Search results for: Petr Šimek
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: Petr Šimek

69 Testing of Electronic Control Unit Communication Interface

Authors: Petr Šimek, Kamil Kostruk

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of testing the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) for the specified function validation. Modern ECUs have many functions which need to be tested. This process requires tracking between the test and the specification. The technique discussed in this paper explores the system for automating this process. The paper focuses in its chapter IV on the introduction to the problem in general, then it describes the proposed test system concept and its principle. It looks at how the process of the ECU interface specification file for automated interface testing and test tracking works. In the end, the future possible development of the project is discussed.

Keywords: electronic control unit testing, embedded system, test generate, test automation, process automation, CAN bus, ethernet

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
68 Synchronization of Bus Frames during Universal Serial Bus Transfer

Authors: Petr Šimek

Abstract:

This work deals with the problem of synchronization of bus frames during transmission using USB (Universal Serial Bus). The principles for synchronization between USB and the non-deterministic CAN (Controller Area Network) bus will be described here. Furthermore, the work deals with ensuring the time sequence of communication frames when receiving from multiple communication bus channels. The structure of a general object for storing frames from different types of communication buses, such as CAN and LIN (Local Interconnect Network), will be described here. Finally, an evaluation of the communication throughput of bus frames for USB High speed will be performed. The creation of this architecture was based on the analysis of the communication of control units with a large number of communication buses. For the design of the architecture, a test HW with a USB-HS interface was used, which received previously known messages, which were compared with the received result. The result of this investigation is the block architecture of the control program for test HW ensuring correct data transmission via the USB bus.

Keywords: analysis, CAN, interface, LIN, synchronization, USB

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
67 5iD Viewer: Observation of Fish School Behaviour in Labyrinths and Use of Semantic and Syntactic Entropy for School Structure Definition

Authors: Dalibor Štys, Kryštof M. Stys, Maryia Chkalova, Petr Kouba, Aliaxandr Pautsina, Dalibor Štys Jr., Jana Pečenková, Denis Durniev, Tomáš Náhlík, Petr Císař

Abstract:

In this article, a construction and some properties of the 5iD viewer, the system recording simultaneously five views of a given experimental object is reported. Properties of the system are demonstrated on the analysis of fish schooling behavior. It is demonstrated the method of instrument calibration which allows inclusion of image distortion and it is proposed and partly tested also the method of distance assessment in the case that only two opposite cameras are available. Finally, we demonstrate how the state trajectory of the behavior of the fish school may be constructed from the entropy of the system.

Keywords: 3D positioning, school behavior, distance calibration, space vision, space distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
66 Effects of Different Types of Perioperative Analgesia on Minimal Residual Disease Development After Colon Cancer Surgery

Authors: Lubomir Vecera, Tomas Gabrhelik, Benjamin Tolmaci, Josef Srovnal, Emil Berta, Petr Prasil, Petr Stourac

Abstract:

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer. Currently, there are only a few studies evaluating the effect of postoperative analgesia on the prognosis of patients undergoing radical colon cancer surgery. Postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing colon cancer surgery is usually managed in two ways, either with strong opioids (morphine, piritramide) or epidural analgesia. In our prospective study, we evaluated the effect of postoperative analgesia on the presence of circulating tumor cells or minimal residual disease after colon cancer surgery. A total of 60 patients who underwent radical colon cancer surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, two-center study. Patients were randomized into three groups, namely piritramide, morphine and postoperative epidural analgesia. We evaluated the presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) mRNA positive circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood before surgery, immediately after surgery, on postoperative day two and one month after surgery. The presence of circulating tumor cells was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the priritramide postoperative analgesia group, the presence of CEA mRNA positive cells was significantly lower on a postoperative day two compared to the other groups (p=0.04). The value of CK-20 mRNA positive cells was the same in all groups on all days. In all groups, both types of circulating tumor cells returned to normal levels one month after surgery. Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were similar in all groups. Compared with morphine and epidural analgesia, piritramide significantly reduces the amount of CEA mRNA positive circulating tumor cells after radical colon cancer surgery.

