Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: speeding

31 A Preliminary Investigation on Factors that Influence Road Users Speeding Behaviors in Selected Roads of Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Farah Fazlinda Binti Mohamad, Siti Hikmah Binti Musthar, Ahmad Saifizul Bin Abdullah, Jamilah Mohamad, Mohamed Rehan Karim

Abstract:

Road safety is intolerable issue. It affects and impinges on everyone's life as the roads shared by everyone. The most vulnerable victims were the road users who cater the roads every day. It is an appalling when World Health Organization reported that Malaysian road users were ranked worst in Asian countries with 23 deaths for every 100,000 of population over the span of 12 years (World Health Organization, 2009). From this report, it is found that speeding has contributed to 60% of all accidents in the country. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate on speeding matter that occur among road users in selected roads of Peninsular Malaysia. This study on the other hand, provides an insight understanding on the factors affecting behaviour of road users to speeding in selected roads of Peninsular Malaysia. To answer the study aims, 500 sets of questionnaires were distributed among 500 respondents in selected roads of Peninsular Malaysia to obtain their opinions on the matter. The respondents were from different demographics backgrounds to have fair explanation on the issue. The answers have been analysed using descriptive analysis. The results indicated psychological factors of road users appeared to be prominent in explaining road users’ behaviour to speeding. Male road users were also found dominant in speeding compared to female. Thus, this has increased their vulnerability to road injuries and deaths. These findings are very useful in order for us to improve our driving behaviour. Relevant authorities should also revise the existing countermeasures as well as designing the new countermeasures for the road users. It is nevertheless important to comprehend this speeding issue and factors associating it. This matter should be taken seriously and responsibly by each road users as road safety is a responsible of all.

Keywords: road safety, speeding, countermeasures, accidents

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30 A Preliminary Investigation on Factors That Influence Road Users' Speeding Behaviour on Selected Roads in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Farah Fazlinda Binti Mohamad, Ahmad Saifizul Abdullah, Mohamed Rehan Karim , Jamilah Mohamad, Siti Hikmah Musthar

Abstract:

Road safety is an important issue in Malaysia. It become important as it is discussed widely throughout printed and electronic media. Most of the news portrays on road accident and fatalities have increased the concern of everyone. This issue affects everyone's life as everyone shares the roads. The most vulnerable victims are the road user who uses the roads every day. It is appalling when World Health Organization (WHO) reported that in every 100,000 of population in Malaysia, 23 fatalities recorded due to road accident alone. This figure is quite alarming and requires serious attention. Furthermore, research by Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research concluded that that speeding has contributed to 60% of all road accident in the country. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate the factors that influence road users’ speeding behaviour on selected roads in Peninsular Malaysia. To achieve this, set of questionnaires has distributed to 500 respondents on selected roads in Peninsular Malaysia. The respondents came from various demographic backgrounds in order to have a fair opinion on the issue. Using descriptive analysis, the results have indicated that psychological factors such as emotion and attitude of road user are the prominent factors that influence the road user’s speeding behaviour. Furthermore, the results have shown that male road users were dominant in speeding compared to female, which led to increased vulnerability to road injuries and fatalities. These findings are very useful in order for us to understand road users’ driving behaviour. Relevant authorities should also revise the existing countermeasures and find ways to reduce road accident. Engineers and road experts could cooperate in designing new road specifications for the road user. Nevertheless, it is important to comprehend this speeding issue and factors associated with it. Each road user should take this matter seriously and responsibly as road safety is a responsibility of all.

Keywords: countermeasures, psychological, road safety, speeding

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29 Speeding-up Gray-Scale FIC by Moments

Authors: Eman A. Al-Hilo, Hawraa H. Al-Waelly

Abstract:

In this work, fractal compression (FIC) technique is introduced based on using moment features to block indexing the zero-mean range-domain blocks. The moment features have been used to speed up the IFS-matching stage. Its moments ratio descriptor is used to filter the domain blocks and keep only the blocks that are suitable to be IFS matched with tested range block. The results of tests conducted on Lena picture and Cat picture (256 pixels, resolution 24 bits/pixel) image showed a minimum encoding time (0.89 sec for Lena image and 0.78 of Cat image) with appropriate PSNR (30.01dB for Lena image and 29.8 of Cat image). The reduction in ET is about 12% for Lena and 67% for Cat image.

Keywords: fractal gray level image, fractal compression technique, iterated function system, moments feature, zero-mean range-domain block

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28 An Analysis of Motorcycle Accidents in Spain (2006-2011)

Authors: Francisco Toledo-Castillo, María Josefa Sospedra-Baeza, Sergio Hidalgo-Fuentes

Abstract:

Motorcycles constitute about 9% of all motorized vehicles in Spain and are generally overrepresented in traffic accidents, accounting for 21% of total accidents. Six years of motorcycle accident data were obtained through the national accident database of Spain (Dirección General de Tráfico). Some of the studied factors are age, gender, helmet wearing, alcohol consumption, speeding, subject’s driving license and for how long it has been held, the trip purpose, and the presence of a passenger on the vehicle. Key findings show helmet use, unsafe speed, the trip purpose, weather, distraction, collision type and other variables play significant roles in crash-injury outcomes. Finally, we examine evolution of mortality and severity from 2006 to 2011.

