counseling competency. In 2016 an Estonian scale on teachers counseling competence was developed during an Interdisciplinary Project at Tallinn University. The team consisted of 10 interdisciplinary students (psychology, nursery school, special and adult education) and their supervisor. In 2017 another international Interdisciplinary Project was carried out for adapting the scale in English for international students. Firstly, the Estonian scale was translated by 2 professional translators, and then a group of international Erasmus students (again from psychology, nursery school, special and adult education) selected the most suitable translation for the scale. The developed ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’ measures teacher’s self-efficacy beliefs in their own competence to perform different counseling tasks (creating a counseling relationship, using different reflection techniques, etc.). The scale consists of 47 questions in a 5-point numeric scale. The scale is created based on counseling theory and scale development and validation theory. The scale has been used as a teaching and learning material for counseling courses by 174 Estonian and 10 international student teachers. After filling out the scale, the students also reflected on the scale and their own counseling competencies. The study showed that the scale is unidimensional and has an excellent Cronbach alpha coefficient. Student’s qualitative feedback on the scale has been very positive, as the scale supports their self-reflection. In conclusion, the developed ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’ is a useful tool for supporting student teachers’ learning.

Keywords: competency, counseling, self-efficacy, teacher students

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4631 Experimental Investigation of Fluid Dynamic Effects on Crystallisation Scale Growth and Suppression in Agitation Tank

Authors: Prasanjit Das, M. M. K. Khan, M. G. Rasul, Jie Wu, I. Youn

Abstract:

Mineral scale formation is undoubtedly a more serious problem in the mineral industry than other process industries. To better understand scale growth and suppression, an experimental model is proposed in this study for supersaturated crystallised solutions commonly found in mineral process plants. In this experiment, surface crystallisation of potassium nitrate (KNO3) on the wall of the agitation tank and agitation effects on the scale growth and suppression are studied. The new quantitative scale suppression model predicts that at lower agitation speed, the scale growth rate is enhanced and at higher agitation speed, the scale suppression rate increases due to the increased flow erosion effect. A lab-scale agitation tank with and without baffles were used as a benchmark in this study. The fluid dynamic effects on scale growth and suppression in the agitation tank with three different size impellers (diameter 86, 114, 160 mm and model A310 with flow number 0.56) at various ranges of rotational speed (up to 700 rpm) and solution with different concentration (4.5, 4.75 and 5.25 mol/dm3) were investigated. For more elucidation, the effects of the different size of the impeller on wall surface scale growth and suppression rate as well as bottom settled scale accumulation rate are also discussed. Emphasis was placed on applications in the mineral industry, although results are also relevant to other industrial applications.

Keywords: agitation tank, crystallisation, impeller speed, scale

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4630 The Development of the Self-concept Scale for Elders in Taiwan

Authors: Ting-Chia Lien, Tzu-Yin Yen, Szu-Fan Chen, Tai-chun Kuo, Hung-Tse Lin, Yi-Chen Chung, Hock-Sen Gwee

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the result of the survey by developing “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”, which could provide community counseling and guidance institution for practical application. The sample of this study consisted of 332 elders in Taiwan (male: 33.4%; female: 66.6%). The mean age of participants was 65-98 years. The measurements applied in this study is “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”. After item and factor analyses, the preliminary version of the Self-Concept Scale for Elders was revised to the final version. The results were summarized as follows: 1) There were 10 items in Self-Concept Scale for Elders. 2) The variance explained for the scale accounted for 77.15%, with corrected item-total correlations Cronbach’s alpha=0.87. 3) The content validity, criterion validity and construct validity have been found to be satisfactory. Based on the findings, the implication and suggestions are offered for reference regarding counselor education and future research.

Keywords: self-concept, elder, development scale, applied psychology

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4629 Grating Scale Thermal Expansion Error Compensation for Large Machine Tools Based on Multiple Temperature Detection

Authors: Wenlong Feng, Zhenchun Du, Jianguo Yang

Abstract:

To decrease the grating scale thermal expansion error, a novel method which based on multiple temperature detections is proposed. Several temperature sensors are installed on the grating scale and the temperatures of these sensors are recorded. The temperatures of every point on the grating scale are calculated by interpolating between adjacent sensors. According to the thermal expansion principle, the grating scale thermal expansion error model can be established by doing the integral for the variations of position and temperature. A novel compensation method is proposed in this paper. By applying the established error model, the grating scale thermal expansion error is decreased by 90% compared with no compensation. The residual positioning error of the grating scale is less than 15um/10m and the accuracy of the machine tool is significant improved.

