Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3827

Search results for: open ground storey

3827 Magnification Factor Based Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Frames with Open Ground Storey

Authors: Subzar Ahmad Bhat, Saraswati Setia, V. K.Sehgal


During the past earthquakes, open ground storey buildings have performed poorly due to the soft storey defect. Indian Standard IS 1893:2002 allows analysis of open ground storey buildings without considering infill stiffness but with a multiplication factor 2.5 in compensation for the stiffness discontinuity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to check the applicability of the multiplication factor of 2.5 and study behaviour of the structure after the application of the multiplication factor. For this purpose, study is performed on models considering infill stiffness using SAP 2000 (Version 14) by linear static analysis and response spectrum analysis. Total seven models are analysed and designed for the range of multiplication factor ranging from 1.25 to 2.5. The value of multiplication factor equal to 2.5 has been found on the higher side, resulting in increased dimension and percentage of reinforcement without significant enhancement beyond a certain multiplication factor. When the building with OGS is designed for values of MF higher than 1.25 considering infill stiffness soft storey effect shifts from ground storey to first storey. For the analysis of the OGS structure best way to analysis the structure is to analyse it as the frame with stiffness and strength of the infill taken into account. The provision of infill walls in the upper storeys enhances the performance of the structure in terms of displacement and storey drift controls.

Keywords: open ground storey, multiplication factor, IS 1893:2002 provisions, static analysis, response spectrum analysis, infill stiffness, equivalent strut

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3826 Seismic Retrofitting of RC Buildings with Soft Storey and Floating Columns

Authors: Vinay Agrawal, Suyash Garg, Ravindra Nagar, Vinay Chandwani


Open ground storey with floating columns is a typical feature in the modern multistory constructions in urban India. Such features are very much undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas. The present study proposes a feasible solution to mitigate the effects caused due to non-uniformity of stiffness and discontinuity in load path and to simultaneously hold the functional use of the open storey particularly under the floating column, through a combination of various lateral strengthening systems. An investigation is performed on an example building with nine different analytical models to bring out the importance of recognising the presence of open ground storey and floating columns. Two separate analyses on various models of the building namely, the equivalent static analysis and the response spectrum analysis as per IS: 1893-2002 were performed. Various measures such as incorporation of Chevron bracings and shear walls, strengthening the columns in the open ground storey, and their different combinations were examined. The analysis shows that, in comparison to two short ones separated by interconnecting beams, the structural walls are most effective when placed at the periphery of the buildings and used as one long structural wall. Further, it can be shown that the force transfer from floating columns becomes less horizontal when the Chevron Bracings are placed just below them, thereby reducing the shear forces in the beams on which the floating column rests.

Keywords: equivalent static analysis, floating column, open ground storey, response spectrum analysis, shear wall, stiffness irregularity

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3825 Fragility Assessment for Vertically Irregular Buildings with Soft Storey

Authors: N. Akhavan, Sh. Tavousi Tafreshi, A. Ghasemi


Seismic behavior of irregular structures through the past decades indicate that the stated buildings do not have appropriate performance. Among these subjects, the current paper has investigated the behavior of special steel moment frame with different configuration of soft storey vertically. The analyzing procedure has been evaluated with respect to incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), and numeric process was carried out by OpenSees finite element analysis package. To this end, nine 2D steel frames, with different numbers of stories and irregularity positions, which were subjected to seven pairs of ground motion records orthogonally with respect to Ibarra-Krawinkler deterioration model, have been investigated. This paper aims at evaluating the response of two-dimensional buildings incorporating soft storey which subjected to bi-directional seismic excitation. The IDAs were implemented for different stages of PGA with various ground motion records, in order to determine maximum inter-storey drift ratio. According to statistical elements and fracture range (standard deviation), the vulnerability or exceedance from above-mentioned cases has been examined. For this reason, fragility curves for different placement of soft storey in the first, middle and the last floor for 4, 8, and 16 storey buildings have been generated and compared properly.

