Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 224

Search results for: taste

224 A Possible Connection Between Taste Change and Zinc Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery: A Literature Review

Authors: Boshra Mozaffar, Iskandar Idris

Abstract:

Taste change is a common complication after Bariatric surgery (BS). However, the cause of this is still not clear. Since zinc is important fortaste perception, zinc deficiency, which is common after BS, may play an important role for taste change after BS. In this review, we aimto collate evidence relating to taste change and zinc deficiencyin relation to BS; effects of zinc replacement on taste perception in general and thereafter discuss the possible role of zinc deficiency to induce taste change after BS. A literature search was conducted, using four electronic bibliographical databases—EMBASE, PubMed, AMED and MEDLINE. We identified all available and relevant articles published before 30th February 2021.In total, 33 studies were included. The total number of participants analysed was N= 3264. We showed that taste change is a frequent complication after BS, especially after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass RYGBP comparing to other types of procedures. Patients' taste sensitivity differs among studies, but the most important decline in taste preference was observed for sweet food. Twelve studies investigating zinc deficiency following BS showed a significant decrease in zinc levels at six months after surgery. Supplementation with 45–50 mg of zinc sulphate was effective in improving taste, except in cancer patients, who showed no improvement in taste following zinc supplementation. Zinc deficiency appears to be associated with taste change after BS. Supplementation with much higher levels of zinc, at 45–50 mg, was effective in taste change treatment for many cases of taste disorder. The currently recommended levels of zinc replacements currently prescribed to patients following BS were not effective for avoiding zinc deficiency after BS—and thus not effective for averting taste change. It is therefore suggested that taste change following BS is closely related to zinc deficiency induced by the surgery.

Keywords: taste change, taste disorder, bariatric surgery, zinc, zinc sulphate or Zn, deficiency, supplementation, and micro-nutrient deficiencies

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223 The Effectiveness of Zinc Supplementation in Taste Disorder Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Boshra Mozaffar, Arash Ardavani, Iskandar Idris

Abstract:

Food taste and flavor affect food choice and acceptance, which are essential to maintain good health and quality of life. Reduced circulating zinc levels have been shown to adversely affect taste which can result in reduced appetite, weight loss and psychological problems, but the efficacy of Zinc supplementation to treat disorders of taste remains unclear. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to examine the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the treatment of taste disorders. We searched four electronic bibliographical databases; Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid AMAD and PubMed. Article bibliographies were also searched, which yielded additional relevant studies. To facilitate the collection and identification of all available and relevant articles published before 7 December 2020, there were no restrictions on the publication date. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis according to the PRISMA Statement. This review was registered at PROSPERO and given the identification number CRD42021228461. In total, we included 12 randomized controlled trials with 938 subjects. Intervention includes zinc (sulfate, gluconate, picolinate, polaprezinc and acetate); the pooled results of the meta-analysis indicate that improvements in taste disorder occurred more frequently in the intervention group compared to the control group (RR = 1.8; 95% CI:1.27 -2.57, p=0.009). The doses are equivalent to 17 mg- 86.7 mg of elemental zin for three to six months. Zinc supplementation is an effective treatment for taste disorders in patients with zinc deficiency or idiopathic taste disorders when given in high doses ranging from 68–86.7 mg/d for up to three months. However, we did not find sufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in patients with taste disorders induced by chronic renal failure.

Keywords: taste change, taste disorder, zinc, zinc sulfate or Zn, deficiency, supplementation.

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
222 Electronic Tongue as an Innovative Non-Destructive Tool for the Quality Monitoring of Fruits

Authors: Mahdi Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Ayat Mohammad-Razdari, Seyedeh-Hoda Yoosefian

Abstract:

Taste is an important sensory property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. The advent of artificial sensorial systems as non-destructive tools able to mimic chemical senses such as those known as electronic tongue (ET) has open a variety of practical applications and new possibilities in many fields where the presence of taste is the phenomenon under control. In recent years, electronic tongue technology opened the possibility to exploit information on taste attributes of fruits providing real time information about quality and ripeness. Electronic tongue systems have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the last two decade because of numerous applications in diverse fields of applied sciences. This paper deals with some facets of this technology in the quality monitoring of fruits along with more recent its applications.

Keywords: fruit, electronic tongue, non-destructive, taste machine, horticultural

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
221 Design Elements: Examining Product Design Attribute That Make Sweets Appear More Delicious to Foreign Patrons

Authors: Kazuko Sakamoto, Keiichiro Kawarabayashi, Yoji Kitani

Abstract:

Japanese sweets are one of the important elements of the Chur Japan strategy. In this research, we investigated what kind of sweets are liked to the Chinese tourist. What is generally eaten is influenced by culture, a sense of values, and business practice. Therefore, what was adapted there is sold. However, when traveling, what its country does not have is called for. Then, how far should we take in Chinese people's taste in a design? This time, the design attribute (a color and a form) which leads to sweets "being delicious" was clarified by rough aggregate theory.As a result, the difference in the taste of Chinese people and Japanese people became clear.

Keywords: design attribute, international comparison, taste by appearance, design attribute

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
220 Detection of Nutrients Using Honeybee-Mimic Bioelectronic Tongue Systems

Authors: Soo Ho Lim, Minju Lee, Dong In Kim, Gi Youn Han, Seunghun Hong, Hyung Wook Kwon

Abstract:

We report a floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking honeybee taste systems for the detection and discrimination of various nutrients. Here, carbon nanotube field effect transistors with floating electrodes (CNT-FET) were hybridized with nanovesicles containing honeybee nutrient receptors, gustatory receptors of Apis mellifera. This strategy enables us to detect nutrient substance with a high sensitivity and selectivity. It could also be utilized for the detection of nutrients in liquid food. This floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking insect taste systems can be a simple, but highly effective strategy in many different basic research areas about sensory systems. Moreover, our research provides opportunities to develop various applications such as food screening, and it also can provide valuable insights on insect taste systems.

