Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7773

Search results for: language teacher education

7773 The Use of Mobile Applications for Language Learning in 21st-Century Teacher Education for Sustainable Development in Africa

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

Abstract:

The need for ICT in Teacher Education due to the nature of 21st-century learners who are computer citizens is essential. The recent increase in the use of Mobile phones has equally revealed the importance of Mobile Applications for learning purposes. However, teacher-trainees and the trainers need to be well-grounded in basic ICT skills for an appropriate outcome. This study seeks to assess the use of Mobile Applications for language learning in Teacher Education teaching-learning process. A 22-item e-questionnaire was used to elicit information from teacher-trainers and teachers-trainees from Faculties of Education in Nigerian Universities. Major findings of this study include: That teacher-education sector is not adequately prepared for manipulative use of ICT and Mobile Applications for teaching and learning process; etc. It was recommended among others that, teacher-trainers should be trained and re-trained on the manipulative use of Mobile devices and the several applications for teaching-learning purpose, especially language education.

Keywords: information and communications technology, ICT, language learning, mobile application, sustainable development, teacher education

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7772 Teacher Education and the Impact of Higher Education Foreign Language Requirements on Students with Learning Disabilities

Authors: Joao Carlos Koch Junior, Risa Takashima

Abstract:

Learning disabilities have been extensively and increasingly studied in recent times. In spite of this, there is arguably a scarce number of studies addressing a key issue, which is the impact of foreign-language requirements on students with learning disabilities in higher education, and the lack of training or awareness of teachers regarding language learning disabilities. This study is an attempt to address this issue. An extensive review of the literature in multiple fields will be summarised. This, paired with a case-analysis of a university adopting a more inclusive approach towards special-needs students in its foreign-language programme, this presentation aims to establish a link between different studies and propose a number of suggestions to make language classrooms more inclusive.

Keywords: foreign language teaching, higher education, language teacher education, learning disabilities

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7771 Comparative Outlook of Teacher Education in Nigeria and India

Authors: Muhammad Badamasi Abdullahi

Abstract:

Teacher education, both pre- and in-service programs, is offered in many countries of the world by different teacher education institutions as declared in the Policies on Education of the countries. However, differences exist from one country to another as a result of some factors peculiar to them. Notwithstanding, there also exist similarities among them in regard to teacher education. This paper is expected to dig into teacher education programs in Nigeria and India so that areas of similarities and differences would be highlighted as well as provide a venue for possible recommendation of both countries to learn from one another. All this is directed towards providing a no -border approach in enhancing effective teaching and learning.

Keywords: teacher education, teaching and learning, pre-service, in-service

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7770 Language Teachers Exercising Agency Amid Educational Constraints: An Overview of the Literature

Authors: Anna Sanczyk

Abstract:

Teacher agency plays a crucial role in effective teaching, supporting diverse students, and providing an enriching learning environment; therefore, it is significant to gain a deeper understanding of language teachers’ sense of agency in teaching linguistically and culturally diverse students. This paper presents an overview of qualitative research on how language teachers exercise their agency in diverse classrooms. The analysis of the literature reveals that language teachers strive for addressing students’ needs and challenging educational inequalities, but experience educational constraints in enacting their agency. The examination of the research on language teacher agency identifies four major areas where language teachers experience challenges in enacting their agency: (1) implementing curriculum; (2) adopting school reforms and policies; (3) engaging in professional learning; (4) and negotiating various identities as professionals. The practical contribution of this literature review is that it provides a much-needed compilation of the studies on how language teachers exercise agency amid educational constraints. The discussion of the overview points to the importance of teacher identity, learner advocacy, and continuous professional learning and the critical need of promoting empowerment, activism, and transformation in language teacher education. The findings of the overview indicate that language teacher education programs should prepare teachers to be active advocates for English language learners and guide teachers to become more conscious of complexities of teaching in constrained educational settings so that they can become agentic professionals. This literature overview illustrates agency work in English language teaching contexts and contributes to understanding of the important link between experiencing educational constraints and development of teacher agency.