Keywords: motorcycle accidents, risk factors, statistics, Spain

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27 Construction Time - Cost Trade-Off Analysis Using Fuzzy Set Theory

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, B. Vikram, G. C. S. Reddy

Abstract:

Time and cost are the two critical objectives of construction project management and are not independent but intricately related. Trade-off between project duration and cost are extensively discussed during project scheduling because of practical relevance. Generally when the project duration is compressed, the project calls for an increase in labor and more productive equipments, which increases the cost. Thus, the construction time-cost optimization is defined as a process to identify suitable construction activities for speeding up to attain the best possible savings in both time and cost. As there is hidden tradeoff relationship between project time and cost, it might be difficult to predict whether the total cost would increase or decrease as a result of compressing the schedule. Different combinations of duration and cost for the activities associated with the project determine the best set in the time-cost optimization. Therefore, the contractors need to select the best combination of time and cost to perform each activity, all of which will ultimately determine the project duration and cost. In this paper, the fuzzy set theory is used to model the uncertainties in the project environment for time-cost trade off analysis.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, uncertainty, qualitative factors, decision making

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26 Design and Optimization Fire Alarm System to Protect Gas Condensate Reservoirs With the Use of Nano-Technology

Authors: Hefzollah Mohammadian, Ensieh Hajeb, Mohamad Baqer Heidari

Abstract:

In this paper, for the protection and safety of tanks gases (flammable materials) and also due to the considerable economic value of the reservoir, the new system for the protection, the conservation and fire fighting has been cloned. The system consists of several parts: the Sensors to detect heat and fire with Nanotechnology (nano sensor), Barrier for isolation and protection from a range of two electronic zones, analyzer for detection and locating point of fire accurately, Main electronic board to announce fire, Fault diagnosis in different locations, such as relevant alarms and activate different devices for fire distinguish and announcement. An important feature of this system, high speed and capability of fire detection system in a way that is able to detect the value of the ambient temperature that can be adjusted. Another advantage of this system is autonomous and does not require human operator in place. Using nanotechnology, in addition to speeding up the work, reduces the cost of construction of the sensor and also the notification system and fire extinguish.

Keywords: analyser, barrier, heat resistance, general fault, general alarm, nano sensor

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25 Analysis of Traffic Crashes on Rural Roads in Oman

Authors: Mohammed Bakhit Kashoob, Mohammed Salim Al-Maashani, Ahmed Abdullah Al-Marhoon

Abstract:

Fatalities of Road Traffic Crashes (RTCs) on rural roads are usually higher than that on urban roads. The likelihood of traffic accidents may increase with the presence of factors that are associated with the rural type of community such as long-distance, road type, road geometry (e.g., curves and steepens), poor lighting, terrain, obstacles (e.g., animals crossing, boulders or tree branches), heavy truck traffic, weather conditions, and road flaws. Most of these factors are present on the rural roads of Oman. As many cities in Oman are surrounded by mountains and connected by rural roads, this is of great concern. In this paper, the causes of traffic crashes on rural roads in Oman are analyzed. The fatality rate of traffic deaths on rural roads is compared with the fatality rate on urban roads for different regions in Oman. Statistical data and police reports show that the leading cause of RTCs and deaths on rural roads is vehicle speeding, especially on long-distance roads. It is shown that crashes on rural roads result in higher fatalities than crashes on urban roads. In comparison to speed, the numbers of RTCs and deaths that resulted from other causes are small.

Keywords: causes of traffic crashes, road safety, road traffic crash, rural roads

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24 Influence of Electrode Assembly on Catalytic Activation and Deactivation of a PT Film Immobilized H+ Conducting Solid Electrolyte in Electrocatalytic Reduction Reactions

Authors: M. A. Hasnat, M. Amirul Islam, M. A. Rashed, Jamil. Safwan, M. Mahabubul Alam

Abstract:

Symmetric (Cu–Pt|Nafion|Pt–Cu) and asymmetric(Pt|Nafion|Pt–Cu) assemblies were fabricated to study the nitrate reduction processes at the cathode. The electrocatalytic nitrate reduction reactions were performed in these assemblies in order to investigate the prerequisite for the enhanced catalytic activity, electrochemical cell durability as well as preferable product selectivity resulting from the reduction of nitrate at the cathode. It has been observed for the symmetric assembly that Cu particles were oxidized on the anode surface under an applied potential and the resulting copper ions migrated to the cathode surface through the Nafion membrane, which deposited as copper oxide on the cathode surface. The formation of this copper oxide covering layer on the Pt–Cu cathode surface is attributed as the reason for the deactivation of the cathode that governed the reduced nitrate reduction along with increasing nitrite selectivity. These problems were addressed and resolved with the asymmetric design of the electrocatalytic reactor, where enhanced hydrogen evolution activates the surface by eroding the CuO over layer as well as speeding up the slow rate determining hydrogenation reactions.

Keywords: membrane, nitrate, electrocatalysis, voltammetry, electrolysis

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23 Traffic Calming Measures at Rural Roads in Dhofar

Authors: Mohammed Bakhit Kashoob, Mohammed Salim Al-Maashani, Ahmed Abdullah Al-Marhoon

Abstract:

Traffic calming measures are different design features or strategies used to reduce the speed of a traveling vehicle on a particular road. These calming measures are common on rural roads of Oman. Some of these measures are road speed limits, vertical deflections, horizontal deflections, and road signs. In general, vertical deflections such as rumble strips, road studs (cat’s eye), speed tables, and speed humps are widely used. In this paper, as vehicle speeding is a major cause of road traffic crashes and high fatalities in Oman, the effectiveness of existing traffic calming measures at current locations on rural roads is assessed. The study was conducted on the rural roads of Dhofar Governorate, which is located in the south of Oman. A special focus is given to the calming measures implemented on the mountain roads of Dhofar. It is shown that vertical deflection calming measures are effective in reducing vehicle speed to 20 to 40 kph, depending on the vertical deflection type and spacing. Calming measures are also proposed at locations with a high probability of traffic crashes based on the number of traffic crashes at these locations, road type, and road geometry.

