Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1768

Search results for: temporary projects

1768 Performing the Landscape: Temporary and Performative Practices in Landscape Production

Authors: Miguel Costa

Abstract:

Despite the "time" element being an intrinsic characteristic of the work with the landscape, its execution and completion are also often dependent on external factors, i.e., the slow bureaucratic procedures required for the implementation of a project. In the urban areas of the city, these conditions are even more present — some landscape projects are articulated with the architectural/urban design, transporting itself long, expensive and inflexible processes related with the constant transformations of contemporary urban culture, where the needs and expectations could change before the project is finished. However, despite the renewed interest and growing concern for issues related to the landscapes (particularly since the European Landscape Convention, its scope and fields of action, extended to all the landscapes and not just the selected ones), still lacks the need for a greater inclusion of citizens in its protection and construction processes as well as a greater transparency and clarity of the consequences and results of their active participation. This article aims to reflect on the production processes of urban landscapes, on its completion runtime and its relationship with the citizens by introducing temporary projects as a fieldwork methodology, as well as using the contribution of different professional practices and knowledge for its monitoring, execution, and implementation. These strategies address a more interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary and performative approach, not only from the ephemeral experience of objects and actions but also from the processes and the dynamic events that are organized from these objects and actions over the landscape. The goal is to discuss the results of these approaches on its different dimensions: critical dimension; experimental and strategic dimension; pedagogical dimension; political dimension; cultural.

Keywords: landscape fieldwork, interdisciplinarity, public inclusion, public participation, temporary projects, transdisciplinarity

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1767 Basic Research on Applying Temporary Work Engineering at the Design Phase

Authors: Jin Woong Lee, Kyuman Cho, Taehoon Kim

Abstract:

The application of constructability is increasingly required not only in the construction phase but also in the whole project stage. In particular, the proper application of construction experience and knowledge during the design phase enables the minimization of inefficiencies such as design changes and improvements in constructability during the construction phase. In order to apply knowledge effectively, engineering technology efforts should be implemented with design progress. Among many engineering technologies, engineering for temporary works, including facilities, equipment, and other related construction methods, is important to improve constructability. Therefore, as basic research, this study investigates the applicability of temporary work engineering during the design phase in the building construction industry. As a result, application of temporary work engineering has a greater impact on construction cost reduction and constructability improvement. In contrast to the existing design-bid-build method, the turn-key and CM (construct management) procurement methods currently being implemented in Korea are expected to have a significant impact on the direction of temporary work engineering. To introduce temporary work engineering, expert/professional organization training is first required, and a lack of client awareness should be preferentially improved. The results of this study are expected to be useful as reference material for the development of more effective temporary work engineering tasks and work processes in the future.

Keywords: Temporary Work Engineering, Design Phase, Constructability, Building Construction

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1766 Identifying and Ranking Environmental Risks of Oil and Gas Projects Using the VIKOR Method for Multi-Criteria Decision Making

Authors: Sasan Aryaee, Mahdi Ravanshadnia

Abstract:

Naturally, any activity is associated with risk, and humans have understood this concept from very long times ago and seek to identify its factors and sources. On the one hand, proper risk management can cause problems such as delays and unforeseen costs in the development projects, temporary or permanent loss of services, getting lost or information theft, complexity and limitations in processes, unreliable information caused by rework, holes in the systems and many such problems. In the present study, a model has been presented to rank the environmental risks of oil and gas projects. The statistical population of the study consists of all executives active in the oil and gas fields, that the statistical sample is selected randomly. In the framework of the proposed method, environmental risks of oil and gas projects were first extracted, then a questionnaire based on these indicators was designed based on Likert scale and distributed among the statistical sample. After assessing the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, environmental risks of oil and gas projects were ranked using the VIKOR method of multiple-criteria decision-making. The results showed that the best options for HSE planning of oil and gas projects that caused the reduction of risks and personal injury and casualties and less than other options is costly for the project and it will add less time to the duration of implementing the project is the entering of dye to the environment when painting the generator pond and the presence of the rigger near the crane.

