Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: gyroscope

36 Symmetrical In-Plane Resonant Gyroscope with Decoupled Modes

Authors: Shady Sayed, Samer Wagdy, Ahmed Badawy, Moutaz M. Hegaze

Abstract:

A symmetrical single mass resonant gyroscope is discussed in this paper. The symmetrical design allows matched resonant frequencies for driving and sensing vibration modes, which leads to amplifying the sensitivity of the gyroscope by the mechanical quality factor of the sense mode. It also achieves decoupled vibration modes for getting a low zero-rate output shift and more stable operation environment. A new suspension beams design is developed to get a symmetrical gyroscope with matched and decoupled modes at the same time. Finite element simulations are performed using ANSYS software package to verify the theoretical calculations. The gyroscope is fabricated from aluminum alloy 2024 substrate, the measured drive and sense resonant frequencies of the fabricated model are matched and equal 81.4 Hz with 5.7% error from the simulation results.

Keywords: decoupled mode shapes, resonant sensor, symmetrical gyroscope, finite element simulation

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35 The Dynamics of a 3D Vibrating and Rotating Disc Gyroscope

Authors: Getachew T. Sedebo, Stephan V. Joubert, Michael Y. Shatalov

Abstract:

Conventional configuration of the vibratory disc gyroscope is based on in-plane non-axisymmetric vibrations of the disc with a prescribed circumferential wave number. Due to the Bryan's effect, the vibrating pattern of the disc becomes sensitive to the axial component of inertial rotation of the disc. Rotation of the vibrating pattern relative to the disc is proportional to the inertial angular rate and is measured by sensors. In the present paper, the authors investigate a possibility of making a 3D sensor on the basis of both in-plane and bending vibrations of the disc resonator. We derive equations of motion for the disc vibratory gyroscope, where both in-plane and bending vibrations are considered. Hamiltonian variational principle is used in setting up equations of motion and the corresponding boundary conditions. The theory of thin shells with the linear elasticity principles is used in formulating the problem and also the disc is assumed to be isotropic and obeys Hooke's Law. The governing equation for a specific mode is converted to an ODE to determine the eigenfunction. The resulting ODE has exact solution as a linear combination of Bessel and Neumann functions. We demonstrate how to obtain an explicit solution and hence the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions for annular disc with fixed inner boundary and free outer boundary. Finally, the characteristics equations are obtained and the corresponding eigenvalues are calculated. The eigenvalues are used for the calculation of tuning conditions of the 3D disc vibratory gyroscope.

Keywords: Bryan’s effect, bending vibrations, disc gyroscope, eigenfunctions, eigenvalues, tuning conditions

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34 Designing of a Micromechanical Gyroscope with Enhanced Bandwidth

Authors: Bator Shagdyrov, Elena Zorina, Tamara Nesterenko

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to develop a design of micromechanical gyroscope, which will be used in the automotive industry, safety systems and anti-lock braking system. The research resulted in improvement of one of the technical parameters – bandwidth. In the process of mass production of micromechanical sensors, problems occurred with their use. One of the problems was a narrow bandwidth typical for the gyroscopes with a high-quality factor. A constructive way of increasing bandwidth is to use multimass systems via secondary oscillations axis. When constructing, the main task was to choose the frequency - phases and antiphases as close to each other as possible, and set the frequency of the primary oscillation evenly between them. Investigations are carried out using the T-Flex CAD finite element program and T-Flex ANALYSIS support package. The results obtained are planned to use in the future for the production of an experimental model of development and testing in practice of characteristics derived by theoretical means.

Keywords: bandwidth, inertial mass, mathematical model, micromechanical gyroscope, micromechanics

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33 Design of a Drift Assist Control System Applied to Remote Control Car

Authors: Sheng-Tse Wu, Wu-Sung Yao

Abstract:

In this paper, a drift assist control system is proposed for remote control (RC) cars to get the perfect drift angle. A steering servo control scheme is given powerfully to assist the drift driving. A gyroscope sensor is included to detect the machine's tail sliding and to achieve a better automatic counter-steering to prevent RC car from spinning. To analysis tire traction and vehicle dynamics is used to obtain the dynamic track of RC cars. It comes with a control gain to adjust counter-steering amount according to the sensor condition. An illustrated example of 1:10 RC drift car is given and the real-time control algorithm is realized by Arduino Uno.

