Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: Hashem Nikoo Maram

49 The Effect of Environmental Consciousness on Firm Performance

Authors: Hossein Emari, Hossein Vazifehdoust, Hashem Nikoo Maram

Abstract:

This study aims to develop an original framework of Environmental Consciousness (EC) to explore the positive effect of environmental consciousness on financial performance through the partial mediator - green intellectual capital. A questionnaire survey on the environmental consciousness, intellectual capital, and financial performance of Iran’s manufacturing firms was conducted, and 324 samples were analyzed. This study utilizes structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect influences of EC on financial performance. Research results reveal that environmental consciousness had an indirect impact on financial performance through investment in green intellectual capital. It was thus known that green intellectual capital is a mediator of the relationship between environmental consciousness and financial performance. This paper may serve as a reference for firms mapping out future environmental policies and provide an input of various perspectives and arguments into the discipline of green management.

Keywords: environmental consciousness, social responsibility, green intellectual capital, financial performance

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48 Sociophonetic Conditioning of F0 Range Compression in Diasporic Nepali Communities

Authors: Neelam Chhetry, Indranil Dutta

Abstract:

The present study accounts for the fundamental frequency (f0) perturbations of stop types in Nepali spoken in the Maram region of Manipur, India. Two different experiments were performed on the speech of the native speakers of Nepali in order to investigate if the f0 perturbation following the stop types would be affected due to contact with tonal language, Maram. We found that the Nepali speakers maintained four way stop contrast: voiceless stop (VS), voiceless aspirated stop (VLAS), voiced stop (VS) and voiced aspirated stop (VAS) despite being in contact with Maramfor a very long time. We also found that the F0 range was greater for VAS leading to F0 compression for speakers with high level of proficiency (LOP) in Maram due to extensive language contact.

Keywords: F0, sociophonetic, F0 range, sociophonetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
47 A Method for solving Legendre's Conjecture

Authors: Hashem Sazegar

Abstract:

Legendre’s conjecture states that there is a prime number between n^2 and (n + 1)^2 for every positive integer n. In this paper we prove that every composite number between n2 and (n + 1)2 can be written u^2 − v^2 or u^2 − v^2 + u − v that u > 0 and v ≥ 0. Using these result as well as induction and residues (modq) we prove Legendre’s conjecture.

Keywords: bertrand-chebyshev theorem, landau’s problems, goldbach’s conjecture, twin prime, ramanujan proof

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46 A Practical Technique of Airless Tyres’ Mold Manufacturing

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Mohamed A. Hashem

Abstract:

Dissimilar to pneumatic tyres, airless tyres or flat-proof tyres (also known as tweel) is designed to have poly-composite compound treaded around a hub of flexible spokes. The main advantage of this design is its robustness as airless tyres are impossible to deflate or to blowout at highway speeds like conventional tyres so the driver does not have to be restless about having a spare tire. A summary of the study on manufacturing of airless tyres’ mold is given. Moreover, we have proposed some advantages and disadvantages of using tweel tyres.

Keywords: airless tyres, tweel, non-pneumatic tyres, manufacturing

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45 The Functions of “Question” and Its Role in Education Process: Quranic Approach

Authors: Sara Tusian, Zahra Salehi Motaahed, Narges Sajjadie, Nikoo Dialame

Abstract:

One of the methods which have frequently been used in Quran is the “question”. In the Quran, in addition to the content, methods are also important. Using analysis-interpretation method, the present study has investigated Quranic questions, and extracted its functions from educational perspective. In so doing, it has first investigated all the questions in Quran and then taking the three-stage classification of education into account, it has offered question functions. The results obtained from this study suggest that question functions in Quran are presented in three categories: the preparation stage (including preparation of the audience, revising the insights, and internal Evolution); main body (including the granting the insight, and elimination of intellectual negligence and the question of innate and logical axioms, the introducting of the realm of thinking, creating emotional arousal and alleged in the claim) and the third stage as modification and revision (including invitation to move in the framework of tasks using the individual beliefs to reveal the contradictions and, Error detection and contribution to change the function) that each of which has a special role in the education process.

