Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 780

Search results for: equivalent strut

780 Modeling of Masonry In-Filled R/C Frame to Evaluate Seismic Performance of Existing Building

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail

Abstract:

This paper deals with different modeling aspects of masonry infill: no infill model, Layered shell infill model, and strut infill model. These models consider the complicated behavior of the in-filled plane frames under lateral load similar to an earthquake load. Three strut infill models are used: NBCC (2005) strut infill model, ASCE/SEI 41-06 strut infill model and proposed strut infill model based on modification to Canadian, NBCC (2005) strut infill model. Pushover and modal analyses of a masonry infill concrete frame with a single storey and an existing 5-storey RC building have been carried out by using different models for masonry infill. The corresponding hinge status, the value of base shear at target displacement as well as their dynamic characteristics have been determined and compared. A validation of the structural numerical models for the existing 5-storey RC building has been achieved by comparing the experimentally measured and the analytically estimated natural frequencies and their mode shapes. This study shows that ASCE/SEI 41-06 equation underestimates the values for the equivalent properties of the diagonal strut while Canadian, NBCC (2005) equation gives realistic values for the equivalent properties. The results indicate that both ASCE/SEI 41-06 and Canadian, NBCC (2005) equations for strut infill model give over estimated values for dynamic characteristic of the building. Proposed modification to Canadian, NBCC (2005) equation shows that the fundamental dynamic characteristic values of the building are nearly similar to the corresponding values using layered shell elements as well as measured field results.

Keywords: masonry infill, framed structures, RC buildings, non-structural elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
779 Seismic Assessment of Old Existing RC Buildings with Masonry Infill in Madinah as Per ASCE

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, Nour M. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail

Abstract:

An existing RC building in Madinah is seismically evaluated with and without infill wall. Four model systems have been considered i. e. model I (no infill), model IIA (strut infill-update from field test), model IIB (strut infill- ASCE/SEI 41) and model IIC (strut infill-Soft storey-ASCE/SEI 41). Three dimensional pushover analyses have been carried out using SAP 2000 software incorporating inelastic material behavior for concrete, steel and infill walls. Infill wall has been modeled as equivalent strut according to suggested equation matching field test measurements and to the ASCE/SEI 41 equation. The effect of building modeling on the performance point as well as capacity and demand spectra due to EQ design spectrum function in Madinah area has been investigated. The response modification factor (R) for the 5 story RC building is evaluated from capacity and demand spectra (ATC-40) for the studied models. The results are summarized and discussed.

Keywords: infill wall, pushover analysis, response modification factor, seismic assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
778 Parameters Affecting Load Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Ring Deep Beams

Authors: Atef Ahmad Bleibel

Abstract:

Most codes of practice, like ACI 318-14, require the use of strut-and-tie modeling to analyze and design reinforced concrete deep beams. Though, investigations that conducted on deep beams do not include ring deep beams of influential parameters. This work presents an analytical parametric study using strut-and-tie modeling stated by ACI 318-14 to predict load capacity of 20 reinforced concrete ring deep beam specimens with different parameters. The parameters that were under consideration in the current work are ring diameter (Dc), number of supports (NS), width of ring beam (bw), concrete compressive strength (f'c) and width of bearing plate (Bp). It is found that the load capacity decreases by about 14-36% when ring diameter increases by about 25-75%. It is also found that load capacity increases by about 62-189% when number of supports increases by about 33-100%, while the load capacity increases by about 25-75% when the beam ring width increases by about 25-75%. Finally, it is found that load capacity increases by about 24-76% when compressive strength increases by about 24-76%, while the load capacity increases by about 5-16% when Bp increases by about 25-75%.

Keywords: load parameters, reinforced concrete, ring deep beam, strut and tie

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
777 Equivalent Circuit Modelling of Active Reflectarray Antenna

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents equivalent circuit modeling of active planar reflectors which can be used for the detailed analysis and characterization of reflector performance in terms of lumped components. Equivalent circuit representation has been proposed for PIN diodes and liquid crystal based active planar reflectors designed within X-band frequency range. A very close agreement has been demonstrated between equivalent circuit results, 3D EM simulated results as well as measured scattering parameter results. In the case of measured results, a maximum discrepancy of 1.05dB was observed in the reflection loss performance, which can be attributed to the losses occurred during measurement process.