Keywords: advocacy, educational constraints, language teacher agency, language teacher education

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7769 Constructions of Teaching English as a Second Language Teacher Trainees’ Professional Identities

Authors: K. S. Kan

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to deepen the current understanding of how a Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) teacher trainee self is constructed. The present aim of Malaysian TESL teacher education is to train teacher trainees with established English Language Teaching methodologies of the four main language skills (listening, reading, writing and speaking) apart from building them up holistically. Therefore, it is crucial to learn more of the ways on how these teacher trainees construct their professional selves during their undergraduate years. The participants come from a class of 17 Semester 6 TESL students who had undergone a 3-month’s practicum practice during their fifth semester and going for their final 3 month’s practicum period from July 2018 onwards. Findings from a survey, interviews with the participants and lecturers, documentations such as the participants’ practicum record-books would be consolidated with the supervisory notes and comments. The findings suggest that these teacher trainees negotiate their identities and emotions that react with the socio-cultural factors. Periodical reflections on the teacher trainees’ practicum practices influence transformation.The findings will be further aligned to the courses that these teacher trainees have to take in order to equip them as future second language practitioners. It is hoped that the findings will be able to fill the gap from the teacher trainees’ perspectives on identity construction dealing. This study is much more significant now, in view of the new English Language Curriculum for Primary School (widely known as KSSR, its Malay acronym) which had been introduced and implemented in Malaysian primary schools recently. This research will benefit second language practitioners who is in the language education field, as well as, TESL undergraduates, on the knowledge of how teacher trainees respond to and negotiate their professional teaching identities as future second language educators.

Keywords: construction of selves, professional identities, second language, TEST teacher trainees

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7768 An Analysis of Learners’ Reports for Measuring Co-Creational Education

Authors: Takatoshi Ishii, Koji Kimita, Keiichi Muramatsu, Yoshiki Shimomura

Abstract:

To increase the quality of learning, teacher and learner need mutual effort for realization of educational value. For this purpose, we need to manage the co-creational education among teacher and learners. In this research, we try to find a feature of co-creational education. To be more precise, we analyzed learners’ reports by natural language processing, and extract some features that describe the state of the co-creational education.

Keywords: co-creational education, e-portfolios, ICT integration, latent dirichlet allocation

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7767 Canadian French as an Additional Language Teacher Candidates' Proficiency and Confidence Pre- and Post-Francophone Home-Stay: Practicum Experience as Revealed through Questionnaire and Interviews

Authors: Callie Mady

Abstract:

This study investigated the Canadian French as an additional language teacher candidates’ confidence and language maintenance strategies by means of questionnaires and interviews pre- and post- a Francophone home-stay practicum experience. Teacher French language proficiency is one of the components of teacher knowledge that can influence students’ French as an additional language acquisition. Although advantageous, seeking opportunities to use French in a French milieu comes with challenges. Teachers, for example, have been found to be hesitant to speak French with native speakers for fear of judgment. Another identified challenge to spending time in a French milieu is finances; while teachers have recognized the value of such an experience, cost is prohibitive. In recognition of the potential barriers and the need to maintain/improve the French proficiency of 'French as an additional language' teachers, this study provided a two-week home stay in a Francophone environment for teacher candidates of French as an additional language with financial subsidies for their participation. Through the post-experience interviews, the French as an additional language teacher candidates revealed an improvement in French proficiency. Similarly, the teacher candidates cited an increase in confidence in the interviews and through the questionnaire. They linked this increase in proficiency and confidence to their experiences with their host families and other Francophone members of the community. This study highlights the provision of immersion experiences as means to support teachers’ language confidence and proficiency.