Keywords: ranking, multi-criteria decision making, oil and gas projects, HSEmanagement, environmental risks

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1765 Knowledge Management Challenges within Traditional Procurement System

Authors: M. Takhtravanchi, C. Pathirage

Abstract:

In the construction industry, project members are conveyor of project knowledge which is, often, not managed properly to be used in future projects. As construction projects are temporary and unique, project members are willing to be recruited once a project is completed. Therefore, poor management of knowledge across construction projects will lead to a considerable amount of knowledge loss; the ignoring of which would be detrimental to project performance. This issue is more prominent in projects undertaken through the traditional procurement system, as this system does not incentives project members for integration. Thus, disputes exist between the design and construction phases based on the poor management of knowledge between those two phases. This paper aims to highlight the challenges of the knowledge management that exists within the traditional procurement system. Expert interviews were conducted and challenges were identified and analysed by the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach in order to summarise the relationships among them. Two identified key challenges are the Culture of an Organisation and Knowledge Management Policies. A knowledge of the challenges and their relationships will help project manager and stakeholders to have a better understanding of the importance of knowledge management.

Keywords: challenges, construction industry, knowledge management, traditional procurement system

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1764 Sustainable Strategies for Post-Disaster Shelters: Case Study-Based Review and Future Prospects

Authors: Fangwen Ni, Hongpeng Xu

Abstract:

When disasters occur, it is important to provide temporary shelters to protect victims from their environment and to comfort them with privacy and dignity. However, the commonly used shelters like tents and shanties can not ensure a comfortable condition. Furthermore, the demand for more energy and less pollution has become a major challenge. Focusing on the sustainable of temporary shelters, this study intends to clarify the essential role of temporary shelters before the reconstruction work is done. The paper also identifies the main problems from three aspects including spatial layout, thermal comfort and utilization of passive technology. Moreover, it expounds the passive strategies of ecological design by case study and simulation. It is found that the living condition of shelters can be improved from the perspective of architectural space, ventilation theory and construction techniques. Regardless of being temporary, these shelters are crucial elements in emergency situations and should be taken more seriously.

Keywords: architectural space, construction technique, sustainable strategy, temporary shelter

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1763 Assessing Suitability of Earthbag Technology for Temporary Housing: Sustainability Challenge

Authors: S. M. Amin Hosseini, Ana Blanco, Albert De La Fuente, Sergio Cavalaro

Abstract:

In emergency situations, it is fundamental to provide with a safe shelter to the population affected. However, the lack of resources and short time often represent a barrier difficult to overcome. A sustainable, rapid and low-cost construction technique is earthbag construction. This technique has spread as an alternative to the construction of emergency shelter, social housing, and even ecovillages. The earthbag construction consists of introducing soil in degradable bags that are stacked to form adobe structures. The present study aims to assess characteristics of the earthbag construction technique based on sustainability requirements and features of other methods used for temporary housing. In this case, after defining the sustainability criteria and emergency situation necessities, this study compares earthbag construction with other types of prefabricated temporary housing. Finally, the most suitable conditions for applying this technique based on the particular local properties and second life scenarios of superadobe temporary housing. The results of the study contribute to promote the earthbag and superadobe techniques as sustainable alternatives for temporary housing. However, the sustainability index of this technology highly depends on affected local conditions and characteristics. Consequently, in order to achieve a high sustainability index, emergency managers need to decide about this technology based on the highlighted results of this study, attention to the importance of specific local conditions and next functions of temporary housing.

Keywords: temporary housing, temporary shelter, earthbag, superadobe, sustainability, emergency

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1762 Critical Success Factors of Information Technology Projects

Authors: Athar Imtiaz, Abduljalil S. Al-Mudhary, Taha Mirhashemi, Roslina Ibrahim

Abstract:

Information Technology (IT) is being used by almost all organizations throughout the world. However, its success at supporting and improving business is debatable. There is always the risk of IT project failure and studies have proven that a large number of IT projects indeed do fail. There are many components that further the success of IT projects; these have been studied in previous studies. Studies have found the most necessary components for success in software development projects, executive information systems etc. In this study, previous literature that has looked into these success promoting factors have been critically reviewed and analyzed. Fifteen critical Success Factors (CSF) of IT projects were enlisted and examined. These factors can be applied to all IT projects and is not specific to a particular type of IT/IS project. A hypothesis was also generated after the evaluation of the factors.