Keywords: thermal expansion error of grating scale, error compensation, machine tools, integral method

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4628 Developing New Media Credibility Scale: A Multidimensional Perspective

Authors: Hanaa Farouk Saleh

Abstract:

The main purposes of this study are to develop a scale that reflects emerging theoretical understandings of new media credibility, based on the evolution of credibility studies in western researches, identification of the determinants of credibility in the media and its components by comparing traditional and new media credibility scales and building accumulative scale to test new media credibility. This approach was built on western researches using conceptualizations of media credibility, which focuses on four principal components: Source (journalist), message (article), medium (newspaper, radio, TV, web, etc.), and organization (owner of the medium), and adding user and cultural context as key components to assess new media credibility in particular. This study’s value lies in its contribution to the conceptualization and development of new media credibility through the creation of a theoretical measurement tool. Future studies should explore this scale to test new media credibility, which represents a promising new approach in the efforts to define and measure credibility of all media types.

Keywords: credibility scale, media credibility components, new media credibility scale, scale development

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4627 Impacts of Financial Development and Operational Scale on Bank Efficiencies in Taiwan

Authors: Ying-Hsiu Chen, Pao-Peng Hsu

Abstract:

This paper adopts a two-stage data envelopment analysis to explore the impacts of financial development and bank operational scale on bank efficiencies. The sample comprises of unbalanced panel data of 32 Taiwanese enlisted in domestic commercial banks over the period 1998 to 2013. Empirical results show that technical efficiency is positively related to financial development, whereas the effect of financial development on scale efficiency is insignificant. The effect of operational scale exerts a significantly positive effect on bank efficiencies, but the gain of efficiency is decreased gradually when operational scale increases. Furthermore, increase in capital adequacy ratio and market power of banks leads to a growth of bank efficiencies.

Keywords: financial development, operational scale, efficiency, DEA

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4626 Prediction of Fire Growth of the Office by Real-Scale Fire Experiment

Authors: Kweon Oh-Sang, Kim Heung-Youl

Abstract:

Estimating the engineering properties of fires is important to be prepared for the complex and various fire risks of large-scale structures such as super-tall buildings, large stadiums, and multi-purpose structures. In this study, a mock-up of a compartment which was 2.4(L) x 3.6 (W) x 2.4 (H) meter in dimensions was fabricated at the 10MW LSC (Large Scale Calorimeter) and combustible office supplies were placed in the compartment for a real-scale fire test. Maximum heat release rate was 4.1 MW and total energy release obtained through the application of t2 fire growth rate was 6705.9 MJ.

Keywords: fire growth, fire experiment, t2 curve, large scale calorimeter

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4625 Analysis of Efficiency Production of Grass Black Jelly (Mesona palustris) in Double Scale

Authors: Irvan Adhin Cholilie, Susinggih Wijana, Yusron Sugiarto

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to compare the results of black grass jelly produced using laboratory scale and double scale. In this research, the production from the laboratory scale is using ingredients of 1 kg black grass jelly added with 5 liters of water, while the double scale is using 5 kg black grass jelly and 75 liters of water. The results of organoleptic tests performed by 30 panelists (general) to the sample gels of grass black powder produced from both of laboratory and double scale are not different significantly in color, odor, flavor, and texture. Proximate test results conducted in both of grass black jelly powder produced in laboratory scale and double scale also have no significant differences in all parameters. Grass black jelly powder from double scale contains water, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and yield in the amount of 12,25 %; 43,7 %; 5,89 %; and 16,28 % respectively. The results of the energy efficiency analysis by boiling, draining, evaporation, drying, and milling processes are 85,11 %; 76,97 %; 99,64 %; 99,99% and 99,39% respectively. The utility needs including water needs for each batch amounted 0.1 m3 and cost Rp 220,5 per batch, the electricity needs for each batch is 20.01 kWh and cost Rp 18569.28 per batch, and LPG needs for each batch is 30 kg costed Rp 234,000.00 so that the total cost spent for the process is Rp 252,789.78 .