Keywords: special steel moment frame, soft storey, incremental dynamic analysis, fragility curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
3824 Probabilistic Seismic Loss Assessment of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Frame Buildings Pre- and Post-Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Flora, A. Di Lascio, D. Cardone, G. Gesualdi, G. Perrone


This paper considers the seismic assessment and retrofit of a pilotis-type RC frame building, which was designed for gravity loads only, prior to the introduction of seismic design provisions. Pilotis-type RC frame buildings, featuring an uniform infill throughout the height and an open ground floor, were, and still are, quite popular all over the world, as they offer large open areas very suitable for retail space at the ground floor. These architectural advantages, however, are of detriment to the building seismic behavior, as they can determine a soft-storey collapse mechanism. Extensive numerical analyses are carried out to quantify and benchmark the performance of the selected building, both in terms of overall collapse capacity and expected losses. Alternative retrofit strategies are then examined, including: (i) steel jacketing of RC columns and beam-column joints, (ii) steel bracing and (iv) seismic isolation. The Expected Annual Loss (EAL) of the selected case-study building, pre- and post-rehabilitation, is evaluated, following a probabilistic approach. The breakeven time of each solution is computed, comparing the initial cost of the retrofit intervention with expected benefit in terms of EAL reduction.

Keywords: expected annual loss, reinforced concrete buildings, seismic loss assessment, seismic retrofit

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3823 Seismic Behaviour of Bi-Symmetric Buildings

Authors: Yogendra Singh, Mayur Pisode


Many times it is observed that in multi-storeyed buildings the dynamic properties in the two directions are similar due to which there may be a coupling between the two orthogonal modes of the building. This is particularly observed in bi-symmetric buildings (buildings with structural properties and periods approximately equal in the two directions). There is a swapping of vibrational energy between the modes in the two orthogonal directions. To avoid this coupling the draft revision of IS:1893 proposes a minimum separation of more than 15% between the frequencies of the fundamental modes in the two directions. This study explores the seismic behaviour of bi-symmetrical buildings under uniaxial and bi-axial ground motions. For this purpose, three different types of 8 storey buildings symmetric in plan are modelled. The first building has square columns, resulting in identical periods in the two directions. The second building, with rectangular columns, has a difference of 20% in periods in orthogonal directions, and the third building has half of the rectangular columns aligned in one direction and other half aligned in the other direction. The numerical analysis of the seismic response of these three buildings is performed by using a set of 22 ground motions from PEER NGA database and scaled as per FEMA P695 guidelines to represent the same level of intensity corresponding to the Design Basis Earthquake. The results are analyzed in terms of the displacement-time response of the buildings at roof level and corresponding maximum inter-storey drift ratios.

Keywords: bi-symmetric buildings, design code, dynamic coupling, multi-storey buildings, seismic response

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3822 Seismic Response Control of 20-Storey Benchmark Building Using True Negative Stiffness Device

Authors: Asim Qureshi, R. S. Jangid


Seismic response control of structures is generally achieved by using control devices which either dissipate the input energy or modify the dynamic properties of structure.In this paper, the response of a 20-storey benchmark building supplemented by viscous dampers and Negative Stiffness Device (NSD) is assessed by numerical simulations using the Newmark-beta method. True negative stiffness is an adaptive passive device which assists the motion unlike positive stiffness. The structure used in this study is subjected to four standard ground motions varying from moderate to severe, near fault to far-field earthquakes. The objective of the present study is to show the effectiveness of the adaptive negative stiffness device (NSD and passive dampers together) relative to passive dampers alone. This is done by comparing the responses of the above uncontrolled structure (i.e., without any device) with the structure having passive dampers only and also with the structure supplemented with adaptive negative stiffness device. Various performance indices, top floor displacement, top floor acceleration and inter-storey drifts are used as comparison parameters. It is found that NSD together with passive dampers is quite effective in reducing the response of aforementioned structure relative to structure without any device or passive dampers only. Base shear and acceleration is reduced significantly by incorporating NSD at the cost of increased inter-storey drifts which can be compensated using the passive dampers.