Keywords: Equivalent circuit modelling, planar reflectors, reflectarray antenna, PIN diode, liquid crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
776 Maximum Deformation Estimation for Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Equivalent Linearization Method

Authors: Chien-Kuo Chiu

Abstract:

In the displacement-based seismic design and evaluation, equivalent linearization method is one of the approximation methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement response of a system. In this study, the accuracy of two equivalent linearization methods are investigated. The investigation consists of three soil condition in Taiwan (Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3) and five different heights of building (H_r= 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 m). The first method is the Taiwan equivalent linearization method (TELM) which was proposed based on Japanese equivalent linear method considering the modification factor, α_T= 0.85. On the basis of Lin and Miranda study, the second method is proposed with some modification considering Taiwan soil conditions. From this study, it is shown that Taiwanese equivalent linearization method gives better estimation compared to the modified Lin and Miranda method (MLM). The error index for the Taiwanese equivalent linearization method are 16%, 13%, and 12% for Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, a ductility demand spectrum of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is presented in this study as a guide for engineers to estimate the ductility demand of a structure.

Keywords: displacement-based design, ductility demand spectrum, equivalent linearization method, RC buildings, single-degree-of-freedom

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
775 On Chromaticity of Wheels

Authors: Zainab Yasir Abed Al-Rekaby, Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf

Abstract:

Let the vertices of a graph such that every two adjacent vertices have different color is a very common problem in the graph theory. This is known as proper coloring of graphs. The possible number of different proper colorings on a graph with a given number of colors can be represented by a function called the chromatic polynomial. Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent, if they share the same chromatic polynomial. A Graph G is chromatically unique, if G is isomorphic to H for any graph H such that G is chromatically equivalent to H. The study of chromatically equivalent and chromatically unique problems is called chromaticity. This paper shows that a wheel W12 is chromatically unique.

Keywords: chromatic polynomial, chromatically equivalent, chromatically unique, wheel

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
774 Infringement of Patent Rights with Doctrine of Equivalent for Turkey

Authors: Duru Helin Ozaner

Abstract:

Due to the doctrine of equivalent, the words in the claims' sentences are insufficient for the protection area provided by the patent registration. While this situation widens the boundaries of the protection area, it also obscures the boundaries of the protected area of patents. In addition, it creates distrust for third parties. Therefore, the doctrine of equivalent aims to establish a balance between the rights of patent owners and the legal security of third parties. The current legal system of Turkey has been tried to be created as a parallel judicial system to the widely applied regulations. Therefore, the regulations regarding the protection provided by patents in the current Turkish legal system are similar to many countries. However, infringement through equivalent is common by third parties. This study, it is aimed to explain that the protection provided by the patent is not only limited to the words of the claims but also the wide-ranging protection provided by the claims for the doctrine of equivalence. This study is important to determine the limits of the protection provided by the patent right holder and to indicate the importance of the equivalent elements of the protection granted to the patent right holder.

Keywords: patent, infringement, intellectual property, the doctrine of equivalent

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
773 A Study of Chromatic Uniqueness of W14

Authors: Zainab Yasir Al-Rekaby, Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf

Abstract:

Coloring the vertices of a graph such that every two adjacent vertices have different color is a very common problem in the graph theory. This is known as proper coloring of graphs. The possible number of different proper colorings on a graph with a given number of colors can be represented by a function called the chromatic polynomial. Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent, if they share the same chromatic polynomial. A Graph G is chromatically unique, if G is isomorphic to H for any graph H such that G is chromatically equivalent to H. The study of chromatically equivalent and chromatically unique problems is called chromaticity. This paper shows that a wheel W14 is chromatically unique.