Keywords: critical success factors, CSF, IT projects, IS projects, software development projects

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1761 Optimal Site Selection for Temporary Housing regarding Disaster Management Case Study: Tehran Municipality (No.6)

Authors: Ghazaleh Monazami Tehrani, Zhamak Monazami Tehrani, Raziyeh Hadavand

Abstract:

Optimal site selection for temporary housing is one of the most important issues in crisis management. In this research, district six of Tehran city with high frequency and geographical distribution of earthquakes has been selected as a case study for positioning temporary housing after a probable earthquake. For achieving this goal this study tries to identify and evaluate distribution of location according to some standards such as compatible and incompatible urban land uses with utility of GIS and AHP. The results of this study show the most susceptible parts of this region in the center. According to the maps, north eastern part of Kordestan, Shaheed Gomnam intersection possesses the highest pixels value in terms of areal extent, therefore these places are recommended as an optimum site location for construction of emergency evacuation base.

Keywords: optimal site selection, temporary housing , crisis management, AHP, GIS

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1760 The Role of Temporary Migration as Coping Mechanism of Weather Shock: Evidence from Selected Semi-Arid Tropic Villages in India

Authors: Kalandi Charan Pradhan

Abstract:

In this study, we investigate does weather variation determine temporary labour migration using 210 sample households from six Semi-Arid Tropic (SAT) villages for the period of 2005-2014 in India. The study has made an attempt to examine how households use temporary labour migration as a coping mechanism to minimise the risk rather than maximize the utility of the households. The study employs panel Logit regression model to predict the probability of household having at least one temporary labour migrant. As per as econometrics result, it is found that along with demographic and socioeconomic factors; weather variation plays an important role to determine the decision of migration at household level. In order to capture the weather variation, the study uses mean crop yield deviation over the study periods. Based on the random effect logit regression result, the study found that there is a concave relationship between weather variation and decision of temporary labour migration. This argument supports the theory of New Economics of Labour Migration (NELM), which highlights the decision of labour migration not only maximise the households’ utility but it helps to minimise the risks.

Keywords: temporary migration, socioeconomic factors, weather variation, crop yield, logit estimation

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1759 Integrated Information System on Human Resource Management in Project-Based Organizations

Authors: Akbar Farahani, Afsaneh Hassani, Peyman M. Farkhondeh

Abstract:

Human Resource Management as one of the core processes of the project-based companies, despite its key role in the success and competitive advantage, is relatively unknown. In the project-based companies, due to the accelerated movement of knowledge in the work activities and the temporary nature of the project, the need to develop mechanisms for achieving optimal management of this issues is very challenging. Approach to human resource management in these companies evolves with goals, strategies, and operational processes. Therefore, the need for appropriate tools to facilitate implementation of the optimized human resource management in the project is more than before,Which currently with the development of information technology and modern communication, appropriate to address the optimal approach for dynamic management of human resources in the project have been provided.This is done by using the referral system implemented in Mahab GCE that provides 1: the ability to use humans in projects without geographic limitation and 2:information on the activities and outcomes of referrals.Furthermore, by using this system, recording the lessons learned after any particular activity on projects,accessing quantitative information, procedures, documentation of learned practices that have been stored in the data base as well as using them in future projects is provided.

Keywords: human resource management, project base company, ERP, referrals system

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1758 A Review of the Factors Causing Cost Overrun in Construction Projects in Malaysia

Authors: Kaleem Ullah, Abd Halid Bin Abdullah

Abstract:

This study examines previous literature on cost overrun in construction projects with the specific aim of determining the frequently observed causes of cost overruns in Malaysian construction projects. Cost overrun is one of the major problems in construction projects. Cost overrun is frequently observed in almost every construction projects. This cost overrun in construction projects occurs due to various reasons and many researchers have carried out various studies to identify the cause factors of this issue. The causes of construction cost overrun could vary from country to country because of the difference in political, economic, social and environmental conditions. Likewise, other countries construction projects in Malaysia have also the issue of cost overrun. The concept of cost overrun in construction projects has attracted much attention in recent years and researches are trying to understand the causes of these overruns and their effects to the construction industry as whole. This paper review various research studies carried out in Malaysia which surveyed the cost performance and cause factors of cost overruns in construction projects in Malaysia.