Keywords: cancer progression, colon cancer, minimal residual disease, perioperative analgesia.

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
65 On q-Non-extensive Statistics with Non-Tsallisian Entropy

Authors: Petr Jizba, Jan Korbel

Abstract:

We combine an axiomatics of Rényi with the q-deformed version of Khinchin axioms to obtain a measure of information (i.e., entropy) which accounts both for systems with embedded self-similarity and non-extensivity. We show that the entropy thus obtained is uniquely solved in terms of a one-parameter family of information measures. The ensuing maximal-entropy distribution is phrased in terms of a special function known as the Lambert W-function. We analyze the corresponding ‘high’ and ‘low-temperature’ asymptotics and reveal a non-trivial structure of the parameter space.

Keywords: multifractals, Rényi information entropy, THC entropy, MaxEnt, heavy-tailed distributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
64 The Experience with SiC MOSFET and Buck Converter Snubber Design

Authors: Petr Vaculik

Abstract:

The newest semiconductor devices on the market are MOSFET transistors based on the silicon carbide – SiC. This material has exclusive features thanks to which it becomes a better switch than Si – silicon semiconductor switch. There are some special features that need to be understood to enable the device’s use to its full potential. The advantages and differences of SiC MOSFETs in comparison with Si IGBT transistors have been described in first part of this article. Second part describes driver for SiC MOSFET transistor and last part of article represents SiC MOSFET in the application of buck converter (step-down) and design of simple RC snubber.

Keywords: SiC, Si, MOSFET, IGBT, SBD, RC snubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
63 Limits of Phase Modulated Frequency Shifted Holographic Vibrometry at Low Amplitudes of Vibrations

Authors: Pavel Psota, Vít Lédl, Jan Václavík, Roman Doleček, Pavel Mokrý, Petr Vojtíšek

Abstract:

This paper presents advanced time average digital holography by means of frequency shift and phase modulation. This technique can measure amplitudes of vibrations at ultimate dynamic range while the amplitude distribution evaluation is done independently in every pixel. The main focus of the paper is to gain insight into behavior of the method at low amplitudes of vibrations. In order to reach that, a set of experiments was performed. Results of the experiments together with novel noise suppression show the limit of the method to be below 0.1 nm.

Keywords: acusto-optical modulator, digital holography, low amplitudes, vibrometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
62 Practical Application of Simulation of Business Processes

Authors: Markéta Gregušová, Vladimíra Schindlerová, Ivana Šajdlerová, Petr Mohyla, Jan Kedroň

Abstract:

Company managers are always looking for more and more opportunities to succeed in today's fiercely competitive market. To maintain your place among the successful companies on the market today or to come up with a revolutionary business idea is much more difficult than before. Each new or improved method, tool, or approach that can improve the functioning of business processes or even of the entire system is worth checking and verification. The use of simulation in the design of manufacturing systems and their management in practice is one of the ways without increased risk, which makes it possible to find the optimal parameters of manufacturing processes and systems. The paper presents an example of use of simulation for solution of the bottleneck problem in the concrete company.

Keywords: practical applications, business processes, systems, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 528
61 Measurement of Rheologic Properties of Soft Tissue (Muscle Tissue) by Device Called Myotonometer

Authors: Petr Sifta, Vaclav Bittner, Martin Kysela, Matej Kolar

Abstract:

The purpose of the research described in this work is to answer how to measure the rheologic (viscoelastic) properties tendo–deformational characteristics of soft tissue. The method would also resemble muscle palpation examination as it is known in clinical practice. For this purpose, an instrument with the working name “myotonometer” has been used. At present, there is lack of objective methods for assessing the muscle tone by viscous and elastic properties of soft tissue. That is why we decided to focus on creating or finding quantitative and qualitative methodology capable of specifying muscle tone.

