Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18180

Search results for: tumor growth model

18180 On Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Secondary Distant Metastases Growth in Patients with Lymph Nodes Metastases

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to mathematical modelling of the progression and stages of breast cancer. We propose Consolidated mathematical growth model of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases (CoM-III) as a new research tool. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoM-III which reflects relations between primary tumor and secondary distant metastases; 3) analyzing the CoM-III scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. Firstly, the CoM-III includes exponential tumor growth model as a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations. Secondly, mathematical model corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. Thus, the CoM-III model and predictive software: a) detect different growth periods of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; b) make forecast of the period of the distant metastases appearance in patients with lymph nodes metastases; c) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; d) can improve forecasts on survival of breast cancer and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoM-III: the number of doublings for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of secondary distant metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of secondary distant metastases. The CoM-III enables, for the first time, to predict the whole natural history of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoM-III describes correctly primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth of IA, IIA, IIB, IIIB (T1-4N1-3M0) stages in patients with lymph nodes metastases (N1-3); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and inception of secondary distant metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical model, primary tumor, secondary metastases, survival

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18179 On Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Primary Distant Metastases Growth

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

Finding algorithms to predict the growth of tumors has piqued the interest of researchers ever since the early days of cancer research. A number of studies were carried out as an attempt to obtain reliable data on the natural history of breast cancer growth. Mathematical modeling can play a very important role in the prognosis of tumor process of breast cancer. However, mathematical models describe primary tumor growth and metastases growth separately. Consequently, we propose a mathematical growth model for primary tumor and primary metastases which may help to improve predicting accuracy of breast cancer progression using an original mathematical model referred to CoM-IV and corresponding software. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoM-IV which reflects relations between PT and MTS; 3) analyzing the CoM-IV scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. The CoM-IV is based on exponential tumor growth model and consists of a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations; corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for primary metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for primary metastases. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. Thus, the CoM-IV model and predictive software: a) detect different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases; b) make forecast of the period of primary metastases appearance; c) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; d) can improve forecasts on survival of BC and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoM-IV: the number of doublings for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases. The CoM-IV enables, for the first time, to predict the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoM-IV describes correctly primary tumor and primary distant metastases growth of IV (T1-4N0-3M1) stage with (N1-3) or without regional metastases in lymph nodes (N0); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and manifestation of primary metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical modelling, primary metastases, primary tumor, survival

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18178 Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Secondary Distant Metastases Growth

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

This study is an attempt to obtain reliable data on the natural history of breast cancer growth. We analyze the opportunities for using classical mathematical models (exponential and logistic tumor growth models, Gompertz and von Bertalanffy tumor growth models) to try to describe growth of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases of human breast cancer. The research aim is to improve predicting accuracy of breast cancer progression using an original mathematical model referred to CoMPaS and corresponding software. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoMPaS which reflects relations between the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; 3) analyzing the CoMPaS scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. The foundation of the CoMPaS is the exponential tumor growth model, which is described by determinate nonlinear and linear equations. The CoMPaS corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for the primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for the secondary distant metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for the secondary distant metastases. The CoMPaS is validated on clinical data of 10-years and 15-years survival depending on the tumor stage and diameter of the primary tumor. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer growth models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. The CoMPaS model and predictive software: a) fit to clinical trials data; b) detect different growth periods of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; c) make forecast of the period of the secondary distant metastases appearance; d) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; e) can improve forecasts on survival of breast cancer and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoMPaS: the number of doublings for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of the secondary distant metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of the secondary distant metastases. The CoMPaS enables, for the first time, to predict ‘whole natural history’ of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on the primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoMPaS describes correctly the primary tumor growth of IA, IIA, IIB, IIIB (T1-4N0M0) stages without metastases in lymph nodes (N0); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and inception of the secondary distant metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical model, metastases in lymph nodes, primary tumor, survival

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18177 Effects of a Bioactive Subfraction of Strobilanthes Crispus on the Tumour Growth, Body Weight and Haematological Parameters in 4T1-Induced Breast Cancer Model

Authors: Yusha'u Shu'aibu Baraya, Kah Keng Wong, Nik Soriani Yaacob

Abstract:

Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus), is a Malaysian herb locally known as ‘Pecah kaca’ or ‘Jin batu’ which have demonstrated potent anticancer effects in both in vitro and in vivo models. In particular, S. crispus subfraction (SCS) significantly reduced tumor growth in N-methyl-N-Nitrosourea-induced breast cancer rat model. However, there is paucity of information on the effects of SCS in breast cancer metastasis. Thus, in this study, the antimetastatic effects of SCS (100 mg/kg) was investigated following 30 days of treatment in 4T1-induced mammary tumor (n = 5) model. The response to treatment was assessed based on the outcome of the tumour growth, body weight and hematological parameters. The results demonstrated that tumor bearing mice treated with SCS (TM-S) had significant (p<0.05) reduction in the mean tumor number and tumor volume as well as tumor weight compared to the tumor bearing mice (TM), i.e. tumor untreated group. Also, there was no secondary tumor formation or tumor-associated lesions in the major organs of TM-S compared to the TM group. Similarly, comparable body weights were observed among the TM-S, normal (uninduced) mice treated with SCS and normal (untreated/control) mice (NM) groups compared to the TM group (p<0.05). Furthermore, SCS administration does not cause significant changes in the hematological parameters as compared to the NM group, which indicates no sign of anemia and toxicity related effects. In conclusion, SCS significantly inhibited the overall tumor growth and metastasis in 4T1-induced breast cancer mouse model suggesting its promising potentials as therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment.