Keywords: drift assist control system, remote control cars, gyroscope, vehicle dynamics

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32 Development of a BriMAIN System for Health Monitoring of Railway Bridges

Authors: Prakher Mishra, Dikshant Bodana, Saloni Desai, Sudhanshu Dixit, Sopan Agarwal, Shriraj Patel

Abstract:

Railways are sometimes lifeline of nations as they consist of huge network of rail lines and bridges. Reportedly many of the bridges are aging, weak, distressed and accident prone. It becomes a really challenging task for Engineers and workers to keep up a regular maintenance schedule for proper functioning which itself is quite a hard hitting job. In this paper we have come up with an innvovative wireless system of maintenance called BriMAIN. In this system we have installed two types of sensors, first one is called a force sensor which will continously analyse the readings of pressure at joints of the bridges and secondly an MPU-6050 triaxial gyroscope+accelerometer which will analyse the deflection of the deck of the bridge. Apart from this a separate database is also being made at the server room so that the data can be visualized by the engineers and a warning can be issued in case reading of the sensors goes above threshold.

Keywords: Accelerometer, B-MAIN, Gyroscope, MPU-6050

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31 1G2A IMU\GPS Integration Algorithm for Land Vehicle Navigation

Authors: O. Maklouf, Ahmed Abdulla

Abstract:

A general decline in the cost, size, and power requirements of electronics is accelerating the adoption of integrated GPS/INS technologies in consumer applications such Land Vehicle Navigation. Researchers are looking for ways to eliminate additional components from product designs. One possibility is to drop one or more of the relatively expensive gyroscopes from microelectromechanical system (MEMS) versions of inertial measurement units (IMUs). For land vehicular use, the most important gyroscope is the vertical gyro that senses the heading of the vehicle and two horizontal accelerometers for determining the velocity of the vehicle. This paper presents a simplified integration algorithm for strap down (ParIMU)\GPS combination, with data post processing for the determination of 2-D components of position (trajectory), velocity and heading. In the present approach we have neglected earth rotation and gravity variations, because of the poor gyroscope sensitivities of the low-cost IMU and because of the relatively small area of the trajectory.

Keywords: GPS, ParIMU, INS, Kalman filter

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30 Investigating Activity Recognition Using 9-Axis Sensors and Filters in Wearable Devices

Authors: Jun Gil Ahn, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze major components of activity recognition (AR) in wearable device with 9-axis sensors and sensor fusion filters. 9-axis sensors commonly include 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We chose sensor fusion filters as Kalman filter and Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) filter. We also construct sensor fusion data from each activity sensor data and perform classification by accuracy of AR using Naïve Bayes and SVM. According to the classification results, we observed that the DCM filter and the specific combination of the sensing axes are more effective for AR in wearable devices while classifying walking, running, ascending and descending.

Keywords: accelerometer, activity recognition, directiona cosine matrix filter, gyroscope, Kalman filter, magnetometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
29 Bluetooth Piconet System for Child Care Applications

Authors: Ching-Sung Wang, Teng-Wei Wang, Zhen-Ting Zheng

Abstract:

This study mainly concerns a safety device designed for child care. When children are out of sight or the caregivers cannot always pay attention to the situation, through the functions of this device, caregivers can immediately be informed to make sure that the children do not get lost or hurt, and thus, ensure their safety. Starting from this concept, a device is produced based on the relatively low-cost Bluetooth piconet system and a three-axis gyroscope sensor. This device can transmit data to a mobile phone app through Bluetooth, in order that the user can learn the situation at any time. By simply clipping the device in a pocket or on the waist, after switching on/starting the device, it will send data to the phone to detect the child’s fall and distance. Once the child is beyond the angle or distance set by the app, it will issue a warning to inform the phone owner.

