Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Saraswati Setia

17 A Remote Sensing Approach to Estimate the Paleo-Discharge of the Lost Saraswati River of North-West India

Authors: Zafar Beg, Kumar Gaurav

Abstract:

The lost Saraswati is described as a large perennial river which was 'lost' in the desert towards the end of the Indus-Saraswati civilisation. It has been proposed earlier that the lost Saraswati flowed in the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve, parallel to the present day Indus River. It is believed that one of the earliest known ancient civilizations, the 'Indus-Saraswati civilization' prospered along the course of the Saraswati River. The demise of the Indus civilization is considered to be due to desiccation of the river. Today in the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve, we observe an ephemeral river, known as Ghaggar. It is believed that along with the Ghaggar River, two other Himalayan Rivers Sutlej and Yamuna were tributaries of the lost Saraswati and made a significant contribution to its discharge. Presence of a large number of archaeological sites and the occurrence of thick fluvial sand bodies in the subsurface in the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve has been used to suggest that the Saraswati River was a large perennial river. Further, the wider course of about 4-7 km recognized from satellite imagery of Ghaggar-Hakra belt in between Suratgarh and Anupgarh strengthens this hypothesis. Here we develop a methodology to estimate the paleo discharge and paleo width of the lost Saraswati River. In doing so, we rely on the hypothesis which suggests that the ancient Saraswati River used to carry the combined flow or some part of the Yamuna, Sutlej and Ghaggar catchments. We first established a regime relationship between the drainage area-channel width and catchment area-discharge of 29 different rivers presently flowing on the Himalayan Foreland from Indus in the west to the Brahmaputra in the East. We found the width and discharge of all the Himalayan rivers scale in a similar way when they are plotted against their corresponding catchment area. Using these regime curves, we calculate the width and discharge of paleochannels originating from the Sutlej, Yamuna and Ghaggar rivers by measuring their corresponding catchment area from satellite images. Finally, we add the discharge and width obtained from each of the individual catchments to estimate the paleo width and paleo discharge respectively of the Saraswati River. Our regime curves provide a first-order estimate of the paleo discharge of the lost Saraswati.

Keywords: Indus civilization, palaeochannel, regime curve, Saraswati River

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16 Magnification Factor Based Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Frames with Open Ground Storey

Authors: Subzar Ahmad Bhat, Saraswati Setia, V. K.Sehgal

Abstract:

During the past earthquakes, open ground storey buildings have performed poorly due to the soft storey defect. Indian Standard IS 1893:2002 allows analysis of open ground storey buildings without considering infill stiffness but with a multiplication factor 2.5 in compensation for the stiffness discontinuity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to check the applicability of the multiplication factor of 2.5 and study behaviour of the structure after the application of the multiplication factor. For this purpose, study is performed on models considering infill stiffness using SAP 2000 (Version 14) by linear static analysis and response spectrum analysis. Total seven models are analysed and designed for the range of multiplication factor ranging from 1.25 to 2.5. The value of multiplication factor equal to 2.5 has been found on the higher side, resulting in increased dimension and percentage of reinforcement without significant enhancement beyond a certain multiplication factor. When the building with OGS is designed for values of MF higher than 1.25 considering infill stiffness soft storey effect shifts from ground storey to first storey. For the analysis of the OGS structure best way to analysis the structure is to analyse it as the frame with stiffness and strength of the infill taken into account. The provision of infill walls in the upper storeys enhances the performance of the structure in terms of displacement and storey drift controls.

Keywords: open ground storey, multiplication factor, IS 1893:2002 provisions, static analysis, response spectrum analysis, infill stiffness, equivalent strut

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15 Single Fly Over as a Solution to Congestion of Intersection Junction: Case Study of Jalan Jatingaleh Semarang

Authors: Rachmat Mudiyono, Siti Sumiati

Abstract:

In the next few years, traffic will happen most of the time. This was triggered by the growing rate of vehicles againts the road capacity which is not balance. All the time the congestion in the city of Semarang has been occured at peak hours. Congestion also occured in between Teuku Umar and Setia Budi road Jatingaleh because of a plot intersection (Kesatrian intersection, PLN intersection and Jatingaleh intersection) with the Toll Road. Jatingaleh is located in the southern city of Semarang which is a central meeting point between the upper and lower Semarang where the vehicle flows in through a combination of local current and regional traffic, and the flow of vehicles coming in and out from highway. The main cause of the problems that occurred in the area of Jatingaleh is due to the numbers of vehicles movement that occurs at the intersections. With the above issues, it is necessary to analyse the existing conditions and look into some solutions. Before carrying out an analysis of field surveys at peak hours for example morning (06:00 to 08:00 am) and for the afternoon (04:00 to 06:00 pm)should be conducted, then the number of vehicles is counted manually with “short-breakcounting” according to types of vehicles. From the analysis we found that the degree of saturation (DS) is 1.61 between Teuku Umar and Setia Budi road during the morning peak hours and 1.56 during the afternoon peak hours. This means that the capacity of the existing road is no longer able to accommodate the traffic flow. One of the solutions for the congestion that occurs at the intersection of Jatingaleh is to apply the efficiency of the intersection that is not in a plot with a Fly over, Underpass and the combination of Fly Over-Underpass. Base on the flow reduction calculation with 3 comparative modeling it shows that the Fly Over is the most technically efficient to be applied in this research.

Keywords: single fly over, congestion, intersection, interchange

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14 Identification of Tangible and Intangible Heritage and Preparation of Conservation Proposal for the Historic City of Karanja Laad

Authors: Prachi Buche Marathe

Abstract:

Karanja Laad is a city located in the Vidarbha region in the state of Maharashtra, India. It has a huge amount of tangible and intangible heritage in the form of monuments, precincts, a group of structures, festivals and procession route, which is neglected and lost with time. Three different religions Hinduism, Islam and Jainism along with associations of being a birthplace of Swami Nrusinha Saraswati, an exponent of Datta Sampradaya sect and the British colonial layer have shaped the culture and society of the place over the period. The architecture of the town Karanja Laad has enhanced its unique historic and cultural value with a combination of all these historic layers. Karanja Laad is also a traditional trading historic town with unique hybrid architectural style and has a good potential for developing as a tourist place along with the present image of a pilgrim destination of Datta Sampradaya. The aim of the research is to prepare a conservation proposal for the historic town along with the management framework. Objectives of the research are to study the evolution of Karanja town, to identify the cultural resources along with issues of the historic core of the city, to understand Datta sampradaya, and contribution of Saint Nrusinha Saraswati in the religious sect and his association as an important personality with Karanja. The methodology of the research is site visits to the Karanja city, making field surveys for documentation and discussions and questionnaires with the residents to establish heritage and identify potential and issues within the historic core thereby establishing a case for conservation. Field surveys are conducted for town level study of land use, open spaces, occupancy, ownership, traditional commodity and community, infrastructure, streetscapes, and precinct activities during the festival and non-festival period. Building level study includes establishing various typologies like residential, institutional commercial, religious, and traditional infrastructure from the mythological references like waterbodies (kund), lake and wells. One of the main issues is that the loss of the traditional footprint as well as the traditional open spaces which are getting lost due to the new illegal encroachments and lack of guidelines for the new additions to conserve the original fabric of the structures. Traditional commodities are getting lost since there is no promotion of these skills like pottery and painting. Lavish bungalows like Kannava mansion, main temple Wada (birthplace of the saint) have a huge potential to be developed as a museum by adaptive re-use which will, in turn, attract many visitors during festivals which will boost the economy. Festival procession routes can be identified and a heritage walk can be developed so as to highlight the traditional features of the town. Overall study has resulted in establishing a heritage map with 137 heritage structures identified as potential. Conservation proposal is worked out on the town level, precinct level and building level with interventions such as developing construction guidelines for further development and establishing a heritage cell consisting architects and engineers for the upliftment of the existing rich heritage of the Karanja city.