Keywords: taste system, CNT-FET, insect gustatory receptor, biolelectronic tongue

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
219 Ultrastructure of the Tongue of the African Beauty Snake Psammophis sibilans

Authors: Mohamed M. A. Abumandour, Neveen E. R. El-Bakary

Abstract:

The present work performed on the six tongues of African Beauty snake (Psammophis sibilans) that were obtained immediately after their catching, from agricultural fields, Desouk city, Kafrelsheikh Governorate, Egypt. These collected snakes should be from any oral abnormalities or injuries. The lingual surface of the Psammophis sibilans was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface of the bifurcated apex was smoother than the lingual body. The median lingual sulcus was deep and contained a number of the taste pores. By the high magnification of SEM of each part of a bifurcated area of the lingual apex have numerous taste buds and no lingual papillae were observed. A few numbers of papillae were observed in the lingual body. The microridges and microvilli distributed in the lingual body helped in spreading of mucus over the epithelial surface. Taste pores and papillae in the tongue indicate the presence of a direct chemo-sensory function for the tongue of these snakes as the chemicals dissolved in the mucus then transferred to Jacobson organ. To conclude, the bifurcation appearance of the snake lingual tip act as a chemical or edge detector help in the process named chemo-mechano-reception.

Keywords: African beauty snake, taste buds, taste pores, tongue, papillae

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
218 Sweet to Bitter Perception Parageusia: Case of Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Territory Diaschisis

Authors: I. S. Gandhi, D. N. Patel, M. Johnson, A. R. Hirsch

Abstract:

Although distortion of taste perception following a cerebrovascular event may seem to be a frivolous consequence of a classic stroke presentation, altered taste perception places patients at an increased risk for malnutrition, weight loss, and depression, all of which negatively impact the quality of life. Impaired taste perception can result from a wide variety of cerebrovascular lesions to various locations, including pons, insular cortices, and ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus. Wallenberg syndrome, also known as a lateral medullary syndrome, has been described to impact taste; however, specific sweet to bitter taste dysgeusia from a territory infarction is an infrequent event; as such, a case is presented. One year prior to presentation, this 64-year-old right-handed woman, suffered a right posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm rupture with resultant infarction, culminating in a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. One and half months after this event, she noticed the gradual onset of lack of ability to taste sweet, to eventually all sweet food tasting bitter. Since the onset of her chemosensory problems, the patient has lost 60-pounds. Upon gustatory testing, the patient's taste threshold showed ageusia to sucrose and hydrochloric acid, while normogeusia to sodium chloride, urea, and phenylthiocarbamide. The gustatory cortex is made in part by the right insular cortex as well as the right anterior operculum, which are primarily involved in the sensory taste modalities. In this model, sweet is localized in the posterior-most along with the rostral aspect of the right insular cortex, notably adjacent to the region responsible for bitter taste. The sweet to bitter dysgeusia in our patient suggests the presence of a lesion in this localization. Although the primary lesion in this patient was located in the right medulla of the brainstem, neurodegeneration in the rostal and posterior-most aspect, of the right insular cortex may have occurred due to diaschisis. Diaschisis has been described as neurophysiological changes that occur in remote regions to a focal brain lesion. Although hydrocephalus and vasospasm due to aneurysmal rupture may explain the distal foci of impairment, the gradual onset of dysgeusia is more indicative of diaschisis. The perception of sweet, now tasting bitter, suggests that in the absence of sweet taste reception, the intrinsic bitter taste of food is now being stimulated rather than sweet. In the evaluation and treatment of taste parageusia secondary to cerebrovascular injury, prophylactic neuroprotective measures may be worthwhile. Further investigation is warranted.

Keywords: diaschisis, dysgeusia, stroke, taste

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
217 Change of Taste Preference after Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Piotr Tylec, Julia Wierzbicka, Natalia Gajewska, Krzysztof Przeczek, Grzegorz Torbicz, Alicja Dudek, Magdalena Pisarska-Adamczyk, Mateusz Wierdak, Michal Pedziwiatr

Abstract:

Introduction: Many patients have described changes in taste perception after weight loss surgery. However, little data is available about short term changes in taste after surgery. Aim: We aimed to evaluate short-term changes in taste preference after bariatric surgeries in comparison to colorectal surgeries. Material and Methods: Between April 2018 and April 2019, a total of 121 bariatric patients and 63 controls participated. Bariatric patients underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric by-pass. Controls underwent oncological colorectal surgeries. Patients who developed clinical complications requiring restriction of oral intake after surgery or withdraw their consent were excluded from the study. In the end, 85 bariatric patients and 44 controls were included. In all of them, the 16-item ERAS Protocol was applied. Using 10-points Numeric Rating Scale (1-10) patients completed questionnaire and rated their appetite and thirst (1 - no appetite/not thirsty, 10 – normal appetite/very thirsty) and flavoured standardized liquids' taste (1- horrible, 10-very tasty) and food images for the 6 group of taste (sweet, umami, sour, spicy, bitter and salty) (1 - not appetizing, 10 - very appetizing) preoperatively and on the first postoperative day. Data were analysed with Statistica 13.0 PL. Results: Analysed group consist of 129 patients (85 bariatric, 44 controls). Mean age and BMI in a research group was 44.91 years old, 46.22 kg/m² and in control group 62.09 years old, 25.87 kg/m², respectively. Our analysis revealed significant differences in changes of appetite between both groups (research: -4.55 ± 3.76 vs. control: -0.85 ± 4.37; p < 0.05), ratings bitter (research: 0.60 ± 2.98 vs. control: -0.88 ± 2.58; p < 0.05) and salty (research: 1.20 ± 3.50 vs. control: -0.52 ± 2.90; p < 0.05) flavoured liquids and ratings for sweet (research: 1.62 ± 3.31 vs. control: 0.01 ± 2.63; p < 0.05) and bitter (research: 1.21 ± 3.15 vs. control: -0.09 ± 2.25; p < 0.05) food images. There were statistically significant results in the ratings of other images, but in comparison to the control group, they were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study showed that bariatric surgeries quickly decreases appetite and desire to eat certain types of food, such as salty. Moreover, the bitter taste was more desirable in the research group in comparison to control group. Nevertheless, the sweet taste was more appetible in the bariatric group than in control.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, general surgery, obesity, taste preference