Keywords: chromatic polynomial, chromatically Equivalent, chromatically unique, wheel

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
772 Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness

Authors: Nitish Kumar Vaja, Oumar Barry, Brian DeJong

Abstract:

Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum assumptions. However it is not easy to analytically model the complex geometry of the messenger. Therefore an equivalent stiffness must be determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical model with the equivalent stiffness is validated using the full scale finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.

Keywords: equivalent stiffness, finite element model, free vibration response, Stockbridge damper

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
771 Effect of PMMA Shield on the Patient Dose Equivalent from Photoneutrons Produced by High Energy Medical Linacs

Authors: Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Gholamreza Raisali, Mehran Taheri

Abstract:

One of the important problems of using high energy linacs at IMRT is the production of photoneutrons. Besides the clinically useful photon beams, high-energy photon beams from medical linacs produce secondary neutrons. These photoneutrons increase the patient dose and may cause secondary malignancies. The effect of the shield on the reduction of photoneutron dose equivalent produced by a high energy medical linac at the patient plane is investigated in this study. To determine the photoneutron dose equivalent received to the patient a Varian linac working at 18 MV photon mode investigated. Photoneutron dose equivalent measured with Polycarbonate films of 0.25 mm thick. PC films placed at distances of 0, 10, 20, and 50 cm from the center of X-ray field on the patient couch. The results show that by increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreases rapidly for both open and shielded fields and that by inserting the shield in the path of the X-ray beam, the photoneutron dose equivalent was decreased obviously compared to open field. Results show the shield, significantly reduces photoneutron dose equivalent to the patient. Results can be readily generalized to other models of medical linacs. It may be concluded that using this kind of shield can help more safe, inexpensive and efficient employment of high energy linacs in radiotherapy and IMRT.

Keywords: photoneutron, Linac, PMMA shield, equivalent dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
770 Equivalent Circuit Model for the Eddy Current Damping with Frequency-Dependence

Authors: Zhiguo Shi, Cheng Ning Loong, Jiazeng Shan, Weichao Wu

Abstract:

This study proposes an equivalent circuit model to simulate the eddy current damping force with shaking table tests and finite element modeling. The model is firstly proposed and applied to a simple eddy current damper, which is modelled in ANSYS, indicating that the proposed model can simulate the eddy current damping force under different types of excitations. Then, a non-contact and friction-free eddy current damper is designed and tested, and the proposed model can reproduce the experimental observations. The excellent agreement between the simulated results and the experimental data validates the accuracy and reliability of the equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, a more complicated model is performed in ANSYS to verify the feasibility of the equivalent circuit model in complex eddy current damper, and the higher-order fractional model and viscous model are adopted for comparison.

Keywords: equivalent circuit model, eddy current damping, finite element model, shake table test

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
769 Stability Design by Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis Using Equivalent Geometric Imperfections

Authors: S. Fominow, C. Dobert

Abstract:

The present article describes the research that deals with the development of equivalent geometric imperfections for the stability design of steel members considering lateral-torsional buckling. The application of these equivalent imperfections takes into account the stiffness-reducing effects due to inelasticity and residual stresses, which lead to a reduction of the load carrying capacity of slender members and structures. This allows the application of a simplified design method, that is performed in three steps. Application of equivalent geometric imperfections, determination of internal forces using geometrical non-linear analysis (GNIA) and verification of the cross-section resistance at the most unfavourable location. All three verification steps are closely related and influence the results. The derivation of the equivalent imperfections was carried out in several steps. First, reference lateral-torsional buckling resistances for various rolled I-sections, slenderness grades, load shapes and steel grades were determined. This was done either with geometric and material non-linear analysis with geometrical imperfections and residual stresses (GMNIA) or for standard cases based on the equivalent member method. With the aim of obtaining identical lateral-torsional buckling resistances as the reference resistances from the application of the design method, the required sizes for equivalent imperfections were derived. For this purpose, a program based on the FEM method has been developed. Based on these results, several proposals for the specification of equivalent geometric imperfections have been developed. These differ in the shape of the applied equivalent geometric imperfection, the model of the cross-sectional resistance and the steel grade. The proposed design methods allow a wide range of applications and a reliable calculation of the lateral-torsional buckling resistances, as comparisons between the calculated resistances and the reference resistances have shown.