Keywords: built heritage, conservation, Datta Sampradaya, Karanja Laad, Swami Nrusinha Saraswati, procession route

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13 Surge Analysis of Water Transmission Mains in Una, Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Baldev Setia, Raj Rajeshwari, Maneesh Kumar

Abstract:

Present paper is an analysis of water transmission mains failed due to surge analysis by using basic software known as Surge Analysis Program (SAP). It is a real time failure case study of a pipe laid in Una, Himachal Pradesh. The transmission main is a 13 kilometer long pipe with 7.9 kilometers as pumping main and 5.1 kilometers as gravitational main. The analysis deals with mainly pumping mains. The results are available in two text files. Besides, several files are prepared with specific view to obtain results in a graphical form. These results help to observe the pressure difference and surge occurrence at different locations along the pipe profile, which help to redesign the transmission main with different but suitable safety measures against possible surge. A technically viable and economically feasible design has been provided as per the relevant manual and standard code of practice.

Keywords: surge, water hammer, transmission mains, SAP 2000

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12 Surge Analysis of Water Transmission Mains in Una, Himachal Pradesh (India)

Authors: Baldev Setia, Raj Rajeshwari, Maneesh Kumar

Abstract:

Present paper is an analysis of water transmission mains failed due to surge analysis by using basic software known as Surge Analysis Program (SAP). It is a real time failure case study of a pipe laid in Una, Himachal Pradesh. The transmission main is a 13 kilometres long pipe with 7.9 kilometres as pumping main and 5.1 kilometres as gravitational main. The analysis deals with mainly pumping mains. The results are available in two text files. Besides, several files are prepared with specific view to obtain results in a graphical form. These results help to observe the pressure difference and surge occurrence at different locations along the pipe profile, which help to redesign the transmission main with different but suitable safety measures against possible surge. A technically viable and economically feasible design has been provided as per the relevant manual and standard code of practice.

Keywords: surge, water hammer, transmission mains, SAP 2000

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11 Hydraulic Design of Proposed Ranney Well for Water Supply Scheme in Kurukshetra

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Baldev Setia

Abstract:

Water is essential for sustenance of life and the ecosystem. Among the various uses of water, the water required for drinking and domestics has the priority over other needs. Water that is required for human consumption must be available in sufficient quantity and should be of good quality. Keeping in view the futuristic needs of water of Kurukshetra town, a durable and cost-effective water supply system with the help of Ranney well has been proposed. This has been proposed on the premise that Brahmsarovar, the largest static water body in the state of Haryana provides sufficient recharge to the groundwater aquifer. In the study, a 30 year design period has been adopted and the water demand up to the year 2050 has been computed. The proposed Ranney well to be constructed in the vicinity of the Brahmsarovar will have a caisson of diameter of 12 m and will be laid at a depth of 30 m below MSL. The laterals, 20 in number, 300 mm in diameter and 15 m in length will be located in two layer separated by 1.5 m. the impact on environment because of the construction and working of the Ranney well is also studied and it has been found that there are no adverse impacts of the proposed scheme. However, the present study is limited to the hydraulics design of the scheme and does not address the structural design of components of Ranney well and the cost involved.

Keywords: drawdown, Ranney well, LPCD, MSL, transmissibility, storativity

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10 Utilization of Complete Feed Based on Ammoniated Corn Waste on Bali Cattle Peformance

Authors: Elihasridas, Rusmana Wijaya Setia Ninggrat

Abstract:

This research aims to study the utilization of ammoniated corn waste complete ration for substitution basal ration of natural grass in Bali cattle. Four treatments (complete feed ration consisted of: R1=40% natural grass + 60% concentrate (control), R2= 50% natural grass+50% concentrate, R3=60% natural grass+40% concentrate and R4=40% ammoniated corn waste+60% concentrate) were employed in this experiment. This experiment was arranged in a latin square design. Observed variables included dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain and feed conversion. Data were analyzed by using the Analysis of Variance following a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The DMI for R1was 7,15kg/day which was significantly (P < 0,05) higher than R2 (6,32 kg/day) and R3(6,07 kg/day), but was not significantly different (P < 0,05) from R4 (7,01 kg/day). Average daily gain for R1(0,75 kg/day) which was significantly (P < 0,05) higher than R2(0,66 kg/day) and R3 (0,61 kg/day),but was not significantly different (P > 0,05) from R4(0,74 kg/day). Feed conversion was not significantly affected (P > 0,05) by ration. It was concluded that ammoniated corn waste complete ration (40% ammoniated corn waste + 60% concentrate) could be utilized for substitution natural grass basal ration.