Keywords: road safety, rural roads, speed, traffic calming measures, traffic crash

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22 A Parallel Cellular Automaton Model of Tumor Growth for Multicore and GPU Programming

Authors: Manuel I. Capel, Antonio Tomeu, Alberto Salguero

Abstract:

Tumor growth from a transformed cancer-cell up to a clinically apparent mass spans through a range of spatial and temporal magnitudes. Through computer simulations, Cellular Automata (CA) can accurately describe the complexity of the development of tumors. Tumor development prognosis can now be made -without making patients undergo through annoying medical examinations or painful invasive procedures- if we develop appropriate CA-based software tools. In silico testing mainly refers to Computational Biology research studies of application to clinical actions in Medicine. To establish sound computer-based models of cellular behavior, certainly reduces costs and saves precious time with respect to carrying out experiments in vitro at labs or in vivo with living cells and organisms. These aim to produce scientifically relevant results compared to traditional in vitro testing, which is slow, expensive, and does not generally have acceptable reproducibility under the same conditions. For speeding up computer simulations of cellular models, specific literature shows recent proposals based on the CA approach that include advanced techniques, such the clever use of supporting efficient data structures when modeling with deterministic stochastic cellular automata. Multiparadigm and multiscale simulation of tumor dynamics is just beginning to be developed by the concerned research community. The use of stochastic cellular automata (SCA), whose parallel programming implementations are open to yield a high computational performance, are of much interest to be explored up to their computational limits. There have been some approaches based on optimizations to advance in multiparadigm models of tumor growth, which mainly pursuit to improve performance of these models through efficient memory accesses guarantee, or considering the dynamic evolution of the memory space (grids, trees,…) that holds crucial data in simulations. In our opinion, the different optimizations mentioned above are not decisive enough to achieve the high performance computing power that cell-behavior simulation programs actually need. The possibility of using multicore and GPU parallelism as a promising multiplatform and framework to develop new programming techniques to speed-up the computation time of simulations is just starting to be explored in the few last years. This paper presents a model that incorporates parallel processing, identifying the synchronization necessary for speeding up tumor growth simulations implemented in Java and C++ programming environments. The speed up improvement that specific parallel syntactic constructs, such as executors (thread pools) in Java, are studied. The new tumor growth parallel model is proved using implementations with Java and C++ languages on two different platforms: chipset Intel core i-X and a HPC cluster of processors at our university. The parallelization of Polesczuk and Enderling model (normally used by researchers in mathematical oncology) proposed here is analyzed with respect to performance gain. We intend to apply the model and overall parallelization technique presented here to solid tumors of specific affiliation such as prostate, breast, or colon. Our final objective is to set up a multiparadigm model capable of modelling angiogenesis, or the growth inhibition induced by chemotaxis, as well as the effect of therapies based on the presence of cytotoxic/cytostatic drugs.

Keywords: cellular automaton, tumor growth model, simulation, multicore and manycore programming, parallel programming, high performance computing, speed up

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21 Speeding up Nonlinear Time History Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Nonlinear Exponential Model

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

The nonlinear time history analysis of seismically base-isolated structures can require a significant computational effort when the behavior of each seismic isolator is predicted by adopting the widely used differential equation Bouc-Wen model. In this paper, a nonlinear exponential model, able to simulate the response of seismic isolation bearings within a relatively large displacements range, is described and adopted in order to reduce the numerical computations and speed up the nonlinear dynamic analysis. Compared to the Bouc-Wen model, the proposed one does not require the numerical solution of a nonlinear differential equation for each time step of the analysis. The seismic response of a 3d base-isolated structure with a lead rubber bearing system subjected to harmonic earthquake excitation is simulated by modeling each isolator using the proposed analytical model. The comparison of the numerical results and computational time with those obtained by modeling the lead rubber bearings using the Bouc-Wen model demonstrates the good accuracy of the proposed model and its capability to reduce significantly the computational effort of the analysis.

Keywords: base isolation, computational efficiency, nonlinear exponential model, nonlinear time history analysis

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20 Effect of Massage and Apium Graveolens Consumption on Liver Markers in Sedentary Women

Authors: M. Gholinjad Kordan, M. Ghasemi, S. Fazelifar

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Aim: liver plays a role in an astounding number of bodily functions: it helps with blood sugar regulation; metabolizes hormones; and traps and breaks down bacteria and toxins. Unfortunately, bodily demands can overwhelm your liver. Massage therapy can help by restoring healthy circulation and speeding the elimination of toxins. Apium graveolens has antioxidant property because of its flavonoid compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine Effect of massage and graveolens consumption on liver markers in women. Methodology: forty non-athlete male students were randomly divided into four groups: 1-control, 2-massage, 3-massage and graveolens and 4-graveolens. Amount of 5cc Blood sampling were obtained pre-test and post-test (after 12 weeks). Subjects received Russian massage for 8 weeks and 3 days a week for 20 minutes. Also, Complementary groups received the capsule supplement of graveolens after eating for twelve weeks and three times a day. Data was analyzed with One way ANOVA and tukey in p < 0/05. Results: Based on research findings, twelve weeks massage and graveolens consumption lead to a significant decrease in enzymes activity of ALT, AST and ALP in sedentary women. Conclusion: Results of This study shows that massage or graveolens consumption and especially combination of both can be used as desirable threpatic method in order to reduce or improve symptoms caused by excess weight, especially the liver damage.

Keywords: massage, graveolens, liver markers, sedentary women

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19 Discovering New Organic Materials through Computational Methods

Authors: Lucas Viani, Benedetta Mennucci, Soo Young Park, Johannes Gierschner

Abstract:

Organic semiconductors have attracted the attention of the scientific community in the past decades due to their unique physicochemical properties, allowing new designs and alternative device fabrication methods. Until today, organic electronic devices are largely based on conjugated polymers mainly due to their easy processability. In the recent years, due to moderate ET and CT efficiencies and the ill-defined nature of polymeric systems the focus has been shifting to small conjugated molecules with well-defined chemical structure, easier control of intermolecular packing, and enhanced CT and ET properties. It has led to the synthesis of new small molecules, followed by the growth of their crystalline structure and ultimately by the device preparation. This workflow is commonly followed without a clear knowledge of the ET and CT properties related mainly to the macroscopic systems, which may lead to financial and time losses, since not all materials will deliver the properties and efficiencies demanded by the current standards. In this work, we present a theoretical workflow designed to predict the key properties of ET of these new materials prior synthesis, thus speeding up the discovery of new promising materials. It is based on quantum mechanical, hybrid, and classical methodologies, starting from a single molecule structure, finishing with the prediction of its packing structure, and prediction of properties of interest such as static and averaged excitonic couplings, and exciton diffusion length.