Keywords: equivalent geometric imperfections, GMNIA, lateral-torsional buckling, non-linear finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
768 Investigating Elastica and Post Buckling Behavior Columns Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to analyze the finite displacement of Columns by applying the Modified Newmark Method. This research will be performed on Columns subjected to compressive axial load, therefore the non-linearity of the geometry is also considered. If the considered strut is perfect, the governing differential equation contains a branching point in the solution path. Investigation into the Elastica is a part of generalizing the developed method. It presents the ability of the Modified Newmark Method in treating non-linear differential equations Derived from elastic strut stability problems. These include not only an approximate polynomial solution for the Elastica problems, but can also recognize the branching point and the stable solution. However, this investigation deals with the post-buckling response of elastic and pin ended columns subjected to central or equally eccentric axial loads.

Keywords: columns, structural modeling, structures & structural stability, loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
767 Electrical Equivalent Analysis of Micro Cantilever Beams for Sensing Applications

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, J. S. Kadadevarmath

Abstract:

Microcantilevers are the basic MEMS devices, which can be used as sensors, actuators, and electronics can be easily built into them. The detection principle of microcantilever sensors is based on the measurement of change in cantilever deflection or change in its resonance frequency. The objective of this work is to explore the analogies between the mechanical and electrical equivalent of microcantilever beams. Normally scientists and engineers working in MEMS use expensive software like CoventorWare, IntelliSuite, ANSYS/Multiphysics, etc. This paper indicates the need of developing the electrical equivalent of the MEMS structure and with that, one can have a better insight on important parameters, and their interrelation of the MEMS structure. In this work, considering the mechanical model of the microcantilever, the equivalent electrical circuit is drawn and using a force-voltage analogy, it is analyzed with circuit simulation software. By doing so, one can gain access to a powerful set of intellectual tools that have been developed for understanding electrical circuits. Later the analysis is performed using ANSYS/Multiphysics - software based on finite element method (FEM). It is observed that both mechanical and electrical domain results for a rectangular microcantilevers are in agreement with each other.

Keywords: electrical equivalent circuit analogy, FEM analysis, micro cantilevers, micro sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
766 Computational Aided Approach for Strut and Tie Model for Non-Flexural Elements

Authors: Mihaja Razafimbelo, Guillaume Herve-Secourgeon, Fabrice Gatuingt, Marina Bottoni, Tulio Honorio-De-Faria

Abstract:

The challenge of the research is to provide engineering with a robust, semi-automatic method for calculating optimal reinforcement for massive structural elements. In the absence of such a digital post-processing tool, design office engineers make intensive use of plate modelling, for which automatic post-processing is available. Plate models in massive areas, on the other hand, produce conservative results. In addition, the theoretical foundations of automatic post-processing tools for reinforcement are those of reinforced concrete beam sections. As long as there is no suitable alternative for automatic post-processing of plates, optimal modelling and a significant improvement of the constructability of massive areas cannot be expected. A method called strut-and-tie is commonly used in civil engineering, but the result itself remains very subjective to the calculation engineer. The tool developed will facilitate the work of supporting the engineers in their choice of structure. The method implemented consists of defining a ground-structure built on the basis of the main constraints resulting from an elastic analysis of the structure and then to start an optimization of this structure according to the fully stressed design method. The first results allow to obtain a coherent return in the first network of connecting struts and ties, compared to the cases encountered in the literature. The evolution of the tool will then make it possible to adapt the obtained latticework in relation to the cracking states resulting from the loads applied during the life of the structure, cyclic or dynamic loads. In addition, with the constructability constraint, a final result of reinforcement with an orthogonal arrangement with a regulated spacing will be implemented in the tool.