Keywords: education, question, Quranic questions, Quran

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44 Static Relaxation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Pipes

Authors: Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Mohamed K. Hassan, A. F. Mohamed, Shadi M. Munshi, A. M. Hashem

Abstract:

Pips made from glass fiber reinforced polymer has competitive role in petroleum industry. The need of evaluating the mechanical behavior of (GRP) pipes is essential objects. Stress relaxation illustrates how polymers relieve stress under constant strain. Static relaxation test is carried out at room temperature. The material gives poor static relaxation strength, two loading cycles have been observed for the tested specimen.

Keywords: GRP, sandwich composite material, static relaxation, stress relief

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43 Comparison between Torsional Ultrasonic Assisted Drilling and Conventional Drilling of Bone: An in vitro Study

Authors: Nikoo Soleimani

Abstract:

Background: Reducing torque during bone drilling is one of the effective factors in reaching to an optimal drilling process. Methods: 15 bovine femurs were drilled in vitro with a drill bit with a diameter of 4 mm using two methods of torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling (T-UAD) and convent conventional drilling (CD) and the effects of changing the feed rate and rotational speed on the torque were compared in both methods. Results: There was no significant difference in the thrust force measured in both methods due to the direction of vibrations. Results showed that using T-UAD method for bone drilling at feed rates of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.32 mm/rev led for all rotational speeds to a decrease of at least 16.3% in torque compared to the CD method. Further, using T-UAD at rotational speeds of 355~1000 rpm with various feed rates resulted in a torque reduction of 16.3~50.5% compared to CD method. Conclusions: Reducing the feed rate and increasing the rotational speed, except for the rotational speed of 500 rpm and a feed rate of 0.32 mm/rev, resulted generally in torque reduction in both methods. However, T-UAD is a more effective and desirable option for bone drilling considering its significant torque reduction.

Keywords: torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling, torque, bone drilling, rotational speed, feed rate

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42 The Level of Job Satisfaction among English as a Foreign Language Instructors

Authors: Hashem A. Alsamadani

Abstract:

Identifying the level of job satisfaction has many positive benefits for both the worker and employer. The purpose of the study was to examine the overall level of job satisfaction among English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instructors. During the past years, multiple methods were utilized to collect data to determine the level of job satisfaction among teachers. This study was conducted using survey research method. A questionnaire was coded and analyzed using the SPSS. The findings revealed that the overall level of job satisfaction among EFL instructors is high. The study recommended improving conditions of instructors working at public universities so as to gain a high level of job satisfaction and improve outcomes of the teaching-learning process.

Keywords: job satisfaction, EFL teachers, Saudi Arabia, instruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
41 Numerical Study on the Hazards of Gravitational Forces on Cerebral Aneurysms

Authors: Hashem M. Alargha, Mohammad O. Hamdan, Waseem H. Aziz

Abstract:

Aerobatic and military pilots are subjected to high gravitational forces that could cause blackout, physical injuries or death. A CFD simulation using fluid-solid interactions scheme has been conducted to investigate the gravitational effects and hazards inside cerebral aneurysms. Medical data have been used to derive the size and geometry of a simple aneurysm on a T-shaped bifurcation. The results show that gravitational force has no effect on maximum Wall Shear Stress (WSS); hence, it will not cause aneurysm initiation/formation. However, gravitational force cause causes hypertension which could contribute to aneurysm rupture.