Keywords: French as an additional language education, teacher language confidence, teacher language maintenance, teacher language proficiency

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7766 University Arabic/Foreign Language Teacher's Competences, Professionalism and the Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Abeer Heider

Abstract:

The article considers the definitions of teacher’s competences and professionalism from different perspectives of Arab and foreign scientists. A special attention is paid to the definition, classification of the stages and components of University Arabic /foreign language teacher’s professionalism. The results of the survey are offered and recommendations are given. In this paper, only some of the problems of defining professional competence and professionalism of the university Arabic/ foreign language teacher have been mentioned. It needs much more analysis and discussion, because the quality of training today’s competitive and mobile students with a good knowledge of foreign languages depends directly on the teachers’ professional level.

Keywords: teacher’s professional competences, Arabic/ foreign language teacher’s professionalism, teacher evaluation, teacher quality

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7765 Post Apartheid Language Positionality and Policy: Student Teachers' Narratives from Teaching Practicum

Authors: Thelma Mort

Abstract:

This empirical, qualitative research uses interviews of four intermediate phase English language student teachers at one university in South Africa and is an exploration of student teacher learning on their teaching practicum in their penultimate year of the initial teacher education course. The country’s post-apartheid language in education policy provides a context to this study in that children move from mother tongue language of instruction in foundation phase to English as a language of instruction in Intermediate phase. There is another layer of context informing this study which is the school context; the student teachers’ reflections are from their teaching practicum in resource constrained schools, which make up more than 75% of schools in South Africa. The findings were that in these schools, deep biases existed to local languages, that language was being used as a proxy for social class, and that conditions necessary for language acquisition were absent. The student teachers’ attitudes were in contrast to those found in the schools, namely that they had various pragmatic approaches to overcoming obstacles and that they saw language as enabling interdisciplinary work. This study describes language issues, tensions created by policy in South African schools and also supplies a regional account of learning to teach in resource constrained schools in Cape Town, where such language tensions are more inflated. The central findings in this research illuminate attitudes to language and language education in these teaching practicum schools and the complexity of learning to be a language teacher in these contexts. This study is one of the few local empirical studies regarding language teaching in the classroom and language teacher education; as such it offers some background to the country’s poor performance in both international and national literacy assessments.

Keywords: language teaching, narrative, post apartheid, South Africa, student teacher

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7764 Teacher Education and Curriculum Innovation in Nigeria: Issues and Perspectives

Authors: Kenneth Uzochukwu Ezugwu

Abstract:

The quest for adequate teacher education is a serious task for the educational system in Nigeria because teachers are the major translators of education programmes in the classroom. The production of well trained teachers will enhance quality of the products of the school system. It is in this respect that the national policy on education posited that no educational system can rise above the quality of teachers. It is in the light of the above that this paper discusses and brought to the fore certain issues as the re-introduction of teacher training colleges, competitive entry requirement into teacher education and continuous on-the-job training as areas of needed innovation.

Keywords: curriculum innovation, issues, perspectives, teacher education

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7763 The Need for Educational Psychology in Teacher Education for Sustainable Transformation and Security in Nigeria

Authors: Kaltume Kabir Sharrif

Abstract:

Teacher education is the bedrock of educational growth and development of any nation. With development in education all human problems can be overcome. Educational Psychology, on the other hand, is in a strategic position for any programme in teacher education to be successful hence other aspects of societal issues. In other words, no teacher education can be of any help in ensuring transformation and security without adequate study in Educational Psychology. Without adequate knowledge and skills in Educational Psychology the teacher may not function effectively in the course of discharging his duty. It is in view of this, that the paper discusses some aspects of Educational Psychology that are of paramount importance in teacher education for sustainable transformation and security of Nigeria. Some recommendations were offered on the role educational psychology play in resolving security challenges facing the country. These include enriching educational psychology with topics from forensic psychology that will provide the teacher the skills of fighting crime in the school, Behavioural Science Unit should be established in each school to monitor the behavior of students, among others.