Keywords: ammoniated corn waste, bali cattle, complete feed, daily gain

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9 Effect of Column Stiffness and Orientation on Seismic Behaviour of Buildings with Vertical Irregularities

Authors: Saraswati Verma, Ankit Batra

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In the modern day, structures are designed with a lot of complexities due to economical, aesthetical, and functional needs causing various levels of irregularities to be induced. In the past, several studies have repeatedly shown that irregular structures suffer more damage than regular structures during earthquakes. The present study makes an effort to study the contribution of the orientation of columns in the seismic behaviour of buildings with vertical irregularities namely, soft storey irregularity, mass irregularity and geometric irregularity. The response of the various models is analysed using sap2000 version 14. The parameters through which a comparative response is investigated are displacement, variation in the stiffness contribution, and inter-storey drift. Models with different configurations of column orientations were studied for each vertical irregularity and it was observed that column orientation contributed significantly in affecting a better seismic response. Square columns of the same cross-sectional area showed a good response as compared to that of rectangular columns. The study concludes that as displacement values for buildings with a soft storey and mass irregularity are very high, square columns could be used to minimise the effect of displacement in x and y-axis. In buildings with geometric irregularity, exterior column orientations can be played with to enhance the stiffness in the shorter direction to control the displacement and drift values in both x and y directions.

Keywords: soft storey, mass irregularity, geometric irregularity, column orientation, square column

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8 Women in Teaching Profession: Impacts and Challenges

Authors: A. M. Sultana, Norhirdawati Binti Mhd Zahir, Norzalan Hadi Yaacob

Abstract:

Recently in Malaysia, women's participation in teaching profession has increased. The increasing trend of women’s participation in the teaching profession poses challenges in families, especially in the developing countries like Malaysia. One of these challenges, concerns in balancing their role between family and job responsibility that faced by many women teachers. The purpose of this study is to discover how women teachers' impact on family happiness and the challenges faced by them in balancing their role between family and job responsibility. The findings presented in this study are based on survey research in a secondary school Dato’ Bijaya Setia in the district of Gugusan Manjoi which is located in Kedah, Malaysia. The study found that employment of women in economic activity has several beneficial impacts of improving the economic condition of the family. The results also revealed that in low income earning families, both husbands and wives’ employment contribute to the family income that less likely to experience of family poverty. The study also showed despite women's teachers’ significant role towards the overall development of the family, the majority of women teachers encountered a number of difficulties in balancing their role between family and job responsibility especially when they need to work more than the normal working time. Therefore, it is common for the majority of women suffering from psychological stress when they are unable to complete the task at a fixed time. The present study also suggests implication of family friendly policy and its appropriate practice to support the women teachers who are significantly contributing to family, community and the country.

Keywords: emotional exhaustion, family friendly policy, work family conflict, women teacher

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7 Indigenous Dayak People’s Perceptions of Wildlife Loss and Gain Related to Oil Palm Development

Authors: A. Sunkar, A. Saraswati, Y. Santosa

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Controversies surrounding the impacts of oil palm plantations have resulted in some heated debates, especially concerning biodiversity loss and indigenous people well-being. The indigenous people of Dayak generally used wildlife to fulfill their daily needs thus were assumed to have experienced negative impacts due to oil palm developments within and surrounding their settlement areas. This study was conducted to identify the characteristics of the Dayak community settled around an oil palm plantation, to determine their perceptions of wildlife loss or gain as the results of the development of oil palm plantations, and to identify the determinant characteristic of the perceptions. The research was conducted on March 2018 in Nanga Tayap and Tajok Kayong Villages, which were located around the oil palm plantation of NTYE of Ketapang, West Kalimantan-Indonesia. Data were collected through in depth-structured interview, using closed and semi-open questionnaires and three-scale Likert statements. Interviews were conducted with 74 respondents using accidental sampling, and categorized into respondents who were dependent on oil palm for their livelihoods and those who were not. Data were analyzed using quantitative statistics method, Likert Scale, Chi-Square Test, Spearman Test, and Mann-Whitney Test. The research found that the indigenous Dayak people were aware of wildlife species loss and gain since the establishment of the plantation. Nevertheless, wildlife loss did not affect their social, economic, and cultural needs since they could find substitutions. It was found that prior to the plantation’s development, the local Dayak communities were already slowly experiencing some livelihood transitions through local village development. The only determinant characteristic of the community that influenced their perceptions of wildlife loss/gain was level of education.