Keywords: aneurysm, cfd, wall shear stress, gravity, fluid dynamics, bifurcation artery

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40 The Impact of Gamification on Self-Assessment for English Language Learners in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Wala A. Bagunaid, Maram Meccawy, Arwa Allinjawi, Zilal Meccawy

Abstract:

Continuous self-assessment becomes crucial in self-paced online learning environments. Students often depend on themselves to assess their progress; which is considered an essential requirement for any successful learning process. Today’s education institutions face major problems around student motivation and engagement. Thus, personalized e-learning systems aim to help and guide the students. Gamification provides an opportunity to help students for self-assessment and social comparison with other students through attempting to harness the motivational power of games and apply it to the learning environment. Furthermore, Open Social Student Modeling (OSSM) as considered as the latest user modeling technologies is believed to improve students’ self-assessment and to allow them to social comparison with other students. This research integrates OSSM approach and gamification concepts in order to provide self-assessment for English language learners at King Abdulaziz University (KAU). This is achieved through an interactive visual representation of their learning progress.

Keywords: e-learning system, gamification, motivation, social comparison, visualization

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39 The Impact of Plants on Relaxation of Patients in Hospitals, Case Study: District 6th, Tehran

Authors: Hashem Hashemnejad, Abbas Yazdanfar, Mahzad Mohandes Tarighi, Denial Sadighi

Abstract:

One of the factors that can have a positive influence on the mental health is the presence of trees and flowers. Research shows that even a glance at nature can evoke positive feelings in the person and reduce his tension and stress. According to the historical, cultural, religious, and individual background in each geographical district, the relaxing or spiritual impact of certain kinds of flowers can be evaluated. In this paper, using a questionnaire, the amount of relaxing impact of prevalent trees and flowers of the district on the patients was examined. The results showed that cedar and pomegranate trees and jasmine and rose in flowers, respectively, relax the patients.

Keywords: plants, patients, mental health, relaxing

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38 Data Mining As A Tool For Knowledge Management: A Review

Authors: Maram Saleh

Abstract:

Knowledge has become an essential resource in today’s economy and become the most important asset of maintaining competition advantage in organizations. The importance of knowledge has made organizations to manage their knowledge assets and resources through all multiple knowledge management stages such as: Knowledge Creation, knowledge storage, knowledge sharing and knowledge use. Researches on data mining are continues growing over recent years on both business and educational fields. Data mining is one of the most important steps of the knowledge discovery in databases process aiming to extract implicit, unknown but useful knowledge and it is considered as significant subfield in knowledge management. Data miming have the great potential to help organizations to focus on extracting the most important information on their data warehouses. Data mining tools and techniques can predict future trends and behaviors, allowing businesses to make proactive, knowledge-driven decisions. This review paper explores the applications of data mining techniques in supporting knowledge management process as an effective knowledge discovery technique. In this paper, we identify the relationship between data mining and knowledge management, and then focus on introducing some application of date mining techniques in knowledge management for some real life domains.

Keywords: Data Mining, Knowledge management, Knowledge discovery, Knowledge creation.

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37 Desert Houses of the Past: Green Buildings of Today

Authors: Baharak Shakeri, Seyed Hashem Hosseini

Abstract:

The weather in deserts is hot and dry in summers, and cold and dry in winters, and difference of temperature of nights and days sometimes reaches to 28°C. People of deserts have reached some solutions to cope with this climatic condition and to decrease its annoying features. Among these solutions are: constructing houses adjacent to each other, making tall walls, using mud brick and thatch cover, constructing domical arches, cellar, and wind catcher, which are together the devices to control the adversity of hot weather in summers and cold weather in winters. Using these solutions, the people of deserts have succeeded to make the best use with the least energy consumption, and to minimize the damage on the nature and environment, and in short, they are friends of the nature, which is a step toward the objectives of green buildings.

Keywords: desert house, green building, Iran, nature

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36 Short Text Classification for Saudi Tweets

Authors: Asma A. Alsufyani, Maram A. Alharthi, Maha J. Althobaiti, Manal S. Alharthi, Huda Rizq

Abstract:

Twitter is one of the most popular microblogging sites that allows users to publish short text messages called 'tweets'. Increasing the number of accounts to follow (followings) increases the number of tweets that will be displayed from different topics in an unclassified manner in the timeline of the user. Therefore, it can be a vital solution for many Twitter users to have their tweets in a timeline classified into general categories to save the user’s time and to provide easy and quick access to tweets based on topics. In this paper, we developed a classifier for timeline tweets trained on a dataset consisting of 3600 tweets in total, which were collected from Saudi Twitter and annotated manually. We experimented with the well-known Bag-of-Words approach to text classification, and we used support vector machines (SVM) in the training process. The trained classifier performed well on a test dataset, with an average F1-measure equal to 92.3%. The classifier has been integrated into an application, which practically proved the classifier’s ability to classify timeline tweets of the user.