Keywords: organic semiconductor, organic crystals, energy transport, excitonic couplings

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18 Wind Turbines Optimization: Shield Structure for a High Wind Speed Conditions

Authors: Daniyar Seitenov, Nazim Mir-Nasiri

Abstract:

Optimization of horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine has been performed using a shield protection that automatically protects the generator shaft at extreme wind speeds from over speeding, mechanical damage and continues generating electricity during the high wind speed conditions. A semi-exposed to wind generator has been designed and its structure has been described in this paper. The simplified point-force dynamic load model on the blades has been derived for normal and extreme wind conditions with and without shield involvement. Numerical simulation has been conducted at different values of wind speed to study the efficiency of shield application. The obtained results show that the maximum power generated by the wind turbine with shield does not exceed approximately the rated value of the generator, where shield serves as an automatic break for extreme wind speed values of 15 m/sec and above. Meantime the wind turbine without shield produced a power that is much larger than the rated value. The optimized horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine with shield protection is suitable for low and medium power generation when installed on the roofs of high rise buildings for harvesting wind energy. Wind shield works automatically with no power consumption. The structure of the generator with the protection, math simulation of kinematics and dynamics of power generation has been described in details in this paper.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind turbine, wind turbine optimization, high wind speed

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17 Modelling and Investigation of Phase Change Phenomena of Multiple Water Droplets

Authors: K. R. Sultana, K. Pope, Y. S. Muzychka

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In recent years, the research of heat transfer or phase change phenomena of liquid water droplets experiences a growing interest in aircraft icing, power transmission line icing, marine icing and wind turbine icing applications. This growing interest speeding up the research from single to multiple droplet phenomena. Impingements of multiple droplets and the resulting solidification phenomena after impact on a very cold surface is computationally studied in this paper. The model used in the current study solves the flow equation, composed of energy balance and the volume fraction equations. The main aim of the study is to investigate the effects of several thermo-physical properties (density, thermal conductivity and specific heat) on droplets freezing. The outcome is examined by various important factors, for instance, liquid fraction, total freezing time, droplet temperature and total heat transfer rate in the interface region. The liquid fraction helps to understand the complete phase change phenomena during solidification. Temperature distribution and heat transfer rate help to demonstrate the overall thermal exchange behaviors between the droplets and substrate surface. Findings of this research provide an important technical achievement for ice modeling and prediction studies.

Keywords: droplets, CFD, thermos-physical properties, solidification

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16 Effectiveness of Variable Speed Limit Signs in Reducing Crash Rates on Roadway Construction Work Zones in Alaska

Authors: Osama Abaza, Tanay Datta Chowdhury

Abstract:

As a driver's speed increases, so do the probability of an incident and likelihood of injury. The presence of equipment, personnel, and a changing landscape in construction zones create greater potential for incident. This is especially concerning in Alaska, where summer construction activity, coinciding with the peak annual traffic volumes, cannot be avoided. In order to reduce vehicular speeding in work zones, and therefore the probability of crash and incident occurrence, variable speed limit (VSL) systems can be implemented in the form of radar speed display trailers since the radar speed display trailers were shown to be effective at reducing vehicular speed in construction zones. Allocation of VSL not only help reduce the 85th percentile speed but also it will predominantly reduce mean speed as well. Total of 2147 incidents along with 385 crashes occurred only in one month around the construction zone in the Alaska which seriously requires proper attention. This research provided a thorough crash analysis to better understand the cause and provide proper countermeasures. Crashes were predominantly recoded as vehicle- object collision and sideswipe type and thus significant amount of crashes fall in the group of no injury to minor injury type in the severity class. But still, 35 major crashes with 7 fatal ones in a one month period require immediate action like the implementation of the VSL system as it proved to be a speed reducer in the construction zone on Alaskan roadways.

Keywords: speed, construction zone, crash, severity

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15 A Robust and Efficient Segmentation Method Applied for Cardiac Left Ventricle with Abnormal Shapes

Authors: Peifei Zhu, Zisheng Li, Yasuki Kakishita, Mayumi Suzuki, Tomoaki Chono

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Segmentation of left ventricle (LV) from cardiac ultrasound images provides a quantitative functional analysis of the heart to diagnose disease. Active Shape Model (ASM) is a widely used approach for LV segmentation but suffers from the drawback that initialization of the shape model is not sufficiently close to the target, especially when dealing with abnormal shapes in disease. In this work, a two-step framework is proposed to improve the accuracy and speed of the model-based segmentation. Firstly, a robust and efficient detector based on Hough forest is proposed to localize cardiac feature points, and such points are used to predict the initial fitting of the LV shape model. Secondly, to achieve more accurate and detailed segmentation, ASM is applied to further fit the LV shape model to the cardiac ultrasound image. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a dataset of 800 cardiac ultrasound images that are mostly of abnormal shapes. The proposed method is compared to several combinations of ASM and existing initialization methods. The experiment results demonstrate that the accuracy of feature point detection for initialization was improved by 40% compared to the existing methods. Moreover, the proposed method significantly reduces the number of necessary ASM fitting loops, thus speeding up the whole segmentation process. Therefore, the proposed method is able to achieve more accurate and efficient segmentation results and is applicable to unusual shapes of heart with cardiac diseases, such as left atrial enlargement.