Keywords: rheologic properties, tendo–deformational characteristics, viscosity, elasticity, hypertonus

Procedia PDF Downloads 602
60 Training Isolated Respiration in Rehabilitation

Authors: Marketa Kotova, Jana Kolarova, Ludek Zalud, Petr Dobsak

Abstract:

A game for training of breath (TRABR) for continuous monitoring of pulmonary ventilation during the patients’ therapy focuses especially on monitoring of their ventilation processes. It is necessary to detect, monitor and differentiate abdominal and thoracic breathing during the therapy. It is a fun form of rehabilitation where the patient plays and also practicing isolated breathing. Finally the game to practice breath was designed to evaluate whether the patient uses two types of breathing or not.

Keywords: pulmonary ventilation, thoracic breathing, abdominal breathing, breath monitoring using pressure sensors, game TRABR TRAining of BReath)

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
59 Chitosan-Whey Protein Isolate Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Delivery Systems

Authors: Zahra Yadollahi, Marjan Motiei, Natalia Kazantseva, Petr Saha

Abstract:

Chitosan (CS)-whey protein isolate (WPI) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized through self-assembly of whey protein isolated polyanions and chitosan polycations in the presence of tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a crosslinker. The formation of this type of nanostructures with narrow particle size distribution is crucial for developing delivery systems since the functional characteristics highly depend on their sizes. To achieve this goal, the nanostructure was optimized by varying the concentrations of WPI, CS, and TPP in the reaction mixture. The chemical characteristics, surface morphology, and particle size of the nanoparticles were evaluated.

Keywords: whey protein isolated, chitosan, nanoparticles, delivery system

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
58 DNA Methylation Changes Caused by Lawsone

Authors: Zuzana Poborilova, Anna B. Ohlsson, Torkel Berglund, Anna Vildova, Petr Babula

Abstract:

Lawsone is a pigment that occurs naturally in plants. It has been used as a skin and hair dye for a long time. Moreover, its different biological activities have been reported. The present study focused on the effect of lawsone on a plant cell model represented by tobacco BY-2 cell suspension culture, which is used as a model comparable with the HeLa cells. It has been shown that lawsone inhibits the cell growth in the concentration-dependent manner. In addition, changes in DNA methylation level have been determined. We observed decreasing level of DNA methylation in the presence of increasing concentrations of lawsone. These results were accompanied with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since epigenetic modifications can be caused by different stress factors, there could be a connection between the changes in the level of DNA methylation and ROS production caused by lawsone.

Keywords: DNA methylation, lawsone, naphthoquinone, reactive oxygen species

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
57 Defectoscopy of Reinforced Concrete Structures with Using an Ultrasonic Method for Failure Monitoring

Authors: Sabina Hublova, Kristyna Hrabova, Petr Cikrle

Abstract:

Sustainable development and preservation of existing buildings are becoming increasingly important worldwide. In order to reduce the amount of CO2 emissions in the air and to reduce the amount of waste from building structures, we can predict an increasing demand for maintenance of some existing buildings in the future. The use of modern diagnostic methods, which allow detailed determination of the properties of structures, the identification of critical points, could be the great importance for the better assessment of existing structures. Non-destructive methods could be one of the options. From these methods, ultrasonic appears to be a highly perspective method, thanks to which we are able to identify critical points of an element or a structure. The experiment will focus on the use of electroacoustic methods for defectoscopy in reinforced concrete columns.