Keywords: cause of cost overrun, cost overrun, construction industry in Malaysia, effects of cost overrun

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1757 Comparison between Approaches Used in Two Walk About Projects

Authors: Derek O Reilly, Piotr Milczarski, Shane Dowdall, Artur Hłobaż, Krzysztof Podlaski, Hiram Bollaert

Abstract:

Learning through creation of contextual games is a very promising way/tool for interdisciplinary and international group projects. During 2013 and 2014 we took part and organized two intensive students projects in different conditions. The projects enrolled 68 students and 12 mentors from 5 countries. In the paper we want to share our experience how to strengthen the chances to succeed in short (12-15 days long) student projects. In our case almost all teams prepared working prototype and the results were highly appreciated by external experts.

Keywords: contextual games, mobile games, GGULIVRR, walkabout, Erasmus intensive programme

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1756 Finding Out the Best Place for Resettling of Victims after the Earthquake: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi, Nima Ghasemloo

Abstract:

Iran is a capable zone for earthquake that follows loss of lives and financial damages. To have sheltering for earthquake victims is one of the basic requirements although it is hard to select suitable places for temporary resettling after an earthquake happens. Before these kinds of disasters happen, the best places for resettling the victims must be designated. This matter is an important issue in disaster management and planning. Geospatial Information System (GIS) has a determining role in disaster management; it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this paper the best criteria have been determined associated with their weights and buffers by use of research and questionnaire for locating the best places. In this paper, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling is done based on the selected criteria. Also in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Finally there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in QGIS software.

Keywords: disaster management, temporary resettlement, earthquake, criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
1755 Finding out the Best Criteria for Locating the Best Place Resettling of Victims after the Earthquake: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi

Abstract:

Iran is a capable zone for the earthquake that follows the loss of lives and financial damages. To have sheltering for earthquake victims is one of the basic requirements although it is hard to select suitable places for temporary resettling after an earthquake happens. Before these kinds of disasters happen, the best places for resettling the victims must be designated. This matter is an important issue in disaster management and planning. Geospatial Information System(GIS) has a determining role in disaster management, it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this paper, the best criteria have been determined associated with their weights and buffers by use of research and questionnaire for locating the best places. In this paper, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling is done based on the selected criteria. Also, in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Finally, there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in ArcGIS software.

Keywords: disaster management, temporary resettlement, earthquake, criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1754 Two Stage Fuzzy Methodology to Evaluate the Credit Risks of Investment Projects

Authors: O. Badagadze, G. Sirbiladze, I. Khutsishvili

Abstract:

The work proposes a decision support methodology for the credit risk minimization in selection of investment projects. The methodology provides two stages of projects’ evaluation. Preliminary selection of projects with minor credit risks is made using the Expertons Method. The second stage makes ranking of chosen projects using the Possibilistic Discrimination Analysis Method. The latter is a new modification of a well-known Method of Fuzzy Discrimination Analysis.

Keywords: expert valuations, expertons, investment project risks, positive and negative discriminations, possibility distribution

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1753 Concept to Enhance the Project Success and Promote the Implementation of Success Factors in Infrastructure Projects

Authors: A. Elbaz, K. Spang

Abstract:

Infrastructure projects are often subjected to delays and cost overruns and mistakenly described as unsuccessful projects. These projects have many peculiarities such as public attention, impact on the environment, subjected to special regulations, etc. They also deal with several stakeholders with different motivations and face unique risks. With this in mind we need to reconsider our approach to manage them, define their success factors and implement these success factors. Infrastructure projects are not only lacking a unified meaning of project success or a definition of success factors, but also a clear method to implement these factors. This paper investigates this gap and introduces a concept to implement success factors in an efficient way, taking into consideration the specific characteristics of infrastructure projects. This concept consists of six enablers such as project organization, project team, project management workflow, contract management, communication and knowledge transfer and project documentations. These enablers allow other success factors to be efficiently implemented in projects. In conclusion, this paper provides project managers as well as company managers with a tool to define and implement success factors efficiently in their projects, along with upgrading their assets for the coming projects. This tool consists of processes and validated checklists to ensure the best use of company resources and knowledge. Due to the special features of infrastructure projects this tool will be tested in the German infrastructure market. However, it is meant to be adaptable to other markets and industries.