Keywords: hough forest, active shape model, segmentation, cardiac left ventricle

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14 Biocellulose Template for 3D Mineral Scaffolds

Authors: C. Busuioc, G. Voicu, S. I. Jinga

Abstract:

The field of tissue engineering brings new challenges in terms of proposing original solutions for ongoing medical issues, improving the biological performances of existing clinical systems and speeding the healing process for a faster recovery and a more comfortable life as patient. In this context, we propose the obtaining of 3D porous scaffolds of mineral nature, dedicated to bone repairing and regeneration purposes or employed as bioactive filler for bone cements. Thus, bacterial cellulose - calcium phosphates composite materials have been synthesized by successive immersing of the polymeric membranes in the precursor solution containing Ca2+ and [PO4]3- ions. The mineral phase deposited on the surface of biocellulose fibers was varied as amount through the number of immersing cycles. The intermediary composites were subjected to thermal treatments at different temperatures in order to remove the organic part and provide the formation of a self-sustained 3D architecture. The resulting phase composition consists of common phosphates, while the morphology largely depends on the preparation parameters. Thus, the aspect of the 3D mineral scaffolds can be tuned from a loose microstructure composed of large grains connected via monocrystalline nanorods to a trabecular pattern crossed by parallel internal channels, just like the natural bone. The bioactivity and biocompatibility of the obtained materials have been also assessed, with encouraging results in the clinical use direction. In conclusion, the compositional, structural, morphological and biological characterizations sustain the suitability of the reported biostructures for integration in hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, bone reconstruction, calcium phosphates, mineral scaffolds

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13 Influence of Travel Time Reliability on Elderly Drivers Crash Severity

Authors: Ren Moses, Emmanuel Kidando, Eren Ozguven, Yassir Abdelrazig

Abstract:

Although older drivers (defined as those of age 65 and above) are less involved with speeding, alcohol use as well as night driving, they are more vulnerable to severe crashes. The major contributing factors for severe crashes include frailty and medical complications. Several studies have evaluated the contributing factors on severity of crashes. However, few studies have established the impact of travel time reliability (TTR) on road safety. In particular, the impact of TTR on senior adults who face several challenges including hearing difficulties, decreasing of the processing skills and cognitive problems in driving is not well established. Therefore, this study focuses on determining possible impacts of TTR on the traffic safety with focus on elderly drivers. Historical travel speed data from freeway links in the study area were used to calculate travel time and the associated TTR metrics that is, planning time index, the buffer index, the standard deviation of the travel time and the probability of congestion. Four-year information on crashes occurring on these freeway links was acquired. The binary logit model estimated using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling technique was used to evaluate variables that could be influencing elderly crash severity. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that TTR is statistically significant in affecting the severity of a crash involving an elderly driver. The result suggests that one unit increase in the probability of congestion reduces the likelihood of the elderly severe crash by nearly 22%. These findings will enhance the understanding of TTR and its impact on the elderly crash severity.

Keywords: highway safety, travel time reliability, elderly drivers, traffic modeling

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12 Designing a Corpus Database to Enhance the Learning of Old English Language

Authors: Raquel Mateo Mendaza, Carmen Novo Urraca

Abstract:

The current paper presents the elaboration of a corpus database that aligns two different corpora in order to simplify the search of information both for researchers and students of Old English. This database comprises the information contained in two main reference corpora, namely the Dictionary of Old English Corpus (DOEC), compiled at the University of Toronto, and the York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English (YCOE). The first one provides information on all surviving texts written in the Old English language. The latter offers the syntactical and morphological annotation of several texts included in the DOEC. Although both corpora are closely related, as the YCOE includes the DOE source text identifier, the main problem detected is that there is not an alignment of texts that allows for the search of whole fragments to be further analysed in terms of morphology and syntax. The database proposed in this paper gathers all this information and presents it in a simple, more accessible, visual, and educational way. The alignment of fragments has been done in an automatized way. However, some problems have emerged during the creating process particularly related to the lack of correspondence in the division of fragments. For this reason, it has been necessary to revise the whole entries manually to obtain a truthful high-quality product and to carefully indicate the gaps encountered in these corpora. All in all, this database contains more than 60,000 entries corresponding with the DOE fragments annotated by the YCOE. The main strength of the resulting product is its research and teaching implications in the study of Old English. The use of this database will help researchers and students in the study of different aspects of the language, such as inflectional morphology, syntactic behaviour of given words, or translation studies, among others. By means of the search of words or fragments, the annotated information on morphology and syntax will be automatically displayed, automatizing, and speeding up the search of data.

Keywords: alignment, corpus database, morphosyntactic analysis, Old English

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11 The Behavior of Masonry Wall Constructed Using Biaxial Interlocking Concrete Block, Solid Concrete Block and Cement Sand Brick Subjected to the Compressive Load

Authors: Fauziah Aziz, Mohd.fadzil Arshad, Hazrina Mansor, Sedat Kömürcü

Abstract:

Masonry is an isotropic and heterogeneous material due to the presence of the different components within the assembly process. Normally the mortar plays a significant role in the compressive behavior of the traditional masonry structures. Biaxial interlocking concrete block is a masonry unit that comes out with the interlocking concept. This masonry unit can improve the quality of the construction process, reduce the cost of labor, reduce high skill workmanship, and speeding the construction time. Normally, the interlocking concrete block masonry unit in the market place was designed in a way interlocking concept only either x or y-axis, shorter in length, and low compressive strength value. However, the biaxial interlocking concrete block is a dry-stack concept being introduced in this research, offered the specialty compared to the normal interlocking concrete available in the market place due to its length and the geometry of the groove and tongue. This material can be used as a non-load bearing wall, or load-bearing wall depends on the application of the masonry. But, there is a lack of technical data that was produced before. This paper presents a finding on the compressive resistance of the biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry wall compared to the other traditional masonry walls. Two series of biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry walls, namely M1 and M2, a series of solid concrete block and cement sand brick walls M3, and M4 have tested the compressive resistance. M1 is the masonry wall of a hollow biaxial interlocking concrete block meanwhile; M2 is the grouted masonry wall, M3 is a solid concrete block masonry wall, and M4 is a cement sand brick masonry wall. All the samples were tested under static compressive load. The results examine that M2 is higher in compressive resistance compared to the M1, M3, and M4. It shows that the compressive strength of the concrete masonry units plays a significant role in the capacity of the masonry wall.