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
216 Nutrition Environments and the Development of Taste Preferences: A Cross-Sectional Study of Primary School Children in Trinidad and Tobago

Authors: Fareena Alladin

Abstract:

In the Caribbean, issues of food security, health and taste are intricately linked, seen most clearly in the increasing incidence of lifestyle diseases among children coupled with a taste for high calorie and Westernized diets. In order to fully appreciate this link, the role of nutrition environments must be examined. To this end, the present study incorporates tenets of Bourdieu’s social constructivist theory with the Community Nutrition Environment Model. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between availability of and access to healthy/unhealthy foods within nutrition environments, namely the household and school, and the development of taste preferences for healthy/unhealthy foods among primary school children in a selected educational district in Trinidad and Tobago. A cross-sectional survey of 400 children between the ages of 9 and 11 years was conducted. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS 24. Results indicated that availability of healthy food at home was positively correlated with preference for vegetables, and negatively correlated with preference for salty snacks and fast food. The availability of unhealthy food within the home was found to be negatively correlated with preference for vegetables and positively correlated with preference for salty snacks. Access to unhealthy foods at school had a positive correlation with preference for fast food. These findings highlight the role of the food environment in shaping taste preferences, and point to the need for interrogating the centrality of food security concerns in emerging health concerns of Caribbean countries. Such interrogations are a necessary part of the development of research agendas, and policy formulation and implementation.

Keywords: food security, nutrition environment, taste preference, Trinidad and Tobago

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215 Change of Flavor Characteristics of Flavor Oil Made Using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito) According to Extraction Temperature and Extraction Time

Authors: Gyeong-Suk Jo, Soo-Hyun Ji, You-Seok Lee, Jeong-Hwa Kang

Abstract:

To develop an flavor oil using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito), infiltration extraction method was used to add dried mushroom flavor of Sarcodon aspratus to base olive oil. Edible base oil used during infiltration extraction was pressed olive oil, and infiltration extraction was done while varying extraction temperature to 20, 30, 40 and 50(℃) extraction time to 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Amount of Sarcodon aspratus added to base oil was 20% compared to 100% of base oil. Production yield of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil decreased with increasing extraction frequency. Aroma intensity was 2195~2447 (A.U./1㎖), and it increased with increasing extraction temperature and extraction time. Chromaticity of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil was bright pale yellow with pH of 4.5, sugar content of 71~72 (°Brix), and highest average turbidity of 16.74 (Haze %) shown by the 40℃ group. In the aromatic evaluation, increasing extraction temperature and extraction time resulted in increase of cheese aroma, savory sweet aroma and beef jerky aroma, as well as spicy taste comprised of slight bitter taste, savory taste and slight acrid taste, to make aromatic oil with unique flavor.

Keywords: Flavor Characteristics, Flavor Oil, Infiltration extraction method, mushroom, Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito)

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
214 Pattern Recognition Based on Simulation of Chemical Senses (SCS)

Authors: Nermeen El Kashef, Yasser Fouad, Khaled Mahar

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No AI-complete system can model the human brain or behavior, without looking at the totality of the whole situation and incorporating a combination of senses. This paper proposes a Pattern Recognition model based on Simulation of Chemical Senses (SCS) for separation and classification of sign language. The model based on human taste controlling strategy. The main idea of the introduced model is motivated by the facts that the tongue cluster input substance into its basic tastes first, and then the brain recognizes its flavor. To implement this strategy, two level architecture is proposed (this is inspired from taste system). The separation-level of the architecture focuses on hand posture cluster, while the classification-level of the architecture to recognizes the sign language. The efficiency of proposed model is demonstrated experimentally by recognizing American Sign Language (ASL) data set. The recognition accuracy obtained for numbers of ASL is 92.9 percent.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, biocybernetics, gustatory system, sign language recognition, taste sense

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
213 Effect of Hull-Less Barley Flakes and Malt Extract on Yoghurt Quality

Authors: Ilze Beitane, Evita Straumite

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The aim of the research was to evaluate the influence of flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain and malt extract on quality of yoghurt during its storage. The results showed that the concentration of added malt extract and storage time influenced the changes of pH and lactic acid in yoghurt samples. Sensory properties-aroma, taste, consistency and appearance-of yoghurt enriched with flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain and malt extract changed significantly (p<0.05) during storage. Yoghurt with increased proportion of malt extract had sweeter taste and more flowing consistency. Sensory properties (taste, aroma, consistency, and appearance) of yoghurt samples enriched with 5% flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain (YFBG 5%) and 5% flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain and 2% malt extract (YFBG 5% ME 2%) did not change significantly during one week of storage.