Keywords: infrastructure projects, operative success factors, project success, success factors, transportation projects

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1752 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Multiple Resources for Multi-Projects

Authors: A. Samer Ezeldin, Sarah A. Fotouh

Abstract:

Optimization of resources is very important in all fields, as in construction management. Project managers have to face problems regarding management of cost, time and available resources of single projects and more problems arise when managing multiple projects. Most of the studies focused on optimization of resources for a single project, but, this paper will discuss the design and modeling of multiple resources optimization for multiple projects using Genetic Algorithm. Most of the companies in construction industry optimize the resources for single projects only, but with the presence of several mega projects in several developing countries running at the same time, there is a need for a model to enhance the efficiency of available resources and decreases the fluctuation as much as possible. The proposed model calculates the cost of each resource, tries to minimize the cost of extra resources as much as possible and generates the schedule of each project within a selected program.

Keywords: construction management, genetic algorithm, multiple projects, multiple resources, optimization

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1751 Legal Issues of Implementing Public Projects through Civic Crowdfunding

Authors: Mahdieh Dehghan Nayeri, Hani Arbabi, Seid Pooyan Ghafoori

Abstract:

Civic crowdfunding- crowdfunding public projects- which goes beyond people management- as a significant part of public projects stakeholders- and requires the active engagement of the public in both the financing and decision-making processes of public projects, is expanding. However, in most countries of the world, no specific legal framework has been approved for governing and managing the implementation of projects through this method. Through a systematic literature review, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA), this article has studied and discussed the legal issues of civic crowdfunded projects in the countries leading the use of this method, in four themes; one related to the legal environment and three related to three leading players in civic crowdfunded projects include the investor, the platform, and the investee. The review showed that despite the increasing attention to people's engagement in public projects -financial and non-financial- not much scientific research has been done to formulate fully structured legal structures. Finally, neglected areas in research have been discussed as a guide for future research.

Keywords: civic crowdfunding, equity crowdfunding, public projects, legal issues, crowdsourcing

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
1750 A Case Study on the Guidelines for Application of Project Management Methods in Infrastructure Projects

Authors: Fernanda Varella Borges, Silvio Burrattino Melhado

Abstract:

Motivated by the importance of public infrastructure projects in the civil construction chain, this research shows the study of project management methods and the infrastructure projects’ characteristics. The research aims at the objective of improving management efficiency by proposing guidelines for the application of project management methods in infrastructure projects. Through literature review and case studies, the research analyses two major infrastructure projects underway in Brazil, identifying the critical points for achieving its success. As a result, the proposed guidelines indicate that special attention should be given to the management of stakeholders, focusing on their knowledge and experience, their different interests, the efficient management of their communication, and their behavior in the day-by-day project management process.

Keywords: construction, infrastructure, project management, public projects

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1749 Limits and Barriers of Value Creation and Projects Development: The Case of Tunisian SMEs

Authors: Samira Boussema, Ben Hamed Salah

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship was always considered to be the most appropriate remedy for various economies’ symptoms. It is presented as a complex process that faces several barriers thereby inhibiting a project’s implementation phase. In fact, after a careful review of the literature, we noticed that empirical researches on reasons behind non-developing entrepreneurial projects are very rare, suggesting a lack in modeling the process in general and the pre-start phase in particular. Therefore, in this study we try to identify the main environmental barriers to developing business projects in Tunisia through the study of a representative sample of undeveloped projects. To this end, we used a quantitative approach which allowed us to examine the various barriers encountered by young entrepreneurs during their projects’ implementation. Indeed, by modeling the phenomenon we found that these managers face barriers of legal, financial, educational and government support dimensions.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, environmental barriers, non-implementation of projects, structural modeling