Keywords: transformation, security challenges, teacher education, educational psychology

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7762 A Study of Taiwanese Students' Language Use in the Primary International Education via Video Conferencing Course

Authors: Chialing Chang

Abstract:

Language and culture are critical foundations of international mobility. However, the students who are limited to the local environment may affect their learning outcome and global perspective. Video Conferencing has been proven an economical way for students as a medium to communicate with international students around the world. In Taiwan, the National Development Commission advocated the development of bilingual national policies in 2030 to enhance national competitiveness and foster English proficiency and fully launched bilingual activation of the education system. Globalization is closely related to the development of Taiwan's education. Therefore, the teacher conducted an integrated lesson through interdisciplinary learning. This study aims to investigate how the teacher helps develop students' global and language core competencies in the international education class. The methodology comprises four stages, which are lesson planning, class observation, learning data collection, and speech analysis. The Grice's Conversational Maxims are adopted to analyze the students' conversation in the video conferencing course. It is the action research from the teacher's reflection on approaches to developing students' language learning skills. The study lays the foundation for mastering the teacher's international education professional development and improving teachers' teaching quality and teaching effectiveness as a reference for teachers' future instruction.

Keywords: international education, language learning, Grice's conversational maxims, video conferencing course

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7761 Teacher Education: Exploring the Challenges of the Teaching Profession in Nigeria for Sustainable National Development

Authors: Ugabi John Ibak, Odey Boniface Ugbem

Abstract:

Education is considered the bedrock of any meaningful developments and teacher education plays a critical role in this direction. Teacher education is the master keys that can alleviate poverty, promote peace, conserve the environment, improve the quality of life for all and help achieve all round sustain enable development in Nigeria and the world over. This paper X-rays the nature and character of the teaching profession, historical background to teacher education in Nigeria, national policy on education, problems of teacher education in Nigeria and prospects of teacher education for sustainable national development. The study shows that the misfortunes of the teacher education owes much to it historical antecedent. Also majorly, is the failure of government to adequately fund education at the various levels in the country. It was discovered that in the history of the nation no government has budgeted 13% of its annual budget (half of 26% UNESCO minimum) to education. This has resulted to poor infrastructure, inadequate equipment and poorly motivated personnel in all the nations public schools at all levels. Hence, the paper concludes that in spite of these overwhelming challenges, teachers have a lot of prospects both in the teaching profession and outside teaching.

Keywords: teacher education, teaching profession, sustainable national development, education, development

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7760 Teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language Under Humanistic and Sociocultural Psychology

Authors: Mahrukh Baig

Abstract:

This research paper, sets out to draw some traditional english language teaching practices and to suggest ways for their improvement under the light of humanistic and socio-cultural psychology. This is going to aid language teachers by applying principled psychological methods on the field of education in order to introduce a reciprocal mode of teaching where teacher and learner begin with a mutual effort. However the teacher, after initiating most of the work, gradually passes on more and more responsibility to the learners resulting in their independent endeavors.

Keywords: English Language Teaching (ELT), Second Language Acquisition (SLA), teaching english as second/foreign language, humanistic psychology, socio-cultural psychology, application of psychology to language teaching

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7759 Literacy in First and Second Language: Implication for Language Education

Authors: Inuwa Danladi Bawa

Abstract:

One of the challenges of African states in the development of education in the past and the present is the problem of literacy. Literacy in the first language is seen as a strong base for the development of second language; they are mostly the language of education. Language development is an offshoot of language planning; so the need to develop literacy in both first and second language affects language education and predicts the extent of achievement of the entire education sector. The need to balance literacy acquisition in first language for good conditioning the acquisition of second language is paramount. Likely constraints that includes; non-standardization, underdeveloped and undeveloped first languages are among many. Solutions to some of these include the development of materials and use of the stages and levels of literacy acquisition. This is with believed that a child writes well in second language if he has literacy in the first language.