Keywords: adaptive negative stiffness device, apparent yielding, NSD, passive dampers

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3821 Impact of Natural Period and Epicentral Distance on Storey Lateral Displacements

Authors: Saida Dorbani, M'hammed Badaoui, Djilali Benouar


This paper deals with the effect of the building design and epicentral distance on the storey lateral displacement, for several reinforced concrete buildings (6, 9 and 12 stories), with three floor plans: symmetric, mono symmetric, and unsymmetrical. These structures are subjected to seismic accelerations from the Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 21st, Mw=6.5). The objective of this study is to highlight the impact of the fundamental period and epicentral distance on storey displacements for a given earthquake. The seismic lateral displacement is carried out in both longitudinal and transverse direction by the response spectrum method.

Keywords: natural period, epicenter distance, reinforced concrete buildings, storey displacement

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3820 Seismic Analysis of URM Buildings in South Africa

Authors: Trevor N. Haas, Thomas van der Kolf


South Africa has some regions which are susceptible to moderate seismic activity. A peak ground acceleration of between 0.1g and 0.15g can be expected in the southern parts of the Western Cape. Unreinforced Masonry (URM) is commonly used as a construction material for 2 to 5 storey buildings in underprivileged areas in and around Cape Town. URM is typically regarded as the material most vulnerable to damage when subjected to earthquake excitation. In this study, a three-storey URM building was analysed by applying seven earthquake time-histories, which can be expected to occur in South Africa using a finite element approach. Experimental data was used to calibrate the in- and out-of-plane stiffness of the URM. The results indicated that tensile cracking of the in-plane piers was the dominant failure mode. It is concluded that URM buildings of this type are at risk of failure especially if sufficient ductility is not provided. The results also showed that connection failure must be investigated further.

Keywords: URM, seismic analysis, FEM, Cape Town

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
3819 Fuzzy Expert Approach for Risk Mitigation on Functional Urban Areas Affected by Anthropogenic Ground Movements

Authors: Agnieszka A. Malinowska, R. Hejmanowski


A number of European cities are strongly affected by ground movements caused by anthropogenic activities or post-anthropogenic metamorphosis. Those are mainly water pumping, current mining operation, the collapse of post-mining underground voids or mining-induced earthquakes. These activities lead to large and small-scale ground displacements and a ground ruptures. The ground movements occurring in urban areas could considerably affect stability and safety of structures and infrastructures. The complexity of the ground deformation phenomenon in relation to the structures and infrastructures vulnerability leads to considerable constraints in assessing the threat of those objects. However, the increase of access to the free software and satellite data could pave the way for developing new methods and strategies for environmental risk mitigation and management. Open source geographical information systems (OS GIS), may support data integration, management, and risk analysis. Lately, developed methods based on fuzzy logic and experts methods for buildings and infrastructure damage risk assessment could be integrated into OS GIS. Those methods were verified base on back analysis proving their accuracy. Moreover, those methods could be supported by ground displacement observation. Based on freely available data from European Space Agency and free software, ground deformation could be estimated. The main innovation presented in the paper is the application of open source software (OS GIS) for integration developed models and assessment of the threat of urban areas. Those approaches will be reinforced by analysis of ground movement based on free satellite data. Those data would support the verification of ground movement prediction models. Moreover, satellite data will enable our mapping of ground deformation in urbanized areas. Developed models and methods have been implemented in one of the urban areas hazarded by underground mining activity. Vulnerability maps supported by satellite ground movement observation would mitigate the hazards of land displacements in urban areas close to mines.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, open source geographic information science (OS GIS), risk assessment on urbanized areas, satellite interferometry (InSAR)

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3818 Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction in Buildings

Authors: Shreya Thusoo, Karan Modi, Ankit Kumar Jha, Rajesh Kumar


Since the evolution of computational tools and simulation software, there has been considerable increase in research on Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) to decrease the computational time and increase accuracy in the results. To aid the designer with a proper understanding of the response of structure in different soil types, the presented paper compares the deformation, shear stress, acceleration and other parameters of multi-storey building for a specific input ground motion using Response-spectrum Analysis (RSA) method. The response of all the models of different heights have been compared in different soil types. Finite Element Simulation software, ANSYS, has been used for all the computational purposes. Overall, higher response is observed with SSI, while it increases with decreasing stiffness of soil.