Keywords: interlocking concrete block, compressive resistance, concrete masonry unit, masonry

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10 Centrifuge Modelling Approach on Sysmic Loading Analysis of Clay: A Geotechnical Study

Authors: Anthony Quansah, Tresor Ntaryamira, Shula Mushota

Abstract:

Models for geotechnical centrifuge testing are usually made from re-formed soil, allowing for comparisons with naturally occurring soil deposits. However, there is a fundamental omission in this process because the natural soil is deposited in layers creating a unique structure. Nonlinear dynamics of clay material deposit is an essential part of changing the attributes of ground movements when subjected to solid seismic loading, particularly when diverse intensification conduct of speeding up and relocation are considered. The paper portrays a review of axis shaking table tests and numerical recreations to explore the offshore clay deposits subjected to seismic loadings. These perceptions are accurately reenacted by DEEPSOIL with appropriate soil models and parameters reviewed from noteworthy centrifuge modeling researches. At that point, precise 1-D site reaction investigations are performed on both time and recurrence spaces. The outcomes uncover that for profound delicate clay is subjected to expansive quakes, noteworthy increasing speed lessening may happen close to the highest point of store because of soil nonlinearity and even neighborhood shear disappointment; nonetheless, huge enhancement of removal at low frequencies are normal in any case the forces of base movements, which proposes that for dislodging touchy seaward establishments and structures, such intensified low-recurrence relocation reaction will assume an essential part in seismic outline. This research shows centrifuge as a tool for creating a layered sample important for modelling true soil behaviour (such as permeability) which is not identical in all directions. Currently, there are limited methods for creating layered soil samples.

Keywords: seismic analysis, layered modeling, terotechnology, finite element modeling

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9 Assessing the Macroeconomic Effects of Fiscal Policy Changes in Egypt: A Bayesian Structural Vector Autoregression Approach

Authors: Walaa Diab, Baher Atlam, Nadia El Nimer

Abstract:

Egypt faces many obvious economic challenges, and it is so clear that a real economic transformation is needed to address those problems, especially after the recent decisions of floating the Egyptian pound and the gradual subsidy cuts that are trying to meet the needed conditions to get the IMF support of (a £12bn loan) for its economic reform program. Following the post-2008 revival of the interest in the fiscal policy and its vital role in speeding up or slowing down the economic growth. Here comes the value of this paper as it seeks to analyze the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy in Egypt by applying A Bayesian SVAR Approach. The study uses the Bayesian method because it includes the prior information and no relevant information is omitted and so it is well suited for rational, evidence-based decision-making. Since the study aims to define the effects of fiscal policy shocks in Egypt to help the decision-makers in determining the proper means to correct the structural problems in the Egyptian economy, it has to study the period of 1990s economic reform, but unfortunately; the available data is on an annual frequency. Thus, it uses annual time series to study the period 1991: 2005 And quarterly data over the period 2006–2016. It uses a set of six main variables includes government expenditure and net tax revenues as fiscal policy arms affecting real GDP, unemployment, inflation and the interest rate. The study also tries to assess the 'crowding out' effects by considering the effects of government spending and government revenue shocks on the composition of GDP, namely, on private consumption and private investment. Last but not least the study provides its policy implications regarding the needed role of fiscal policy in Egypt in the upcoming economic reform building on the results it concludes from the previous reform program.

Keywords: fiscal policy, government spending, structural vector autoregression, taxation

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8 On Cold Roll Bonding of Polymeric Films

Authors: Nikhil Padhye

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Recently a new phenomenon for bonding of polymeric films in solid-state, at ambient temperatures well below the glass transition temperature of the polymer, has been reported. This is achieved by bulk plastic compression of polymeric films held in contact. Here we analyze the process of cold-rolling of polymeric films via finite element simulations and illustrate a flexible and modular experimental rolling-apparatus that can achieve bonding of polymeric films through cold-rolling. Firstly, the classical theory of rolling a rigid-plastic thin-strip is utilized to estimate various deformation fields such as strain-rates, velocities, loads etc. in rolling the polymeric films at the specified feed-rates and desired levels of thickness-reduction(s). Predicted magnitudes of slow strain-rates, particularly at ambient temperatures during rolling, and moderate levels of plastic deformation (at which Bauschinger effect can be neglected for the particular class of polymeric materials studied here), greatly simplifies the task of material modeling and allows us to deploy a computationally efficient, yet accurate, finite deformation rate-independent elastic-plastic material behavior model (with inclusion of isotropic-hardening) for analyzing the rolling of these polymeric films. The interfacial behavior between the roller and polymer surfaces is modeled using Coulombic friction; consistent with the rate-independent behavior. The finite deformation elastic-plastic material behavior based on (i) the additive decomposition of stretching tensor (D = De + Dp, i.e. a hypoelastic formulation) with incrementally objective time integration and, (ii) multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient (F = FeFp) into elastic and plastic parts, are programmed and carried out for cold-rolling within ABAQUS Explicit. Predictions from both the formulations, i.e., hypoelastic and multiplicative decomposition, exhibit a close match. We find that no specialized hyperlastic/visco-plastic model is required to describe the behavior of the blend of polymeric films, under the conditions described here, thereby speeding up the computation process .