Keywords: sustainability, defectoscopy, ultrasonic method, non-destructive methods, electroacoustic methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
56 Investigation of Heat Affected Zone of Steel P92 Using the Thermal Cycle Simulator

Authors: Petr Mohyla, Ivo Hlavatý, Jiří Hrubý, Lucie Krejčí

Abstract:

This work is focused on mechanical properties and microstructure of heat affected zone (HAZ) of steel P92. The thermal cycle simulator was used for modeling a fine grained zone of HAZ. Hardness and impact toughness were measured on simulated samples. Microstructural analysis using optical microscopy was performed on selected samples. Achieved results were compared with the values of a real welded joint. The thermal cycle simulator allows transferring the properties of very small HAZ to the sufficiently large sample where the tests of the mechanical properties can be performed. A satisfactory accordance was found when comparing the microstructure and mechanical properties of real welds and simulated samples.

Keywords: heat affected zone, impact test, thermal cycle simulator, time of tempering

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
55 Online Educational Tools and Language Teaching

Authors: Petr Sulc, Hana Maresova

Abstract:

This contribution focuses on online educational tools and language teaching, specifically on literary education in a multi-user virtual environment. The goal of this contribution is to give a basic overview of online language education and teaching in a virtual environment. The main goal of the research survey is to compare language (literary) education in a virtual environment with the traditional way of teaching in a typical classroom. The research concept will be mixed: a didactic test, the grounded theory method, and semi-structured questioning will be used. Kitely’s multi-user virtual environment and printed worksheets will be used for the comparison.

Keywords: online educational tools, virtual environment, virtual teaching objects, literary education, didactic test

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
54 Violent Videogame Playing and Its Relations to Antisocial Behaviors

Authors: Martin Jelínek, Petr Květon

Abstract:

The presented study focuses on relations between violent videogames playing and various types of antisocial behavior, namely bullying (verbal, indirect, and physical), physical aggression and delinquency. Relevant relationships were also examined with respect to gender. Violent videogames exposure (VGV) was measured by respondents’ most favored games and self-evaluation of its level of violence and frequency of playing. Antisocial behaviors were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The research sample consisted of 333 (166 males, 167 females) primary and secondary school students at the age between 10 and 19 years (m=14.98, sd=1.77). It was found that violent videogames playing is associated with physical aggression (rho=0.288, 95% CI [0.169;0.400]) and bullying (rho=0.369, 95% CI [0.254;0.476]). By means of gender, these relations were slightly weaker in males (VGV - physical aggression: rho=0.104, 95% CI [-0.061;0.264], VGV – bullying: rho=.200, 95% CI [0.032;0.356]) than in females (VGV - physical aggression: rho=0.257, 95% CI [0.089;0.411], VGV – bullying: rho=0.279, 95% CI [0.110;0.432]).

Keywords: aggression, bullying, gender, violent video games

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
53 Nanomechanical Characterization of Titanium Alloy Modified by Nitrogen Ion Implantation

Authors: Josef Sepitka, Petr Vlcak, Tomas Horazdovsky, Vratislav Perina

Abstract:

An ion implantation technique was used for designing the surface area of a titanium alloy and for irradiation-enhanced hardening of the surface. The Ti6Al4V alloy was treated by nitrogen ion implantation at fluences of 2·1017 and 4·1017 cm-2 and at ion energy 90 keV. The depth distribution of the nitrogen was investigated by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The gradient of mechanical properties was investigated by nanoindentation. The continuous measurement mode was used to obtain depth profiles of the indentation hardness and the reduced storage modulus of the modified surface area. The reduced storage modulus and the hardness increase with increasing fluence. Increased fluence shifts the peak of the mechanical properties as well as the peak of nitrogen concentration towards to the surface. This effect suggests a direct relationship between mechanical properties and nitrogen distribution.