Keywords: black grass jelly, powder, mass balance, energy balance, cost

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4624 Comparative Study of Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation on Titanium Alloys

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Isothermal oxidation at 800°C for 50h and Cyclic oxidation at 600°C and 800°C for 40h of Pure Ti and Ti64 were performed in a muffle furnace. In Cyclic oxidation, massive scale spallation occurred, and the oxide scale cracks and peels off were observed at high temperature, it represents oxide scale that formed during cyclic oxidation was spalled out owing to stresses due to thermal shock generated during repetitive oxidation and subsequent cooling. The thickness of scale is larger in cyclic oxidation than the isothermal case. This is due to inward diffusion of oxygen through oxide scales and/or pores and cracks in cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, diffusion, isothermal, cyclic

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4623 Adjustment and Scale-Up Strategy of Pilot Liquid Fermentation Process of Azotobacter sp.

Authors: G. Quiroga-Cubides, A. Díaz, M. Gómez

Abstract:

The genus Azotobacter has been widely used as bio-fertilizer due to its significant effects on the stimulation and promotion of plant growth in various agricultural species of commercial interest. In order to obtain significantly viable cellular concentration, a scale-up strategy for a liquid fermentation process (SmF) with two strains of A. chroococcum (named Ac1 and Ac10) was validated and adjusted at laboratory and pilot scale. A batch fermentation process under previously defined conditions was carried out on a biorreactor Infors®, model Minifors of 3.5 L, which served as a baseline for this research. For the purpose of increasing process efficiency, the effect of the reduction of stirring speed was evaluated in combination with a fed-batch-type fermentation laboratory scale. To reproduce the efficiency parameters obtained, a scale-up strategy with geometric and fluid dynamic behavior similarities was evaluated. According to the analysis of variance, this scale-up strategy did not have significant effect on cellular concentration and in laboratory and pilot fermentations (Tukey, p > 0.05). Regarding air consumption, fermentation process at pilot scale showed a reduction of 23% versus the baseline. The percentage of reduction related to energy consumption reduction under laboratory and pilot scale conditions was 96.9% compared with baseline.

Keywords: Azotobacter chroococcum, scale-up, liquid fermentation, fed-batch process

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4622 Scaling-Down an Agricultural Waste Biogas Plant Fermenter

Authors: Matheus Pessoa, Matthias Kraume

Abstract:

Scale-Down rules in process engineering help us to improve and develop Industrial scale parameters into lab scale. Several scale-down rules available in the literature like Impeller Power Number, Agitation device Power Input, Substrate Tip Speed, Reynolds Number and Cavern Development were investigated in order to stipulate the rotational speed to operate an 11 L working volume lab-scale bioreactor within industrial process parameters. Herein, xanthan gum was used as a fluid with a representative viscosity of a hypothetical biogas plant, with H/D = 1 and central agitation, fermentation broth using sewage sludge and sugar beet pulp as substrate. The results showed that the cavern development strategy was the best method for establishing a rotational speed for the bioreactor operation, while the other rules presented values out of reality for this article proposes.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, cavern development, scale down rules, xanthan gum

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4621 A Comparative Performance of Polyaspartic Acid and Sodium Polyacrylate on Silicate Scale Inhibition

Authors: Ismail Bin Mohd Saaid, Abubakar Abubakar Umar

Abstract:

Despite the successes recorded by Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP) flooding as an effective chemical EOR technique, the combination CEOR is not unassociated with stern glitches, one of which is the scaling of downhole equipment. One of the major issues inside the oil industry is how to control scale formation, regardless of whether it is in the wellhead equipment, down-hole pipelines or even the actual field formation. The best approach to handle the challenge associated with oilfield scale formation is the application of scale inhibitors to avert the scale formation. Chemical inhibitors have been employed in doing such. But due to environmental regulations, the industry have focused on using green scale inhibitors to mitigate the formation of scales. This paper compares the scale inhibition performance of Polyaspartic acid and sodium polyacrylic acid, both commercial green scale inhibitors, in mitigating silicate scales formed during Alkaline/Surfactant/polymer flooding under static conditions. Both PASP and TH5000 are non-threshold inhibitors, therefore their efficiency was only seeing in delaying the deposition of the silicate scales.