Keywords: strut and tie, optimization, reinforcement, massive structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
765 Impact of Series Reactive Compensation on Increasing a Distribution Network Distributed Generation Hosting Capacity

Authors: Moataz Ammar, Ahdab Elmorshedy

Abstract:

The distributed generation hosting capacity of a distribution network is typically limited at a given connection point by the upper voltage limit that can be violated due to the injection of active power into the distribution network. The upper voltage limit violation concern becomes more important as the network equivalent resistance increases with respect to its equivalent reactance. This paper investigates the impact of modifying the distribution network equivalent reactance at the point of connection such that the upper voltage limit is violated at a higher distributed generation penetration, than it would without the addition of series reactive compensation. The results show that series reactive compensation proves efficient in certain situations (based on the ratio of equivalent network reactance to equivalent network resistance at the point of connection). As opposed to the conventional case of capacitive compensation of a distribution network to reduce voltage drop, inductive compensation is seen to be more appropriate for alleviation of distributed-generation-induced voltage rise.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution networks, series compensation, voltage rise

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
764 A Survey on Positive Real and Strictly Positive Real Scalar Transfer Functions

Authors: Mojtaba Hakimi-Moghaddam

Abstract:

Positive real and strictly positive real transfer functions are important concepts in the control theory. In this paper, the results of researches in these areas are summarized. Definitions together with their graphical interpretations are mentioned. The equivalent conditions in the frequency domain and state space representations are reviewed. Their equivalent electrical networks are explained. Also, a comprehensive discussion about a difference between behavior of real part of positive real and strictly positive real transfer functions in high frequencies is presented. Furthermore, several illustrative examples are given.

Keywords: real rational transfer functions, positive realness property, strictly positive realness property, equivalent conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
763 Equivalent Circuit Representation of Lossless and Lossy Power Transmission Systems Including Discrete Sampler

Authors: Yuichi Kida, Takuro Kida

Abstract:

In a new smart society supported by the recent development of 5G and 6G Communication systems, the im- portance of wireless power transmission is increasing. These systems contain discrete sampling systems in the middle of the transmission path and equivalent circuit representation of lossless or lossy power transmission through these systems is an important issue in circuit theory. In this paper, for the given weight function, we show that a lossless power transmission system with the given weight is expressed by an equivalent circuit representation of the Kida’s optimal signal prediction system followed by a reactance multi-port circuit behind it. Further, it is shown that, when the system is lossy, the system has an equivalent circuit in the form of connecting a multi-port positive-real circuit behind the Kida’s optimal signal prediction system. Also, for the convenience of the reader, in this paper, the equivalent circuit expression of the reactance multi-port circuit and the positive- real multi-port circuit by Cauer and Ohno, whose information is currently being lost even in the world of the Internet.

Keywords: signal prediction, pseudo inverse matrix, artificial intelligence, power transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
762 Developing a Translator Career Path: Based on the Dreyfus Model of Skills Acquisition

Authors: Noha A. Alowedi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Translator Career Path (TCP) which is based on the Dreyfus Model of Skills Acquisition as the conceptual framework. In this qualitative study, the methodology to collect and analyze the data takes an inductive approach that draws upon the literature to form the criteria for the different steps in the TCP. This path is based on descriptors of expert translator performance and best employees’ practice documented in the literature. Each translator skill will be graded as novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. Consequently, five levels of translator performance are identified in the TCP as five ranks. The first rank is the intern translator, which is equivalent to the novice level; the second rank is the assistant translator, which is equivalent to the advanced beginner level; the third rank is the associate translator, which is equivalent to the competent level; the fourth rank is the translator, which is equivalent to the proficient level; finally, the fifth rank is the expert translator, which is equivalent to the expert level. The main function of this career path is to guide the processes of translator development in translation organizations. Although it is designed primarily for the need of in-house translators’ supervisors, the TCP can be used in academic settings for translation trainers and teachers.