Keywords: corpus creation, feature extraction, machine learning, short text classification, social media, support vector machine, Twitter

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35 Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of the Effects of Mechanical Forces in Cerebral Aneurysms

Authors: Hashem Al Argha

Abstract:

Cerebral Aneurysms are the ballooning and defect that occurs in the arteries of the brain. This ballooning might enlarge in size due to mechanical forces and could lead to rupture and death. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used in the recent years in creating a link between engineering sciences and medical sciences. In this paper, the effects of mechanical forces on cerebral aneurysms will be studied. Results of this study show that mechanical forces could lead to rupture of the aneurysm and could lead to death. High mechanical forces including stresses up to 1.7 MPa could pop aneurysms and lead to a brain hemorrhage.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical, aneurysm, mechanical forces

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34 Myths of Thangal Origin from an Anthropological Perspective

Authors: Monoranjan Maibam, Arundhati Maibam, Bojen Akoijam

Abstract:

Myths may be understood as a special kind of literature though not found in written form. Through myths, anthropologists make attempts to describe a world which members of a literate society can barely imagine. Mythical stories about origin of numerous ethnic and tribal communities have helped in tracing their route of migration and the long journey undertaken before arriving at their present places of settlement. This study intends to highlight the myths associated with the origin of the Thangal tribe of Manipur from an anthropological perspective and interpret the stories in the context of evolution, migration and relationship with other neighbouring groups. Fieldwork was conducted using an interview guide to collect primary data and published literatures were consulted for secondary data. The result show two popular versions of origin myths are found among the Thangal- first is origin from a cave at Makhel located in the Maram area and second is the belief that the Thangal, the Tangkhul and the Meitei are brothers who emerged out of a cave long ago. In conclusion, the origin myths of the Thangal may be confirmed and established through archaeological findings in the form of artefacts. Mention of erection of memorial stones in the second version is a good clue to start an archaeological survey of the sites which are believed to have been once occupied by the people.

Keywords: anthropology, migration, myth, Thangal

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33 Combined Aerobic-Resistance Exercise Training and Broccoli Supplementation on Plasma Decitin-1 and Insulin Resistance in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Mohammad Soltani, Ayoub Saeidi, Nikoo Khosravi, Hanieh Nohbaradar, Seyedeh Parya Barzanjeh, Hassane Zouhal

Abstract:

Exercise training and herbs supplement represent have role in the treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is unclear combined effects of exercise training and herbs supplements on diabetic risk markers. This study aimed to determine the effect of 12 weeks of combined exercise and broccoli supplementation on decitin-1 and insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes. Forty-four type 2 diabetes men (age, 48.52 ± 4.36) were randomly allocated to training -supplement (TS, n = 11), training- placebo (TP, n = 11), supplement (S, n = 11) and control- placebo (CP, n = 11) groups. The combined exercise program included 12 weeks, three sessions per week, that each session contained 45 minutes of resistance training with intensity 60-70% of one maximal repetition and 30 minutes aerobic training (running) with intensity 60-70% of maximum heart rate. In addition supplement groups consumed 10 grams of Broccoli per day for 12 weeks. Plasma Decitin-1, HOMA-IR, Insulin, glucose and body composition were assessed before and after training. Plasma Dectin-1, HOMA-IR, glucose and BMI significantly decreased in TS, TP and S groups compared with CP group (P < .05). In addition Insulin and skeletal muscles mass showed significant increase in TS and TP groups compared with S and CP groups (P < .05). It is concluded that both combined exercise training (aerobic-resistance) or broccoli supplement can improve plasma Decitin-1 and insulin resistance in two diabetic patients however combine of exercise training and broccoli supplement have more effective on these markers.