Keywords: alkaline/surfactant/polymer flooding (ASP), polyaspartic acid (PASP), sodium polyacrylate (SPA)

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4620 Effects of Employees’ Training Program on the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Oyo State

Authors: Itiola Kehinde Adeniran

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of employees’ training on the performance of small scale enterprises in Oyo State. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 150 respondents through purposive sampling method. Linear regression was used with the aid of statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 to analyze the data collected in order to examine the effect of independent variable, employees’ training on dependent variable, performance (profit) of small scale enterprises. The result revealed that employees’ training has a significant effect on the performance of small scale enterprises. It was concluded that predictor variable namely (training) is 55.5% variance of enterprises performance (profitability). Therefore, the paper recommended that all small scale enterprises in Nigeria should embrace manpower training and development in order to improve employees’ performance leading to organizational profitability.

Keywords: training, employee performance, small scale enterprise, organizational profitability

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
4619 Spatial Scale of Clustering of Residential Burglary and Its Dependence on Temporal Scale

Authors: Mohammed A. Alazawi, Shiguo Jiang, Steven F. Messner

Abstract:

Research has long focused on two main spatial aspects of crime: spatial patterns and spatial processes. When analyzing these patterns and processes, a key issue has been to determine the proper spatial scale. In addition, it is important to consider the possibility that these patterns and processes might differ appreciably for different temporal scales and might vary across geographic units of analysis. We examine the spatial-temporal dependence of residential burglary. This dependence is tested at varying geographical scales and temporal aggregations. The analyses are based on recorded incidents of crime in Columbus, Ohio during the 1994-2002 period. We implement point pattern analysis on the crime points using Ripley’s K function. The results indicate that spatial point patterns of residential burglary reveal spatial scales of clustering relatively larger than the average size of census tracts of the study area. Also, spatial scale is independent of temporal scale. The results of our analyses concerning the geographic scale of spatial patterns and processes can inform the development of effective policies for crime control.

Keywords: inhomogeneous K function, residential burglary, spatial point pattern, spatial scale, temporal scale

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4618 Deproteinization of Moroccan Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) Scales: A Pilot-Scale Study

Authors: F. Bellali, M. Kharroubi, Y. Rady, N. Bourhim

Abstract:

In Morocco, fish processing industry is an important source income for a large amount of by-products including skins, bones, heads, guts, and scales. Those underutilized resources particularly scales contain a large amount of proteins and calcium. Sardina plichardus scales from resulting from the transformation operation have the potential to be used as raw material for the collagen production. Taking into account this strong expectation of the regional fish industry, scales sardine upgrading is well justified. In addition, political and societal demands for sustainability and environment-friendly industrial production systems, coupled with the depletion of fish resources, drive this trend forward. Therefore, fish scale used as a potential source to isolate collagen has a wide large of applications in food, cosmetic, and biomedical industry. The main aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the acid solubilize collagen from sardine fish scale, Sardina pilchardus. Experimental design methodology was adopted in collagen processing for extracting optimization. The first stage of this work is to investigate the optimization conditions of the sardine scale deproteinization on using response surface methodology (RSM). The second part focus on the demineralization with HCl solution or EDTA. And the last one is to establish the optimum condition for the isolation of collagen from fish scale by solvent extraction. The advancement from lab scale to pilot scale is a critical stage in the technological development. In this study, the optimal condition for the deproteinization which was validated at laboratory scale was employed in the pilot scale procedure. The deproteinization of fish scale was then demonstrated on a pilot scale (2Kg scales, 20l NaOH), resulting in protein content (0,2mg/ml) and hydroxyproline content (2,11mg/l). These results indicated that the pilot-scale showed similar performances to those of lab-scale one.