Keywords: soil-structure interaction, response spectrum, analysis, finite element method, multi-storey buildings

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3817 Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers

Authors: G. A. Florides, E. Theofanous, I. Iosif-Stylianou, P. Christodoulides, S. Kalogirou, V. Messarites, Z. Zomeni, E. Tsiolakis, P. D. Pouloupatis, G. P. Panayiotou


Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.

Keywords: ground heat exchangers, ground thermal conductivity, ground thermal diffusivity, ground thermal properties

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3816 A Case Study of the Ground Collapse Due to Excavation Using Non-Destructive Testing

Authors: Ki-Cheong Yoo, Yushik Han, Heejeung Sohn, Jinwoo Kim


A ground collapse can be caused by natural and artificial factors. Ground collapses that have occurred frequently in Korea were observed and classified into different types by the main contributing factor. In this study, ground collapse induced by groundwater level disturbance in an excavation site was analyzed. Also, ground loosening region around the excavation site was detected and analyzed using non-destructive testing, such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) survey and Electrical Resistivity. The result of the surveys showed that the ground was loosened widely over the surrounding area of the excavation due to groundwater discharge.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, ground collapse, groundwater level, GPR (ground penetrating radar)

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
3815 Using Seismic Base Isolation Systems in High-Rise Hospital Buildings and a Hybrid Proposal

Authors: Elif Bakkaloglu, Necdet Torunbalci


The fact of earthquakes in Turkiye is an inevitable natural disaster. Therefore, buildings must be prepared for this natural hazard. Especially in hospital buildings, earthquake resistance is an essential point because hospitals are one of the first places where people come after an earthquake. Although hospital buildings are more suitable for horizontal architecture, it is necessary to construct and expand multi-storey hospital buildings due to difficulties in finding suitable places as a result of excessive urbanization, difficulties in obtaining appropriate size land and decrease in suitable places and increase in land values. In Turkiye, using seismic isolators in public hospitals, which are placed in first-degree earthquake zone and have more than 100 beds, is made obligatory by general instruction. As a result of this decision, it may sometimes be necessary to construct seismic isolated multi-storey hospital buildings in cities where those problems are experienced. Although widespread use of seismic isolators in Japan, there are few multi-storey buildings in which seismic isolators are used in Turkiye. As it is known, base isolation systems are the most effective methods of earthquake resistance, as number of floors increases, center of gravity moves away from base in multi-storey buildings, increasing the overturning effect and limiting the use of these systems. In this context, it is aimed to investigate structural systems of multi-storey buildings which built using seismic isolation methods in the World. In addition to this, a working principle is suggested for disseminating seismic isolators in multi-storey hospital buildings. The results to be obtained from the study will guide architects who design multi-storey hospital buildings in their architectural designs and engineers in terms of structural system design.

Keywords: earthquake, energy absorbing systems, hospital, seismic isolation systems

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3814 Technology Planning with Internal and External Resource for Open Innovation

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon


Technology planning with both internal capacity and external resource is necessary for successful open innovation. Until now, many types of research have been conducted for this issue. However, technology planning for open innovation at the national level has not been researched sufficiently. This study proposes Open roadmap for open innovation at the national level. The proposed open roadmap can manage the inflow & outflow open innovation systematically. Six types of open roadmap are classified with respect to the innovation direction and characteristics. The proposed open roadmap is applied to the open innovation cases of the Roman period. The proposed open roadmap is expected to be helpful tool for technology policy planning at the national level.

Keywords: technology planning, open innovation, internal resource, external resource, technology management

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3813 Analysis and Design of Dual-Polarization Antennas for Wireless Communication Systems

Authors: Vladimir Veremey


The paper describes the design and simulation of dual-polarization antennas that use the resonance and radiating properties of the H00 mode of metal open waveguides. The proposed antennas are formed by two orthogonal slots in a finite conducting ground plane. The slots are backed by metal screens connected to the ground plane forming open waveguides. It has been shown that the antenna designs can be efficiently used in mm-wave bands. The antenna single mode operational bandwidth is higher than 10%. The antenna designs are very simple and low-cost. They allow flush installation and can be efficiently used in various communication and remote sensing devices on fast moving carriers. Mutual coupling between antennas of the proposed design is very low. Thus, multiple antenna structures with proposed antennas can be efficiently employed in multi-band and in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems.