Keywords: broccoli supplements, combined training, decitin-1, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
32 CFD Analysis of the Blood Flow in Left Coronary Bifurcation with Variable Angulation

Authors: Midiya Khademi, Ali Nikoo, Shabnam Rahimnezhad Baghche Jooghi

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of death globally. Most CVDs can be prevented by avoiding habitual risk factors. Separate from the habitual risk factors, there are some inherent factors in each individual that can increase the risk potential of CVDs. Vessel shapes and geometry are influential factors, having great impact on the blood flow and the hemodynamic behavior of the vessels. In the present study, the influence of bifurcation angle on blood flow characteristics is studied. In order to approach this topic, by simplifying the details of the bifurcation, three models with angles 30°, 45°, and 60° were created, then by using CFD analysis, the response of these models for stable flow and pulsatile flow was studied. In the conducted simulation in order to eliminate the influence of other geometrical factors, only the angle of the bifurcation was changed and other parameters remained constant during the research. Simulations are conducted under dynamic and stable condition. In the stable flow simulation, a steady velocity of 0.17 m/s at the inlet plug was maintained and in dynamic simulations, a typical LAD flow waveform is implemented. The results show that the bifurcation angle has an influence on the maximum speed of the flow. In the stable flow condition, increasing the angle lead to decrease the maximum flow velocity. In the dynamic flow simulations, increasing the bifurcation angle lead to an increase in the maximum velocity. Since blood flow has pulsatile characteristics, using a uniform velocity during the simulations can lead to a discrepancy between the actual results and the calculated results.

Keywords: coronary artery, cardiovascular disease, bifurcation, atherosclerosis, CFD, artery wall shear stress

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31 Determinants of Successful Accounting Information System Outsourcing for the Egyptian Small and Medium Enterprises: An Empirical Study

Authors: Maram Elkady

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Purpose: The purpose behind this study is to determine the impact of some factors on achieving successful accounting information systems (AIS) outsourcing in Egypt, taking into account two factors: the selection of an effective accounting service provider and the quality relationships between the client firm and the accounting service provider. The researcher measured outsourcing success through the perceived benefits, including (strategic, technological, and economic benefits). Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey was carried out by means of questionnaires answered by 152 small and medium Egyptian firms outsourcing their accounting activities. The researcher targeted the personnel in the client firms who were in direct contact with the accounting outsourcer. The hypotheses were tested through multiple regression analysis using SPSS 24 and AMOS 22. Findings: Building a quality relationship with the provider is found to have more impact than the effective selection of the AIS provider on the success of the AIS outsourcing process. Originality/Value: The researcher found that some proxies of each success determinant can be more influential than others based on type of benefits perceived from AIS outsourcing (strategic, technological, and economic).

Keywords: accounting information system, AIS, outsourcing, successful outsourcing, AIS service provider selection, relationship with the accounting service provider

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30 A Goal-Driven Crime Scripting Framework

Authors: Hashem Dehghanniri

Abstract:

Crime scripting is a simple and effective crime modeling technique that aims to improve understanding of security analysts about security and crime incidents. Low-quality scripts provide a wrong, incomplete, or sophisticated understanding of the crime commission process, which oppose the purpose of their application, e.g., identifying effective and cost-efficient situational crime prevention (SCP) measures. One important and overlooked factor in generating quality scripts is the crime scripting method. This study investigates the problems within the existing crime scripting practices and proposes a crime scripting approach that contributes to generating quality crime scripts. It was validated by experienced crime scripters. This framework helps analysts develop better crime scripts and contributes to their effective application, e.g., SCP measures identification or policy-making.

