Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18017

Search results for: high wind speed

18017 Wind Turbines Optimization: Shield Structure for a High Wind Speed Conditions

Authors: Daniyar Seitenov, Nazim Mir-Nasiri

Abstract:

Optimization of horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine has been performed using a shield protection that automatically protects the generator shaft at extreme wind speeds from over speeding, mechanical damage and continues generating electricity during the high wind speed conditions. A semi-exposed to wind generator has been designed and its structure has been described in this paper. The simplified point-force dynamic load model on the blades has been derived for normal and extreme wind conditions with and without shield involvement. Numerical simulation has been conducted at different values of wind speed to study the efficiency of shield application. The obtained results show that the maximum power generated by the wind turbine with shield does not exceed approximately the rated value of the generator, where shield serves as an automatic break for extreme wind speed values of 15 m/sec and above. Meantime the wind turbine without shield produced a power that is much larger than the rated value. The optimized horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine with shield protection is suitable for low and medium power generation when installed on the roofs of high rise buildings for harvesting wind energy. Wind shield works automatically with no power consumption. The structure of the generator with the protection, math simulation of kinematics and dynamics of power generation has been described in details in this paper.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind turbine, wind turbine optimization, high wind speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
18016 Prediction of Wind Speed by Artificial Neural Networks for Energy Application

Authors: S. Adjiri-Bailiche, S. M. Boudia, H. Daaou, S. Hadouche, A. Benzaoui

Abstract:

In this work the study of changes in the wind speed depending on the altitude is calculated and described by the model of the neural networks, the use of measured data, the speed and direction of wind, temperature and the humidity at 10 m are used as input data and as data targets at 50m above sea level. Comparing predict wind speeds and extrapolated at 50 m above sea level is performed. The results show that the prediction by the method of artificial neural networks is very accurate.

Keywords: MATLAB, neural network, power low, vertical extrapolation, wind energy, wind speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 594
18015 Research on Aerodynamic Brake Device for High-Speed Train

Authors: S. Yun, M. Kwak

Abstract:

This study is about an aerodynamic brake device for a high-speed train. In order to apply an aerodynamic brake device, an influence of the aerodynamic brake device on a high-speed train was studied aerodynamically, acoustically and dynamically. Wind tunnel test was conducted to predict an effect of braking distance reduction with a scale model of 1/30. Aerodynamic drag increases by 244% with a brake panel of a 90 degree angle. Braking distance for an emergency state was predicted to decrease by 13%.

Keywords: aerodynamic brake, braking distance, drag coefficient, high-speed train, wind-tunnel test

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
18014 Experimental Investigation of Tip-Speed-Ratio Effects on Wake Dynamics of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Paul Bayron, Richard Kelso, Rey Chin

Abstract:

Wind tunnel experiments were performed in the KC closed-circuit wind tunnel in the University of Adelaide to study the influence of tip-speed-ratio (

Keywords: hotwire anemometry, wake dynamics, wind tunnel, wind turbines

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
18013 Effect of Drag Coefficient Models concerning Global Air-Sea Momentum Flux in Broad Wind Range including Extreme Wind Speeds

Authors: Takeshi Takemoto, Naoya Suzuki, Naohisa Takagaki, Satoru Komori, Masako Terui, George Truscott

Abstract:

Drag coefficient is an important parameter in order to correctly estimate the air-sea momentum flux. However, The parameterization of the drag coefficient hasn’t been established due to the variation in the field data. Instead, a number of drag coefficient model formulae have been proposed, even though almost all these models haven’t discussed the extreme wind speed range. With regards to such models, it is unclear how the drag coefficient changes in the extreme wind speed range as the wind speed increased. In this study, we investigated the effect of the drag coefficient models concerning the air-sea momentum flux in the extreme wind range on a global scale, comparing two different drag coefficient models. Interestingly, one model didn’t discuss the extreme wind speed range while the other model considered it. We found that the difference of the models in the annual global air-sea momentum flux was small because the occurrence frequency of strong wind was approximately 1% with a wind speed of 20m/s or more. However, we also discovered that the difference of the models was shown in the middle latitude where the annual mean air-sea momentum flux was large and the occurrence frequency of strong wind was high. In addition, the estimated data showed that the difference of the models in the drag coefficient was large in the extreme wind speed range and that the largest difference became 23% with a wind speed of 35m/s or more. These results clearly show that the difference of the two models concerning the drag coefficient has a significant impact on the estimation of a regional air-sea momentum flux in an extreme wind speed range such as that seen in a tropical cyclone environment. Furthermore, we estimated each air-sea momentum flux using several kinds of drag coefficient models. We will also provide data from an observation tower and result from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) concerning the influence of wind flow at and around the place.