Keywords: antenna, antenna arrays, Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO), millimeter wave bands, slot antenna, flush installation, directivity, open waveguide, conformal antennas

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
3812 Dynamic Response Analysis of Structure with Random Parameters

Authors: Ahmed Guerine, Ali El Hafidi, Bruno Martin, Philippe Leclaire


In this paper, we propose a method for the dynamic response of multi-storey structures with uncertain-but-bounded parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example of three-storey structures. This equation is integrated numerically using Newmark’s method. The numerical results are obtained by the proposed method. The simulation accounting the interval analysis method results are compared with a probabilistic approach results. The interval analysis method provides a mean curve that is between an upper and lower bound obtained from the probabilistic approach.

Keywords: multi-storey structure, dynamic response, interval analysis method, random parameters

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3811 Effects of Near-Fault Ground Motions on Earthquake-Induced Pounding Response of RC Buildings

Authors: Mehmet Akköse


In ground motions recorded in recent major earthquakes such as 1994 Northridge earthquake in US, 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan, 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, and 1999 Kocaeli earthquake in Turkey, it is noticed that they have large velocity pulses. The ground motions with the velocity pulses recorded in the vicinity of an earthquake fault are quite different from the usual far-fault earthquake ground motions. The velocity pulse duration in the near-fault ground motions is larger than 1.0 sec. In addition, the ratio of the peak ground velocity (PGV) to the peak ground acceleration (PGA) of the near-fault ground motions is larger than 0.1 sec. The ground motions having these characteristics expose the structure to high input energy in the beginning of the earthquake and cause large structural responses. Therefore, structural response to near-fault ground motions has received much attention in recent years. Interactions between neighboring, inadequately separated buildings have been repeatedly observed during earthquakes. This phenomenon often referred to as earthquake-induced structural pounding, may result in substantial damage or even total destruction of colliding structures during strong ground motions. This study focuses on effects of near-fault ground motions on earthquake-induced pounding response of RC buildings. The program SAP2000 is employed in the response calculations. The results obtained from the pounding analyses for near-fault and far-fault ground motions are compared with each other.

Keywords: near-fault ground motion, pounding analysis, RC buildings, SAP2000

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
3810 A General Strategy for Noise Assessment in Open Mining Industries

Authors: Diego Mauricio Murillo Gomez, Enney Leon Gonzalez Ramirez, Hugo Piedrahita, Jairo Yate


This paper proposes a methodology for the management of noise in open mining industries based on an integral concept, which takes into consideration occupational and environmental noise as a whole. The approach relies on the characterization of sources, the combination of several measurements’ techniques and the use of acoustic prediction software. A discussion about the difference between frequently used acoustic indicators such as Leq and LAV is carried out, aiming to establish common ground for homologation. The results show that the correct integration of this data not only allows for a more robust technical analysis but also for a more strategic route of intervention as several departments of the company are working together. Noise control measurements can be designed to provide a healthy acoustic surrounding in which the exposure workers but also the outdoor community is benefited.

Keywords: environmental noise, noise control, occupational noise, open mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
3809 A Case Study of Open Source Development Practices within a Large Company Setting

Authors: Alma Orucevic-Alagic, Martin Höst


Open source communities have demonstrated that complex and enterprise grade software can be produced, supported, and maintained by self-organizing groups of developers using primarily electronic form of communication. Due to the inherent nature of open source development, a specific set of open source software development practices has evolved. While there is an ongoing research on the topic of applicability of open source development practices within a company setting, still little is known about their benefits and challenges. The objective of this research is to understand if and to what degree open source development practices observed within a mature open source community are aligned with development practices within a large software and hardware company setting. For the purpose of this case study a set of open source development practices that are present in a mature open source community has been identified. Then, development practices of a large, international, hardware and software company based in Sweden were assessed and compared to the identified open source community practices. It is shown that there are many similarities between a mature open source community and a large company setting in regard to software development practices. We also identify practices that exist in open source communities and that are not standard within a company setting, but whose implementation can result in an improved software development efficiency within the company setting.