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1748 Productivity of Construction Companies Using the Management of Threats and Opportunities ‎in Construction Projects of Iran

Authors: Nima Amani, Ali Salehi Dastjerdi, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Ardalan Sabamehr

Abstract:

The cost overrun of the construction projects has always been one of the main problems of the construction companies caused by the risky nature of the construction projects. Therefore, today, the application of risk management is inevitable. Although in theory, the issue of risk management is divided into the opportunities and threats management, in practice, most of the projects have been focused on the threats management. However, considering the opportunities management and applying the opportunities-response strategies can lead to the improved profitability of the construction projects of the companies. In this paper, a new technique is developed to identify the opportunities in the construction projects using an improved protocol and propose the appropriate opportunities-response strategies to the construction companies to provide them with higher profitability. To evaluate the effectiveness of the protocol for selecting the most appropriate strategies in ‎response to the opportunities and threats, two projects from a construction company in Iran were ‎studied. Both projects selected were in mid-range in terms of size and similar in terms of time, ‎run time and costs. Finally, the output indicates that using the proposed opportunities-response strategies show that the company's profitability in the future can be increased approximately for similar projects.

Keywords: opportunities management, risk-response strategy, opportunity-response strategy, productivity, risk management

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1747 Effects of the Macro-Scale Investments/Projects to Planning System in Izmir

Authors: Neslihan Karatas, Sibel Ecemis Kilic

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine macro-scale plans and projects/investments which have been prepared for İzmir since The Republican Period. Macro projects that were proposed by central government, local government, industry and urban actors such as the chamber of commerce will be discussed and these projects and its reflections to the city's macro scale planning decisions will be evaluated based on existing development. Effects of macro plans, the related private and public investments, the developments of unplanned/specific projects to the current city form will be discussed. The factors and plans which determine urban form and the problems caused by unanticipated/uncontrolled developments will be evaluated. The proposals will be developed about more efficient planning process.

Keywords: Izmir, macro projects, macro investments, planning

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1746 Study of Slum Redevelopment Initiatives for Dharavi Slum, Mumbai and Its Effectiveness in Implementation in Other Cities

Authors: Anurag Jha

Abstract:

Dharavi is the largest slum in Asia, for which many redevelopment projects have been put forth, to improve the housing conditions of the locals. And yet, these projects are met with much-unexpected resistance from the locals. The research analyses the why and the how of the resistances these projects face and analyses these programs and points out the flaws and benefits of such projects, by predicting its impact on the regulars of Dharavi. The research aims to analyze various aspects of Dharavi, which affect its socio-cultural backdrops, such as its history, and eventual growth into a mega slum. Through various surveys, the research aims to analyze the life of a slum dweller, the street life, and the effect of such settlement on the urban fabric. Various development projects such as Dharavi Museum Movement, are analyzed, and a feasibility and efficiency analysis of the proposals for redevelopment of Dharavi Slums has been theorized. Flaws and benefits of such projects, by predicting its impact on the regulars of Dharavi has been the major approach to the research. Also, prediction the implementation of these projects in another prominent slum area, Anand Nagar, Bhopal, with the use of generated hypothetical model has been done. The research provides a basic framework for a comparative analysis of various redevelopment projects and the effect of implementation of such projects on the general populace. Secondly, it proposes a hypothetical model for feasibility of such projects in certain slum areas.

Keywords: Anand Nagar, Bhopal slums, Dharavi, slum redevelopment programmes

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1745 National Project 'Environment' of Russian Federation as a Management Tool in Achieving SDGs

Authors: Ekaterina Posokhova, Boris Gavrilov

Abstract:

Priority national projects have become an essential phenomenon in the Russian Federation. Both regional and local government institutions and a significant part of the society have been involved in their implementation. The scale and multispectricity of the national projects give a reason to believe that their concept is beyond the scope of the individual state programs. The national project “environment” contains federal projects on waste management, water, and air quality, ecotourism development, and biodiversity conservation highlights the importance of the preservation and restoration of Volga River and Lake Baikal ecosystems. This study assesses the national projects according to their relativeness with the current SDGs (i.e., SGD 14 and 15), evaluates the methodology of the projects. The paper considers the peculiarities of the national projects as strategic management tools as well as the possibility of amending the project objective indicators. Conclusion on the effectiveness of NP in terms of achieving SDGs is provided.