Keywords: 4T1-cells, breast cancer, metastasis, Strobilanthes crispus

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
18176 Stability Analysis of Tumor-Immune Fractional Order Model

Authors: Sadia Arshad, Yifa Tang, Dumitru Baleanu

Abstract:

A fractional order mathematical model is proposed that incorporate CD8+ cells, natural killer cells, cytokines and tumor cells. The tumor cells growth in the absence of an immune response is modeled by logistic law as it was the simplest form for which predictions also agreed with the experimental data. Natural Killer Cells are our first line of defense. NK cells directly kill tumor cells through several mechanisms, including the release of cytoplasmic granules containing perforin and granzyme, expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family members. The effect of the NK cells on the tumor cell population is expressed with the product term. Rational form is used to describe interaction between CD8+ cells and tumor cells. A number of cytokines are produced by NKs, including tumor necrosis factor TNF, IFN, and interleukin (IL-10). Source term for cytokines is modeled by Michaelis-Menten form to indicate the saturated effects of the immune response. Stability of the equilibrium points is discussed for biologically significant values of bifurcation parameters. We studied the treatment of fractional order system by investigating analytical conditions of tumor eradication. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the analytical results.

Keywords: cancer model, fractional calculus, numerical simulations, stability analysis

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18175 Effect of Different Porous Media Models on Drug Delivery to Solid Tumors: Mathematical Approach

Authors: Mostafa Sefidgar, Sohrab Zendehboudi, Hossein Bazmara, Madjid Soltani

Abstract:

Based on findings from clinical applications, most drug treatments fail to eliminate malignant tumors completely even though drug delivery through systemic administration may inhibit their growth. Therefore, better understanding of tumor formation is crucial in developing more effective therapeutics. For this purpose, nowadays, solid tumor modeling and simulation results are used to predict how therapeutic drugs are transported to tumor cells by blood flow through capillaries and tissues. A solid tumor is investigated as a porous media for fluid flow simulation. Most of the studies use Darcy model for porous media. In Darcy model, the fluid friction is neglected and a few simplified assumptions are implemented. In this study, the effect of these assumptions is studied by considering Brinkman model. A multi scale mathematical method which calculates fluid flow to a solid tumor is used in this study to investigate how neglecting fluid friction affects the solid tumor simulation. In this work, the mathematical model in our previous studies is developed by considering two model of momentum equation for porous media: Darcy and Brinkman. The mathematical method involves processes such as fluid flow through solid tumor as porous media, extravasation of blood flow from vessels, blood flow through vessels and solute diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network and then fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network. Finally, the two models of porous media are used for modeling fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues in three different shapes of tumors. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a solid tumor demonstrate that the simplifications used in Darcy model affect the interstitial velocity and Brinkman model predicts a lower value for interstitial velocity than the values that Darcy model does.

Keywords: solid tumor, porous media, Darcy model, Brinkman model, drug delivery

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18174 Ultra Wideband Breast Cancer Detection by Using SAR for Indication the Tumor Location

Authors: Wittawat Wasusathien, Samran Santalunai, Thanaset Thosdeekoraphat, Chanchai Thongsopa

Abstract:

This paper presents breast cancer detection by observing the specific absorption rate (SAR) intensity for identification tumor location, the tumor is identified in coordinates (x,y,z) system. We examined the frequency between 4-8 GHz to look for the most appropriate frequency. Results are simulated in frequency 4-8 GHz, the model overview include normal breast with 50 mm radian, 5 mm diameter of tumor, and ultra wideband (UWB) bowtie antenna. The models are created and simulated in CST Microwave Studio. For this simulation, we changed antenna to 5 location around the breast, the tumor can be detected when an antenna is close to the tumor location, which the coordinate of maximum SAR is approximated the tumor location. For reliable, we experiment by random tumor location to 3 position in the same size of tumor and simulation the result again by varying the antenna position in 5 position again, and it also detectable the tumor position from the antenna that nearby tumor position by maximum value of SAR, which it can be detected the tumor with precision in all frequency between 4-8 GHz.

Keywords: specific absorption rate (SAR), ultra wideband (UWB), coordinates, cancer detection

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18173 LGG Architecture for Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Sajeeha Ansar, Asad Ali Safi, Sheikh Ziauddin, Ahmad R. Shahid, Faraz Ahsan

Abstract:

The most aggressive form of brain tumor is called glioma. Glioma is kind of tumor that arises from glial tissue of the brain and occurs quite often. A fully automatic 2D-CNN model for brain tumor segmentation is presented in this paper. We performed pre-processing steps to remove noise and intensity variances using N4ITK and standard intensity correction, respectively. We used Keras open-source library with Theano as backend for fast implementation of CNN model. In addition, we used BRATS 2015 MRI dataset to evaluate our proposed model. Furthermore, we have used SimpleITK open-source library in our proposed model to analyze images. Moreover, we have extracted random 2D patches for proposed 2D-CNN model for efficient brain segmentation. Extracting 2D patched instead of 3D due to less dimensional information present in 2D which helps us in reducing computational time. Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is used as performance measure for the evaluation of the proposed method. Our method achieved DSC score of 0.77 for complete, 0.76 for core, 0.77 for enhanced tumor regions. However, these results are comparable with methods already implemented 2D CNN architecture.