Keywords: nitrogen ion implantation, titanium-based nanolayer, storage modulus, hardness, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
52 Parenting Styles and Their Relation to Videogame Addiction

Authors: Petr Květon, Martin Jelínek

Abstract:

We try to identify the role of various aspects of parenting style in the phenomenon of videogame playing addiction. Relevant self-report questionnaires were part of a wider set of methods focused on the constructs related to videogame playing. The battery of methods was administered in school settings in paper and pencil form. The research sample consisted of 333 (166 males, 167 females) elementary and high school students at the age between 10 and 19 years (m=14.98, sd=1.77). Using stepwise regression analysis, we assessed the influence of demographic variables (gender and age) and parenting styles. Age and gender together explained 26.3% of game addiction variance (F(2,330)=58.81, p<.01). By adding four aspect of parenting styles (inconsistency, involvement, control, and warmth) another 10.2% of variance was explained (∆F(4,326)=13.09, p<.01). The significant predictor was gender of the respondent, where males scored higher on game addiction scale (B=0.70, p<.01), age (β=-0.18, p<.01), where younger children showed higher level of addiction, and parental inconsistency (β=0.30, p<.01), where the higher the inconsistency in upbringing, the more developed game playing addiction.

Keywords: gender, parenting styles, video games, addiction

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
51 Effect of Structure on Properties of Incrementally Formed Titanium Alloy Sheets

Authors: Lucie Novakova, Petr Homola, Vaclav Kafka

Abstract:

Asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) could significantly reduce costs incurred by the fabrication of complex industrial components with a minimal environmental impact. The AISF experiments were carried out on commercially pure titanium (Ti-Gr2), Timetal (15-3-3-3) alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-Gr5) alloy. A special testing geometry was used to characterize the titanium alloys properties from the point of view of the forming zone and titanium structure effect. The structure and properties of the materials were assessed by means of metallographic analyses and microhardness measurements.The highest differences in the parameters assessed as a function of the sampling zone were observed in the case of alpha-phase Ti-Gr2at the expense of the most substantial sheet thinning occurrence. A springback causes a smaller stored deformation in Timetal (β alloy) resulting in less pronounced microstructure refinement and microhardness increase. Ti-6Al-4V alloy exhibited early failure due to its poor formability at ambient temperature.

Keywords: incremental forming, metallography, hardness, titanium alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
50 Laser Beam Micro-Drilling Effect on Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy Sheet Properties

Authors: Petr Homola, Roman Růžek

Abstract:

Laser beam micro-drilling (LBMD) is one of the most important non-contact machining processes of materials that are difficult to machine by means oeqf conventional machining methods used in various industries. The paper is focused on LBMD knock-down effect on Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5) titanium alloy sheets properties. Two various process configurations were verified with a focus on laser damages in back-structure parts affected by the process. The effects of the LBMD on the material properties were assessed by means of tensile and fatigue tests and fracture surface analyses. Fatigue limit of LBMD configurations reached a significantly lower value between 15% and 30% of the static strength as compared to the reference raw material with 58% value. The farther back-structure configuration gives a two-fold fatigue life as compared to the closer LBMD configuration at a given stress applied.

Keywords: fatigue, fracture surface, laser beam micro-drilling, titanium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
49 General Awareness of Teenagers in Information Security

Authors: Magdaléna Náplavová, Tomáš Ludík, Petr Hrůza, František Božek

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The use of IT equipment has become a part of every day. However, each device that is part of cyberspace should be secured against unauthorized use. It is very important to know the basics of these security devices, but also the basics of safe conduct their owners. This information should be part of every curriculum computer science education in primary and secondary schools. Therefore, the work focuses on the education of pupils in primary and secondary schools on the Internet. Analysis of the current state describes approaches to the education of pupils in security issues on the Internet. The paper presents a questionnaire-based survey which was carried out in the Czech Republic, whose task was to ascertain the level of opinion pupils in primary and secondary schools on the issue of communication in social networks. The research showed that awareness of socio-pathological phenomena on the Internet environment is very low. Based on the results it was proposed appropriate ways of teaching to this issue and its inclusion a proposal of curriculum for primary and secondary schools.