Keywords: management, SDP, russia, conservation, law

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1744 Application of Knowledge Discovery in Database Techniques in Cost Overruns of Construction Projects

Authors: Mai Ghazal, Ahmed Hammad

Abstract:

Cost overruns in construction projects are considered as worldwide challenges since the cost performance is one of the main measures of success along with schedule performance. To overcome this problem, studies were conducted to investigate the cost overruns' factors, also projects' historical data were analyzed to extract new and useful knowledge from it. This research is studying and analyzing the effect of some factors causing cost overruns using the historical data from completed construction projects. Then, using these factors to estimate the probability of cost overrun occurrence and predict its percentage for future projects. First, an intensive literature review was done to study all the factors that cause cost overrun in construction projects, then another review was done for previous researcher papers about mining process in dealing with cost overruns. Second, a proposed data warehouse was structured which can be used by organizations to store their future data in a well-organized way so it can be easily analyzed later. Third twelve quantitative factors which their data are frequently available at construction projects were selected to be the analyzed factors and suggested predictors for the proposed model.

Keywords: construction management, construction projects, cost overrun, cost performance, data mining, data warehousing, knowledge discovery, knowledge management

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1743 Static Analysis Deployment Model for Code Quality on Research and Development Projects of Software Development

Authors: Jeong-Hyun Park, Young-Sik Park, Hyo-Teag Jung

Abstract:

This paper presents static analysis deployment model for code quality on R&D Projects of SW Development. The proposed model includes the scope of R&D projects and index for static analysis of source code, operation model and execution process, environments and infrastructure system for R&D projects of SW development. There is the static analysis result of pilot project as case study based on the proposed deployment model and environment, and strategic considerations for success operation of the proposed static analysis deployment model for R&D Projects of SW Development. The proposed static analysis deployment model in this paper will be adapted and improved continuously for quality upgrade of R&D projects, and customer satisfaction of developed source codes and products.

Keywords: static analysis, code quality, coding rules, automation tool

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1742 Design and Performance of a Large Diameter Shaft in Old Alluvium

Authors: Tamilmani Thiruvengadam, Ramasthanan Arulampalam

Abstract:

This project comprises laying approximately 1.8km of 400mm, 1200mm and 2400mm diameter sewer pipes using pipe jacking machines along Mugliston Park, Buangkok Drive, and Buangkok Link. The works include an estimated 14 circular shafts with depth ranging from 10.0 meters to 29.0 meters. Cast in-situ circular shaft will be used for the temporary shaft excavation. The geology is predominantly Backfill and old alluvium with weak material encountered in between. Where there is a very soft clay, F1 material or weak soil is expected, ground improvement will be carried out outside of the shaft followed by cast in-situ concrete ring wall within the improved soil zone. This paper presents the design methodology, analysis and results of temporary shafts for micro TBM launching and constructing permanent manholes. There is also a comparison of instrumentation readings with the analysis predicted values.

Keywords: circular shaft, ground improvement, old alluvium, temporary shaft

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1741 Temporality in Architecture and Related Knowledge

Authors: Gonca Z. Tuncbilek

Abstract:

Architectural research tends to define architecture in terms of its permanence. In this study, the term ‘temporality’ and its use in architectural discourse is re-visited. The definition, proposition, and efficacy of the temporality occur both in architecture and in its related knowledge. The temporary architecture not only fulfills the requirement of the architectural programs, but also plays a significant role in generating an environment of architectural discourse. In recent decades, there is a great interest on the temporary architectural practices regarding to the installations, exhibition spaces, pavilions, and expositions; inviting the architects to experience and think about architecture. The temporary architecture has a significant role among the architecture, the architect, and the architectural discourse. Experiencing the contemporary materials, methods and technique; they have proposed the possibilities of the future architecture. These structures give opportunities to the architects to a wide-ranging variety of freedoms to experience the ‘new’ in architecture. In addition to this experimentation, they can be considered as an agent to redefine and reform the boundaries of the architectural discipline itself. Although the definition of architecture is re-analyzed in terms of its temporality rather than its permanence; architecture, in reality, still relies on historically codified types and principles of the formation. The concept of type can be considered for several different sciences, and there is a tendency to organize and understand the world in terms of classification in many different cultures and places. ‘Type’ is used as a classification tool with/without the scope of the critical invention. This study considers theories of type, putting forward epistemological and discursive arguments related to the form of architecture, being related to historical and formal disciplinary knowledge in architecture. This study has been to emphasize the importance of the temporality in architecture as a creative tool to reveal the position within the architectural discourse. The temporary architecture offers ‘new’ opportunities in the architectural field to be analyzed. In brief, temporary structures allow the architect freedoms to the experimentation in architecture. While redefining the architecture in terms of temporality, architecture still relies on historically codified types (pavilions, exhibitions, expositions, and installations). The notion of architectural types and its varying interpretations are analyzed based on the texts of architectural theorists since the Age of Enlightenment. Investigating the classification of type in architecture particularly temporary architecture, it is necessary to return to the discussion of the origin of the knowledge and its classification.

Keywords: classification of architecture, exhibition design, pavilion design, temporary architecture

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1740 The Mechanism of Upgrading and Urban Development in the Egyptian City: Case Study of Damietta

Authors: Lina Fayed Amin

Abstract:

The research studied, in the beginning, the related urban concepts such as the urban, development, urban development. As it also deals with the upgrading, urban upgrading, community participation and the role of local administration in development and upgrading projects. Then it studies some regional upgrading & urban development projects in Egypt followed by international projects, and the analysis the strategies followed in dealing with these projects. Afterwards, we state the regional aspects of both Damietta governorate & city, dealing with its potentials & development constraints. Followed by studying the upgrading and urban development projects strategies in reflection to the city’s crucial problems, and the constraints that faced the upgrading & development project. Then, it studied the implementation of the project’s strategies & it provided the financial resources needed for the development project in Damietta city. Followed by the studying of the urban and human development projects in the upgrading of Damietta city, as well as analyzing the different projects &analyzing the results of these projects on the aspects of the city’s needs. Then the research analysis in comparison the upgrading and urban development project in Damietta and the regional upgrading and development projects in Egypt. As well as the comparison between the upgrading and urban development project and the international projects in some Arabic and foreign countries in relation to the goals, problems, obstacles, the community participation, the finance resources and the results. Finally, it reviews the results and recommendations that were reached as a result of studying the similar urban upgrading projects in Egypt and in some Arabic and foreign countries. Followed by the analytical analysis of the upgrading and urban development in Egypt

Keywords: Damietta city, urban development, upgrading mechanisms, urban upgrading

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1739 Factors Leading to the Renegotiation of Private Finance Initiative Design-Build-Finance-Operate Road Projects in the UK

Authors: Ajibola Fatokun, Akintola Akintoye, Champika Liyanage

Abstract:

The issue of renegotiation has not received public sector applause because of the outcomes recorded over years. Numerous reasons have been adduced by the stakeholders for the renegotiation of PPP road projects. In some instances, the reason can also be the factor leading to the renegotiation of PFI (DBFO) road projects. Thus, a number of factors inform the decision of the primary stakeholders to renegotiate the contract. This paper, therefore, evaluates and assesses the factors leading to the renegotiation of PFI (DBFO) road projects in the UK. Qualitative interviews involving both public and private stakeholders were extensively adopted on five PFI (DBFO) case study road projects in order to address the aim of this study. This serves to complement the findings of the literature with respect to the factors leading to the renegotiation of PPP road projects. The findings of this research reveal the respective factors leading to the renegotiations of PFI (DBFO) road projects in the UK. However, the prominent factors are a change in scope of the works necessitating works removal and an addition of assets, change in standards and obsolete specification occasioned by the long duration of the PFI road project concession among others.

Keywords: renegotiation, factors, Private Finance Initiative (PFI), design-build-finance-operate (DBFO) road projects

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