Keywords: brain tumor segmentation, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, LGG

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18172 Oncogenic Role of MicroRNA-346 in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Regulation of XPC/ERK/Snail/E-Cadherin Pathway

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, De-Jia Li

Abstract:

Determinants of growth and metastasis in cancer remain of great interest to define. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have frequently emerged as tumor metastatic regulator by acting on multiple signaling pathways. Here, we report the definition of miR-346 as an oncogenic microRNA that facilitates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth and metastasis. XPC, an important DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair was defined as a target for down-regulation by miR-346, functioning through direct interaction with the 3'-UTR of XPC mRNA. Blocking miR-346 by an antagomiR was sufficient to inhibit NSCLC cell growth and metastasis, an effect that could be phenol-copied by RNAi-mediated silencing of XPC. In vivo studies established that miR-346 overexpression was sufficient to promote tumor growth by A549 cells in xenografts mice, relative to control cells. Overall, our results defined miR-346 as an oncogenic miRNA in NSCLC, the levels of which contributed to tumor growth and invasive aggressiveness.

Keywords: microRNA-346, miR-346, XPC, non-small cell lung cancer, oncogenesis

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18171 Mathematical Modeling of Avascular Tumor Growth and Invasion

Authors: Meitham Amereh, Mohsen Akbari, Ben Nadler

Abstract:

Cancer has been recognized as one of the most challenging problems in biology and medicine. Aggressive tumors are a lethal type of cancers characterized by high genomic instability, rapid progression, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Their behavior involves complicated molecular biology and consequential dynamics. Although tremendous effort has been devoted to developing therapeutic approaches, there is still a huge need for new insights into the dark aspects of tumors. As one of the key requirements in better understanding the complex behavior of tumors, mathematical modeling and continuum physics, in particular, play a pivotal role. Mathematical modeling can provide a quantitative prediction on biological processes and help interpret complicated physiological interactions in tumors microenvironment. The pathophysiology of aggressive tumors is strongly affected by the extracellular cues such as stresses produced by mechanical forces between the tumor and the host tissue. During the tumor progression, the growing mass displaces the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), and due to the level of tissue stiffness, stress accumulates inside the tumor. The produced stress can influence the tumor by breaking adherent junctions. During this process, the tumor stops the rapid proliferation and begins to remodel its shape to preserve the homeostatic equilibrium state. To reach this, the tumor, in turn, upregulates epithelial to mesenchymal transit-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs). These EMT-TFs are involved in various signaling cascades, which are often associated with tumor invasiveness and malignancy. In this work, we modeled the tumor as a growing hyperplastic mass and investigated the effects of mechanical stress from surrounding ECM on tumor invasion. The invasion is modeled as volume-preserving inelastic evolution. In this framework, principal balance laws are considered for tumor mass, linear momentum, and diffusion of nutrients. Also, mechanical interactions between the tumor and ECM is modeled using Ciarlet constitutive strain energy function, and dissipation inequality is utilized to model the volumetric growth rate. System parameters, such as rate of nutrient uptake and cell proliferation, are obtained experimentally. To validate the model, human Glioblastoma multiforme (hGBM) tumor spheroids were incorporated inside Matrigel/Alginate composite hydrogel and was injected into a microfluidic chip to mimic the tumor’s natural microenvironment. The invasion structure was analyzed by imaging the spheroid over time. Also, the expression of transcriptional factors involved in invasion was measured by immune-staining the tumor. The volumetric growth, stress distribution, and inelastic evolution of tumors were predicted by the model. Results showed that the level of invasion is in direct correlation with the level of predicted stress within the tumor. Moreover, the invasion length measured by fluorescent imaging was shown to be related to the inelastic evolution of tumors obtained by the model.

Keywords: cancer, invasion, mathematical modeling, microfluidic chip, tumor spheroids

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18170 Effect of Engineered Low Glycemic Foods on Cancer Progression and Healthy State

Authors: C. Panebianco, K. Adamberg, S. Adamberg, C. Saracino, M. Jaagura, K. Kolk, A. Di Chio, P. Graziano, R. Vilu, V. Pazienza

Abstract:

Background/Aims: Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the pancreatic cancer (PC) is observed so far. Short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. However, diseased people may refuse to follow the fasting regimen and fasting may worsen the weight loss often occurring in cancer patients. Therefore, alternative approaches are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Engineered Low glycemic food ELGIF mimicking diet on growth of cancer cell lines in vitro and in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. Materials and Methods: BxPC-3, MiaPaca-2 and Panc-1 cells were cultured in control and ELGIF mimicking diet culturing condition to evaluate the tumor growth and proliferation pathways. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to ELGIF to assess the tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed with control diet. Results: Pancreatic cancer cells cultured in ELGIF mimicking medium showed decreased levels of proliferation as compared to those cultured in the standard medium. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to ELGIF diet displayed a significant decrease in tumor growth. Conclusion: A positive effect of ELGIF diet on proliferation in vitro is associated with the decrease of tumor progression in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that engineered dietary interventions could be supportive as synergistic approach to enhance the efficacy of existing cancer treatments in pancreatic cancer patients.