Keywords: children care, piconet system, three-axis gyroscope, distance detection, falls detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
28 Support Systems for Vehicle Use

Authors: G. González, J. Ramírez, A. Rubiano

Abstract:

This article describes different patented systems for safe use in vehicles based on GPS technology, speed sensors, gyroscopes, maps, communication systems, and monitors, that inform the driver about traffic jam, obstruction in the road, speed limits, among others. Once the information is analyzed and contrasted to final propose new technical needs to be solved.

Keywords: GPS, information technology, telecommunications, communication networks, gyroscope, environmental pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
27 Simplified INS\GPS Integration Algorithm in Land Vehicle Navigation

Authors: Othman Maklouf, Abdunnaser Tresh

Abstract:

Land vehicle navigation is subject of great interest today. Global Positioning System (GPS) is the main navigation system for positioning in such systems. GPS alone is incapable of providing continuous and reliable positioning, because of its inherent dependency on external electromagnetic signals. Inertial Navigation (INS) is the implementation of inertial sensors to determine the position and orientation of a vehicle. The availability of low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) inertial sensors is now making it feasible to develop INS using an inertial measurement unit (IMU). INS has unbounded error growth since the error accumulates at each step. Usually, GPS and INS are integrated with a loosely coupled scheme. With the development of low-cost, MEMS inertial sensors and GPS technology, integrated INS/GPS systems are beginning to meet the growing demands of lower cost, smaller size, and seamless navigation solutions for land vehicles. Although MEMS inertial sensors are very inexpensive compared to conventional sensors, their cost (especially MEMS gyros) is still not acceptable for many low-end civilian applications (for example, commercial car navigation or personal location systems). An efficient way to reduce the expense of these systems is to reduce the number of gyros and accelerometers, therefore, to use a partial IMU (ParIMU) configuration. For land vehicular use, the most important gyroscope is the vertical gyro that senses the heading of the vehicle and two horizontal accelerometers for determining the velocity of the vehicle. This paper presents a field experiment for a low-cost strap down (ParIMU)\GPS combination, with data post processing for the determination of 2-D components of position (trajectory), velocity and heading. In the present approach, we have neglected earth rotation and gravity variations, because of the poor gyroscope sensitivities of our low-cost IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and because of the relatively small area of the trajectory.

Keywords: GPS, IMU, Kalman filter, materials engineering

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26 A Measurement and Motor Control System for Free Throw Shots in Basketball Using Gyroscope Sensor

Authors: Niloofar Zebarjad

Abstract:

This research aims at finding a tool to provide basketball players with real-time audio feedback on their shooting form in free throw shots. Free throws played a pivotal role in taking the lead in fierce competitions. The major problem in performing an accurate free throw seems to be improper training. Since the arm movement during the free throw shot is complex, the coach or the athlete might miss the movement details during practice. Hence, there is a necessity to create a system that measures arm movements' critical characteristics and control for improper kinematics. The proposed setup in this study quantifies arm kinematics and provides real-time feedback as an audio signal consisting of a gyroscope sensor. Spatial shoulder angle data are transmitted in a mobile application in real-time and can be saved and processed for statistical and analysis purposes. The proposed system is easy to use, inexpensive, portable, and real-time applicable. Objectives: This research aims to modify and control the free throw using audio feedback and determine if and to what extent the new setup reduces errors in arm formations during throws and finally assesses the successful throw rate. Methods: One group of elite basketball athletes and two novice athletes (control and study group) participated in this study. Each group contains 5 participants being studied in three separate sessions over a week. Results: Empirical results showed enhancements in the free throw shooting style, shot pocket (SP), and locked position (LP). The mean values of shoulder angle were controlled on 25° and 45° for SP and LP, respectively, recommended by valid FIBA references. Conclusion: Throughout the experiments, the system helped correct and control the shoulder angles toward the targeted pattern of shot pocket (SP) and locked position (LP). According to the desired results for arm motion, adding another sensor to measure and control the elbow angle is recommended.