Keywords: information security, cyber space, general awareness, questionnaire, socio-pathological phenomena, educational system

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
48 Actually Existing Policy Mobilities in Czechia: Comparing Creative and Smart Cities

Authors: Ondrej Slach, Jan Machacek, Jan Zenka, Lucie Hyllova, Petr Rumpel

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The aim of the paper is to identify and asses different trajectories of two fashionable urban policies –creative and smart cities– in specific post-socialistic context. Drawing on the case of Czechia, we employ the concept of policy mobility research. More specifically, we employ a discourse analysis in order to identify the so-called 'infrastructure' of both policies (such as principal actors, journals, conferences, events), with the special focus on 'agents of transfer' in a multiscale perspective. The preliminary results indicate faster and more aggressive spatial penetration of smart cities policy compared to creative cities policy in Czechia. Further, it seems that existed translation and implementation of smart cities policy into the national and urban context resulted in deliberated fragmented policy of smart cities in Czechia (pure technocratic view), which might be a threat for the future development of social sustainability, especially in cities that are facing increasing social polarisation. Last but not least, due to the fast spatial penetration of the concept and policies of smart cities, it seems that creative cities policy has almost been crowded out of the Czech urban agenda.

Keywords: policy mobility, smart cities, creative cities, Czechia

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
47 Changes in Physical Soil Properties and Crop Status on Soil Enriched With Treated Manure

Authors: Vaclav Novak, Katerina Krizova, Petr Sarec

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Modern agriculture has to face many issues from which soil degradation and lack of organic matter in the soil are only a few of them. Apart from Climate Change, human utilization of landscape is the cause of a majority part of these problems. Cattle production in Czechia has been reduced by more than half in recent 30 years. However, cattle manure is considered as staple organic fertilizer, and its role in attempts for sustainable agriculture is irreplaceable. This study aims to describe the impact of so-called activators of biological manure transformation (Z´fix, Olmix Group) mainly on physical soil properties but also on crop status. The experiment has been established in 2017; nevertheless, initial measurements of implement draft have been performed before the treated manure application. In 2018, the physical soil properties and crop status (sugar beet) has been determined and compared with the untreated manure and control variant. Significant results have been observed already in the first year, where the implement draft decreased by 9.2 % within the treated manure variant in comparison with the control variant.

Keywords: field experiment, implement draft, vegetation index, sugar beet

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
46 Financial Assessment of the Hard Coal Mining in the Chosen Region in the Czech Republic: Real Options Methodology Application

Authors: Miroslav Čulík, Petr Gurný

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This paper is aimed at the financial assessment of the hard coal mining in a given region by real option methodology application. Hard coal mining in this mine makes net loss for the owner during the last years due to the long-term unfavourable mining conditions and significant drop in the coal prices during the last years. Management is going to shut down the operation and abandon the project to reduce the loss of the company. The goal is to assess whether the shutting down the operation is the only and correct solution of the problem. Due to the uncertainty in the future hard coal price evolution, the production might be again restarted if the price raises enough to cover the cost of the production. For the assessment, real option methodology is applied, which captures two important aspect of the financial decision-making: risk and flexibility. The paper is structured as follows: first, current state is described and problem is analysed. Next, methodology of real options is described. At last, project is evaluated by applying real option methodology. The results are commented and recommendations are provided.

Keywords: real option, investment, option to abandon, option to shut down and restart, risk, flexibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 531
45 Quality of Life Measurements: Evaluation of Intervention Program of Persons with Addiction

Authors: Julie Wittmannová, Petr Šeda

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Quality of life measurements (QLF) help to evaluate interventions programs in different groups of persons with special needs. Our presentation deals with QLF of persons with addiction in relation to the physical activity (PA), type of addiction, age, gender and other variables. The aim of presentation is to summarize the basic findings and offer thoughts for questions arose. Methods: SQUALA (Subjective Quality of Life Analysis); SEIQoL (Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life); questionnaire of own construction. The results are evaluated by Mann­Whitney U test and Kruskall­Wallis ANOVA test (p ≤ 0,05). Sample of 64 participants – clients of aftercare center, aged 18 plus. Findings: Application of the methods SQUALA and SEIQoL in the chosen population seems appropriate, the obtaining information regarding the QLF correlate to intervention program topics, the need of an activelifestyle and health related topics in persons with addiction is visible. Conclusions or Implications: The subjective evaluation of quality of life of Aftercare clients is an important part of evaluation process, especially used to evaluate satisfaction with offered services and programs. Techniques SQUALA and SEIQoL gave us the desired outcomes.