Keywords: functional food, microbiota, mouse model, pancreatic cancer

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18169 Virtualization of Biomass Colonization: Potential of Application in Precision Medicine

Authors: Maria Valeria De Bonis, Gianpaolo Ruocco

Abstract:

Nowadays, computational modeling is paving new design and verification ways in a number of industrial sectors. The technology is ripe to challenge some case in the Bioengineering and Medicine frameworks: for example, looking at the strategical and ethical importance of oncology research, efforts should be made to yield new and powerful resources to tumor knowledge and understanding. With these driving motivations, we approach this gigantic problem by using some standard engineering tools such as the mathematics behind the biomass transfer. We present here some bacterial colonization studies in complex structures. As strong analogies hold with some tumor proliferation, we extend our study to a benchmark case of solid tumor. By means of a commercial software, we model biomass and energy evolution in arbitrary media. The approach will be useful to cast virtualization cases of cancer growth in human organs, while augmented reality tools will be used to yield for a realistic aid to informed decision in treatment and surgery.

Keywords: bacteria, simulation, tumor, precision medicine

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18168 An Alternative Richards’ Growth Model Based on Hyperbolic Sine Function

Authors: Samuel Oluwafemi Oyamakin, Angela Unna Chukwu

Abstract:

Richrads growth equation being a generalized logistic growth equation was improved upon by introducing an allometric parameter using the hyperbolic sine function. The integral solution to this was called hyperbolic Richards growth model having transformed the solution from deterministic to a stochastic growth model. Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical Richards growth model an approach which mimicked the natural variability of heights/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using the coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Square Error (MSE) results. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the behavior of the error term for possible violations. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic Richards nonlinear growth models better than the classical Richards growth model.

Keywords: height, diameter at breast height, DBH, hyperbolic sine function, Pinus caribaea, Richards' growth model

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18167 On Differential Growth Equation to Stochastic Growth Model Using Hyperbolic Sine Function in Height/Diameter Modeling of Pines

Authors: S. O. Oyamakin, A. U. Chukwu

Abstract:

Richard's growth equation being a generalized logistic growth equation was improved upon by introducing an allometric parameter using the hyperbolic sine function. The integral solution to this was called hyperbolic Richard's growth model having transformed the solution from deterministic to a stochastic growth model. Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical Richard's growth model an approach which mimicked the natural variability of heights/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using the coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Square Error (MSE) results. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the behavior of the error term for possible violations. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic Richard's nonlinear growth models better than the classical Richard's growth model.

Keywords: height, Dbh, forest, Pinus caribaea, hyperbolic, Richard's, stochastic

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18166 A Parallel Cellular Automaton Model of Tumor Growth for Multicore and GPU Programming

Authors: Manuel I. Capel, Antonio Tomeu, Alberto Salguero

Abstract:

Tumor growth from a transformed cancer-cell up to a clinically apparent mass spans through a range of spatial and temporal magnitudes. Through computer simulations, Cellular Automata (CA) can accurately describe the complexity of the development of tumors. Tumor development prognosis can now be made -without making patients undergo through annoying medical examinations or painful invasive procedures- if we develop appropriate CA-based software tools. In silico testing mainly refers to Computational Biology research studies of application to clinical actions in Medicine. To establish sound computer-based models of cellular behavior, certainly reduces costs and saves precious time with respect to carrying out experiments in vitro at labs or in vivo with living cells and organisms. These aim to produce scientifically relevant results compared to traditional in vitro testing, which is slow, expensive, and does not generally have acceptable reproducibility under the same conditions. For speeding up computer simulations of cellular models, specific literature shows recent proposals based on the CA approach that include advanced techniques, such the clever use of supporting efficient data structures when modeling with deterministic stochastic cellular automata. Multiparadigm and multiscale simulation of tumor dynamics is just beginning to be developed by the concerned research community. The use of stochastic cellular automata (SCA), whose parallel programming implementations are open to yield a high computational performance, are of much interest to be explored up to their computational limits. There have been some approaches based on optimizations to advance in multiparadigm models of tumor growth, which mainly pursuit to improve performance of these models through efficient memory accesses guarantee, or considering the dynamic evolution of the memory space (grids, trees,…) that holds crucial data in simulations. In our opinion, the different optimizations mentioned above are not decisive enough to achieve the high performance computing power that cell-behavior simulation programs actually need. The possibility of using multicore and GPU parallelism as a promising multiplatform and framework to develop new programming techniques to speed-up the computation time of simulations is just starting to be explored in the few last years. This paper presents a model that incorporates parallel processing, identifying the synchronization necessary for speeding up tumor growth simulations implemented in Java and C++ programming environments. The speed up improvement that specific parallel syntactic constructs, such as executors (thread pools) in Java, are studied. The new tumor growth parallel model is proved using implementations with Java and C++ languages on two different platforms: chipset Intel core i-X and a HPC cluster of processors at our university. The parallelization of Polesczuk and Enderling model (normally used by researchers in mathematical oncology) proposed here is analyzed with respect to performance gain. We intend to apply the model and overall parallelization technique presented here to solid tumors of specific affiliation such as prostate, breast, or colon. Our final objective is to set up a multiparadigm model capable of modelling angiogenesis, or the growth inhibition induced by chemotaxis, as well as the effect of therapies based on the presence of cytotoxic/cytostatic drugs.