Keywords: Barley flakes, malt extract, yoghurt, sensory analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
212 Fexofenadine Hydrochloride Orodispersisble Tablets: Formulation and in vitro/in vivo Evaluation in Healthy Human Volunteers

Authors: Soad Ali Yehia, Mohamed Shafik El-Ridi, Mina Ibrahim Tadros, Nolwa Gamal El-Sherif

Abstract:

Fexofenadine hydrochloride (FXD) is a slightly soluble, bitter-tasting, drug having an oral bioavailability of 35%. The maximum plasma concentration is reached 2.6 hours (Tmax) post-dose. The current work aimed to develop taste-masked FXD orodispersible tablets (ODTs) to increase extent of drug absorption and reduce Tmax. Taste masking was achieved via solid dispersion (SD) with chitosan (CS) or sodium alginate (ALG). FT-IR, DSC and XRD were performed to identify physicochemical interactions and FXD crystallinity. Taste-masked FXD-ODTs were developed via addition of superdisintegrants (crosscarmelose sodium or sodium starch glycolate, 5% and 10%, w/w) or sublimable agents (camphor, menthol or thymol; 10% and 20%, w/w) to FXD-SDs. ODTs were evaluated for weight variation, drug-content, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and drug release. Camphor-based (20%, w/w) FXD-ODT (F12) was optimized (F23) by incorporation of a more hydrophilic lubricant, sodium stearyl fumarate (Pruv®). The topography of the latter formula was examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vivo estimation of FXD pharmacokinetics, relative to Allegra® tablets, was evaluated in healthy human volunteers. Based on the gustatory sensation test in healthy volunteers, FXD:CS (1:1) and FXD:ALG (1:0.5) SDs were selected. Taste-masked FXD-ODTs had appropriate physicochemical properties and showed short wetting and disintegration times. Drug release profiles of F23 and phenylalanine-containing Allegra® ODT were similar (f2 = 96) showing a complete release in two minutes. SEM micrographs revealed pores following camphor sublimation. Compared to Allegra® tablets, pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers proved F23 ability to increase extent of FXD absorption (14%) and reduce Tmax to 1.83 h.

Keywords: fexofenadine hydrochloride, taste masking, chitosan, orodispersible

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
211 The Effect of Addition of White Mulberry Fruit on the Sensory Quality of the New Developed Bioactive Bread

Authors: Kmiecik Dominik, Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Marcinkowska Agata, Korczak Józef

Abstract:

The relationship between the choice of a proper diet, a diet, lifestyle man and his health has been known for a long time. Because of the increase in public awareness of food ingredients and their influence on health status, measures have been taken towards the production of food, which is designed to not only eat, but also to protect against the incidence of lifestyle diseases. For this purpose, the bio active products with healthy properties was developed. Mulberry have a very high nutritional value, rich in chemical composition and many properties used in the prevention of lifestyle diseases. In addition to basic chemical components, nutrients, mulberry fruit contain compounds having a physiological effect. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of white mulberry fruit on the sensory quality of bread to be healthy diet of people suffering from anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Sensory analysis was carried out by the profile method. Intra-operative differentiators color, aroma, taste, texture, and overall assessment. Sensory analysis showed that all test trials were characterized by a uniform and concise consistency, similar in color from dark to light beige. The taste and smell of herbal characteristic was designed in an attempt to prevention of diabetes, while the other samples were characterized by a typical taste and smell of bread grain. There were no foreign taste and odor in the test bread. It was found that the addition of white mulberry fruit does not affect the sensory quality of the newly developed bioactive bread.

Keywords: mulberry, bread, bioactive, sensory analysis

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210 Monitoring of Sustainability of Decorated Confectionary Product 'Moskva Cake' in Order to Define the Expiration Date

Authors: Radovan Cobanovic, Milica Rankov-Sicar

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The fresh cake is in the group of perishable food which cannot be kept a long period of time. The study of sustainability has been done in order to extend the shelf-life of the product which was 10 days. According to the plan of sustainability, it was defined that 5 samples had to be stored for 20 days at max +8°C and analyzed every 5th day from the day of reception until the 20th day. The shelf life of cake has expired during the study of sustainability in the period between 10th and 20th day of analyses. Cake samples were subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analysis (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) according to Serbian state regulation. All analysis were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, and Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21258-2. Analyses showed that after ten days of storage at a temperature defined by the manufacturers and within the product's shelf life, the cake did not have any noticeable changes in sensory characteristics. Smell and taste are unaffected there was no presence of strange smell or taste. As far as microbiological analyses are concerned, neither one pathogen was detected and number of Enterobacteriaceae was at level less than 102 cfu/g. After expiry of shelf life in a period of 15th and 20th day of storage, the sensory analysis showed the presence of strange sour-milky smell and rancid taste. Concerning microbiological analyses, there still were not positive results for pathogen microorganisms but the number of Enterobacteriaceae was at level more than 103cfu/g. Reviewing the results of sensory analysis indicates that it is not recommended to extend the shelf-life of the product comparing to the already defined shelf-life because occurred changes may adversely affect the consumer desire for the choice of this product.

Keywords: confectionary product, extension of shelf life, sensory and microbiological analyses, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
209 Cheese Production at Low Temperatures Using Probiotic L. casei ATCC 393 and Rennin Enzyme Entrapped in Tubular Cellulose

Authors: Eleftheria Barouni, Antonia Terpou, Maria Kanellaki, Argyro Bekatorou, Athanasios A.Koutinas

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The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of cheese using a composite filter of tubular cellulose (TC) with [a] entrapped rennin enzyme and [b] immobilized L.casei and entrapped enzyme. Tubular cellulose from sawdust was prepared after lignin removal with 1% NaOH. The biocatalysts were thermally dried at 38oC and used for milk coagulation. The effect of temperature (5,20,37 oC) of the first dried biocatalyst on the pH kinetics of milk coagulation was examined. The optimum temperature (37oC) of the first biocatalyst was used for milk coagulation with the second biocatalyst prepared by entrapment of both rennin enzyme and probiotic lactic acid bacteria in order to introduce a sour taste in cheeses. This co-biocatalyst was used for milk coagulation. Samples were studied as regards its effect on lactic acid formation and its correlation with taste test results in cheeses. For both biocatalysts samples were analyzed for total acidity and lactic acid formation by HPLC. The quality of the produced cheeses was examined through the determination of volatile compounds by SPME GC/MS analysis. Preliminary taste tests and microbiological analysis were performed and encourage us for further research regarding scale up.