Keywords: first language, second language, literacy, english language, linguistics

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7758 21st Century Teacher Image to Stakeholders of Teacher Education Institutions in the Philippines

Authors: Marilyn U. Balagtas, Maria Ruth M. Regalado, Carmelina E. Barrera, Ramer V. Oxiño, Rosarito T. Suatengco, Josephine E. Tondo

Abstract:

This study presents the perceptions of the students and teachers from kindergarten to tertiary level of the image of the 21st century teacher to provide basis in designing teacher development programs in Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) in the Philippines. The highlights of the report are the personal, psychosocial, and professional images of the 21st century teacher in basic education and the teacher educators based on a survey done to 612 internal stakeholders of nine member institutions of the National Network of Normal Schools (3NS). Data were obtained through the use of a validated researcher-made instrument which allowed generation of both quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the teacher image. Through the use of descriptive statistics, the common images of the teacher were drawn, which were validated and enriched by the information drawn from the qualitative data. The study recommends a repertoire of teacher development programs to create the good image of the 21st century teachers for a better Philippines.

Keywords: teacher image, 21st century teacher, teacher education, development program

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7757 Connecting Lives Inside and Outside the Classroom: Why and How to Implement Technology in the Language Learning Classroom

Authors: Geoffrey Sinha

Abstract:

This paper is primarily addressed to teachers who stand on the threshold of bringing technology and new media into their classrooms. Technology and new media, such as smart phones and tablets have changed the face of communication in general and of language teaching more specifically. New media has widespread appeal among young people in particular, so it is in the teacher’s best interests to bring new media into their lessons. It is the author’s firm belief that technology will never replace the teacher, but it is without question that the twenty-first century teacher must employ technology and new media in some form, or run the risk of failure. The level that one chooses to incorporate new media within their class is entirely in their hands.

Keywords: new media, social media, technology, education, language learning

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7756 Teacher Education in a Bilingual Perspective: Brazilian Sign Language and Portuguese

Authors: Neuma Chaveiro, Juliana Guimarães Faria

Abstract:

Introduction: The thematic that guides this study is teacher training for the teaching of sign language in a perspective of bilingual education – specifically aimed at Brazilian public schools that offer inclusive education, and that have, among its students, deaf children who use Brazilian Sign Language as a means of communication and expression. In the Teacher Training Course for Letters/Libras at the Universidade Federal de Goiás/UFG, we developed a bilingual education project for the deaf, linked to PIBID (Institutional Scholarship for Teaching Initiation Program), funded by the Brazilian Federal Government through CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel). Goals: to provide the education of higher education teachers to work in public schools in basic education and to insert students from the UFG’s Letters/Libras course in the school’s daily life, giving them the opportunity for the creation and participation in methodological experiences and of teaching practices in order to overcome the problems identified in the teaching-learning process of deaf students, in a bilingual perspective, associating Libras (Brazilian Sign Language) and Portuguese. Methodology: qualitative approach and research-action, prioritizing action – reflection – action of the people involved. The Letters-Libras PIBID of the College of Letters/UFG, in this qualitative context, is guided by the assumptions of investigation-action to contribute to the education of the Libras teacher. Results: production of studies and researches in the area of education, professionalization and teaching practice for the degree holder in Letters: Libras; b) studies, research and training in bilingual education; c) clarification and discussion of the myths that permeate the reality of users of sign languages; d) involving students in the development of didactic materials for bilingual education. Conclusion: the PIBID Project Letters/Libras allows, both to the basic education school and to the teachers in training for the teaching of Libras, an integrated and collective work partnership, with discussions and changes in relation to bilingual education for the deaf and the teaching of Libras.

Keywords: deaf, sign language, teacher training, educacion

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7755 Effectiveness of a Traits Cooperative Learning on Developing Writing Achievement and Composition among Teacher Candidates

Authors: Abdelaziz Hussien

Abstract:

This article reports investigations of a study into the effectiveness of a traits cooperative learning (TCL) on teacher candidates’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach and small group learning. Mixed methodologies were used with the participants in a repeated measures quasi-experimental design. Forty-two class teacher candidates, enrolled in the Bahrain Teachers College, completed the pre and post author-developed measures. The results suggest that TCL has a positive effect on the participants’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach, but not on the attitudes towards small group learning. Further implications to teacher education are presented.