Keywords: deproteinization, pilot scale, scale, sardine pilchardus

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4617 Correlation of Spirometry with Six Minute Walk Test and Grading of Dyspnoea in COPD Patients

Authors: Anand K. Patel

Abstract:

Background: Patients with COPD have decreased pulmonary functions, which in turn reflect on their day-to-day activities. Objectives: To assess the correlation between functional vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) with 6 minutes walk test (6MWT). To correlate the Borg rating for perceived exertion scale (Borg scale) and Modified medical research council (MMRC) dyspnea scale with the 6MWT, FVC and FEV1. Method: In this prospective study total 72 patients with COPD diagnosed by the GOLD guidelines were enrolled after taking written consent. They were first asked to rate physical exertion on the Borg scale as well as the modified medical research council dyspnea scale and then were subjected to perform pre and post bronchodilator spirometry followed by 6 minute walk test. The findings were correlated by calculating the Pearson coefficient for each set and obtaining the p-values, with a p < 0.05 being clinically significant. Result: There was a significant correlation between spirometry and 6MWT suggesting that patients with lower measurements were unable to walk for longer distances. However, FVC had the stronger correlation than FEV1. MMRC scale had a stronger correlation with 6MWT as compared to the Borg scale. Conclusion: The study suggests that 6MWT is a better test for monitoring the patients of COPD. In spirometry, FVC should be used in monitoring patients with COPD, instead of FEV1. MMRC scale shows a stronger correlation than the Borg scale, and we should use it more often.

Keywords: spirometry, 6 minute walk test, MMRC, Borg scale

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4616 Development of an Attitude Scale Towards Social Networking Sites

Authors: Münevver Başman, Deniz Gülleroğlu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine the attitudes towards social networking sites. 45 tryout items, prepared for this aim, were applied to 342 students studying at Marmara University, Faculty of Education. The reliability and the validity of the scale were conducted with the help of these students. As a result of exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation, 41 items grouped according to the structure with three factors (interest, reality and negative effects) is obtained. While alpha reliability of the scale is obtained as .899; the reliability of factors is obtained as .899, .799, .775, respectively.

Keywords: Attitude, reliability, social networking sites, validity.

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4615 Prediction of the Torsional Vibration Characteristics of a Rotor-Shaft System Using Its Scale Model and Scaling Laws

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents the scaling laws that provide the criteria of geometry and dynamic similitude between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, and can be used to predict the torsional vibration characteristics of the full-size rotor-shaft system by manipulating the corresponding data of its scale model. The scaling factors, which play fundamental roles in predicting the geometry and dynamic relationships between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, for torsional free vibration problems between scale and full-size rotor-shaft systems are firstly obtained from the equation of motion of torsional free vibration. Then, the scaling factor of external force (i.e., torque) required for the torsional forced vibration problems is determined based on the Newton’s second law. Numerical results show that the torsional free and forced vibration characteristics of a full-size rotor-shaft system can be accurately predicted from those of its scale models by using the foregoing scaling factors. For this reason, it is believed that the presented approach will be significant for investigating the relevant phenomenon in the scale model tests.

Keywords: torsional vibration, full-size model, scale model, scaling laws

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4614 A Study on the Development of Social Participation Activity Scale for the Elderly

Authors: Young-Kwang Lee, Eun-Gu Ji, Min-Joo Kim, Seung-Jae Oh

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a social participation activity scale for the elderly. As a result of exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using maximum likelihood method using bundled items. In conclusion, thirteen items of social participation activity scale seemed appropriate. Finally, convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified on the scale with the fit. The convergent validity was based on the variance extracted value. In other words, the hypothesis that the variables are the same is rejected and the validity is confirmed. This study extensively considered the measurement items of the social participation activity scale used to measure social participation activities of the elderly. In the future, it will be meaningful that it can be used as a tool to verify the effectiveness of services in organizations that provide social welfare services to elderly people such as comprehensive social welfare centers and the elderly comprehensive social welfare centers.

Keywords: elderly, social participation, scale development, validity

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4613 Modeling the Effect of Scale Deposition on Heat Transfer in Desalination Multi-Effect Distillation Evaporators

Authors: K. Bourouni, M. Chacha, T. Jaber, A. Tchantchane

Abstract:

In Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) desalination evaporators, the scale deposit outside the tubes presents a barrier to heat transfers reducing the global heat transfer coefficient and causing a decrease in water production; hence a loss of efficiency and an increase in operating and maintenance costs. Scale removal (by acid cleaning) is the main maintenance operation and constitutes the major reason for periodic plant shutdowns. A better understanding of scale deposition mechanisms will lead to an accurate determination of the variation of scale thickness around the tubes and an improved accuracy of the overall heat transfer coefficient calculation. In this paper, a coupled heat transfer-calcium carbonate scale deposition model on a horizontal tube bundle is presented. The developed tool is used to determine precisely the heat transfer area leading to a significant cost reduction for a given water production capacity. Simulations are carried to investigate the influence of different parameters such as water salinity, temperature, etc. on the heat transfer.