Keywords: wildlife, oil palm plantations, indigenous Dayak, biodiversity loss and gain

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6 Rapid Degradation of High-Concentration Methylene Blue in the Combined System of Plasma-Enhanced Photocatalysis Using TiO₂-Carbon

Authors: Teguh Endah Saraswati, Kusumandari Kusumandari, Candra Purnawan, Annisa Dinan Ghaisani, Aufara Mahayum

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The present study aims to investigate the degradation of methylene blue (MB) using TiO₂-carbon (TiO₂-C) photocatalyst combined with dielectric discharge (DBD) plasma. The carbon materials used in the photocatalyst were activated carbon and graphite. The thin layer of TiO₂-C photocatalyst was prepared by ball milling method which was then deposited on the plastic sheet. The characteristic of TiO₂-C thin layer was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. The XRD diffractogram patterns of TiO₂-G thin layer in various weight compositions of 50:1, 50:3, and 50:5 show the 2θ peaks found around 25° and 27° are the main characteristic of TiO₂ and carbon. SEM analysis shows spherical and regular morphology of the photocatalyst. Analysis using UV-Vis diffuse reflectance shows TiO₂-C has narrower band gap energy. The DBD plasma reactor was generated using two electrodes of Cu tape connected with stainless steel mesh and Fe wire separated by a glass dielectric insulator, supplied by a high voltage 5 kV with an air flow rate of 1 L/min. The optimization of the weight composition of TiO₂-C thin layer was studied based on the highest reduction of the MB concentration achieved, examined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The changes in pH values and color of MB indicated the success of MB degradation. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of MB was also studied in various higher concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300 ppm treated for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 min. The degradation efficiency of MB treated in combination system of photocatalysis and DBD plasma reached more than 99% in 6 min, in which the greater concentration of methylene blue dye, the lower degradation rate of methylene blue dye would be achieved.

Keywords: activated carbon, DBD plasma, graphite, methylene blue, photocatalysis

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5 Debris Flow Mapping Using Geographical Information System Based Model and Geospatial Data in Middle Himalayas

Authors: Anand Malik

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The Himalayas with high tectonic activities poses a great threat to human life and property. Climate change is another reason which triggering extreme events multiple fold effect on high mountain glacial environment, rock falls, landslides, debris flows, flash flood and snow avalanches. One such extreme event of cloud burst along with breach of moraine dammed Chorabri Lake occurred from June 14 to June 17, 2013, triggered flooding of Saraswati and Mandakini rivers in the Kedarnath Valley of Rudraprayag district of Uttrakhand state of India. As a result, huge volume of water with its high velocity created a catastrophe of the century, which resulted into loss of large number of human/animals, pilgrimage, tourism, agriculture and property. Thus a comprehensive assessment of debris flow hazards requires GIS-based modeling using numerical methods. The aim of present study is to focus on analysis and mapping of debris flow movements using geospatial data with flow-r (developed by team at IGAR, University of Lausanne). The model is based on combined probabilistic and energetic algorithms for the assessment of spreading of flow with maximum run out distances. Aster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 30m x 30m cell size (resolution) is used as main geospatial data for preparing the run out assessment, while Landsat data is used to analyze land use land cover change in the study area. The results of the study area show that model can be applied with great accuracy as the model is very useful in determining debris flow areas. The results are compared with existing available landslides/debris flow maps. ArcGIS software is used in preparing run out susceptibility maps which can be used in debris flow mitigation and future land use planning.

Keywords: debris flow, geospatial data, GIS based modeling, flow-R

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4 Boundary Crossings: Brahmanical Patriarchy, Power, and Sexual Violence in COVID-19 in Odisha, India