Keywords: adapted physical activity, addiction, quality of life, physical activity, aftercare

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
44 A Literature Review on Banks’ Profitability and Risk Adjustment Decisions

Authors: Libena Cernohorska, Barbora Sutorova, Petr Teply

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There are pending discussions over an impact of global regulatory efforts on banks. In this paper we present a literature review on the profitability-risk-capital relationship in banking. Research papers dealing with this topic can be divided into two groups: the first group focusing on a capital-risk relationship and the second group analyzing a capital-profitability relationship. The first group investigates whether the imposition of stricter capital requirements reduces risk-taking incentives of banks based on a simultaneous equations model. Their model pioneered the idea that the changes in both capital and risk have endogenous and exogenous components. The results obtained by the authors indicate that changes in the capital level are positively related to the changes in asset risk. The second group of the literature concentrating solely on the relationship between the level of held capital and bank profitability is limited. Nevertheless, there are a lot of studies dealing with the banks’ profitability as such, where bank capital is very often included as an explanatory variable. Based on the literature review of dozens of relevant papers in this study, an empirical research on banks’ profitability and risk adjustment decisions under new banking rules Basel III rules can be easily undertaken.

Keywords: bank, Basel III, capital, decision making, profitability, risk, simultaneous equations model

Procedia PDF Downloads 476
43 Systems of Liquid Organic Fertilizer Application with Respect to Environmental Impact

Authors: Hidayatul Fitri, Petr Šařec

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The use of organic fertilizer is increasing nowadays, and the application must be conducted accurately to provide the right benefits for plants and maintain soil health. Improper application of fertilizers can cause problems for both plants and the environment. This study investigated the liquid organic fertilizer application, particularly digestate, varied into different application doses concerning mitigation of adverse environmental impacts, improving water infiltration ability, and crop yields. The experiment was established into eight variants with different digestate doses, conducted on emission monitoring and soil physical properties. As a result, the digestate application with shallow injection (5 cm in depth) was confirmed as an appropriate technique for applying liquid fertilizer into the soil. Gas emissions resulted in low concentration and declined gradually over time, obviously proved from the experiment conducted under two measurements immediately after application and the next day. Applied various doses of liquid digestate fertilizer affected the emission concentrations of NH3 volatilization, differing significantly and decreasing about 40% from the first to second measurement. In this study, winter wheat crop production significantly increases under digestate application with additional N fertilizer. This study suggested the long-term application of digestate to obtain more alteration of soil properties such as bulk density, penetration resistance, and hydraulic conductivity.

Keywords: liquid organic fertilizer, digestate, application, ammonia, emission

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42 Phenomenological Ductile Fracture Criteria Applied to the Cutting Process

Authors: František Šebek, Petr Kubík, Jindřich Petruška, Jiří Hůlka

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Present study is aimed on the cutting process of circular cross-section rods where the fracture is used to separate one rod into two pieces. Incorporating the phenomenological ductile fracture model into the explicit formulation of finite element method, the process can be analyzed without the necessity of realizing too many real experiments which could be expensive in case of repetitive testing in different conditions. In the present paper, the steel AISI 1045 was examined and the tensile tests of smooth and notched cylindrical bars were conducted together with biaxial testing of the notched tube specimens to calibrate material constants of selected phenomenological ductile fracture models. These were implemented into the Abaqus/Explicit through user subroutine VUMAT and used for cutting process simulation. As the calibration process is based on variables which cannot be obtained directly from experiments, numerical simulations of fracture tests are inevitable part of the calibration. Finally, experiments regarding the cutting process were carried out and predictive capability of selected fracture models is discussed. Concluding remarks then make the summary of gained experience both with the calibration and application of particular ductile fracture criteria.