Keywords: Polymer Plasticity, Bonding, Deformation Induced Mobility, Rolling

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7 The Analysis of Increment of Road Traffic Accidents in Libya: Case Study City of Tripoli

Authors: Fares Elturki, Shaban Ismael Albrka Ali Zangena, H. A. M. Yahia

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Safety is an important consideration in the design and operation of streets and highways. Traffic and highway engineers working with law enforcement officials are constantly seeking for better methods to ensure safety for motorists and pedestrians. Also, a highway safety improvement process involves planning, implementation, and evaluation. The planning process requires that engineers collect and maintain traffic safety data, identify the hazards location, conduct studies and establish project priorities. Unfortunately, in Libya, the increase in demand for private transportation in recent years, due to poor or lack of public transportation led to some traffic problems especially in the capital (Tripoli). Also, the growth of private transportation has significant influences on the society regarding road traffic accidents (RTAs). This study investigates the most critical factors affect RTAs in Tripoli the capital city of Libya. Four main classifications were chosen to build the questionnaire, namely; human factors, road factors, vehicle factors and environmental factors. Moreover, a quantitative method was used to collect the data from the field, the targeted sample size 400 respondents include; drivers, pedestrian and passengers and relative importance index (RII) were used to rank the factors of one group and between all groups. The results show that the human factors have the most significant impacts compared with other factors. Also, 84% of respondents considered the over speeding as the most significant factor cusses of RTAs while 81% considered the disobedience to driving regulations as the second most influential factor in human factors. Also, the results showed that poor brakes or brake failure factor a great impact on the RTAs among the vehicle factors with nearly 74%, while 79% categorized poor or no street lighting factor as one of the most effective factors on RTAs in road factors and third effecting factor concerning all factors. The environmental factors have the slights influences compared with other factors.

Keywords: road traffic accidents, Libya, vehicle factors, human factors, relative importance index

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6 Improving the Constructability of Highway Design Plans

Authors: R. Edward Minchin Jr.

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The U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Every Day Counts Program (EDC) has resulted in state DOTs putting evermore emphasis on speeding up the delivery of highway and bridge construction projects for use by the driving public. This has resulted in an increase in the use of alternative construction delivery systems such as design-build (D-B), construction manager at-risk (CMR) or construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC), and adding alternative technical concepts (ATCs) to traditional design-bid-build (DBB) contracts. ATCs have exhibited great potential for delivering substantial benefits like cost savings, increased constructability, and quicker project delivery. Previous research has found that knowledge of project constructability was lacking in state Department of Transportation (DOT) planning, programming, and environmental staffs. Many agencies have therefore relied on a set of ‘acceptable’ design solutions over the years of working with their local resource agencies. The result is that the permitting process for several government agencies has become increasingly restrictive with the result that the DOTs and their industry partners lose the ability to innovate after a permit is approved. The intent of this paper is to report on the research team’s progress in this ongoing effort furnish the United States government with a uniform set of guidelines for the application of constructability reviews during all phases of project development and delivery. The research uses surveys and interviews to determine which states have implemented formal programs to ensure that the constructor is furnished with a set of contract documents that affords said constructor with the best possible opportunity to successfully construct the project with the highest quality standards, within the contract duration and without exceeding the construction budget. Once these states are identified, workshops are held all over the nation, resulting in the team learning the best current practices and giving the team the ability to recommend new practices that will improve the process. The plan is for the FHWA to encourage or require state DOTs to use these practices on all federally funded highway and bridge construction projects. The project deliverable is a Guidebook for FHWA to use in disseminating the recommended practices to the states.

Keywords: alternative construction delivery, alternative technical concepts, constructability, construction design plans

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5 Modernization of Translation Studies Curriculum at Higher Education Level in Armenia

Authors: A. Vahanyan

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The paper touches upon the problem of revision and modernization of the current curriculum on translation studies at the Armenian Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). In the contemporary world where quality and speed of services provided are mostly valued, certain higher education centers in Armenia though do not demonstrate enough flexibility in terms of the revision and amendment of courses taught. This issue is present for various curricula at the university level and Translation Studies related curriculum, in particular. Technological innovations that are of great help for translators have been long ago smoothly implemented into the global Translation Industry. According to the European Master's in Translation (EMT) framework, translation service provision comprises linguistic, intercultural, information mining, thematic, and technological competencies. Therefore, to form the competencies mentioned above, the curriculum should be seriously restructured to meet the modern education and job market requirements, relevant courses should be proposed. New courses, in particular, should focus on the formation of technological competences. These suggestions have been made upon the author’s research of the problem across various HEIs in Armenia. The updated curricula should include courses aimed at familiarization with various computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools (MemoQ, Trados, OmegaT, Wordfast, etc.) in the translation process, creation of glossaries and termbases compatible with different platforms), which will ensure consistency in translation of similar texts and speeding up the translation process itself. Another aspect that may be strengthened via curriculum modification is the introduction of interdisciplinary and Project-Based Learning courses, which will enable info mining and thematic competences, which are of great importance as well. Of course, the amendment of the existing curriculum with the mentioned courses will require corresponding faculty development via training, workshops, and seminars. Finally, the provision of extensive internship with translation agencies is strongly recommended as it will ensure the synthesis of theoretical background and practical skills highly required for the specific area. Summing up, restructuring and modernization of the existing curricula on Translation Studies should focus on three major aspects, i.e., introduction of new courses that meet the global quality standards of education, professional development for faculty, and integration of extensive internship supervised by experts in the field.

Keywords: competencies, curriculum, modernization, technical literacy, translation studies

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4 Transient Heat Transfer: Experimental Investigation near the Critical Point

Authors: Andreas Kohlhepp, Gerrit Schatte, Wieland Christoph, Spliethoff Hartmut

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In recent years the research of heat transfer phenomena of water and other working fluids near the critical point experiences a growing interest for power engineering applications. To match the highly volatile characteristics of renewable energies, conventional power plants need to shift towards flexible operation. This requires speeding up the load change dynamics of steam generators and their heating surfaces near the critical point. In dynamic load transients, both a high heat flux with an unfavorable ratio to the mass flux and a high difference in fluid and wall temperatures, may cause problems. It may lead to deteriorated heat transfer (at supercritical pressures), dry-out or departure from nucleate boiling (at subcritical pressures), all cases leading to an extensive rise of temperatures. For relevant technical applications, the heat transfer coefficients need to be predicted correctly in case of transient scenarios to prevent damage to the heated surfaces (membrane walls, tube bundles or fuel rods). In transient processes, the state of the art method of calculating the heat transfer coefficients is using a multitude of different steady-state correlations for the momentarily existing local parameters for each time step. This approach does not necessarily reflect the different cases that may lead to a significant variation of the heat transfer coefficients and shows gaps in the individual ranges of validity. An algorithm was implemented to calculate the transient behavior of steam generators during load changes. It is used to assess existing correlations for transient heat transfer calculations. It is also desirable to validate the calculation using experimental data. By the use of a new full-scale supercritical thermo-hydraulic test rig, experimental data is obtained to describe the transient phenomena under dynamic boundary conditions as mentioned above and to serve for validation of transient steam generator calculations. Aiming to improve correlations for the prediction of the onset of deteriorated heat transfer in both, stationary and transient cases the test rig was specially designed for this task. It is a closed loop design with a directly electrically heated evaporation tube, the total heating power of the evaporator tube and the preheater is 1MW. To allow a big range of parameters, including supercritical pressures, the maximum pressure rating is 380 bar. The measurements contain the most important extrinsic thermo-hydraulic parameters. Moreover, a high geometric resolution allows to accurately predict the local heat transfer coefficients and fluid enthalpies.