Keywords: Dreyfus model, translation organization, translator career path, translator development, translator evaluation, translator promotion

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761 The Nature of Mineralizing Fluids in the Hammam Zriba Deposit (F-Ba-Sr-Pb-Zn) in North-eastern Tunisia

Authors: Miladi Yasmine, Bouhlel Salah, David Banks

Abstract:

The Hammam Zriba (F-Ba-Sr-Pb-Zn) ore deposits of the Zaghouan district are located in northeast Tunisia, 60 Km south of Tunis. The host rocks belong to the Ressas Formation (Tithonian age) and lower Cretaceous layers. Mineralization occurs as stratiform replacement heaps and lenses. The mineral assemblage is composed of fluorite, barite, sphalerite, and galena. Primary fluid inclusions in sphalerite have homogenization temperatures ranging from 83 to 140°C, final melting temperature range from −18 to −7.0, corresponding to salinities of 5 to 21 wt % NaCl equivalent. Fluid inclusions in fluorite homogenize to the liquid phase between 132 and 178°C. Final ice melting temperatures range from −25 to −6.8 °C, corresponding to salinities between 17 and 24 wt% NaCl Equivalent. The LA-ICP-MS analyses of the fluid inclusions in fluorite show that these fluids are dominated by Na>Ca>K>Mg, with the concentration of Fe being equivalent to that of Mg. Microthermometric analyses of the fluid inclusions observed in fluorite and sphalerite show that two distinct fluids were involved in the mineralization deposition: a warmer saline fluid (132-178°C, 17-24 wt % NaCl equivalent) and cooler saline fluid (83°C-140, 5-21 wt %NaCl equivalent). The ore fluid result from highly saline and Na-Ca dominated with lower Mg concentrations come from the leaching of the dolomitic host rocks by the fluids.

Keywords: Hammam Zriba , fluid inclusions, LA-ICP-MS, Zaghouan district

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760 Effect of Masonry Infill in R.C. Framed Buildings

Authors: Pallab Das, Nabam Zomleen

Abstract:

Effective dissipation of lateral loads that are coming due to seismic force determines the strength, durability and safety concern of the structure. Masonry infill has high stiffness and strength capabilities which can be put into an effective utilization for lateral load dissipation by incorporating it into building construction, but masonry behaves in highly nonlinear manner, so it is highly important to find out generalized, yet a rational approach to determine its nonlinear behavior and failure mode and it’s response when it is incorporated into building. But most of the countries do not specify the procedure for design of masonry infill wall. Whereas, there are many analytical modeling method available in literature, e.g. equivalent diagonal strut method, finite element modeling etc. In this paper the masonry infill is modeled and 6-storey bare framed building and building with masonry infill is analyzed using SAP-200014 in order to find out inter-storey drift by time-history analysis and capacity curve by Pushover analysis. The analysis shows that, while, the structure is well within CP performance level for both the case, whereas, there is considerable reduction of inter-storey drift of about 28%, when the building is analyzed with masonry infill wall.

Keywords: capacity curve, masonry infill, nonlinear analysis, time history analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
759 Effect of Infill’s in Influencing the Dynamic Responses of Multistoried Structures

Authors: Rahmathulla Noufal E.

Abstract:

Investigating the dynamic responses of high rise structures under the effect of siesmic ground motion is extremely important for the proper analysis and design of multitoried structures. Since the presence of infilled walls strongly influences the behaviour of frame systems in multistoried buildings, there is an increased need for developing guidelines for the analysis and design of infilled frames under the effect of dynamic loads for safe and proper design of buildings. In this manuscript, we evaluate the natural frequencies and natural periods of single bay single storey frames considering the effect of infill walls by using the Eigen value analysis and validating with SAP 2000 (free vibration analysis). Various parameters obtained from the diagonal strut model followed for the free vibration analysis is then compared with the Finite Element model, where infill is modeled as shell elements (four noded). We also evaluated the effect of various parameters on the natural periods of vibration obtained by free vibration analysis in SAP 2000 comparing them with those obtained by the empirical expressions presented in I.S. 1893(Part I)-2002.