Keywords: ductile fracture, phenomenological criteria, cutting process, explicit formulation, AISI 1045 steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
41 The Importance of Teachers´ Self-Efficacy in the Field of Education of Socially Disadvantaged Students

Authors: Anna Petr Safrankova, Karla Hrbackova

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The education of socially disadvantaged students is in the long term spotlight of many pedagogical researches in both Czech and foreign environment. These researches among others investigate this topic from the point of view of individual compensatory measure which tries to overcome or remove the social disadvantage. The focus of the study is to highlight the important role of teachers in the education of this specific group of students, among others in terms of their (teachers´) pre-graduate training. The aim of the study is to point out the importance of teachers´ self-efficacy. The study is based on the assumption that the teacher's self-efficacy may significantly affect the teacher's perception of a particular group of students and thereby affect the education of the students. The survey involved 245 teachers from the two regions in the Czech Republic. In the research were used TES questionnaire (with the dimensions personal teaching efficacy – PTE and general teaching efficacy – GTE) by Gibson and Dembo and the semantic differential (containing 12 scales with bipolar adjectives) which investigated the components of teachers' attitudes toward socially disadvantaged students. It was found that teachers’ self-efficacy significantly affects the teachers’ perception of the group of socially disadvantaged students. Based on this finding we believe that it is necessary to work with this concept (prepare teachers to educate this specific group of students) already during higher education and especially during the pre-graduate teachers training.

Keywords: teachers, socially disadvantaged students, semantic differential, teachers self-efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
40 Currently Use Pesticides: Fate, Availability, and Effects in Soils

Authors: Lucie Bielská, Lucia Škulcová, Martina Hvězdová, Jakub Hofman, Zdeněk Šimek

Abstract:

The currently used pesticides represent a broad group of chemicals with various physicochemical and environmental properties which input has reached 2×106 tons/year and is expected to even increases. From that amount, only 1% directly interacts with the target organism while the rest represents a potential risk to the environment and human health. Despite being authorized and approved for field applications, the effects of pesticides in the environment can differ from the model scenarios due to the various pesticide-soil interactions and resulting modified fate and behavior. As such, a direct monitoring of pesticide residues and evaluation of their impact on soil biota, aquatic environment, food contamination, and human health should be performed to prevent environmental and economic damages. The present project focuses on fluvisols as they are intensively used in the agriculture but face to several environmental stressors. Fluvisols develop in the vicinity of rivers by the periodic settling of alluvial sediments and periodic interruptions to pedogenesis by flooding. As a result, fluvisols exhibit very high yields per area unit, are intensively used and loaded by pesticides. Regarding the floods, their regular contacts with surface water arise from serious concerns about the surface water contamination. In order to monitor pesticide residues and assess their environmental and biological impact within this project, 70 fluvisols were sampled over the Czech Republic and analyzed for the total and bioaccessible amounts of 40 various pesticides. For that purpose, methodologies for the pesticide extraction and analysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique were developed and optimized. To assess the biological risks, both the earthworm bioaccumulation tests and various types of passive sampling techniques (XAD resin, Chemcatcher, and silicon rubber) were optimized and applied. These data on chemical analysis and bioavailability were combined with the results of soil analysis, including the measurement of basic physicochemical soil properties as well detailed characterization of soil organic matter with the advanced method of diffuse reflectance infrared spectrometry. The results provide unique data on the residual levels of pesticides in the Czech Republic and on the factors responsible for increased pesticide residue levels that should be included in the modeling of pesticide fate and effects.

Keywords: currently used pesticides, fluvisoils, bioavailability, Quechers, liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry, soil properties, DRIFT analysis, pesticides

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