Keywords: tubular cellulose, Lactobacillus casei, rennin enzyme, cheese production

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
208 Boiling Effect of Momordica charantia with Salt to the Antihiperglicemia Effectiveness of Diabetes Mellitus Rats

Authors: Zulfa D. Putri, Jumayanti Jumayanti, Hatiefah T. I. Melati, Kiki Indriati, Farah U. Mauhibah

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Momordica charantia is a food that is often used for nutrition therapy for patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) because of its effect as antihiperglicemia. However, the bitter taste of Momordica charantia may be an obstacle to consume. Some people remove the bitter taste of this by boiling it with salt water. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Momordica charantia boiling with salt water in lowering blood glucose levels. This study is a quasi-experimental study with pre-post test with control group design. The research sample consisted of 25 rats Sprague-Dawley were divided into 5 groups: Control group of healthy, control group of DM, control group of DM with the addition of Momordica charantia are boiled by salt for 3 minutes, 6 minutes, and 9 minutes. Blood glucose levels were measured after 4 weeks using a spectrophotometer. These results indicate that there is the effect of bitter taste from Momordica charantia in lowering blood glucose levels in rats significantly. The conclusion of this study is giving a Momordica charantia juice in Sprague-Dawley rats that induced by alloxan has meaningful statistically proven by One Way ANOVA test (p = 0.00) in lowering blood glucose levels of rats.

Keywords: antihiperglicemia, diabetes mellitus, momordica charantia, salt

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
207 Comparative Analysis of Oil Extracts from Cotton and Watermelon Seeds

Authors: S. A. Jumare, A. O. Tijani, M. F. Siraj, B. V. Babatunde

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This research investigated the comparative analysis of oil extracted from cotton and watermelon seeds using solvent extraction process. Normal ethyl-ether was used as solvent in the extraction process. The AOAC method of Analysis was employed in the determination of the physiochemical properties of the oil. The chemical properties of the oil determined include the saponification value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value and acid value. The physical properties of the oil determined include specific gravity, refractive index, colour, odour, taste and pH. The value obtained for cottonseed oil are saponification value (187mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (5.64mgKOH/g), iodine value (95.2g/100), peroxide value (9.33meq/kg), acid value (11.22mg/KOH/g), pH value (4.62), refractive index (1.46), and specific gravity (0.9) respectively, it has a bland odour, a reddish brown colour and a mild taste. The values obtained for watermelon seed oil are saponification value (83.3mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (6.58mg/KOH/g), iodine value (122.6g/100), peroxide value (5.3meq/kg), acid value (3.74mgKOH/g), pH value (6.3), refractive index (1.47), and specific gravity (0.9) respectively, it has a nutty flavour, a golden yellow colour and a mild taste. From the result obtained, it shows that cottonseed oil has high acid value which shows the stability of the oil and its stability to rancidity. Consequently, watermelon seed oil is order wise.

Keywords: extraction, solvent, cotton seeds, watermelon seeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
206 Sensory and Microbiological Sustainability of Smoked Meat Products–Smoked Ham in Order to Determine the Shelf-Life under the Changed Conditions at +15°C

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

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The meat is in the group of perishable food which can be spoiled very rapidly if stored at room temperature. Salting in combination with smoke is intended to extend shelf life, and also to form the specific taste, odor and color. The smoke do not affect only on taste and flavor of the product, it has a bactericidal and oxidative effect and that is the reason because smoked products are less susceptible to oxidation and decay processes. According to mentioned the goal of this study was to evaluate shelf life of smoked ham, which is stored in conditions of high temperature (+15 °C). For the purposes of this study analyzes were conducted on eight samples of smoked ham every 7th day from the day of reception until 21st day. During this period, smoked ham is subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analyzes (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) according to Serbian state regulation. All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11 290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579 and yeasts and molds ISO 21527-2. Results of sensory analysis of smoked ham indicating that the samples after the first seven days of storage showed visual changes at the surface in the form of allocations of salt, most likely due to the process of drying out the internal parts of the product. The sample, after fifteen days of storage had intensive exterior changes, but the taste was still acceptable. Between the fifteenth and twenty-first day of storage, there is an unacceptable change on the surface and inside of the product and the occurrence of molds and yeasts but neither one analyzed pathogen was found. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this type of product cannot be stored for more than seven days at an elevated temperature of +15°C because there are a visual changes that would certainly have influence on decision of customers when purchase of this product is concerned.

Keywords: sustainability, smoked meat products, food engineering, agricultural process engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
205 Investigation of an Approach in Drug Delivery: Orally Fast Disintegrating Tablets

Authors: Tansel Comoglu

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Orally fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs or ODTs) have become popular during the last decade, and manufacturing of ODTs is getting a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. The concept of ODTs has emerged from the desire to provide patients with more conventional means of taking their medication. Drugs, that have satisfactory absorption from the oral mucosa or aimed for immediate therapeutic activity can be formulated in ODTs. After placing the ODT into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth usullay less than a minute, in the absence of additional water. Even though the ODT technology has taken an important path, as proved by a large group of commercial products on the drug market, there are so many problems to be solved in ODT formulations such as; formulation of hydrophobic drugs is stil a challenge, especially when the amount of drug is high. As these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth without the need of additional water, taste masking of active ingredients becomes essential in these systems because the drug is entirely released in the mouth. In ODT technology, coping with the taste of drugs is still a challenge. Resins or sweeteners or other techniques are also used in the formulation to aid taste-masking of the API. Another important factor to consider is whether they can be manufactured using conventional equipment and processes, as this will have a positive influence on manufacturing costs. Some products, however, may require a more costly, special unitdose packaging if the dosage form is fragile. In this overview, benefits, various formulation technologies, clinical studies and some future research trends of ODTs will be discussed.