Authors: Saraswati Suna

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The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic and the subsequent lockdown have significantly impacted India's political, structural, and economic systems and a rising gap between the rich and the disadvantaged, upper and lower caste. For Dalit women, such forms of subjugation were followed by socioeconomic uncertainty due to the pandemic's economic shutdown and labour oppressions. Dalit women have been the victims of the most oppression among the nation's underprivileged groups. Dalit women undergo systemic oppression at the hands of the state, caste, class, gender, and religious hegemons historically. Dalit women hold a subordinate position within the gender to their male counterparts and caste to their upper-caste counterparts. This paper examines how Brahminical patriarchy and state power severely affected Dalit/Adivasi women during COVID-19 in Odisha, India. In order to understand caste-based sexual violence, a total of five cases have been analysed from newspapers. Findings revealed that Covid-19 appears to have a significant physical, psychological, and economic impact on Dalit women. The intention of sexual harassment and rape perpetrated by upper caste men is to maintain power and patriarchal culture in society. Dalit women are economically, socially, and culturally marginalised, which effectively exacerbates the sense of impunity by perpetrators of violence against Dalit women. This issue requires special attention to end atrocities against Dalit women. Dalit women become the target of rape, sexual assault, and murder. Sexual violence against Dalit women cannot be fully explained without linkage to caste, gender, and power. Dominant caste comes through caste privilege-socio-economic and politically; these factors contribute to sexual violence against Dalit women. The findings revealed that state police manipulate sexual violence, and in so doing, they create and deny access to both services to get justice. This article has argued that understanding Brahminical culture and the legal impacts of state police on Dalit women's identity requires a nuanced analysis.

Keywords: COVID-19, dalit women, sexual violence, brahminical patriarchy, power

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3 Relation of Consumer Satisfaction on Organization by Focusing on the Different Aspects of Buying Behavior

Authors: I. Gupta, N. Setia

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Introduction. Buyer conduct is a progression of practices or examples that buyers pursue before making a buy. It begins when the shopper ends up mindful of a need or wish for an item, at that point finishes up with the buying exchange. Business visionaries can't generally simply shake hands with their intended interest group people and become more acquainted with them. Research is often necessary, so every organization primarily involves doing continuous research to understand and satisfy consumer needs pattern. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to examine the different behaviors of the consumer, including pre-purchase, purchase, and post-purchase behavior. Materials and Methods: In order to get results, face to face interview held with 80 people which comprise a larger part of female individuals having upper as well as middle-class status. The prime source of data collection was primary. However, the study has also used the theoretical contribution of many researchers in their respective field. Results: Majority of the respondents were females (70%) from the age group of 20-50. The collected data was analyzed through hypothesis testing statistical techniques such as correlation analysis, single regression analysis, and ANOVA which has rejected the null hypothesis that there is no relation between researching the consumer behavior at different stages and organizational performance. The real finding of this study is that simply focusing on the buying part isn't enough to gain profits and fame, however, understanding the pre, buy and post-buy behavior of consumer performs a huge role in organization success. The outcomes demonstrated that the organization, which deals with the three phases of research of purchasing conduct is able to establish a great brand image as compare to their competitors. Alongside, enterprises can observe customer conduct in a considerably more proficient manner. Conclusion: The analyses of consumer behavior presented in this study is an attempt to understand the factors affecting consumer purchasing behavior. This study has revealed that those corporations are more successful, which work on understanding buying behavior instead to just focus on the selling products. As a result, organizations perform good and grow rapidly because consumers are the one who can make or break the company. The interviews that were conducted face to face, clearly revealed that those organizations become at top-notch whom consumers are satisfied, not just with product but also with services of the company. The study is not targeting the particular class of audience; however, it brings out benefits to the masses, in particular to business organizations.

Keywords: consumer behavior, pre purchase, post purchase, consumer satisfaction

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2 Evaluation of Magnificent Event of India with Special Reference to Maha Kumbha Mela (Fair) 2013-A Congregation of Millions

