Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: V. K.Sehgal

7 Seismic Evaluation with Shear Walls and Braces for Buildings

Authors: R. S. Malik, S. K. Madan, V. K. Sehgal

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RCC) buildings with dual system consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames or braces and moment resisting frames have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. The two dual systems are designed to resist the total design lateral force in proportion to their lateral stiffness. The response of the combination of braces and shear walls has not yet been studied therefore has practically no work to refer to. The combination may prove to be more effective in lateral load resistance by employing the peculiar advantages of shear walls and braces simultaneously and may also improve the architectural appearance of structures. This concept has been applied to regular RCC buildings provided with shear walls, braces, and their combinations.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, displacement, pushover analysis, dual structures, storey drift

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6 Magnification Factor Based Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Frames with Open Ground Storey

Authors: Subzar Ahmad Bhat, Saraswati Setia, V. K.Sehgal

Abstract:

During the past earthquakes, open ground storey buildings have performed poorly due to the soft storey defect. Indian Standard IS 1893:2002 allows analysis of open ground storey buildings without considering infill stiffness but with a multiplication factor 2.5 in compensation for the stiffness discontinuity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to check the applicability of the multiplication factor of 2.5 and study behaviour of the structure after the application of the multiplication factor. For this purpose, study is performed on models considering infill stiffness using SAP 2000 (Version 14) by linear static analysis and response spectrum analysis. Total seven models are analysed and designed for the range of multiplication factor ranging from 1.25 to 2.5. The value of multiplication factor equal to 2.5 has been found on the higher side, resulting in increased dimension and percentage of reinforcement without significant enhancement beyond a certain multiplication factor. When the building with OGS is designed for values of MF higher than 1.25 considering infill stiffness soft storey effect shifts from ground storey to first storey. For the analysis of the OGS structure best way to analysis the structure is to analyse it as the frame with stiffness and strength of the infill taken into account. The provision of infill walls in the upper storeys enhances the performance of the structure in terms of displacement and storey drift controls.

Keywords: open ground storey, multiplication factor, IS 1893:2002 provisions, static analysis, response spectrum analysis, infill stiffness, equivalent strut

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5 High Efficacy of Combined Therapy with Microbicide BASANT and Triple Combination of Selected Probiotics for Treatment of Vaginosis and Restoration of Vaginal Health

Authors: Nishu Atrey, Priyanka Singh, G. P. Talwar, Jagdish Gupta, Alka Kriplani, Rohini Sehgal, Indrani Ganguli, Soni Sinha

Abstract:

Background: Vaginosis is a widely prevalent syndrome in India and elsewhere. Recurrence is frequent in women treated with antibiotics, whose vagina pH remains above 5.0 indicative of the loss of resident lactobacilli. The objective of the present trial was to determine whether a Polyherbal microbicide BASANT can regress Vaginosis. Another objective was to determine whether the three selected strains of Probiotics endowed with making high amounts of lactic acid can colonise and restore the pH of the vagina to the acidic healthy range. Materials and Procedure: BASANT, was employed in powder form in veg (cellulose) capsules. TRF#36 strain of Lactobacillus fermentum, TRF#8 strain of L.gasseri, and TRF#30 strain of L.salivarius (combination termed as Pro-vag-Health) were employed at 3x109 bacilli lyophilized, packaged in capsules. The trials were conducted in women suffering from vaginosis with vaginal pH above 5.0. Women were given intravaginally either BASANT, Pro-vag-Health or a combination of the two intravaginally for seven days and thereafter once weekly as a maintenance dose. Results: BASANT cleared vaginosis in 14/20 women and Pro-vag-Health in 13/20 women. Interestingly, the combination of BASANT plus Pro-vag-Health was effective in 19/20 women, in contrast to Placebo capsules effective only in 1/20 women. Interpretation and Conclusion: The combination of BASANT and Pro-veg-Health Probiotics taken together intravaginally for seven days relieves 19 out of 20 women from vaginosis to restore acidic pH and healthy vagina. Extension of trial with this combination in larger number is indicated.