Keywords: orally fast disintegrating tablets, benefits, formulation technologies, future research trends

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204 Control of the Sustainability of Fresh Cheese in Order to Extend the Shelf-Life of the Product

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

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The fresh cheese is in the group of perishable food which cannot be kept a long period of time. The study of sustainability have been done in order to extend the shelf-life of the product which was 15 days. According to the plan of sustainability it was defined that 35 samples had to be stored for 30 days at 2°C−6°C and analyzed every 7th day from the day of reception until 30th day. Shelf life of the cheese has expired during the study of sustainability in the period between 15th and 30th day of analyses. Cheese samples were subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analyzes (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and total plate count) according to Serbian state regulation. All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11 290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Bacillus cereus ISO 7932, Staphylococcus aureus ISO 6888-1, and total plate count ISO 4833. Analyses showed that after fifteen days of storage at a temperature defined by the manufacturers and within the product's shelf life, the cheese did not have any noticeable changes in sensory characteristics. Smell and taste are unaffected there was no separation of whey and there was not presence of strange smell or taste. As far as microbiological analyses are concerned neither one pathogen was detected and total plate count was at level of 103 cfu/g. After expiry of shelf life in a period of 15th and 30th day of storage, the analysis showed that there was a separation of whey on the surface. Along the edge of the container was present a dried part of cheese and sour-milky smell and taste were very weakly expressed. Concerning the microbiological analyses there still were not positive results for pathogen microorganisms but the total plate count was at a level of 106cfu/g. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this product cannot have longer shelf life than shelf life which is already defined because there are a sensory changes that would certainly have influence on decision of customers when purchase of this product is concerned.

Keywords: sustainability, fresh cheese, shelf-life, product

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203 Is Liking for Sampled Energy-Dense Foods Mediated by Taste Phenotypes?

Authors: Gary J. Pickering, Sarah Lucas, Catherine E. Klodnicki, Nicole J. Gaudette

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Two taste pheno types that are of interest in the study of habitual diet-related risk factors and disease are 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) responsiveness and thermal tasting. Individuals differ considerable in how intensely they experience the bitterness of PROP, which is partially explained by three major single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the TAS2R38 gene. Importantly, this variable responsiveness is a useful proxy for general taste responsiveness, and links to diet-related disease risk, including body mass index, in some studies. Thermal tasting - a newly discovered taste phenotype independent of PROP responsiveness - refers to the capacity of many individuals to perceive phantom tastes in response to lingual thermal stimulation, and is linked with TRPM5 channels. Thermal tasters (TTs) also experience oral sensations more intensely than thermal non-tasters (TnTs), and this was shown to associate with differences in self-reported food preferences in a previous survey from our lab. Here we report on two related studies, where we sought to determine whether PROP responsiveness and thermal tasting would associate with perceptual differences in the oral sensations elicited by sampled energy-dense foods, and whether in turn this would influence liking. We hypothesized that hyper-tasters (thermal tasters and individuals who experience PROP intensely) would (a) rate sweet and high-fat foods more intensely than hypo-tasters, and (b) would differ from hypo-tasters in liking scores. (Liking has been proposed recently as a more accurate measure of actual food consumption). In Study 1, a range of energy-dense foods and beverages, including table cream and chocolate, was assessed by 25 TTs and 19 TnTs. Ratings of oral sensation intensity and overall liking were obtained using gVAS and gDOL scales, respectively. TTs and TnTs did not differ significantly in intensity ratings for most stimuli (ANOVA). In a 2nd study, 44 female participants sampled 22 foods and beverages, assessing them for intensity of oral sensations (gVAS) and overall liking (9-point hedonic scale). TTs (n=23) rated their overall liking of creaminess and milk products lower than did TnTs (n=21), and liked milk chocolate less. PROP responsiveness was negatively correlated with liking of food and beverages belonging to the sweet or sensory food grouping. No other differences in intensity or liking scores between hyper- and hypo-tasters were found. Taken overall, our results are somewhat unexpected, lending only modest support to the hypothesis that these taste phenotypes associate with energy-dense food liking and consumption through differences in the oral sensations they elicit. Reasons for this lack of concordance with expectations and some prior literature are discussed, and suggestions for future research are advanced.

Keywords: taste phenotypes, sensory evaluation, PROP, thermal tasting, diet-related health risk

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202 Development and Evaluation of a Nutraceutical Herbal Summer Drink

Authors: Munish Garg, Vinni Ahuja

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In the past few years, the high consumption of soft drinks has attracted negative attention world-wide due to its possible adverse effects, leading the health conscious people to find alternative nutraceutical or herbal health drinks. In the present study, a nutraceutical soft drink was developed utilizing some easily available and well known traditional herbs having nutritional potential. The key ingredients were selected as bael, amla, lemon juice, ashwagandha and poppy seeds based on their household routine use in the summer with proven refreshing, cooling and energetic feeling since ages. After several trials made, the final composition of nutraceutical summer soft drink was selected as most suitable combination based on the taste, physicochemical, microbial and organoleptic point of view. The physicochemical analysis of the prepared drink found to contain optimum level of titratable acidity, total soluble solids and pH which were in accordance of the commercial recommendations. There were no bacterial colonies found in the product therefore found within limits. During the nine point’s hedonic scale sensory evaluation, the drink was strongly liked for colour, taste, flavour and texture. The formulation was found to contain flavonoids (80mg/100ml), phenolics (103mg/100ml), vitamin C (250mg/100ml) and has antioxidant potential (75.52%) apart from providing several other essential vitamins, minerals and healthy components. The developed nutraceutical drink provides an economical and feasible option for the consumers with very good taste combined with potential health benefits. The present drink is potentially capable to replace the synthetic soft drinks available in the market.