Keywords: air-sea interaction, drag coefficient, air-sea momentum flux, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
18012 Wind Energy Potential of Southern Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Maliha Afshan Siddiqui

Abstract:

A study has been carried out to see the prospect of wind power potential of southern Sindh namely Karachi, Hawksbay, Norriabad, Hyderabad, Ketibander and Shahbander using local wind speed data. The monthly average wind speed for these area ranges from 4.5m/sec to 8.5m/sec at 30m height from ground. Extractable wind power, wind energy and Weibul parameter for above mentioned areas have been examined. Furthermore, the power output using fast and slow wind machine using different blade diameter along with the 4Kw and 20 Kw aero-generator were examined to see the possible use for deep well pumping and electricity supply to remote villages. The analysis reveals that in this wind corridor of southern Sindh Hawksbay, Ketibander and Shahbander belongs to wind power class-3 Hyderabad and Nooriabad belongs to wind power class-5 and Karachi belongs to wind power class-2. The result shows that the that higher wind speed values occur between June till August. It was found that considering maximum wind speed location, Hawksbay,Noriabad are the best location for setting up wind machines for power generation.

Keywords: wind energy generation, Southern Sindh, seasonal change, Weibull parameter, wind machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
18011 A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network for Wind Profile Estimation

Authors: M. Saiful Islam, M. Mohandes, S. Rehman, S. Badran

Abstract:

Increasing necessity of wind power is directing us to have precise knowledge on wind resources. Methodical investigation of potential locations is required for wind power deployment. High penetration of wind energy to the grid is leading multi megawatt installations with huge investment cost. This fact appeals to determine appropriate places for wind farm operation. For accurate assessment, detailed examination of wind speed profile, relative humidity, temperature and other geological or atmospheric parameters are required. Among all of these uncertainty factors influencing wind power estimation, vertical extrapolation of wind speed is perhaps the most difficult and critical one. Different approaches have been used for the extrapolation of wind speed to hub height which are mainly based on Log law, Power law and various modifications of the two. This paper proposes a Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) based hybrid model, namely GA-NN for vertical extrapolation of wind speed. This model is very simple in a sense that it does not require any parametric estimations like wind shear coefficient, roughness length or atmospheric stability and also reliable compared to other methods. This model uses available measured wind speeds at 10m, 20m and 30m heights to estimate wind speeds up to 100m. A good comparison is found between measured and estimated wind speeds at 30m and 40m with approximately 3% mean absolute percentage error. Comparisons with ANN and power law, further prove the feasibility of the proposed method.

Keywords: wind profile, vertical extrapolation of wind, genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, hybrid machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
18010 The Mechanism of Design and Analysis Modeling of Performance of Variable Speed Wind Turbine and Dynamical Control of Wind Turbine Power

Authors: Mohammadreza Heydariazad

Abstract:

Productivity growth of wind energy as a clean source needed to achieve improved strategy in production and transmission and management of wind resources in order to increase quality of power and reduce costs. New technologies based on power converters that cause changing turbine speed to suit the wind speed blowing turbine improve extraction efficiency power from wind. This article introduces variable speed wind turbines and optimization of power, and presented methods to use superconducting inductor in the composition of power converter and is proposed the dc measurement for the wind farm and especially is considered techniques available to them. In fact, this article reviews mechanisms and function, changes of wind speed turbine according to speed control strategies of various types of wind turbines and examines power possible transmission and ac from producing location to suitable location for a strong connection integrating wind farm generators, without additional cost or equipment. It also covers main objectives of the dynamic control of wind turbines, and the methods of exploitation and the ways of using it that includes the unique process of these components. Effective algorithm is presented for power control in order to extract maximum active power and maintains power factor at the desired value.

Keywords: wind energy, generator, superconducting inductor, wind turbine power

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
18009 Applied Bayesian Regularized Artificial Neural Network for Up-Scaling Wind Speed Profile and Distribution

Authors: Aghbalou Nihad, Charki Abderafi, Saida Rahali, Reklaoui Kamal

Abstract:

Maximize the benefit from the wind energy potential is the most interest of the wind power stakeholders. As a result, the wind tower size is radically increasing. Nevertheless, choosing an appropriate wind turbine for a selected site require an accurate estimate of vertical wind profile. It is also imperative from cost and maintenance strategy point of view. Then, installing tall towers or even more expensive devices such as LIDAR or SODAR raises the costs of a wind power project. Various models were developed coming within this framework. However, they suffer from complexity, generalization and lacks accuracy. In this work, we aim to investigate the ability of neural network trained using the Bayesian Regularization technique to estimate wind speed profile up to height of 100 m based on knowledge of wind speed lower heights. Results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory predictions and proof the suitability of the proposed method for generating wind speed profile and probability distributions based on knowledge of wind speed at lower heights.