Keywords: attack modelling, crime commission process, crime script, situational crime prevention

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29 Performance of Stiffened Slender Built up Steel I-Columns

Authors: M. E. Abou-Hashem El Dib, M. K. Swailem, M. M. Metwally, A. I. El Awady

Abstract:

The present work illustrates a parametric study for the effect of stiffeners on the performance of slender built up steel I-columns. To achieve the desired analysis, finite element technique is used to develop nonlinear three-dimensional models representing the investigated columns. The finite element program (ANSYS 13.0) is used as a calculation tool for the necessary nonlinear analysis. A validation of the obtained numerical results is achieved. The considered parameters in the study are the column slenderness ratio and the horizontal stiffener's dimensions as well as the number of stiffeners. The dimensions of the stiffeners considered in the analysis are the stiffener width and the stiffener thickness. Numerical results signify a considerable effect of stiffeners on the performance and failure load of slender built up steel I-columns.

Keywords: columns, local buckling, slender, stiffener, thin walled section

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28 Effect of Stiffeners on the Behavior of Slender Built up Steel I-Beams

Authors: M. E. Abou-Hashem El Dib, M. K. Swailem, M. M. Metwally, A. I. El Awady

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of stiffeners on the behavior of slender steel I-beams. Nonlinear three dimensional finite element models are developed to represent the stiffened steel I-beams. The well established finite element (ANSYS 13.0) program is used to simulate the geometric and material nonlinear nature of the problem. Verification is achieved by comparing the obtained numerical results with the results of previous published experimental work. The parameters considered in the analysis are the horizontal stiffener's position and the horizontal stiffener's dimensions as well as the number of vertical stiffeners. The studied dimensions of the horizontal stiffeners include the stiffener width, the stiffener thickness and the stiffener length. The results of the achieved numerical parametric study for slender steel I-beams show the significant effect of stiffeners on the beam behavior and its failure load.

Keywords: beams, local buckling, slender, stiffener, thin walled section

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27 A Proof for Goldbach's Conjecture

Authors: Hashem Sazegar

Abstract:

In 1937, Vinograd of Russian Mathematician proved that each odd large number can be shown by three primes. In 1973, Chen Jingrun proved that each odd number can be shown by one prime plus a number that has maximum two primes. In this article, we state one proof for Goldbach’conjecture. Introduction: Bertrand’s postulate state for every positive integer n, there is always at least one prime p, such that n < p < 2n. This was first proved by Chebyshev in 1850, which is why postulate is also called the Bertrand-Chebyshev theorem. Legendre’s conjecture states that there is a prime between n2 and (n+1)2 for every positive integer n, which is one of the four Landau’s problems. The rest of these four basic problems are; (i) Twin prime conjecture: There are infinitely many primes p such that p+2 is a prime. (ii) Goldbach’s conjecture: Every even integer n > 2 can be written asthe sum of two primes. (iii) Are there infinitely many primes p such that p−1 is a perfect square? Problems (i), (ii), and (iii) are open till date.

Keywords: Bertrand-Chebyshev theorem, Landau’s problems, twin prime, Legendre’s conjecture, Oppermann’s conjecture

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26 Reservoir Properties Effect on Estimating Initial Gas in Place Using Flowing Material Balance Method

Authors: Yousef S. Kh. S. Hashem

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Accurate estimation of initial gas in place (IGIP) plays an important factor in the decision to develop a gas field. One of the methods that are available in the industry to estimate the IGIP is material balance. This method required that the well has to be shut-in while pressure is measured as it builds to average reservoir pressure. Since gas demand is high and shut-in well surveys are very expensive, flowing gas material balance (FGMB) is sometimes used instead of material balance. This work investigated the effect of reservoir properties (pressure, permeability, and reservoir size) on the estimation of IGIP when using FGMB. A gas reservoir simulator that accounts for friction loss, wellbore storage, and the non-Darcy effect was used to simulate 165 different possible causes (3 pressures, 5 reservoir sizes, and 11 permeabilities). Both tubing pressure and bottom-hole pressure were analyzed using FGMB. The results showed that the FGMB method is very sensitive for tied reservoirs (k < 10). Also, it showed which method is best to be used for different reservoir properties. This study can be used as a guideline for the application of the FGMB method.