Keywords: herbal drink, summer drink, nutraceuticals, soft drink

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201 Marketing Parameters on Consumer's Perceptions of Farmed Sea Bass in Greece

Authors: Sophia Anastasiou, Cosmas Nathanailides, Fotini Kakali, Kostas Karipoglou

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Wild fish are considered as testier and in fish restaurants are offered at twice the price of farmed fish. Several chemical and structural differences can affect the consumer's attitudes for farmed fish. The structure and chemical composition of fish muscle is also important for the performance of farmed fish during handling, storage and processing. In the present work we present the chemical and sensory parameters which are used as indicators of fish flesh quality and we investigated the perceptions of consumers for farmed sea bass and the organoleptic differences between samples of wild and farmed sea bass. A questionnaire was distributed to a group of various ages that were regular consumers of sea bass. The questionnaire included a survey on the perceptions on taste and appearance differences between wild and farmed sea bass. A significant percentage (>40%) of the participants stated their perception of superior taste of wild sea bass versus the farmed fish. The participants took part in an organoleptic assessment of wild and farmed sea bass prepared and cooked by a local fish restaurant. Portions were evaluated for intensity of sensorial attributes from 1 (low intensity) to 5 (high intensity). The results indicate that contrary to the assessor's perception, farmed sea bass scored better in al organoleptic parameters assessed with marked superiority in texture and taste over the wild sea bass. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARCHIMEDES III. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

Keywords: fish marketing, farmed fish, seafood quality, wild fish

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200 Effect of Packaging Methods and Storage Time on Oxidative Stability of Traditional Fermented Sausage

Authors: Vladimir M. Tomović, Branislav V. Šojić, Predrag M. Ikonić, Ljiljana S. Petrović, Anamarija I. Mandić, Natalija R. Džinić, Snežana B. Škaljac, Tatjana A. Tasić, Marija R. Jokanović

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In this paper influence of packaging method (vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) on lipid oxidative stability and sensory properties of odor and taste of the traditional sausage Petrovská klobása were examined. These parameters were examined during storage period (7 months). In the end of storage period, vacuum packed sausage showed better oxidative stability. Propanal content was significantly lower (P<0.05) in vacuum packed sausage compared to these values in unpacked and modified atmosphere packaging sausage. Hexanal content in vacuum packed sausage was 1.85 µg/g, in MAP sausage 2.98 µg/g and in unpacked sausage 4.94 µg/g. After 2 and 7 months of storage, sausages packed in vacuum had the highest grades for sensory properties of odor and taste.

Keywords: lipid oxidation, MAP, sensory properties, traditional sausage, vacuum

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199 Consumer Preferences towards Sorbets: A Questionnaire Study

Authors: Kinga Topolska, Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Adam Florkiewicz, Daria Chechelska, Iwona Cieślik, Ewa Cieślik

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Food choice is a complex human behaviour, that is influenced by many interrelating factors. It is important to understand what consumers really want to eat. Nowadays, the growing popularity of frozen desserts is observed. Among them, sorbets are of the special interest. They are made primarily of fruit juice or fruit purée, water and sugar. A questionnaire study was done to evaluate the consumer preferences towards sorbets. A hundred respondents were included in the study. The respondents answered the questions concerning, inter alia, on the favourite taste of sorbets, additional ingredients (pieces of fruits, nuts etc.), the reason for choosing the product and also the opinion about potential purchasing or not the new product. Women, more frequently than men, indicated strawberry sorbet or the product on the basis of citrus fruits as a favourite one. In turn, 14% of men chose the apple taste. Pieces of chocolate were chosen by most of respondents. Men, more often than women, regarded raisins, alcohol and nuts as the most desirable additional ingredients of sorbets. The candied fruits and spices were indicated more frequently by women. Most of respondents indicated the taste as the major reason for sorbet buying. In turn, for 20% women the most important determinant was the care for their figure. It was observed that more than a half of women regarded sorbets as healthier than traditional ice creams. Answering the question: 'If you had the opportunity to try a new sorbet, containing the ingredient with proven healthy properties, would you buy it?', significantly more men than women answered 'yes, because I like novelty'. Meanwhile, for 14% respondents (independently of gender) it would be only a publicity stunt. Knowing what the consumers desire in selecting a product, is a very important information to design and offer them a new one. Sorbets could be an interesting alternative to ice creams.

Keywords: consumer, preferences, sorbets, questionnaire study

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
198 Formulation, Preparation, and Evaluation of Coated Desloratadine Oral Disintegrating Tablets

Authors: Mohamed A. Etman, Mona G. Abd-Elnasser, Mohamed A. Shams-Eldin, Aly H. Nada

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Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are gaining importance as new drug delivery systems and emerged as one of the popular and widely accepted dosage forms, especially for the pediatric and geriatric patients. Their advantages such as administration without water, anywhere, anytime lead to their suitability to geriatric and pediatric patients. They are also suitable for the mentally ill, the bed-ridden and patients who do not have easy access to water. The benefits, in terms of patient compliance, rapid onset of action, increased bioavailability, and good stability make these tablets popular as a dosage form of choice in the current market. These dosage forms dissolve or disintegrate in the oral cavity within a matter of seconds without the need of water or chewing. Desloratadine is a tricyclic antihistaminic, which has a selective and peripheral H1-antagonist action. It is an antagonist at histamine H1 receptors, and an antagonist at all subtypes of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Desloratadine is the major metabolite of loratadine. Twelve different placebos ODT were prepared (F1-F12) using different functional excipients. They were evaluated for their compressibility, hardness and disintegration time. All formulations were non sticky except four formulations; namely (F8, F9, F10, F11). All formulations were compressible with the exception of (F2). Variable disintegration times were found ranging between 20 and 120 seconds. It was found that (F12) showed the least disintegration time (20 secs) without showing any sticking which could be due to the use of high percentage of superdisintegrants. Desloratadine showed bitter taste when formulated as ODT without any treatment. Therefore, different techniques were tried in order to mask its bitter taste. Using Eudragit EPO resulted in complete masking of the bitter taste of the drug and increased the acceptability to volunteers. The compressible non sticky formulations (F1, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7 and F12) were subjected to further evaluation tests after addition of coated desloratadine, including weight uniformity, wetting time, and friability testing.. Fairly good weight uniformity values were observed in all the tested formulations. F12 exhibiting the shortest wetting time (14.7 seconds) and consequently the lowest (20 seconds) disintegration time. Dissolution profile showed that 100% desloratadine release was attained after only 2.5 minutes from the prepared ODT (F12) with dissolution efficiency of 95%.