Keywords: audio-feedback, basketball, free-throw, locked-position, motor-control, shot-pocket

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25 A Smartphone-Based Real-Time Activity Recognition and Fall Detection System

Authors: Manutchanok Jongprasithporn, Rawiphorn Srivilai, Paweena Pongsopha

Abstract:

Fall is the most serious accident leading to increased unintentional injuries and mortality. Falls are not only the cause of suffering and functional impairments to the individuals, but also the cause of increasing medical cost and days away from work. The early detection of falls could be an advantage to reduce fall-related injuries and consequences of falls. Smartphones, embedded accelerometer, have become a common device in everyday life due to decreasing technology cost. This paper explores a physical activity monitoring and fall detection application in smartphones which is a non-invasive biomedical device to determine physical activities and fall event. The combination of application and sensors could perform as a biomedical sensor to monitor physical activities and recognize a fall. We have chosen Android-based smartphone in this study since android operating system is an open-source and no cost. Moreover, android phone users become a majority of Thai’s smartphone users. We developed Thai 3 Axis (TH3AX) as a physical activities and fall detection application which included command, manual, results in Thai language. The smartphone was attached to right hip of 10 young, healthy adult subjects (5 males, 5 females; aged< 35y) to collect accelerometer and gyroscope data during performing physical activities (e.g., walking, running, sitting, and lying down) and falling to determine threshold for each activity. Dependent variables are including accelerometer data (acceleration, peak acceleration, average resultant acceleration, and time between peak acceleration). A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to test whether there are any differences between DVs’ means. Statistical analyses were considered significant at p<0.05. After finding threshold, the results were used as training data for a predictive model of activity recognition. In the future, accuracies of activity recognition will be performed to assess the overall performance of the classifier. Moreover, to help improve the quality of life, our system will be implemented with patients and elderly people who need intensive care in hospitals and nursing homes in Thailand.

Keywords: activity recognition, accelerometer, fall, gyroscope, smartphone

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24 Implementation of Sensor Fusion Structure of 9-Axis Sensors on the Multipoint Control Unit

Authors: Jun Gil Ahn, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the sensor fusion structure on the multipoint control unit (MCU). Sensor fusion using Kalman filter for 9-axis sensors is considered. The 9-axis inertial sensor is the combination of 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We implement the sensor fusion structure among the sensor hubs in MCU and measure the execution time, power consumptions, and total energy. Experiments with real data from 9-axis sensor in 20Mhz show that the average power consumptions are 44mW and 48mW on Cortx-M0 and Cortex-M3 MCU, respectively. Execution times are 613.03 us and 305.6 us respectively.

Keywords: 9-axis sensor, Kalman filter, MCU, sensor fusion

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23 Model Development for Real-Time Human Sitting Posture Detection Using a Camera

Authors: Jheanel E. Estrada, Larry A. Vea

Abstract:

This study developed model to detect proper/improper sitting posture using the built in web camera which detects the upper body points’ location and distances (chin, manubrium and acromion process). It also established relationships of human body frames and proper sitting posture. The models were developed by training some well-known classifiers such as KNN, SVM, MLP, and Decision Tree using the data collected from 60 students of different body frames. Decision Tree classifier demonstrated the most promising model performance with an accuracy of 95.35% and a kappa of 0.907 for head and shoulder posture. Results also showed that there were relationships between body frame and posture through Body Mass Index.

Keywords: posture, spinal points, gyroscope, image processing, ergonomics

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22 Intelligent Diagnostic System of the Onboard Measuring Devices

Authors: Kyaw Zin Htut

Abstract:

In this article, the synthesis of the efficiency of intelligent diagnostic system in the aircraft measuring devices is described. The technology developments of the diagnostic system are considered based on the model errors of the gyro instruments, which are used to measure the parameters of the aircraft. The synthesis of the diagnostic intelligent system is considered on the example of the problem of assessment and forecasting errors of the gyroscope devices on the onboard aircraft. The result of the system is to detect of faults of the aircraft measuring devices as well as the analysis of the measuring equipment to improve the efficiency of its work.