Keywords: trait-based language education, cooperative learning, writing achievement, writing composition, traits of writing, teacher education

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7754 Iranian Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Mehrnoush Tajnia, Simin Sadeghi-Saeb

Abstract:

Students and teachers have different perceptions of effectiveness of instruction. Comparing students’ and teachers’ beliefs and finding the mismatches between them can increase L2 students’ satisfaction. Few studies have taken into account the beliefs of both students and teachers on different aspects of pedagogy and the effect of learners’ level of education and contexts on effective foreign language teacher practices. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare students’ and teachers’ perceptions on effective foreign language teaching. A sample of 303 learners and 54 instructors from different private language institutes and universities participated in the study. A questionnaire was developed to elicit participants’ beliefs on effective foreign language teaching and learning. The analysis of the results revealed that: a) there is significant difference between the students’ beliefs about effective teacher practices and teachers’ belief, b) Class level influences students’ perception of effective foreign language teacher, d) There is a significant difference of opinion between those learners who study foreign languages at university and those who study foreign language in private institutes with respect to effective teacher practices. The present paper concludes that finding the gap between students’ and teachers’ beliefs would help both of the groups to enhance their learning and teaching.

Keywords: effective teacher, effective teaching, students’ beliefs, teachers’ beliefs

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7753 The Influence of Teacher’s Non-Verbal Communication on Ondo State Secondary School Students’ Learning Outcomes in English Language

Authors: Bola M. Tunde-Awe

Abstract:

The study investigated the influence of teacher’s non-verbal communication on secondary school students’ learning outcomes in English language. The study was a survey research. Participants were three hundred Senior Secondary School II students randomly selected from ten schools in Akoko South West Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire containing twenty items on a four-point Likert scale which measured teacher’s use of three types of non-verbal communication modes: body movement, eye contact and spatial distance. The data collected was analysed using simple percentage. Findings revealed that teacher’s use of these non-verbal communication modes enhanced learners’ learning outcomes in English language: a total of 271 (90.33%) participants affirmed that teacher’s body language influenced their learning of English; 224 (74.66%) maintained the same stand for eye contact; while 202 (67.33%) affirmed that teacher’s spatial distance had positive influence. Consequent upon these findings, it was recommended that teachers of English language should constantly utilize non-verbal communication in their instructional delivery. Also, non-verbal communication modes should be included in teacher education programme to equip prospective pre-service teachers with the art of non-verbal communication.

Keywords: non-verbal communication, body language, eye contact, spatial distance, learning outcomes

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7752 Using Computer Simulations to Prepare Teachers

Authors: Roberta Gentry

Abstract:

The presentation will begin with a brief literature review of the use of computer simulation in teacher education programs. This information will be summarized. Additionally, based on the literature review, advantages and disadvantages of using computer simulation in higher education will be shared. Finally, a study in which computer simulations software was used with 50 initial licensure teacher candidates in both an introductory course and a behavior management course will be shared. Candidates reflected on their experiences with using computer simulation. The instructor of the course will also share lessons learned.

Keywords: simulations, teacher education, teacher preparation, educational research

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7751 English Language Teachers' Perceptions of Educational Research

Authors: Pinar Sali, Esim Gursoy, Ebru Atak Damar

Abstract:

Teachers’ awareness of and involvement in educational research (ER) is regarded as an indispensable aspect of professional growth and development. It is also believed to be a catalyst for effective teaching and learning. This strong emphasis on the significance of teacher research engagement has sparked inquiry into how teachers construe ER and whether or not they practice it. However, there seems to exist a few researches on teachers’ perceptions of and experience with ER in the field of English Language Teaching (ELT). The present study thus attempts to fill this gap in the ELT literature and aims to unearth English language teachers’ perceptions of ER. Understanding these perceptions would undoubtedly aid in the development of strategies to promote teacher interest and involvement in research. The participants of the present study are 70 English language teachers in public and private schools in Turkey. A mixed-method approach has been used in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been gathered by means of a questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of the questionnaire consists of 20 close-ended items of Teachers’ Attitude Scale Towards Educational Research (TASTER). The second part of the questionnaire has been developed by the researchers via an extensive literature review and consists of a mixture of close- and open-ended questions. In addition, 15 language teachers have been interviewed for an in-depth understanding of the results. Descriptive statistics and dual comparisons have been employed for the quantitative data, and the qualitative data have been analyzed by means of content analysis. The present study provides intriguing information as to the English language teachers’ perceptions of the usefulness and practicality of ER as well as the value they attain to it. The findings are discussed in relation to language teacher education. The research has implications for the teacher education process, teacher trainers and policy makers.