Keywords: development practices, open source software, innersource, closed open source

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3808 Behavior Factors Evaluation for Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan, Naveed Ahmad, Akhtar Naeem Khan


Seismic behavior factors are evaluated for the performance assessment of low rise reinforced concrete RC frame structures based on experimental study of unidirectional dynamic shake table testing of two 1/3rd reduced scaled two storey frames, with a code confirming special moment resisting frame (SMRF) model and a noncompliant model of similar characteristics but built in low strength concrete .The models were subjected to a scaled accelerogram record of 1994 Northridge earthquake to deformed the test models to final collapse stage in order to obtain the structural response parameters. The fully compliant model was observed with more stable beam-sway response, experiencing beam flexure yielding and ground-storey column base yielding upon subjecting to 100% of the record. The response modification factor - R factor obtained for the code complaint and deficient prototype structures were 7.5 and 4.5 respectively, which is about 10% and 40% less than the UBC-97 specified value for special moment resisting reinforced concrete frame structures.

Keywords: Northridge 1994 earthquake, reinforced concrete frame, response modification factor, shake table testing

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3807 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Abdelazim Ibrahim


Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.

Keywords: rock, slope, stabilization, protection, Makkah

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3806 Natural Ventilation around and through Building: A Numerical Study

Authors: A. Kaddour, S. M. A. Bekkouche


Limiting heat losses during ventilation of indoor building spaces has become a basic aim for architects. Much experience has been gained in terms of ventilation of indoor spaces. Nevertheless, due to the complex applications, attempts to create a theoretical base for solving the problems related to the issue are limited, especially determining the minimum ventilation period required within a designated space. In this paper we have approached this matter, both theoretically and computationally. The conclusion we reached was that controlled ventilation of spaces through vent holes that successively open and close at regular time intervals can limit the excessive circulation of air masses, which in turn limits heat losses. Air change rates through open and tilted windows in rooms of residential buildings driven by atmospheric motions are investigated to evaluate natural ventilation concepts. Model of thermal building simulations is used. A separated sample storey and a sample single room in larger scales were used to measure air transport through window openings under the influence of the external pressure distribution.

Keywords: natural ventilation, temperature factor, air change rates, air circulation

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3805 Effect of Column Stiffness and Orientation on Seismic Behaviour of Buildings with Vertical Irregularities

Authors: Saraswati Verma, Ankit Batra


In the modern day, structures are designed with a lot of complexities due to economical, aesthetical, and functional needs causing various levels of irregularities to be induced. In the past, several studies have repeatedly shown that irregular structures suffer more damage than regular structures during earthquakes. The present study makes an effort to study the contribution of the orientation of columns in the seismic behaviour of buildings with vertical irregularities namely, soft storey irregularity, mass irregularity and geometric irregularity. The response of the various models is analysed using sap2000 version 14. The parameters through which a comparative response is investigated are displacement, variation in the stiffness contribution, and inter-storey drift. Models with different configurations of column orientations were studied for each vertical irregularity and it was observed that column orientation contributed significantly in affecting a better seismic response. Square columns of the same cross-sectional area showed a good response as compared to that of rectangular columns. The study concludes that as displacement values for buildings with a soft storey and mass irregularity are very high, square columns could be used to minimise the effect of displacement in x and y-axis. In buildings with geometric irregularity, exterior column orientations can be played with to enhance the stiffness in the shorter direction to control the displacement and drift values in both x and y directions.