Keywords: Desloratadine, orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), formulations, taste masking

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197 Effect of Citric Acid and Clove on Cured Smoked Meat: A Traditional Meat Product

Authors: Esther Eduzor, Charles A. Negbenebor, Helen O. Agu

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Smoking of meat enhances the taste and look of meat, it also increases its longevity, and helps preserve the meat by slowing down the spoilage of fat and growth of bacteria. The Lean meat from the forequarter of beef carcass was obtained from the Maiduguri abattoir. The meat was cut into four portions with weight ranging from 525-545 g. The meat was cut into bits measuring about 8 cm in length, 3.5 cm in thickness and weighed 64.5 g. Meat samples were washed, cured with various concentration of sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, citric acid and clove for 30 min, drained and smoked in a smoking kiln at a temperature range of 55-600°C, for 8 hr a day for 3 days. The products were stored at ambient temperature and evaluated microbiologically and organoleptically. In terms of processing and storage there were increases in pH, free fatty acid content, a decrease in water holding capacity and microbial count of the cured smoked meat. The panelists rated control samples significantly (p < 0.05) higher in terms of colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability. The following organisms were isolated and identified during storage: Bacillus specie, Bacillus subtilis, streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus niger, Candida and Penicillium specie. The study forms a basis for new product development for meat industry.

Keywords: citric acid, cloves, smoked meat, bioengineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
196 Architectural Design as Knowledge Production: A Comparative Science and Technology Study of Design Teaching and Research at Different Architecture Schools

Authors: Kim Norgaard Helmersen, Jan Silberberger

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Questions of style and reproducibility in relation to architectural design are not only continuously debated; the very concepts can seem quite provocative to architects, who like to think of architectural design as depending on intuition, ideas, and individual personalities. This standpoint - dominant in architectural discourse - is challenged in the present paper presenting early findings from a comparative STS-inspired research study of architectural design teaching and research at different architecture schools in varying national contexts. In philosophy of science framework, the paper reflects empirical observations of design teaching at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen and presents a tentative theoretical framework for the on-going research project. The framework suggests that architecture – as a field of knowledge production – is mainly dominated by three epistemological positions, which will be presented and discussed. Besides serving as a loosely structured framework for future data analysis, the proposed framework brings forth the argument that architecture can be roughly divided into different schools of thought, like the traditional science disciplines. Without reducing the complexity of the discipline, describing its main intellectual positions should prove fruitful for the future development of architecture as a theoretical discipline, moving an architectural critique beyond discussions of taste preferences. Unlike traditional science disciplines, there is a lack of a community-wide, shared pool of codified references in architecture, with architects instead referencing art projects, buildings, and famous architects, when positioning their standpoints. While these inscriptions work as an architectural reference system, to be compared to codified theories in academic writing of traditional research, they are not used systematically in the same way. As a result, architectural critique is often reduced to discussions of taste and subjectivity rather than epistemological positioning. Architects are often criticized as judges of taste and accused that their rationality is rooted in cultural-relative aesthetical concepts of taste closely linked to questions of style, but arguably their supposedly subjective reasoning, in fact, forms part of larger systems of thought. Putting architectural ‘styles’ under a loop, and tracing their philosophical roots, can potentially open up a black box in architectural theory. Besides ascertaining and recognizing the existence of specific ‘styles’ and thereby schools of thought in current architectural discourse, the study could potentially also point at some mutations of the conventional – something actually ‘new’ – of potentially high value for architectural design education.

Keywords: architectural theory, design research, science and technology studies (STS), sociology of architecture

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195 Extraction of Inulin from Cichorium Intybus and Its Application as Fat Replacer in Yoghurt

Authors: Hafiz Khuram Wasim Aslam, Muhammad Saeed, Azam Shakeel, Muhammad Inam Ur Raheem, Moazzam Rafiq Khan, Muhammad Atif Randhawa

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Inulin is significant ingredient used in food industry that functions technologically as a fat replacer often without compromising taste and texture. In this study inulin was extracted from the chicory roots and the effect of inulin addition as a fat replacer on the physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of non-fat yogurt was investigated. The supplementation of chicory inulin reduced the magnitude of firmness in comparison with non-inulin ¬supplemented non-fat yoghurt. Higher values of acidity were observed due to the more microbial fermentation in the inulin containing yogurt as compared to non-inulin yogurt and were in the range of 0.56 to 0.75 during storage days. Syneresis in control sample increased from 43.9% to 47.9% during the storage study. However inulin addition at different treatment enhanced syneresis from 44.5% to 47.6%. Inulin addition at various concentrations caused an increase in the TPC due to its probiotic effect. No effects of inuline addition on fat and protein contents were observed. Non-fat yoghurt supplemented with inulin demonstrated sensory behavior better than that of the control yoghurt. The most important effect of the addition of inulin to non-fat yoghurt is an increase in the sensory attributes appearance, body and texture, taste and mouth feel, overall acceptability. On an average, yoghurt supplemented with 1 to 2% inulin was better in overall acceptance as compared to control yoghurt.

Keywords: inulin, fat replacer, yoghurt, sensory evaluation, low fat

Procedia PDF Downloads 484