Keywords: multi-effect-evaporator, scale deposition, water desalination, heat transfer coefficient

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4612 Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer and Scale Growth Characteristics of Crystallisation Scale in Agitation Tank

Authors: Prasanjit Das, M .M. K. Khan, M. G. Rasul, Jie Wu, I. Youn

Abstract:

Crystallisation scale occurs when dissolved minerals precipitate from an aqueous solution. To investigate the crystallisation scale growth of normal solubility salt, a lab-scale agitation tank with and without baffles were used as a benchmark using potassium nitrate as the test fluid. Potassium nitrate (KNO3) solution in this test leads to crystallisation scale on heat transfer surfaces. This experimental investigation has focused on the effect of surface crystallisation of potassium nitrate on the low-temperature heat exchange surfaces on the wall of the agitation tank. The impeller agitation rate affects the scaling rate at the low-temperature agitation wall and it shows a decreasing scaling rate with an increasing agitation rate. It was observed that there was a significant variation of heat transfer coefficients and scaling resistance coefficients with different agitation rate as well as with varying impeller size, tank with and without baffles and solution concentration.

Keywords: crystallisation, heat transfer coefficient, scale, resistance

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4611 Development and Validation of the 'Short Form BASIC Scale' Psychotic Tendencies Subscale

Authors: Chia-Chun Wu, Ying-Yao Cheng

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was developing the 'short-form BASIC scale' psychotic tendencies subscale so as to provide a more efficient, economical and effective way to assess the mental health of recruits. 1749 students from Naval Recruit Training Center participated in this study. The multidimensional constructs of psychotic tendencies subscale include four dimensions: schizophrenic tendencies, manic tendencies, depression tendencies, and suicidal ideation. We cut down the 36-item psychotic tendencies subscale to 25 items by using multidimension Rasch techniques. They were applied to assess model-data fit and to provide the validity evidence of the short form BASIC scale of psychotic tendencies subscale. The person separation reliabilities of the measures from four dimensions were .70, .67, .74 and .57, respectively. In addition, there is a notable correlation between the length version and short version of schizophrenic tendencies (scaled .89), manic tendencies (.96), depression tendencies (.97) and suicidal ideation (.97). The results have indicated that the development of the study of short-form scale sufficient to replace the original scale. Therefore, it is suggested that short-form basic scale is used to assess the mental health with participants being more willing to answer questions to ensure the validation of assessments.

Keywords: BASIC scale, military, Rasch analysis, short-form scale

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4610 Fast and Scale-Adaptive Target Tracking via PCA-SIFT

Authors: Yawen Wang, Hongchang Chen, Shaomei Li, Chao Gao, Jiangpeng Zhang

Abstract:

As the main challenge for target tracking is accounting for target scale change and real-time, we combine Mean-Shift and PCA-SIFT algorithm together to solve the problem. We introduce similarity comparison method to determine how the target scale changes, and taking different strategies according to different situation. For target scale getting larger will cause location error, we employ backward tracking to reduce the error. Mean-Shift algorithm has poor performance when tracking scale-changing target due to the fixed bandwidth of its kernel function. In order to overcome this problem, we introduce PCA-SIFT matching. Through key point matching between target and template, that adjusting the scale of tracking window adaptively can be achieved. Because this algorithm is sensitive to wrong match, we introduce RANSAC to reduce mismatch as far as possible. Furthermore target relocating will trigger when number of match is too small. In addition we take comprehensive consideration about target deformation and error accumulation to put forward a new template update method. Experiments on five image sequences and comparison with 6 kinds of other algorithm demonstrate favorable performance of the proposed tracking algorithm.

Keywords: target tracking, PCA-SIFT, mean-shift, scale-adaptive

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4609 Development and Psychometric Properties of the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian Population

Authors: Sukaesi Marianti

Abstract:

This study aims to develop the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian population and to investigate its psychometric properties. New items of the scale were created taking into account the Indonesian population which consists of two parallel forms (A and A’). This study uses 30 newly orchestrated items while keeping in mind the characteristics of the targeted population. The scale was administered to 433 public high school students in Malang, Indonesia. Construct validity of its factor structure was demonstrated using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The result exhibits that he model fits the data, and that the delayed alternate form method shows acceptable result. Results yielded that 21 items of the three-dimensional Relational Mobility Scale is suitable for measuring relational mobility in high school students of Indonesian population.