Keywords: infilled frame, eigen value analysis, free vibration analysis, diagonal strut model, finite element model, SAP 2000, natural period

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
758 Equivalent Electrical Model of a Shielded Pulse Planar Transformer in Isolated Gate Drivers for SiC MOSFETs

Authors: Loreine Makki, Marc Anthony Mannah, Christophe Batard, Nicolas Ginot, Julien Weckbrodt

Abstract:

Planar transformers are extensively utilized in high-frequency, high power density power electronic converters. The breakthrough of wide-bandgap technology compelled power electronic system miniaturization while inducing pivotal effects on system modeling and manufacturing within the power electronics industry. A significant consideration to simulate and model the unanticipated parasitic parameters emerges with the requirement to mitigate electromagnetic disturbances. This paper will present an equivalent circuit model of a shielded pulse planar transformer quantifying leakage inductance and resistance in addition to the interwinding capacitance of the primary and secondary windings. ANSYS Q3D Extractor was utilized to model and simulate the transformer, intending to study the immunity of the simulated equivalent model to high dv/dt occurrences. A convenient correlation between simulation and experimental results is presented.

Keywords: Planar transformers, wide-band gap, equivalent circuit model, shielded, ANSYS Q3D Extractor, dv/dt

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
757 Shear Behaviour of RC Deep Beams with Openings Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Mannal Tariq

Abstract:

Construction industry is making progress at a high pace. The trend of the world is getting more biased towards the high rise buildings. Deep beams are one of the most common elements in modern construction having small span to depth ratio. Deep beams are mostly used as transfer girders. This experimental study consists of 16 reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams. These beams were divided into two groups; A and B. Groups A and B consist of eight beams each, having 381 mm (15 in) and 457 mm (18 in) depth respectively. Each group was further subdivided into four sub groups each consisting of two identical beams. Each subgroup was comprised of solid/control beam (without opening), opening above neutral axis (NA), at NA and below NA. Except for control beams, all beams with openings were strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) vertical strips. These eight groups differ from each other based on depth and location of openings. For testing sake, all beams have been loaded with two symmetrical point loads. All beams have been designed based on strut and tie model concept. The outcome of experimental investigation elaborates the difference in the shear behaviour of deep beams based on depth and location of circular openings variation. 457 mm (18 in) deep beam with openings above NA show the highest strength and 381 mm (15 in) deep beam with openings below NA show the least strength. CFRP sheets played a vital role in increasing the shear capacity of beams.

Keywords: CFRP, deep beams, openings in deep beams, strut and tie modal, shear behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
756 Prediction of the Performance of a Bar-Type Piezoelectric Vibration Actuator Depending on the Frequency Using an Equivalent Circuit Analysis

Authors: J. H. Kim, J. H. Kwon, J. S. Park, K. J. Lim

Abstract:

This paper has investigated a technique that predicts the performance of a bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency. This paper has been proposed an equivalent circuit that can be easily analyzed for the bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator. In the dynamic analysis, rigidity and resonance frequency, which are important mechanical elements, were derived using the basic beam theory. In the equivalent circuit analysis, the displacement and bandwidth of the piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency were predicted. Also, for the reliability of the derived equations, the predicted performance depending on the shape change was compared with the result of a finite element analysis program.

Keywords: actuator, piezoelectric, performance, unimorph

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
755 Magnification Factor Based Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Frames with Open Ground Storey

Authors: Subzar Ahmad Bhat, Saraswati Setia, V. K.Sehgal

Abstract:

During the past earthquakes, open ground storey buildings have performed poorly due to the soft storey defect. Indian Standard IS 1893:2002 allows analysis of open ground storey buildings without considering infill stiffness but with a multiplication factor 2.5 in compensation for the stiffness discontinuity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to check the applicability of the multiplication factor of 2.5 and study behaviour of the structure after the application of the multiplication factor. For this purpose, study is performed on models considering infill stiffness using SAP 2000 (Version 14) by linear static analysis and response spectrum analysis. Total seven models are analysed and designed for the range of multiplication factor ranging from 1.25 to 2.5. The value of multiplication factor equal to 2.5 has been found on the higher side, resulting in increased dimension and percentage of reinforcement without significant enhancement beyond a certain multiplication factor. When the building with OGS is designed for values of MF higher than 1.25 considering infill stiffness soft storey effect shifts from ground storey to first storey. For the analysis of the OGS structure best way to analysis the structure is to analyse it as the frame with stiffness and strength of the infill taken into account. The provision of infill walls in the upper storeys enhances the performance of the structure in terms of displacement and storey drift controls.