Keywords: cellular automaton, tumor growth model, simulation, multicore and manycore programming, parallel programming, high performance computing, speed up

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18165 PCR Based DNA Analysis in Detecting P53 Mutation in Human Breast Cancer (MDA-468)

Authors: Debbarma Asis, Guha Chandan

Abstract:

Tumor Protein-53 (P53) is one of the tumor suppressor proteins. P53 regulates the cell cycle that conserves stability by preventing genome mutation. It is named so as it runs as 53-kilodalton (kDa) protein on Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis although the actual mass is 43.7 kDa. Experimental evidence has indicated that P53 cancer mutants loses tumor suppression activity and subsequently gain oncogenic activities to promote tumourigenesis. Tumor-specific DNA has recently been detected in the plasma of breast cancer patients. Detection of tumor-specific genetic materials in cancer patients may provide a unique and valuable tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis. Commercially available MDA-468 breast cancer cell line was used for the proposed study.

Keywords: tumor protein (P53), cancer mutants, MDA-468, tumor suppressor gene

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18164 On Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model (HGGM)

Authors: S. O. Oyamakin, A. U. Chukwu,

Abstract:

We proposed a Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model (HGGM), which was developed by introducing a stabilizing parameter called θ using hyperbolic sine function into the classical gompertz growth equation. The resulting integral solution obtained deterministically was reprogrammed into a statistical model and used in modeling the height and diameter of Pines (Pinus caribaea). Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical gompertz growth model, an approach which mimicked the natural variability of height/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using goodness of fit tests and model selection criteria. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the compliance of the error term to normality assumptions while using testing the independence of the error term using the runs test. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic gompertz growth models better than the source model (classical gompertz growth model) while the results of R2, Adj. R2, MSE, and AIC confirmed the predictive power of the Hyperbolic Monomolecular growth models over its source model.

Keywords: height, Dbh, forest, Pinus caribaea, hyperbolic, gompertz

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18163 Autophagy Suppresses Bladder Tumor Formation in a Mouse Orthotopic Bladder Tumor Formation Model

Authors: Wan-Ting Kuo, Yi-Wen Liu, Hsiao-Sheng Liu

Abstract:

Annual incidence of bladder cancer increases in the world and occurs frequently in the male. Most common type is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) which is treated by transurethral resection followed by intravesical administration of agents. In clinical treatment of bladder cancer, chemotherapeutic drugs-induced apoptosis is always used in patients. However, cancers usually develop resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and often lead to aggressive tumors with worse clinical outcomes. Approximate 70% TCC recurs and 30% recurrent tumors progress to high-grade invasive tumors, indicating that new therapeutic agents are urgently needed to improve the successful rate of overall treatment. Nonapoptotic program cell death may assist to overcome worse clinical outcomes. Autophagy which is one of the nonapoptotic pathways provides another option for bladder cancer patients. Autophagy is reported as a potent anticancer therapy in some cancers. First of all, we established a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor formation model in order to create a similar tumor microenvironment. IVIS system and micro-ultrasound were utilized to noninvasively monitor tumor formation. In addition, we carried out intravesical treatment in our animal model to be consistent with human clinical treatment. In our study, we carried out intravesical instillation of the autophagy inducer in mouse orthotopic bladder tumor to observe tumor formation by noninvasive IVIS system and micro-ultrasound. Our results showed that bladder tumor formation is suppressed by the autophagy inducer, and there are no significant side effects in the physiology of mice. Furthermore, the autophagy inducer upregulated autophagy in bladder tissues of the treated mice was confirmed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. In conclusion, we reveal that a novel autophagy inducer with low side effects suppresses bladder tumor formation in our mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, and it provides another therapeutic approach in bladder cancer patients.

Keywords: bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma, orthotopic bladder tumor formation model, autophagy

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18162 A Crop Growth Subroutine for Watershed Resources Management (WRM) Model

Authors: Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Constantine Mbajiorgu

Abstract:

Vegetation has a marked effect on runoff and has become an important component in hydrologic model. The watershed Resources Management (WRM) model, a process-based, continuous, distributed parameter simulation model developed for hydrologic and soil erosion studies at the watershed scale lack a crop growth component. As such, this model assumes a constant parameter values for vegetation and hydraulic parameters throughout the duration of hydrologic simulation. Our approach is to develop a crop growth algorithm based on the original plant growth model used in the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model (EPIC) model. This paper describes the development of a single crop growth model which has the capability of simulating all crops using unique parameter values for each crop. Simulated crop growth processes will reflect the vegetative seasonality of the natural watershed system. An existing model was employed for evaluating vegetative resistance by hydraulic and vegetative parameters incorporated into the WRM model. The improved WRM model will have the ability to evaluate the seasonal variation of the vegetative roughness coefficient with depth of flow and further enhance the hydrologic model’s capability for accurate hydrologic studies