Keywords: microbicide, probiotics, vaginal pH, vaginosis

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4 The Management of Climate Change by Indigenous People: A Focus on Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Anju Batta Sehgal

Abstract:

Climate change is a major challenge in terms of agriculture, food security and rural livelihood for thousands of people especially the poor in Himachal, which falls in North-Western Himalayas. Agriculture contributes over 45 per cent to net state domestic product. It is the main source of income and employment. Over 93 per cent of population is dependent on agriculture which provides direct employment to 71 percent of its people. Area of operation holding is about 9,79 lakh hectares owned by 9.14 lakh farmers. About 80 per cent area is rain-fed and farmers depend on weather gods for rains. Region is a home of diverse ethnic communities having enormous socio-economic and cultural diversities, gifted with range of farming systems and rich resource wealth, including biodiversity, hot spots and ecosystems sustaining millions of people living in the region. But growing demands of ecosystem goods and services are posing threats to natural resources. Climate change is already making adverse impact on the indigenous people. The rural populace is directly dependent for all its food, shelter and other needs on the climate. Our aim should be to shift the focus to indigenous people as primary actors in terms of global climate change monitoring, adaptations and innovations. Objective of this paper is to identify the climate change related threats and vulnerabilities associated with agriculture as a sector and agriculture as people’s livelihood. Broadly it analyses the connections between the nature and rural consumers the ethnic groups.

Keywords: climate change, agriculture, indigenous people, Himachal Pradesh

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3 Genetic Characterization of Acanthamoeba Isolates from Amoebic Keratitis Patients

Authors: Sumeeta Khurana, Kirti Megha, Amit Gupta, Rakesh Sehgal

Abstract:

Background: Amoebic keratitis is a painful vision threatening infection caused by a free living pathogenic amoeba Acanthamoeba. It can be misdiagnosed and very difficult to treat if not suspected early. The epidemiology of Acanthamoeba genotypes causing infection in our geographical area is not yet known to the best of our knowledge. Objective: To characterize Acanthamoeba isolates from amoebic keratitis patients. Methods: A total of 19 isolates obtained from patients with amoebic keratitis presenting to the Advanced Eye Centre at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, a tertiary care centre of North India over a period of last 10 years were included. Their corneal scrapings, lens solution and lens case (in case of lens wearer) were collected for microscopic examination, culture and molecular diagnosis. All the isolates were maintained in the Non Nutrient agar culture medium overlaid with E.coli and 13 strains were axenised and maintained in modified Peptone Yeast Dextrose Agar. Identification of Acanthamoeba genotypes was based on amplification of diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18srRNA gene followed by sequencing. Nucleotide similarity search was performed by BLAST search of sequenced amplicons in GenBank database (http//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast). Multiple Sequence alignments were determined by using CLUSTAL X. Results: Nine out of 19 Acanthamoeba isolates were found to belong to Genotype T4 followed by 6 isolates of genotype T11, 3 T5 and 1 T3 genotype. Conclusion: T4 is the predominant Acanthamoeba genotype in our geographical area. Further studies should focus on differences in pathogenicity of these genotypes and their clinical significance.

Keywords: Acanthamoeba, free living amoeba, keratitis, genotype, ocular

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2 Immuno-Modulatory Role of Weeds in Feeds of Cyprinus Carpio

Authors: Vipin Kumar Verma, Neeta Sehgal, Om Prakash

Abstract:

Cyprinus carpio has a wide spread occurrence in the lakes and rivers of Europe and Asia. Heavy losses in natural environment due to anthropogenic activities, including pollution as well as pathogenic diseases have landed this fish in IUCN red list of vulnerable species. The significance of a suitable diet in preserving the health status of fish is widely recognized. In present study, artificial feed supplemented with leaves of two weed plants, Eichhornia crassipes and Ricinus communis were evaluated for their role on the fish immune system. To achieve this objective fish were acclimatized to laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C; 12 L: 12D) for 10 days prior to start of experiment and divided into 4 groups: non-challenged (negative control= A), challenged [positive control (B) and experimental (C & D)]. Group A, B were fed with non-supplemented feed while group C & D were fed with feed supplemented with 5% Eichhornia crassipes and 5% Ricinus communis respectively. Supplemented feeds were evaluated for their effect on growth, health, immune system and disease resistance in fish when challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Fingerlings of C. carpio (weight, 2.0±0.5 g) were exposed with fresh overnight culture of V. harveyi through bath immunization (concentration 2 Χ 105) for 2 hours on 10 days interval for 40 days. The growth was monitored through increase in their relative weight. The rate of mortality due to bacterial infection as well as due to effect of feed was recorded accordingly. Immune response of fish was analyzed through differential leucocyte count, percentage phagocytosis and phagocytic index. The effect of V. harveyi on fish organs were examined through histo-pathological examination of internal organs like spleen, liver and kidney. The change in the immune response was also observed through gene expression analysis. The antioxidant potential of plant extracts was measured through DPPH and FRAP assay and amount of total phenols and flavonoids were calculates through biochemical analysis. The chemical composition of plant’s methanol extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which showed presence of various secondary metabolites and other compounds. Investigation revealed immuno-modulatory effect of plants, when supplemented with the artificial feed of fish.

Keywords: immuno-modulation, gc-ms, Cyprinus carpio, Eichhornia crassipes, Ricinus communis

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1 Determination of Optimal Stress Locations in 2D–9 Noded Element in Finite Element Technique

Authors: Nishant Shrivastava, D. K. Sehgal

Abstract:

In Finite Element Technique nodal stresses are calculated through displacement as nodes. In this process, the displacement calculated at nodes is sufficiently good enough but stresses calculated at nodes are not sufficiently accurate. Therefore, the accuracy in the stress computation in FEM models based on the displacement technique is obviously matter of concern for computational time in shape optimization of engineering problems. In the present work same is focused to find out unique points within the element as well as the boundary of the element so, that good accuracy in stress computation can be achieved. Generally, major optimal stress points are located in domain of the element some points have been also located at boundary of the element where stresses are fairly accurate as compared to nodal values. Then, it is subsequently concluded that there is an existence of unique points within the element, where stresses have higher accuracy than other points in the elements. Therefore, it is main aim is to evolve a generalized procedure for the determination of the optimal stress location inside the element as well as at the boundaries of the element and verify the same with results from numerical experimentation. The results of quadratic 9 noded serendipity elements are presented and the location of distinct optimal stress points is determined inside the element, as well as at the boundaries. The theoretical results indicate various optimal stress locations are in local coordinates at origin and at a distance of 0.577 in both directions from origin. Also, at the boundaries optimal stress locations are at the midpoints of the element boundary and the locations are at a distance of 0.577 from the origin in both directions. The above findings were verified through experimentation and findings were authenticated. For numerical experimentation five engineering problems were identified and the numerical results of 9-noded element were compared to those obtained by using the same order of 25-noded quadratic Lagrangian elements, which are considered as standard. Then root mean square errors are plotted with respect to various locations within the elements as well as the boundaries and conclusions were drawn. After numerical verification it is noted that in a 9-noded element, origin and locations at a distance of 0.577 from origin in both directions are the best sampling points for the stresses. It was also noted that stresses calculated within line at boundary enclosed by 0.577 midpoints are also very good and the error found is very less. When sampling points move away from these points, then it causes line zone error to increase rapidly. Thus, it is established that there are unique points at boundary of element where stresses are accurate, which can be utilized in solving various engineering problems and are also useful in shape optimizations.

Keywords: finite elements, Lagrangian, optimal stress location, serendipity

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