Keywords: diagnostic, dynamic system, errors of gyro instruments, model errors, assessment, prognosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
21 Fuzzy Based Stabilizer Control System for Quad-Rotor

Authors: B. G. Sampath, K. C. R. Perera, W. A. S. I. Wijesuriya, V. P. C. Dassanayake

Abstract:

In this paper the design, development and testing of a stabilizer control system for a Quad-rotor is presented which is focused on the maneuverability. The mechanical design is performed along with the design of the controlling algorithm which is devised using fuzzy logic controller. The inputs for the system are the angular positions and angular rates of the Quad-Rotor relative to three axes. Then the output data is filtered from an accelerometer and a gyroscope through a Kalman filter. In the development of the stability controlling system Mandani Fuzzy Model is incorporated. The results prove that the fuzzy based stabilizer control system is superior in high dynamic disturbances compared to the traditional systems which use PID integrated stabilizer control systems.

Keywords: fuzzy stabilizer, maneuverability, PID, quad-rotor

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20 Balancing and Synchronization Control of a Two Wheel Inverted Pendulum Vehicle

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Shin-Ham Lee, Sheam-Chyun Lin

Abstract:

A two wheel inverted pendulum (TWIP) vehicle is built with two hub DC motors for motion control evaluation. Arduino Nano micro-processor is chosen as the control kernel for this electric test plant. Accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are built in to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum vehicle. Since the TWIP has significantly hub motor dead zone and nonlinear system dynamics characteristics, the vehicle system is difficult to control by traditional model based controller. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm. Then, intelligent controllers are designed for TWIP balance control, and two wheels synchronization control purposes.

Keywords: balance control, synchronization control, two-wheel inverted pendulum, TWIP

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19 Low Cost Inertial Sensors Modeling Using Allan Variance

Authors: A. A. Hussen, I. N. Jleta

Abstract:

Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers and gyroscopes are suitable for the inertial navigation system (INS) of many applications due to the low price, small dimensions and light weight. The main disadvantage in a comparison with classic sensors is a worse long term stability. The estimation accuracy is mostly affected by the time-dependent growth of inertial sensor errors, especially the stochastic errors. In order to eliminate negative effect of these random errors, they must be accurately modeled. Where the key is the successful implementation that depends on how well the noise statistics of the inertial sensors is selected. In this paper, the Allan variance technique will be used in modeling the stochastic errors of the inertial sensors. By performing a simple operation on the entire length of data, a characteristic curve is obtained whose inspection provides a systematic characterization of various random errors contained in the inertial-sensor output data.

Keywords: Allan variance, accelerometer, gyroscope, stochastic errors

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18 Gimbal Structure for the Design of 3D Flywheel System

Authors: Cheng-En Tsai, Chung-Chun Hsiao, Fu-Yuan Chang, Liang-Lun Lan, Jia-Ying Tu

Abstract:

New design of three dimensional (3D) flywheel system based on gimbal and gyro mechanics is proposed. The 3D flywheel device utilizes the rotational motion of three spherical shells and the conservation of angular momentum to achieve planar locomotion. Actuators mounted to the ring-shape frames are installed within the system to drive the spherical shells to rotate, for the purpose of steering and stabilization. Similar to the design of 2D flywheel system, it is expected that the spherical shells may function like a “flyball” to store and supply mechanical energy; additionally, in comparison with typical single-wheel and spherical robots, the 3D flywheel can be used for developing omnidirectional robotic systems with better mobility. The Lagrangian method is applied to derive the equation of motion of the 3D flywheel system, and simulation studies are presented to verify the proposed design.

Keywords: Gimbal, spherical robot, gyroscope, Lagrangian formulation, flyball

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17 Modular Robotics and Terrain Detection Using Inertial Measurement Unit Sensor

Authors: Shubhakar Gupta, Dhruv Prakash, Apoorv Mehta

Abstract:

In this project, we design a modular robot capable of using and switching between multiple methods of propulsion and classifying terrain, based on an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) input. We wanted to make a robot that is not only intelligent in its functioning but also versatile in its physical design. The advantage of a modular robot is that it can be designed to hold several movement-apparatuses, such as wheels, legs for a hexapod or a quadpod setup, propellers for underwater locomotion, and any other solution that may be needed. The robot takes roughness input from a gyroscope and an accelerometer in the IMU, and based on the terrain classification from an artificial neural network; it decides which method of propulsion would best optimize its movement. This provides the bot with adaptability over a set of terrains, which means it can optimize its locomotion on a terrain based on its roughness. A feature like this would be a great asset to have in autonomous exploration or research drones.