Keywords: crop yield, roughness coefficient, PAR, WRM model

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18161 A Crop Growth Subroutine for Watershed Resources Management (WRM) Model 1: Description

Authors: Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Constantine Mbajiorgu

Abstract:

Vegetation has a marked effect on runoff and has become an important component in hydrologic model. The watershed Resources Management (WRM) model, a process-based, continuous, distributed parameter simulation model developed for hydrologic and soil erosion studies at the watershed scale lack a crop growth component. As such, this model assumes a constant parameter values for vegetation and hydraulic parameters throughout the duration of hydrologic simulation. Our approach is to develop a crop growth algorithm based on the original plant growth model used in the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model (EPIC) model. This paper describes the development of a single crop growth model which has the capability of simulating all crops using unique parameter values for each crop. Simulated crop growth processes will reflect the vegetative seasonality of the natural watershed system. An existing model was employed for evaluating vegetative resistance by hydraulic and vegetative parameters incorporated into the WRM model. The improved WRM model will have the ability to evaluate the seasonal variation of the vegetative roughness coefficient with depth of flow and further enhance the hydrologic model’s capability for accurate hydrologic studies.

Keywords: runoff, roughness coefficient, PAR, WRM model

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18160 Multicellular Cancer Spheroids as an in Vitro Model for Localized Hyperthermia Study

Authors: Kamila Dus-Szachniewicz, Artur Bednarkiewicz, Katarzyna Gdesz-Birula, Slawomir Drobczynski

Abstract:

In modern oncology hyperthermia (HT) is defined as a controlled tumor heating. HT treatment temperatures range between 40–48 °C and can selectively damage heat-sensitive cancer cells or limit their further growth, usually with minimal injury to healthy tissues. Despite many advantages, conventional whole-body and regional hyperthermia have clinically relevant side effects, including cardiac and vascular disorders. Additionally, the lack of accessibility of deep-seated tumor sites and impaired targeting micrometastases renders HT less effective. It is believed that above disadvantages can significantly overcome by the application of biofunctionalized microparticles, which can specifically target tumor sites and become activated by an external stimulus to provide a sufficient cellular response. In our research, the unique optical tweezers system have enabled capturing the silica microparticles, primary cells and tumor spheroids in highly controllable and reproducible environment to study the impact of localized heat stimulation on normal and pathological cell and within multicellular tumor spheroid. High throughput spheroid model was introduced to better mimic the response to HT treatment on tumors in vivo. Additionally, application of local heating of tumor spheroids was performed in strictly controlled conditions resembling tumor microenvironment (temperature, pH, hypoxia, etc.), in response to localized and nonhomogeneous hyperthermia in the extracellular matrix, which promotes tumor progression and metastatic spread. The lack of precise control over these well- defined parameters in basic research leads to discrepancies in the response of tumor cells to the new treatment strategy in preclinical animal testing. The developed approach enables also sorting out subclasses of cells, which exhibit partial or total resistance to therapy, in order to understand fundamental aspects of the resistance shown by given tumor cells in response to given therapy mode and conditions. This work was funded by the National Science Centre (NCN, Poland) under grant no. UMO-2017/27/B/ST7/01255.

Keywords: cancer spheroids, hyperthermia, microparticles, optical tweezers

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18159 Economic Analysis of Endogenous Growth Model with ICT Capital

Authors: Shoji Katagiri, Hugang Han

Abstract:

This paper clarifies the role of ICT capital in Economic Growth. Albeit ICT remarkably contributes to economic growth, there are few studies on ICT capital in ICT sector from theoretical point of view. In this paper, production function of ICT which is used as input of intermediate good in final good and ICT sectors is incorporated into our model. In this setting, we analyze the role of ICT on balance growth path and show the possibility of general equilibrium solutions for this model. Through the simulation of the equilibrium solutions, we find that when ICT impacts on economy and economic growth increases, it is necessary that increases of efficiency at ICT sector and of accumulation of non-ICT and ICT capitals occur simultaneously.

Keywords: endogenous economic growth, ICT, intensity, capital accumulation

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18158 A Simple Finite Element Method for Glioma Tumor Growth Model with Density Dependent Diffusion

Authors: Shangerganesh Lingeshwaran

Abstract:

In this presentation, we have performed numerical simulations for a reaction-diffusion equation with various nonlinear density-dependent diffusion operators and proliferation functions. The mathematical model represented by parabolic partial differential equation is considered to study the invasion of gliomas (the most common type of brain tumors) and to describe the growth of cancer cells and response to their treatment. The unknown quantity of the given reaction-diffusion equation is the density of cancer cells and the mathematical model based on the proliferation and migration of glioma cells. A standard Galerkin finite element method is used to perform the numerical simulations of the given model. Finally, important observations on the each of nonlinear diffusion functions and proliferation functions are presented with the help of computational results.