Keywords: soft storey, mass irregularity, geometric irregularity, column orientation, square column

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3804 Studies on Race Car Aerodynamics at Wing in Ground Effect

Authors: Dharni Vasudhevan Venkatesan, K. E. Shanjay, H. Sujith Kumar, N. A. Abhilash, D. Aswin Ram, V. R. Sanal Kumar


Numerical studies on race car aerodynamics at wing in ground effect have been carried out using a steady 3d, double precision, pressure-based, and standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Through various parametric analytical studies we have observed that at a particular speed and ground clearance of the wings a favorable negative lift was found high at a particular angle of attack for all the physical models considered in this paper. The fact is that if the ground clearance height to chord length (h/c) is too small, the developing boundary layers from either side (the ground and the lower surface of the wing) can interact, leading to an altered variation of the aerodynamic characteristics at wing in ground effect. Therefore a suitable ground clearance must be predicted throughout the racing for a better performance of the race car, which obviously depends upon the coupled effects of the topography, wing orientation with respect to the ground, the incoming flow features and/or the race car speed. We have concluded that for the design of high performance and high speed race cars the adjustable wings capable to alter the ground clearance and the angles of attack is the best design option for any race car for racing safely with variable speeds.

Keywords: external aerodynamics, external flow choking, race car aerodynamics, wing in ground effect

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3803 Vertical Accuracy Evaluation of Indian National DEM (CartoDEM v3) Using Dual Frequency GNSS Derived Ground Control Points for Lower Tapi Basin, Western India

Authors: Jaypalsinh B. Parmar, Pintu Nakrani, Ashish Chaurasia


Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is considered as an important data in GIS-based terrain analysis for many applications and assessment of processes such as environmental and climate change studies, hydrologic modelling, etc. Vertical accuracy of DEM having geographically dynamic nature depends on different parameters which affect the model simulation outcomes. Vertical accuracy assessment in Indian landscape especially in low-lying coastal urban terrain such as lower Tapi Basin is very limited. In the present study, attempt has been made to evaluate the vertical accuracy of 30m resolution open source Indian National Cartosat-1 DEM v3 for Lower Tapi Basin (LTB) from western India. The extensive field investigation is carried out using stratified random fast static DGPS survey in the entire study region, and 117 high accuracy ground control points (GCPs) have been obtained. The above open source DEM was compared with obtained GCPs, and different statistical attributes were envisaged, and vertical error histograms were also evaluated.

Keywords: CartoDEM, Digital Elevation Model, GPS, lower Tapi basin

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3802 Translational and Rotational Effect of Earthquake Ground Motion on a Bridge Substructure

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Gitartha Kalita


In this study a four span box girder bridge is considered and effect of the rotational and translational earthquake ground motion have been thoroughly investigated. This study is motivated by the fact that in many countries the translational and rotational components of earthquake ground motion, especially rocking, is not adequately considered in analysing the overall response of the structures subjected to earthquake ground excitations. Much consideration is given to only the horizontal components of the earthquake ground motion during the response analysis of structures. In the present research work, P waves, SV waves and Rayleigh wave excitations are considered for different angle of incidence. In the present paper, the four span bridge is model considering the effects of vertical and rocking components of P, SV and Rayleigh wave excitations. Ground responses namely displacement, velocity and acceleration of the substructures of the bridge have been considered for rotational and translational effects in addition to the horizontal ground motion due to earthquake and wind.

Keywords: ground motion, response, rotational effects, translational effects

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3801 Impact of Schools' Open and Semi-Open Spaces on Student's Studying Behavior

Authors: Chaithanya Pothuganti


Open and semi-open spaces in educational buildings like corridors, mid landings, seating spaces, lobby, courtyards are traditionally have been the places of social communion and interaction which helps in promoting the knowledge, performance, activeness, and motivation in students. Factors like availability of land, commercialization, of educational facilities, especially in e-techno and smart schools, led to closed classrooms to accommodate students thereby lack quality open and semi-open spaces. This insufficient attention towards open space design which is a means of informal learning misses an opportunity to encourage the student’s skill development, behavior and learning skills. The core objective of this paper is to find the level of impact on student learning behavior and to identify the suitable proportions and configuration of spaces that shape the schools. In order to achieve this, different types of open spaces in schools and their impact on student’s performance in various existing models are analysed using case studies to draw some design principles. The study is limited to indoor open spaces like corridors, break out spaces and courtyards. The expected outcome of the paper is to suggest better design considerations for the development of semi-open and open spaces which functions as an element for informal learnings. Its focus is to provide further thinking on designing and development of open spaces in educational buildings.