Keywords: modular robotics, terrain detection, terrain classification, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
16 Design and Motion Control of a Two-Wheel Inverted Pendulum Robot

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Su-Shean Chen, Sheam-Chyun Lin

Abstract:

Two-wheel inverted pendulum robot (TWIPR) is designed with two-hub DC motors for human riding and motion control evaluation. In order to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum robot, accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are chosen. The mobile robot’s moving position and velocity were estimated based on DC motor built in hall sensors. The control kernel of this electric mobile robot is designed with embedded Arduino Nano microprocessor. A handle bar was designed to work as steering mechanism. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm for this mobile robot motion monitoring with different control purpose adjustment. The intelligent controllers were designed for balance control, and moving speed control purposes of this robot under different operation conditions and the control performance were evaluated based on experimental results.

Keywords: balance control, speed control, intelligent controller, two wheel inverted pendulum

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15 Design and Implementation of Pseudorandom Number Generator Using Android Sensors

Authors: Mochamad Beta Auditama, Yusuf Kurniawan

Abstract:

A smartphone or tablet require a strong randomness to establish secure encrypted communication, encrypt files, etc. Therefore, random number generation is one of the main keys to provide secrecy. Android devices are equipped with hardware-based sensors, such as accelerometer, gyroscope, etc. Each of these sensors provides a stochastic process which has a potential to be used as an extra randomness source, in addition to /dev/random and /dev/urandom pseudorandom number generators. Android sensors can provide randomness automatically. To obtain randomness from Android sensors, each one of Android sensors shall be used to construct an entropy source. After all entropy sources are constructed, output from these entropy sources are combined to provide more entropy. Then, a deterministic process is used to produces a sequence of random bits from the combined output. All of these processes are done in accordance with NIST SP 800-22 and the series of NIST SP 800-90. The operation conditions are done 1) on Android user-space, and 2) the Android device is placed motionless on a desk.

Keywords: Android hardware-based sensor, deterministic process, entropy source, random number generation/generators

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14 Design of Self-Balancing Bicycle Using Object State Detection in Co-Ordinate System

Authors: Mamta M. Barapatre, V. N. Sahare

Abstract:

Since from long time two wheeled vehicle self-balancing has always been a back-breaking task for both human and robots. Leaning a bicycle driving is long time process and goes through building knowledge base for parameter decision making while balancing robots. In order to create this machine learning phase with embedded system the proposed system is designed. The system proposed aims to construct a bicycle automaton, power-driven by an electric motor, which could balance by itself and move along a specific path. This path could be wavy with bumps and varying widths. The key aim was to construct a cycle which self-balances itself by controlling its handle. In order to take a turn, the mass was transferred to the center. In order to maintain the stability, the bicycle bot automatically turned the handle and a turn. Some problems were faced by the team which were Speed, Steering mechanism through mass- distribution (leaning), Center of mass location and gyroscopic effect of its wheel. The idea proposed have potential applications in automation of transportation system and is most efficient.

Keywords: gyroscope-flywheel, accelerometer, servomotor-controller, self stability concept

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13 Turbulence Modeling of Source and Sink Flows

Authors: Israt Jahan Eshita

Abstract:

Flows developed between two parallel disks have many engineering applications. Two types of non-swirling flows can be generated in such a domain. One is purely source flow in disc type domain (outward flow). Other is purely sink flow in disc type domain (inward flow). This situation often appears in some turbo machinery components such as air bearings, heat exchanger, radial diffuser, vortex gyroscope, disc valves, and viscosity meters. The main goal of this paper is to show the mesh convergence, because mesh convergence saves time, and economical to run and increase the efficiency of modeling for both sink and source flow. Then flow field is resolved using a very fine mesh near-wall, using enhanced wall treatment. After that we are going to compare this flow using standard k-epsilon, RNG k-epsilon turbulence models. Lastly compare some experimental data with numerical solution for sink flow. The good agreement of numerical solution with the experimental works validates the current modeling.