Keywords: flowing material balance, gas reservoir, reserves, gas simulator

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25 A Scientific Umbrella for Industrial Design Disciplines

Authors: Hassan S. Naeini, Hashem Mosaddad

Abstract:

Industrial design as a multidisciplinary science has a vast field in which some different aspects are involved. In this regard, aspects of art, technology and engineering, social and economics are known as the main related fields. Also, state of the art scientific areas and also art based files have been making the new conditions for industrial design discipline. Furthermore, there are some new approaches and branches of industrial design. However, there is not any categorized style for these industrial design sub-groups. Undoubtedly, if there is an appropriate chart for the main industrial design approaches and branches, the related groups such as industrial designers, manufacturers, and industrial design students will have practical ideas to categorize their activities. In this case study, we developed a scientific umbrella for industrial design in which most of current approaches and branches and related association are introduced. For data gathering, some interviews were done among volunteer industrial design lecturers who are teaching at some well-known universities in Iran. Also, according to the inventory of industrial design, theses which are in university libraries, thesis approaches, and titles were assessed. Based on gathered data, we introduced a scientific umbrella for industrial design in which most of related branches and approaches are categorized. In this umbrella, the hierarchy of related branches is highlighted as well.

Keywords: industrial design, art, industrial design approaches, scientific umbrella

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24 Studying in Private Muslim Schools in Australia: Implications for Identity, Religiosity, and Adjustment

Authors: Hisham Motkal Abu-Rayya, Maram Hussein Abu-Rayya

Abstract:

Education in religious private schools raises questions regarding identity, belonging and adaptation in multicultural Australia. This research project aimed at examined cultural identification styles among Australian adolescent Muslims studying in Muslim schools, adolescents’ religiosity and the interconnections between cultural identification styles, religiosity, and adaptation. Two Muslim high school samples were recruited for the purposes of this study, one from Muslim schools in metropolitan Sydney and one from Muslim schools in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants filled in a survey measuring themes of the current study. Findings revealed that the majority of Australian adolescent Muslims showed a preference for the integration identification style (55.2%); separation was less prevailing (26.9%), followed by assimilation (9.7%) and marginalisation (8.3%). Supporting evidence suggests that the styles of identification were valid representation of the participants’ identification. A series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that while adolescents’ preference for integration of their cultural and Australian identities was advantageous for a range of their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation measures, marginalisation was consistently the worst. Further hierarchical regression analyses showed that adolescent Muslims’ religiosity was better for a range of their adaptation measures compared to their preference for an integration acculturation style. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords: adaptation, identity, multiculturalism, religious school education

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23 Nutritional Composition of Iranian Desi and Kabuli Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars in Autumn Sowing

Authors: Khosro Mohammadi

Abstract:

The grain quality of chickpea in Iran is low and instable, which may be attributed to the evolution of cultivars with a narrow genetic base making them vulnerable to biotic stresses. Four chickpea varieties from diverse geographic origins were chosen and arranged in a randomized complete block design. Mesorhizobium Sp. cicer strain SW7 was added to all the chickpea seeds. Chickpea seeds were planted on October 9, 2013. Each genotype was sown 5 m in length, with 35 cm inter-row spacing, in 3 rows. Weeds were removed manually in all plots. Results showed that analysis of variance on the studied traits showed significant differences among genotypes for N, P, K and Fe contents of chickpea, but there is not a significant difference among Ca, Zn and Mg continents of chickpea. The experimental coefficient of variation (CV) varied from 7.3 to 15.8. In general, the CV value lower than 20% is considered to be good, indicating the accuracy of conducted experiments. The highest grain N was observed in Hashem and Jam cultivars. The highest grain P was observed in Jam cultivar. Phosphorus content (mg/100g) ranged from 142.3 to 302.3 with a mean value of 221.3. The negative correlation (-0.126) was observed between the N and P of chickpea cultivars. The highest K and Fe contents were observed in Jam cultivar.