Keywords: configuration of spaces and proportions, informal learning, open spaces, schools, student’s behavior

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3800 Open Minds but Closed Access: Why Are There so Few Gold Open Access LIS Journals And Why Are so Many Librarians Unwilling to Unlock Their Scholarship?

Authors: Sarah Baker, Jayati Chaudhuri


Librarians have embraced the open access movement in all disciplines but their own. They are strong advocates on college campuses and curate institutional repositories, yet there are surprisingly few open access LIS journals. Presenters evaluated the open access availability of library and information science literature. After analyzing the top 100 library science journals (the top 50 journals from Scimago and JCR) and finding very few gold open access journals, they then investigated the availability of open access articles from the top 10 closed access journals. Presenters would like to generate a conversation on what type of proactive approach librarians can take to increase open access to literature within our discipline. Librarians like their colleagues in other disciplines are not motivated to submit their articles to their institutional repositories. Presenters have found a similar reluctance from their fellow colleagues regarding open access initiatives on campus. Presenters will describe Open Access Week activities as part of a campus-wide initiative and share some faculty comments, concerns, and misconceptions that came up as a part of this dialog. Presenters will discuss their personal experiences providing access to faculty publications through the California State University Los Angeles institutional repository.

Keywords: faculty scholarship, institutional repositories, library and information science journals, open access

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3799 Peace Based Diplomacy, Peace Communication and Peace Lobbying in the Example of Turkey-France Relations

Authors: Bilgehan Gültekin, Tuba Gültekin


The first stage to procure peace communication is to construct a mutual accordance, which can be defined as: To constitute reconciliation ground in order to open and constitute the right peace and dialogue areas. For example: In Turkey’s EU entry process, in order to procure French public opinion, to constitute a communication frame is a must. For the constitution of this frame, the titles of discussion in which it will be moved and for which French public opinion will show its support must be determined. The most important title of this ground is Turkey’s peace potential for Europe with its strategic position. For this reason, it’s is so strategic for peace communication that Turkey’s contributions for Europe and World should be opened up for discussion in public opinion in France and be introduced as a strong accordance ground.Peace based diplomacy, peace communication strategies and peace lobbying in the example of Turkey-France relations presents a strong peace titles.

Keywords: intercultural communication, mediation education, common sense leaders, artistic sensitivity

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3798 Design and Parametric Analysis of Pentaband Meander Line Antenna for Mobile Handset Applications

Authors: Shrinivas P. Mahajan, Aarti C. Kshirsagar


Wireless communication technology is rapidly changing with recent developments in portable devices and communication protocols. This has generated demand for more advanced and compact antenna structures and therefore, proposed work focuses on Meander Line Antenna (MLA) design. Here, Pentaband MLA is designed on a FR4 substrate (85 mm x 40 mm) with dielectric constant (ϵr) 4.4, loss tangent (tan ) 0.018 and height 1.6 mm with coplanar feed and open stub structure. It can be operated in LTE (0.670 GHz-0.696 GHz) GPS (1.564 GHz-1.579 GHz), WCDMA (1.920 GHz-2.135 GHz), LTE UL frequency band 23 (2-2.020 GHz) and 5G (3.10 GHz-3.550 GHz) application bands. Also, it gives good performance in terms of Return Loss (RL) which is < -10 dB, impedance bandwidth with maximum Bandwidth (BW) up to 0.21 GHz and realized gains with maximum gain up to 3.28 dBi. Antenna is simulated with open stub and without open stub structures to see the effect on impedance BW coverage. In addition to this, it is checked with human hand and head phantoms to assure that it falls within specified Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) limits.

Keywords: coplanar feed, L shaped ground, Meander Line Antenna, MLA, Phantom, Specific Absorption Rate, SAR

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