Keywords: open ground storey, multiplication factor, IS 1893:2002 provisions, static analysis, response spectrum analysis, infill stiffness, equivalent strut

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
754 Simulation and Analytical Investigation of Different Combination of Single Phase Power Transformers

Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır

Abstract:

In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the ideal single-phase power transformer with its appropriate voltage current measurement was presented. The calculated values of the voltages and currents of the different connections single phase normal transformer and the results of the simulation process are compared. As it can be seen, the calculated results are the same as the simulated results. This paper includes eight possible different transformer connections. Depending on the desired voltage level, step-down and step-up application transformer is considered. Modelling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer (primary and secondary), and loads are performed to investigate the combinations. The obtained values are simulated in PSpice environment and then how the currents, voltages and phase angle are distributed between them is explained based on calculation.

Keywords: transformer, simulation, equivalent model, parallel series combinations

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
753 Effect of Infill Walls on Response of Multi Storey Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Ayman Abd-Elhamed, Sayed Mahmoud

Abstract:

The present research work investigates the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) frame building considering the effect of modeling masonry infill (MI) walls. The seismic behavior of a residential 6-storey RC frame building, considering and ignoring the effect of masonry, is numerically investigated using response spectrum (RS) analysis. The considered herein building is designed as a moment resisting frame (MRF) system following the Egyptian code (EC) requirements. Two developed models in terms of bare frame and infill walls frame are used in the study. Equivalent diagonal strut methodology is used to represent the behavior of infill walls, whilst the well-known software package ETABS is used for implementing all frame models and performing the analysis. The results of the numerical simulations such as base shear, displacements, and internal forces for the bare frame as well as the infill wall frame are presented in a comparative way. The results of the study indicate that the interaction between infill walls and frames significantly change the responses of buildings during earthquakes compared to the results of bare frame building model. Specifically, the seismic analysis of RC bare frame structure leads to underestimation of base shear and consequently damage or even collapse of buildings may occur under strong shaking. On the other hand, considering infill walls significantly decrease the peak floor displacements and drifts in both X and Y-directions.

Keywords: masonry infill, bare frame, response spectrum, seismic response

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752 An Analysis of Energy Use and Input Level for Tomato Production in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Vural

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine energy equivalents of inputs and output in tomato production in Bursa province. The data in this study were collected from tomato farms in Bursa province, Karacabey and Mustafakemalpasa district. Questionnaires were administered through face-to-face interview in 2011-2012. The results of the study show that diesel have the highest rate of energy equivalency of all the inputs used in tomato production at 60,07%. The energy equivalent rate of electricity is 4,26% and the energy equivalent rate of water is 0,87%. The energy equivalent rates for human power, machinery, chemicals and water for irrigation were determined to be low in tomato production. According to the output/input ratio calculated, the energy ratio is 1,50 in tomato production in the research area. This ratio implies that the inputs used in tomato production have not been used effectively. Ineffective use of these resources also causes environmental problems.

Keywords: Tomato production, energy ratio, energy input, Turkey

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751 Dynamic Analysis of Offshore 2-HUS/U Parallel Platform

Authors: Xie Kefeng, Zhang He

Abstract:

For the stability and control demand of offshore small floating platform, a 2-HUS/U parallel mechanism was presented as offshore platform. Inverse kinematics was obtained by institutional constraint equation, and the dynamic model of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform was derived based on rigid body’s Lagrangian method. The equivalent moment of inertia, damping and driving force/torque variation of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform were analyzed. A numerical example shows that, for parallel platform of given motion, system’s equivalent inertia changes 1.25 times maximally. During the movement of platform, they change dramatically with the system configuration and have coupling characteristics. The maximum equivalent drive torque is 800 N. At the same time, the curve of platform’s driving force/torque is smooth and has good sine features. The control system needs to be adjusted according to kinetic equation during stability and control and it provides a basis for the optimization of control system.

Keywords: 2-HUS/U platform, dynamics, Lagrange, parallel platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 271