Keywords: hydraulic diameter, k-epsilon model, meshes convergence, Reynolds number, RNG model, sink flow, source flow, wall y+

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12 Topographic Mapping of Farmland by Integration of Multiple Sensors on Board Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial System

Authors: Mengmeng Du, Noboru Noguchi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Noriko Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper introduced a topographic mapping system with time-saving and simplicity advantages based on integration of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Post Processing Kinematic Global Positioning System (PPK GPS) data. This topographic mapping system used a low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as a platform to conduct land survey in a low-cost, efficient, and totally autonomous manner. An experiment in a small-scale sugarcane farmland was conducted in Queensland, Australia. Subsequently, we synchronized LiDAR distance measurements that were corrected by using attitude information from gyroscope with PPK GPS coordinates for generation of precision topographic maps, which could be further utilized for such applications like precise land leveling and drainage management. The results indicated that LiDAR distance measurements and PPK GPS altitude reached good accuracy of less than 0.015 m.

Keywords: land survey, light detection and ranging, post processing kinematic global positioning system, precision agriculture, topographic map, unmanned aerial vehicle

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11 Behavior Analysis Based on Nine Degrees of Freedom Sensor for Emergency Rescue Evacuation Support System

Authors: Maeng-Hwan Hyun, Dae-Man Do, Young-Bok Choi

Abstract:

Around the world, there are frequent incidents of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and snowstorms, as well as man made disasters such as fires, arsons, and acts of terror. These diverse and unpredictable adversities have resulted in a number of fatalities and injuries. If disaster occurrence can be assessed quickly and information such as the exact location of the disaster and evacuation routes can be provided, victims can promptly move to safe locations, minimizing losses. This paper proposes a behavior analysis method based on a nine degrees-of-freedom (9-DOF) sensor that is effective for the emergency rescue evacuation support system (ERESS), which is being researched with an objective of providing evacuation support during disasters. Based on experiments performed using the acceleration sensor and the gyroscope sensor in the 9-DOF sensor, data are analyzed for human behavior regarding stationary position, walking, running, and during emergency situation to suggest guidelines for system judgment. Using the results of the experiments performed to determine disaster occurrence, it was confirmed that the proposed method quickly determines whether a disaster has occurred.

Keywords: behavior analysis, nine degrees of freedom sensor, emergency rescue, disaster

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10 Integrated Navigation System Using Simplified Kalman Filter Algorithm

Authors: Othman Maklouf, Abdunnaser Tresh

Abstract:

GPS and inertial navigation system (INS) have complementary qualities that make them ideal use for sensor fusion. The limitations of GPS include occasional high noise content, outages when satellite signals are blocked, interference and low bandwidth. The strengths of GPS include its long-term stability and its capacity to function as a stand-alone navigation system. In contrast, INS is not subject to interference or outages, have high bandwidth and good short-term noise characteristics, but have long-term drift errors and require external information for initialization. A combined system of GPS and INS subsystems can exhibit the robustness, higher bandwidth and better noise characteristics of the inertial system with the long-term stability of GPS. The most common estimation algorithm used in integrated INS/GPS is the Kalman Filter (KF). KF is able to take advantages of these characteristics to provide a common integrated navigation implementation with performance superior to that of either subsystem (GPS or INS). This paper presents a simplified KF algorithm for land vehicle navigation application. In this integration scheme, the GPS derived positions and velocities are used as the update measurements for the INS derived PVA. The KF error state vector in this case includes the navigation parameters as well as the accelerometer and gyroscope error states.