Keywords: attitudes toward educational research, educational research, language teachers, teacher research

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7750 Disequilibrium between the Demand and Supply of Teachers of English at the Junior Secondary Schools in Gashua, Yobe State: Options for 2015 and Beyond

Authors: Clifford Irikefe Gbeyonron

Abstract:

The Nigerian educational system, which has English language as a major medium of instruction, has been designed in such a way that the cognitive, psychomotor and affective endowments of the Nigerian learner could be explored. However, the human resources that would impart the desired knowledge, skills and values in the learners seem to be in short supply. This paucity is more manifest in the area of teachers of English. As a result, this research was conducted on the demand and supply of teachers of English at the junior secondary schools in Gashua, Yobe State. The results indicate that there was dearth of teachers of English the domain under review. This thus presents a challenge that should propel English language teacher education industries to produce more teachers of English. As a result, this paper recommends that the teacher production process should make use of qualified and enthusiastic teacher trainers that would be able to inculcate in-depth linguistic and communicative competence of English language and English language teaching skills in the potential teachers of English. In addition, English language education service providers should attract and retain the trained teachers of English in the business of English language teaching in such a way that all the states of Nigeria could experience educational development.

Keywords: demand, supply, teachers of English, Yobe State

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7749 Teacher Professionalisation and Professionalism Discourses in Teacher Unions: A Case Study of New Zealand

Authors: Huidan Niu

Abstract:

Existing research has focused extensively on teachers’ professional experience in education reforms. However, there is a lack of research on the role and influence of teacher unions in education policy. This study aimed to examine how teacher unions frame teacher professionalisation and professionalism discourses. Critical education policy scholarship study was adopted. This study positioned teacher professionalisation and professionalism discourses within their socio-political contexts to explore how the meanings of teacher professionalisation and professionalism are constructed, as well as how teacher unions, as collective actors, shape these discourses. This study examined the development of professionalisation and professionalism discourses in the two main teacher unions in Aotearoa, New Zealand, the New Zealand Educational Institute, TeRiuRoa (NZEI), and the New Zealand Post-Primary Teachers’ Association, TeWehengarua (PPTA). The data were collected from documents and archival material, as well as elite interviews. Twenty-four union leaders, including national presidents, secretaries, executives, and senior union officials, participated in the study. The data analysis followed a grounded theory method: from codes to themes. The findings of the study suggest that the teacher unions, as teachers’ collective (powerful) voices, appeared to highlight tension and confrontation between the teaching profession and governments with respect to the meanings of teacher professionalisation and professionalism.

Keywords: critical education policy scholarship, governments, teacher professionalisation, teacher professionalism, teacher unions

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7748 A Case Study: Teachers Education Program in a Global Context

Authors: In Hoi Lee, Seong Baeg Kim, Je Eung Jeon, Gwang Yong Choi, Joo Sub Lee, Ik Sang Kim

Abstract:

Recently, the interest of globalization in the field of teacher education has increased. In the U.S., the government is trying to enhance the quality of education through a global approach in education. To do so, the schools in the U.S. are recruiting teachers with global capability from countries like Korea where competent teachers are being trained. Meanwhile, in the case of Korea, although excellent teachers have been cultivated every year, due to a low birth rate it is not easy to become a domestic teacher. To solve the trouble that the two countries are facing, the study first examines the demand and necessity of globalization in the field of teacher education between Korea and the U.S. Second, we propose a new project, called the ‘Global Teachers University (GTU)’ program to satisfy the demands of both countries. Finally, we provide its implications to build the future educational cooperation for teacher training in a global context.