Keywords: confirmatory factor analysis, delayed alternate form, Indonesian population, relational mobility scale

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4608 Use of a Symptom Scale Based on Degree of Functional Impairment for Acute Concussion

Authors: Matthew T. McCarthy, Sarah Janse, Natalie M. Pizzimenti, Anthony K. Savino, Brian Crosser, Sean C. Rose

Abstract:

Concussion is diagnosed clinically using a comprehensive history and exam, supported by ancillary testing. Frequently, symptom checklists are used as part of the evaluation of concussion. Existing symptom scales are based on a subjective Likert scale, without relation of symptoms to clinical or functional impairment. This is a retrospective review of 133 patients under age 30 seen in an outpatient neurology practice within 30 days of a probable or definite concussion. Each patient completed 2 symptom checklists at the initial visit – the SCAT-3 symptom evaluation (22 symptoms, 0-6 scale) and a scale based on the degree of clinical impairment for each symptom (22 symptoms, 0-3 scale related to functional impact of the symptom). Final clearance date was determined by the treating physician. 60.9% of patients were male with mean age 15.7 years (SD 2.3). Mean time from concussion to first visit was 6.9 days (SD 6.2), and 101 patients had definite concussions (75.9%), while 32 were diagnosed as probable (24.1%). 94 patients had a known clearance date (70.7%) with mean clearance time of 20.6 days (SD 18.6) and median clearance time of 19 days (95% CI 16-21). Mean total symptom score was 27.2 (SD 22.9) on the SCAT-3 and 14.7 (SD 11.9) for the functional impairment scale. Pearson’s correlation between the two scales was 0.98 (p < 0.001). After adjusting for patient and injury characteristics, an equivalent increase in score on each scale was associated with longer time to clearance (SCAT-3 hazard ratio 0.885, 95%CI 0.835-0.938, p < 0.001; functional impairment scale hazard ratio 0.851, 95%CI 0.802-0.902, p < 0.001). A concussion symptom scale based on degree of functional impairment correlates strongly with the SCAT-3 scale and demonstrates a similar association with time to clearance. By assessing the degree of impact on clinical functioning, this symptom scale reflects a more intuitive approach to rating symptoms and can be used in the management of concussion.

Keywords: checklist, concussion, neurology, scale, sports, symptoms

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4607 A Preliminary Conceptual Scale to Discretize the Distributed Manufacturing Continuum

Authors: Ijaz Ul Haq, Fiorenzo Franceschini

Abstract:

The distributed manufacturing methodology brings a new concept of decentralized manufacturing operations close to the proximity of end users. A preliminary scale, to measure distributed capacity and evaluate positioning of firms, is developed in this research. In the first part of the paper, a literature review has been performed which highlights the explorative nature of the studies conducted to present definitions and classifications due to novelty of this topic. From literature, five dimensions of distributed manufacturing development stages have been identified: localization, manufacturing technologies, customization and personalization, digitalization and democratization of design. Based on these determinants a conceptual scale is proposed to measure the status of distributed manufacturing of a generic firm. A multiple case study is then conducted in two steps to test the conceptual scale and to identify the corresponding level of distributed potential in each case study firm.

Keywords: distributed manufacturing, distributed capacity, localized production, ordinal scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
4606 PYTHEIA: A Scale for Assessing Rehabilitation and Assistive Robotics

Authors: Yiannis Koumpouros, Effie Papageorgiou, Alexandra Karavasili, Foteini Koureta

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to develop a scale called PYTHEIA. The PYTHEIA is a self-reported measure for the assessment of rehabilitation and assistive robotics and other assistive technology devices. The development of PYTHEIA faced the absence of a valid instrument that can be used to evaluate the assistive robotic devices both as a whole, as well as any of their individual components or functionalities implemented. According to the results presented, PYTHEIA is a valid and reliable scale able to be applied to different target groups for the subjective evaluation of various assistive technology devices.

Keywords: rehabilitation, assistive technology, assistive robots, rehabilitation robots, scale, psychometric test, assessment, validation, user satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 203