Keywords: departure from nucleate boiling, deteriorated heat transfer, dryout, supercritical working fluid, transient operation of steam generators

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3 Disaster Management Approach for Planning an Early Response to Earthquakes in Urban Areas

Authors: Luis Reynaldo Mota-Santiago, Angélica Lozano

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Determining appropriate measures to face earthquakesarea challenge for practitioners. In the literature, some analyses consider disaster scenarios, disregarding some important field characteristics. Sometimes, software that allows estimating the number of victims and infrastructure damages is used. Other times historical information of previous events is used, or the scenarios’informationis assumed to be available even if it isnot usual in practice. Humanitarian operations start immediately after an earthquake strikes, and the first hours in relief efforts are important; local efforts are critical to assess the situation and deliver relief supplies to the victims. A preparation action is prepositioning stockpiles, most of them at central warehouses placed away from damage-prone areas, which requires large size facilities and budget. Usually, decisions in the first 12 hours (standard relief time (SRT)) after the disaster are the location of temporary depots and the design of distribution paths. The motivation for this research was the delay in the reaction time of the early relief efforts generating the late arrival of aid to some areas after the Mexico City 7.1 magnitude earthquake in 2017. Hence, a preparation approach for planning the immediate response to earthquake disasters is proposed, intended for local governments, considering their capabilities for planning and for responding during the SRT, in order to reduce the start-up time of immediate response operations in urban areas. The first steps are the generation and analysis of disaster scenarios, which allow estimatethe relief demand before and in the early hours after an earthquake. The scenarios can be based on historical data and/or the seismic hazard analysis of an Atlas of Natural Hazards and Risk as a way to address the limited or null available information.The following steps include the decision processes for: a) locating local depots (places to prepositioning stockpiles)and aid-giving facilities at closer places as possible to risk areas; and b) designing the vehicle paths for aid distribution (from local depots to the aid-giving facilities), which can be used at the beginning of the response actions. This approach allows speeding up the delivery of aid in the early moments of the emergency, which could reduce the suffering of the victims allowing additional time to integrate a broader and more streamlined response (according to new information)from national and international organizations into these efforts. The proposed approachis applied to two case studies in Mexico City. These areas were affectedby the 2017’s earthquake, having limited aid response. The approach generates disaster scenarios in an easy way and plans a faster early response with a short quantity of stockpiles which can be managed in the early hours of the emergency by local governments. Considering long-term storage, the estimated quantities of stockpiles require a limited budget to maintain and a small storage space. These stockpiles are useful also to address a different kind of emergencies in the area.

Keywords: disaster logistics, early response, generation of disaster scenarios, preparation phase

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2 Antiinflammatory and Wound Healing Activity of Sedum Essential Oils Growing in Kazakhstan

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

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The last decade the growth of severe and disseminated forms of inflammatory diseases is observed in Kazakhstan, in particular, septic shock, which progresses on 3-15% of patients with infectious complications of postnatal period. In terms of the rate of occurrence septic shock takes third place after hemorrhagic and cardiovascular shock, in terms of lethality it takes first place. The structure of obstetric sepsis has significantly changed. Currently the first place is taken by postabortive sepsis (40%) that is connected with usage of imperfect methods of artificial termination of pregnancy in late periods (intraamnial injection of sodium chloride, glucose). The second place is taken by postnatal sepsis (32%); the last place is taken by septic complications of caesarean section (28%). In this connection, search for and assessment of effectiveness of new medicines for treatment of postoperative infectious complications, having biostimulating effect and speeding up regeneration processes, is very promising and topical. Essential oil was obtained by the method hydrodistillation air-dry aerial part of Sedum L. plants using Clevenger apparatus. Pilot batch of plant medicinal product based on Sedum essential oils was produced by Chimpharm JSC, Santo Member of Polpharma Group (Kazakhstan). During clinical test of the plant medicinal product based on Sedum L. essential oils 37 female patients at the age from 35 to 57 with clinical signs of complicated postoperative processes and 12 new mothers with clinical signs of inflammatory process on sutures on anterior abdominal wall after caesarean section and partial disruption of surgical suture line on perineum were examined. Medicine usage methods - surgical wound treatment 2 times a day, treatment with other medicines of local action was not performed. Before and after treatment general clinical test, determination of immune status, bacterioscopic test of wound fluid was performed to all women, medical history data was taken into account, wound cleansing and healing time, full granulations, side effects and complications, satisfaction with the used medicine was assessed. On female patients with inflammatory infiltration and partial disruption of surgical suture line anesthetic wound healing effect of plant medicinal product based on Sedum L. essential oils was observed as early as on the second day after beginning of using it, wound cleansing took place, as a rule, within the first row days. Hyperemia in the area of suture line also was not observed for 2-3-d day of usage of medicine, good constant course was observed. The absence of clinical effect on this group of patients was not registered. The represented data give evidence of that clinical effect was accompanied with normalization of changed laboratory findings. No allergic responses or side effects were observed during usage of the plant medicinal products based on Sedum L. essential oils.

Keywords: antiinflammatory, bioactive substances, essential oils, isolation, sedum L., wound healing

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