Keywords: educational cooperation, globalization, teachers education program, teacher training institutions

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7747 Contemporary Issues in Teacher Education in Nigeria

Authors: Salisu Abdu Bagga

Abstract:

This paper attempts to discuss contemporary issues in teacher education and address challenges therein within the context of the Nigeria society. Teacher education is an educational programme aimed at producing the right crop of people (teachers) who will teach at various levels of schooling i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary. The programme targets to inculcate desirable knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and competencies in teachers with the prime motive of keeping them fully abreast with contemporary challenges such as overcrowded classrooms, inadequate instructional materials, ineffective teaching methodology in the teaching industry in Nigeria. Nigeria needs competent, skilful, knowledgeable and innovative classroom teachers for better teaching and learning.

Keywords: teacher education, contemporary issues, competencies, higher education

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7746 The Effects of the Inference Process in Reading Texts in Arabic

Authors: May George

Abstract:

Inference plays an important role in the learning process and it can lead to a rapid acquisition of a second language. When learning a non-native language, i.e., a critical language like Arabic, the students depend on the teacher’s support most of the time to learn new concepts. The students focus on memorizing the new vocabulary and stress on learning all the grammatical rules. Hence, the students became mechanical and cannot produce the language easily. As a result, they are unable to predict the meaning of words in the context by relying heavily on the teacher, in that they cannot link their prior knowledge or even identify the meaning of the words without the support of the teacher. This study explores how the teacher guides students learning during the inference process and what are the processes of learning that can direct student’s inference.

Keywords: inference, reading, Arabic, language acquisition

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7745 Analyzing Inclusion Attempts: Simultaneous Performance of Two Teachers at the Same Classroom

Authors: Mara A. C. Lopes

Abstract:

Hiring a second teacher to accompany deaf students inserted at Brazilian inclusive school system has raised questions about its role in the educational process of deaf students. Federal policies determine that deaf students inserted in regular education are accompanied by sign language interpreters, which leads to the understanding that the second teacher should assume this function. However, what those professionals do is to assume the function of teaching deaf student, instead of the classroom main teacher. Historical-Cultural Psychology was used as a reference for analysis, which aimed to identify the social function of the second teacher in the classroom. Two studies were accomplished in the public schools of Sao Paulo State: In Study 1, videotaped lectures provided by the Department of Education for collective reflection about the second teacher's role were examined, to identify the social meaning of that professional activity. Study 2 aimed to analyze the process of assigning personal sense to the teacher activity, considering the opinions of 21 professionals from Sao Paulo. Those teachers were interviewed individually with the support of a semi-structured interview. The analysis method utilized was: empirical description of data; development of categories, for reality abstraction; identifying the unit analysis; and return to reality, in order to explain it. Study 1 showed that the social meaning of the second teacher's activity is, also, to teach. However, Study 2 showed that this meaning is not shared among professionals of the school, so they understand that they must act as sign language interpreters. That comprehension causes a disruption between social meaning and the personal sense they attach to their activity. It also shows the need of both teachers at the classroom planning and executing activity together. On the contrary, a relationship of subordination of one teacher to another was identified, excluding the second teacher and the deaf student of the main activity. Results indicate that the second teacher, as a teacher, must take the responsibility for deaf student education, consciously, and to promote the full development of the subjects involved.

Keywords: deaf education, historical-cultural psychology, inclusion, teacher function

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7744 Models and Metamodels for Computer-Assisted Natural Language Grammar Learning

Authors: Evgeny Pyshkin, Maxim Mozgovoy, Vladislav Volkov

Abstract:

The paper follows a discourse on computer-assisted language learning. We examine problems of foreign language teaching and learning and introduce a metamodel that can be used to define learning models of language grammar structures in order to support teacher/student interaction. Special attention is paid to the concept of a virtual language lab. Our approach to language education assumes to encourage learners to experiment with a language and to learn by discovering patterns of grammatically correct structures created and managed by a language expert.

Keywords: computer-assisted instruction, language learning, natural language grammar models, HCI

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