Keywords: GPS, INS, Kalman filter, inertial navigation system

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9 Developing Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for Falls Detection

Authors: Nantakrit Yodpijit, Teppakorn Sittiwanchai

Abstract:

The number of older adults is rising rapidly. The world’s population becomes aging. Falls is one of common and major health problems in the elderly. Falls may lead to acute and chronic injuries and deaths. The fall-prone individuals are at greater risk for decreased quality of life, lowered productivity and poverty, social problems, and additional health problems. A number of studies on falls prevention using fall detection system have been conducted. Many available technologies for fall detection system are laboratory-based and can incur substantial costs for falls prevention. The utilization of alternative technologies can potentially reduce costs. This paper presents the new design and development of a wearable-based fall detection system using an Accelerometer and Gyroscope as motion sensors for the detection of body orientation and movement. Algorithms are developed to differentiate between Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and falls by comparing Threshold-based values with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Results indicate the possibility of using the new threshold-based method with neural network algorithm to reduce the number of false positive (false alarm) and improve the accuracy of fall detection system.

Keywords: aging, algorithm, artificial neural networks (ANN), fall detection system, motion sensorsthreshold

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8 Depth Camera Aided Dead-Reckoning Localization of Autonomous Mobile Robots in Unstructured GNSS-Denied Environments

Authors: David L. Olson, Stephen B. H. Bruder, Adam S. Watkins, Cleon E. Davis

Abstract:

In global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), denied settings such as indoor environments, autonomous mobile robots are often limited to dead-reckoning navigation techniques to determine their position, velocity, and attitude (PVA). Localization is typically accomplished by employing an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which, while precise in nature, accumulates errors rapidly and severely degrades the localization solution. Standard sensor fusion methods, such as Kalman filtering, aim to fuse precise IMU measurements with accurate aiding sensors to establish a precise and accurate solution. In indoor environments, where GNSS and no other a priori information is known about the environment, effective sensor fusion is difficult to achieve, as accurate aiding sensor choices are sparse. However, an opportunity arises by employing a depth camera in the indoor environment. A depth camera can capture point clouds of the surrounding floors and walls. Extracting attitude from these surfaces can serve as an accurate aiding source, which directly combats errors that arise due to gyroscope imperfections. This configuration for sensor fusion leads to a dramatic reduction of PVA error compared to traditional aiding sensor configurations. This paper provides the theoretical basis for the depth camera aiding sensor method, initial expectations of performance benefit via simulation, and hardware implementation, thus verifying its veracity. Hardware implementation is performed on the Quanser Qbot 2™ mobile robot, with a Vector-Nav VN-200™ IMU and Kinect™ camera from Microsoft.

Keywords: autonomous mobile robotics, dead reckoning, depth camera, inertial navigation, Kalman filtering, localization, sensor fusion

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7 Wearable Jacket for Game-Based Post-Stroke Arm Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Raj Kumar, A. Okunseinde, P. Raghavan, V. Kapila

Abstract:

Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. With recent advances in immediate post-stroke care, there is an increasing number of young stroke survivors, under the age of 65 years. While most stroke survivors will regain the ability to walk, they often experience long-term arm and hand motor impairments. Long term upper limb rehabilitation is needed to restore movement and function, and prevent deterioration from complications such as learned non-use and learned bad-use. We have developed a novel virtual coach, a wearable instrumented rehabilitation jacket, to motivate individuals to participate in long-term skill re-learning, that can be personalized to their impairment profile. The jacket can estimate the movements of an individual’s arms using embedded off-the-shelf sensors (e.g., 9-DOF IMU for inertial measurements, flex-sensors for measuring angular orientation of fingers) and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) powered microcontroller (e.g., RFduino) to non-intrusively extract data. The 9-DOF IMU sensors contain 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope, and 3-axis magnetometer to compute the quaternions, which are transmitted to a computer to compute the Euler angles and estimate the angular orientation of the arms. The data are used in a gaming environment to provide visual, and/or haptic feedback for goal-based, augmented-reality training to facilitate re-learning in a cost-effective, evidence-based manner. The full paper will elaborate the technical aspects of communication, interactive gaming environment, and physical aspects of electronics necessary to achieve our stated goal. Moreover, the paper will suggest methods to utilize the proposed system as a cheaper, portable, and versatile system vis-à-vis existing instrumentation to facilitate post-stroke personalized arm rehabilitation.

Keywords: feedback, gaming, Euler angles, rehabilitation, augmented reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 185