Keywords: glioma invasion, nonlinear diffusion, reaction-diffusion, finite eleament method

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18157 Effect of Total Body Irradiation for Metastatic Lymph Node and Lung Metastasis in Early Stage

Authors: Shouta Sora, Shizuki Kuriu, Radhika Mishra, Ariunbuyan Sukhbaatar, Maya Sakamoto, Shiro Mori, Tetsuya Kodama

Abstract:

Lymph node (LN) metastasis accounts for 20 - 30 % of all deaths in patients with head and neck cancer. Therefore, the control of metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) is necessary to improve the life prognosis of patients with cancer. In a classical metastatic theory, tumor cells are thought to metastasize hematogenously through a bead-like network of lymph nodes. Recently, a lymph node-mediated hematogenous metastasis theory has been proposed, in which sentinel LNs are regarded as a source of distant metastasis. Therefore, the treatment of MLNs at the early stage is essential to prevent distant metastasis. Radiation therapy is one of the primary therapeutic modalities in cancer treatment. In addition, total body irradiation (TBI) has been reported to act as activation of natural killer cells and increase of infiltration of CD4+ T-cells to tumor tissues. However, the treatment effect of TBI for MLNs remains unclear. This study evaluated the possibilities of low-dose total body irradiation (L-TBI) and middle-dose total body irradiation (M-TBI) for the treatment of MLNs. Mouse breast cancer FM3A-Luc cells were injected into subiliac lymph node (SiLN) of MXH10/Mo/LPR mice to induce the metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node (PALN) and lung. Mice were irradiated for the whole body on 4 days after tumor injection. The L-TBI and M-TBI were defined as irradiations to the whole body at 0.2 Gy and 1.0 Gy, respectively. Tumor growth was evaluated by in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. In the non-irradiated group, tumor activities on SiLN and PALN significantly increased over time, and the metastasis to the lung from LNs was confirmed 28 days after tumor injection. The L-TBI led to a tumor growth delay in PALN but did not control tumor growth in SiLN and metastasis to the lung. In contrast, it was found that the M-TBI significantly delayed the tumor growth of both SiLN and PALN and controlled the distant metastasis to the lung compared with non-irradiated and L-TBI groups. These results suggest that the M-TBI is an effective treatment method for MLNs in the early stage and distant metastasis from lymph nodes via blood vessels connected with LNs.

Keywords: metastatic lymph node, lung metastasis, radiation therapy, total body irradiation, lymphatic system

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18156 Sider Bee Honey: Antitumor Effect in Some Experimental Tumor Cell Lines

Authors: Aliaa M. Issa, Mahmoud N. ElRouby, Sahar A. S. Ahmad, Mahmoud M. El-Merzabani

Abstract:

Sider honey is a type of honey produced by bees feeding on the nectar of Sider tree, Ziziphus spina-christi (L) Desf . Honey is an effective agent for preventing, inhibiting and treating the growth of human and animal cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different dilutions from crude Sider honey and different duration times of exposure on the growth of six tumor cell lines (human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa; human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG-2; human larynx carcinoma cell line, Hep-2; brain tumor cell line, U251) as well as one animal cancerous cell line (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells line, EAC) and one normal cell line, Homo sapiens, human, (WISH) CCL-25. Different concentrations and treatment durations with Sider honey were tested on the growth of several cancer cell lines types. Histopathological changes in the tumor masses, animal survival, apoptosis and necrosis of the used cancer cell lines (using flow cytometry) were evaluated. Sider honey was administers either to the tumor mass itself by intratumoral injection or via drinking water. One-way ANOVA test was used for the analysis of (the means + standard error) of the optical density obtained from the Elisa reader and flow cytometry. The study revealed that different concentrations of Sider honey affected the growth patterns of all the studied cancer cell lines as well as their histopathological changes, and it depended on the cell line nature and the concentration of honey used. It is obvious that the relative animal survival percentage (bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, EAC cells) was proportionally increased with the increase in the used honey concentrations. The study of apoptosis and necrosis using the flow cytometry technique emphasized the viability results. In conclusion, Sider honey was effective as antitumor agent, in the used concentrations.

Keywords: antitumor, honey, sider, tumor cell lines

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18155 Monitoring the Effect of Doxorubicin Liposomal in VX2 Tumor Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Ren-Jy Ben, Jo-Chi Jao, Chiu-Ya Liao, Ya-Ru Tsai, Lain-Chyr Hwang, Po-Chou Chen

Abstract:

Cancer is still one of the serious diseases threatening the lives of human beings. How to have an early diagnosis and effective treatment for tumors is a very important issue. The animal carcinoma model can provide a simulation tool for the study of pathogenesis, biological characteristics and therapeutic effects. Recently, drug delivery systems have been rapidly developed to effectively improve the therapeutic effects. Liposome plays an increasingly important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy for delivering a pharmaceutic or contrast agent to the targeted sites. Liposome can be absorbed and excreted by the human body, and is well known that no harm to the human body. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects between encapsulated (doxorubicin liposomal, LipoDox) and un-encapsulated (doxorubicin, Dox) anti-tumor drugs using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 carcinoma at left thigh were classified into three groups: control group (untreated), Dox-treated group and LipoDox-treated group, 8 rabbits for each group. MRI scans were performed three days after tumor implantation. A 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MRI scanner with a high resolution knee coil was used in this study. After a 3-plane localizer scan was performed, Three-Dimensional (3D) Fast Spin Echo (FSE) T2-Weighted Images (T2WI) was used for tumor volumetric quantification. And Two-Dimensional (2D) spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) dynamic Contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was used for tumor perfusion evaluation. DCE-MRI was designed to acquire four baseline images, followed by contrast agent Gd-DOTA injection through the ear vein of rabbits. Afterwards, a series of 32 images were acquired to observe the signals change over time in the tumor and muscle. The MRI scanning was scheduled on a weekly basis for a period of four weeks to observe the tumor progression longitudinally. The Dox and LipoDox treatments were prescribed 3 times in the first week immediately after VX2 tumor implantation. ImageJ was used to quantitate tumor volume and time course signal enhancement on DCE images. The changes of tumor size showed that the growth of VX2 tumors was effectively inhibited for both LipoDox-treated and Dox-treated groups. Furthermore, the tumor volume of LipoDox-treated group was significantly lower than that of Dox-treated group, which implies that LipoDox has better therapeutic effect than Dox. The signal intensity of LipoDox-treated group is significantly lower than that of the other two groups, which implies that targeted therapeutic drug remained in the tumor tissue. This study provides a radiation-free and non-invasive MRI method for therapeutic monitoring of targeted liposome on an animal tumor model.

Keywords: doxorubicin, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, lipodox, magnetic resonance imaging, VX2 tumor model

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18154 A Mathematical Equation to Calculate Stock Price of Different Growth Model

Authors: Weiping Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents an equation to calculate stock prices of different growth model. This equation is mathematically derived by using discounted cash flow method. It has the advantages of being very easy to use and very accurate. It can still be used even when the first stage is lengthy. This equation is more generalized because it can be used for all the three popular stock price models. It can be programmed into financial calculator or electronic spreadsheets. In addition, it can be extended to a multistage model. It is more versatile and efficient than the traditional methods.

Keywords: stock price, multistage model, different growth model, discounted cash flow method

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18153 Model Predictive Control Using Thermal Inputs for Crystal Growth Dynamics

Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recently, crystal growth technologies have made progress by the requirement for the high quality of crystal materials. To control the crystal growth dynamics actively by external forces is useuful for reducing composition non-uniformity. In this study, a control method based on model predictive control using thermal inputs is proposed for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials. The control system of crystal growth dynamics considered here is governed by the continuity, momentum, energy, and mass transport equations. To establish the control method for such thermal fluid systems, we adopt model predictive control known as a kind of optimal feedback control in which the control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control method for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials.

Keywords: model predictive control, optimal control, process control, crystal growth

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18152 Development and Characterization of Site Specific Peptide Conjugated Polymeric Nanoparticles for Efficient Delivery of Paclitaxel

Authors: Madhu Gupta, Vikas Sharma, Suresh P. Vyas

Abstract:

CD13 receptors are abundantly overexpressed in tumor cells as well as in neovasculature. The CD13 receptors were selected as a targeted site and polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) as a targeted delivery system. By combining these, a cyclic NGR (cNGR) peptide ligand was coupled on the terminal end of polyethylene glycol-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-b-PLGA) and prepared the dual targeted-NPs (cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs) to enhance the intracellular delivery of anticancer drug to tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells via ligand-receptor interaction. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies confirmed that the presence of cNGR enhanced the cytotoxic efficiency by 2.8 folds in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cells, while cytotoxicity was improved by 2.6 folds in human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) cells as compared to non-specific stealth NPs. Compared with other tested NPs, cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs revealed more cytotoxicity by inducing more apoptosis and higher intracellular uptake. The tumor volume inhibition rate was 59.7% in case of cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs that was comparatively more with other formulations, indicating that cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs could more effectively inhibit tumor growth. As a consequence, the cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs play a key role in enhancing tumor therapeutic efficiency for treatment of CD13 receptor specific solid tumor.

Keywords: cyclic NGR, CD13 receptor, targeted polymeric NPs, solid tumor, intracellular delivery

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18151 Innovation and Economic Growth Model of East Asian Countries: The Adaptability of the Model in Ethiopia

Authors: Khalid Yousuf Ahmed

Abstract:

At the beginning of growth period, East Asian countries achieved impressive economic growth for the decades. They transformed from agricultural economy toward industrialization and contributed to dynamic structural transformation. The achievements were driven by government-led development policies that implemented effective innovation policy to boost technological capability of local firms. Recently, most Sub-Saharan African have been showing sustainable growth. Exceptionally, Ethiopia has been recording double-digit growth for a decade. Hence, Ethiopia has claimed to follow the footstep of East Asia development model. The study is going to examine whether Ethiopia can replicate innovation and economic growth model of East Asia by using Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and China as a case to illustrate their model of growth. This research will be based on empirical data gathering and extended theory of national innovation system and economic growth theory. Moreover, the methodology is based on Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) and also employing cross-countries regression analysis. The results explained that there is a significant relationship between innovation indicators and economic growth in East Asian countries while the relationship is non-existing for Ethiopia except implementing similar policies and achieving similar growth trend. Therefore, Ethiopia needs to introduce inclusive policies that give priority to improving human capital and invest on the knowledge-based economy to replicate East Asian Model.

Keywords: economic growth, FDI, endogenous growth theory, East Asia model

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