Keywords: cultivar, genotype, nitrogen, nutrient, yield

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22 Finite Element Simulation of Embankment Bumps at Bridge Approaches, Comparison Study

Authors: F. A. Hassona, M. D. Hashem, R. I. Melek, B. M. Hakeem

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A differential settlement at the end of a bridge near the interface between the abutment and the embankment is a persistent problem for highway agencies. The differential settlement produces the common ‘bump at the end of the bridge’. Reduction in steering response, distraction to the driver, added risk and expense to maintenance operation, and reduction in a transportation agency’s public image are all undesirable effects of these uneven and irregular transitions. This paper attempts to simulate the bump at the end of the bridge using PLAXIS finite element 2D program. PLAXIS was used to simulate a laboratory model called Bridge to Embankment Simulator of Transition (B.E.S.T.) device which was built by others to investigate this problem. A total of six numerical simulations were conducted using hardening- soil model with rational assumptions of missing soil parameters to estimate the bump at the end of the bridge. The results show good agreements between the numerical and the laboratory models. Important factors influencing bumps at bridge ends were also addressed in light of the model results.

Keywords: bridge approach slabs, bridge bump, hardening-soil, PLAXIS 2D, settlement

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21 Behavioral Intentions and Cognitive-Affective Effects of Exposure to YouTube Advertisements among College Students

Authors: Abd El-Basit Ahmed Hashem Mahmoud, Othman Fekry Abdelbaki

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This study attempts to investigate the exposure to YouTube ads among Egyptian college students, their attitudes towards these ads, behavioral intentions to watch them, and the effects of this exposure and to examine the relationships among these variables as well. The current study is theoretically guided by the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and cognitive-affective behavioral model (CAB) through a questionnaire survey administered to a convenience sample of 390 college students who watch YouTube videos from Cairo University, Egypt from February to May 2019. The results showed that 98.7% of respondents exposed to YouTube ads, and both of their attitudes towards YouTube ads exposure and their intentions to this exposure were moderately positive. The findings also indicated that respondents' gender had a significant impact on their intention to expose these ads. One-way ANOVA indicated that their attitudes towards exposure to YouTube ads influenced their behavioral intentions to watch these ads, and it also demonstrated that their behavioral intentions to watch these ads had an impact on the exposure to such ads. Pearson correlation revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between respondents' attitudes towards YouTube ads exposure and the cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects of this exposure.

Keywords: attitudes, behavioral intentions, theory of reasoned action, YouTube ads

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20 Different Methods Anthocyanins Extracted from Saffron

Authors: Hashem Barati, Afshin Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

The flowers of saffron contain anthocyanins. Generally, extraction of anthocyanins takes place at low temperatures (below 30 °C), preferably under vacuum (to minimize degradation) and in an acidic environment. In order to extract anthocyanins, the dried petals were added to 30 ml of acidic ethanol (pH=2). Amount of petals, extraction time, temperature, and ethanol percentage which were selected. Total anthocyanin content was a function of both variables of ethanol percent and extraction time.To prepare SW with pH of 3.5, different concentrations of 100, 400, 700, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm of sodium metabisulfite were added to aqueous sodium citrate. At this selected concentration, different extraction times of 20, 40, 60, 120, 180 min were tested to determine the optimum extraction time. When the extraction time was extended from 20 to 60 min, the total recovered anthocyanins of sulfur method changed from 650 to 710 mg/100 g. In the EW method Cellubrix and Pectinex enzymes were added separately to the buffer solution at different concentrations of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7%, 10%, and 12.5% and held for 2 hours reaction time at an ambient temperature of 40 °C. There was a considerable and significant difference in trends of Acys content of tepals extracted by pectinex enzymes at 5% concentration and AE solution.

Keywords: saffron, anthocyanins, acidic environment, acidic ethanol, pectinex enzymes, Cellubrix enzymes, sodium metabisulfite

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