Authors: Sharad Kumar Kulshreshtha

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India is a great land of cultural and traditional diversity. Its spectrums create a unique ambiance in all over the country. Specially, fairs and festivals are ancient phenomena in Indian culture. In India, there are thousands of such religious, spiritual, cultural fairs organized on auspicious occasions. These fairs reflect the effective and efficient role of social governance and responsibility of Indian society. In this context a mega event known as ‘Kumbha Mela’ literally mean ‘Kumbha Fair’ which is organize after every twelve years at (Prayaag) Allahabad an ancient city of India, now is in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Kumbh Mela is one of the largest human congregations on the Earth. The Kumbha Mela that is held here is considered to be the largest and holiest city among the four cities where Kubha fair organize. According to the Hindu religious scripture a dip for possessing the holy confluence, known as Triveni Sangam, which is a meeting point of the three sacred rivers of India i.e., –Ganges, Yamuna and Saraswati (mythical). During the Kumbha fair the River Ganges is believed to turn to nectar, bringing great blessing to everyone who bathes in it. Other activities include religious discussions, devotional singings and mass feedings pilgrims and poor. The venue for Kumbh Mela (fair) depends on the position Sun, Moon, and Jupiter which holds in that period in different zodiac signs. More than 120 Millions (12 Crore) people visited in the Kumbha Fair-2013 in Allahabad. A temporary tented city was set up for the pilgrims over an area of 2 hectares of the land along the river of Ganges. As many as 5 power substations, temporary police stations, hospitals, bus terminals, stalls were set up for providing various facilities to the visitors and thousands of volunteers participated for assistance of this event. All efforts made by fair administration to provide facility to visitors, such security and sanitation, medical care and frequent water and power supply. The efficient and timely arrangement at the Kumbha Mela attracted the attention of many government and institutions. The Harvard University of USA conducted research to find out how it was made possible. This paper will focuses on effective and efficient planning and preparation of Kumbha Fair which includes facilitation process, role of various coordinating agencies. risk management crisis management strategies Prevention, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery (PPRR Approach), emergency response plan (ERP), safety and security issues, various environmental aspects along with health hazards and hygiene crowd management, evacuation, monitoring, control and evaluation.

Keywords: event planning and facility arrangement, risk management, crowd management, India

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1 Living in the Edge: Crisis in Indian Tea Industry and Social Deprivation of Tea Garden Workers in Dooars Region of India

Authors: Saraswati Kerketta

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Tea industry is one of the oldest organised sector of India. It employs roughly 1.5 million people directly. Since the last decade Indian tea industry, especially in the northern region is experiencing worst crisis in the post-independence period. Due to many reason the prices of tea show steady decline. The workers are paid one of the lowest wage in tea industry in the world (1.5$ a day) below the UN's $2 a day for extreme poverty. The workers rely on addition benefits from plantation which includes food, housing and medical facilities. These have been effective means of enslavement of generations of labourers by the owners. There is hardly any change in the tea estates where the owners determine the fate of workers. When the tea garden is abandoned or is closed all the facilities disappear immediately. The workers are the descendants of tribes from central India also known as 'tea tribes'. Alienated from their native place, the geographical and social isolation compounded their vulnerability of these people. The economy of the region being totally dependent on tea has resulted in absolute unemployment for the workers of these tea gardens. With no other livelihood and no land to grow food, thousands of workers faced hunger and starvation. The Plantation Labour Act which ensures the decent working and living condition is violated continuously. The labours are forced to migrate and are also exposed to the risk of human trafficking. Those who are left behind suffers from starvation, malnutrition and disease. The condition in the sick tea plantation is no better. Wage are not paid regularly, subsidised food, fuel are also not supplied properly. Health care facilities are in very bad shape. Objectives: • To study the socio-cultural and demographic characteristics of the tea garden labourers in the study area. • To examine the social situation of workers in sick estates in dooars region. • To assess the magnitude of deprivation the impact of economic crisis on abandoned and closed tea estates in the region. Data Base: The study is based on data collected from field survey. Methods: Quantative: Cross-Tabulation, Regression analysis. Qualitative: Household Survey, Focussed Group Discussion, In-depth interview of key informants. Findings: Purchasing power parity has declined since in last three decades. There has been many fold increase in migration. Males migrates long distance towards central and west and south India. Females and children migrates both long and short distance. No one has reported to migrate back to the place of origin of their ancestors. Migrant males work mostly as construction labourers and as factory workers whereas females and children work as domestic help and construction labourers. In about 37 cases either they haven't contacted their families in last six months or are not traceable. The families with single earning members are more likely to migrate. Burden of disease and the duration of sickness, abandonment and closure of plantation are closely related. Death tolls are likely to rise 1.5 times in sick tea gardens and three times in closed tea estates. Sixty percent of the people are malnourished in the sick tea gardens and more than eighty five per cent in abandoned and sick tea gardens.

Keywords: migration, trafficking, starvation death, tea garden workers

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