Keywords: bayesian regularization, neural network, wind shear, accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
18008 Wind Speed Prediction Using Passive Aggregation Artificial Intelligence Model

Authors: Tarek Aboueldahab, Amin Mohamed Nassar

Abstract:

Wind energy is a fluctuating energy source unlike conventional power plants, thus, it is necessary to accurately predict short term wind speed to integrate wind energy in the electricity supply structure. To do so, we present a hybrid artificial intelligence model of short term wind speed prediction based on passive aggregation of the particle swarm optimization and neural networks. As a result, improvement of the prediction accuracy is obviously obtained compared to the standard artificial intelligence method.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, neural networks, particle swarm optimization, passive aggregation, wind speed prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
18007 Vibration Signals of Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Authors: Aqoul H. H. Alanezy, Ali M. Abdelsalam, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

In recent years, progress has been made in increasing the renewable energy share in the power sector particularly in the wind. The experimental study conducted in this paper aims to investigate the effects of number of blades and inflow wind speed on vibration signals of a vertical axis Savonius type wind turbine. The operation of the model of Savonius type wind turbine is conducted to compare two, three and four blades wind turbines to show vibration amplitudes related with wind speed. It is found that the increase of the number of blades leads to decrease of the vibration magnitude. Furthermore, inflow wind speed has reduced effect on the vibration level for higher number of blades.

Keywords: Savonius type wind turbine, number of blades, renewable energy, vibration signals

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18006 Wind Velocity Climate Zonation Based on Observation Data in Indonesia Using Cluster and Principal Component Analysis

Authors: I Dewa Gede Arya Putra

Abstract:

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a mathematical procedure that uses orthogonal transformation techniques to change a set of data with components that may be related become components that are not related to each other. This can have an impact on clustering wind speed characteristics in Indonesia. This study uses data daily wind speed observations of the Site Meteorological Station network for 30 years. Multicollinearity tests were also performed on all of these data before doing clustering with PCA. The results show that the four main components have a total diversity of above 80% which will be used for clusters. Division of clusters using Ward's method obtained 3 types of clusters. Cluster 1 covers the central part of Sumatra Island, northern Kalimantan, northern Sulawesi, and northern Maluku with the climatological pattern of wind speed that does not have an annual cycle and a weak speed throughout the year with a low-speed ranging from 0 to 1,5 m/s². Cluster 2 covers the northern part of Sumatra Island, South Sulawesi, Bali, northern Papua with the climatological pattern conditions of wind speed that have annual cycle variations with low speeds ranging from 1 to 3 m/s². Cluster 3 covers the eastern part of Java Island, the Southeast Nusa Islands, and the southern Maluku Islands with the climatological pattern of wind speed conditions that have annual cycle variations with high speeds ranging from 1 to 4.5 m/s².

Keywords: PCA, cluster, Ward's method, wind speed

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18005 Estimation of Wind Characteristics and Energy Yield at Different Towns in Libya

Authors: Farag Ahwide, Souhel Bousheha

Abstract:

A technical assessment has been made of electricity generation, considering wind turbines ranging between Vestas (V80-2.0 MW and V112-3.0 MW) and the air density is equal to 1.225 Kg/m3, at different towns in Libya. Wind speed might have been measured each 3 hours during 10 m stature at a time for 10 quite sometime between 2000 Furthermore 2009, these towns which are spotted on the bank from claiming Mediterranean ocean also how in the desert, which need aid Derna 1, Derna 2, Shahat, Benghazi, Ajdabya, Sirte, Misurata, Tripoli-Airport, Al-Zawya, Al-Kofra, Sabha, Nalut. The work presented long term "wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal, monthly and diurnal variations at these sites. Wind power density with different heights has been studied. Excel sheet program was used to calculate the values of wind power density and the values of wind speed frequency for the stations; their seasonally values have been estimated. Limit variable with rated wind pace to 10 different wind turbines need to be been estimated, which is used to focus those required yearly vitality yield of a wind vitality change framework (WECS), acknowledging wind turbines extending between 600 kW and 3000 kW).

Keywords: energy yield, wind turbines, wind speed, wind power density

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
18004 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie

Abstract:

In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, Small-scale irrigation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Water pump

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18003 Potentiality of the Wind Energy in Algeria

Authors: C. Benoudjafer, M. N. Tandjaoui, C. Benachaiba

Abstract:

The use of kinetic energy of the wind is in full rise in the world and it starts to be known in our country but timidly. One or more aero generators can be installed to produce for example electricity on isolated places or not connected to the electrical supply network. To use the wind as energy source, it is necessary to know first the energy needs for the population and study the wind intensity, speed, frequency and direction.

Keywords: Algeria, renewable energies, wind, wind power, aero-generators, wind energetic potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
18002 Exergy Analyses of Wind Turbine

Authors: Muhammad Abid

Abstract:

Utilization of renewable energy resources for energy conservation, pollution prevention, resource efficiency and systems integration is very important for sustainable development. In this study, we perform energy and exergy analyses of a wind turbine, located on the roof of Mechanical Engineering Department, King Saud University, and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The turbine is part of a hybrid photovoltaic (PV)-wind system with hydrogen storage. The power output from this turbine varies between 1.5 and 5.5 kW with a rated wind speed of 12 m/s and a cut-in wind speed of 2.4 m/s. We utilize a wide range of experimental data in the analysis and assessment. We determine energy and exergy efficiencies. The energy efficiency changes between 0% to 45% while the exergy efficiency varies between 0% and 31.3%. We also determined some of the exergoeconomic parameters that are the ratios of energy and exergy loss rates to the capital cost (R en and R ex), respectively. (R en) changes between 0.96% and 59.03% for different values of velocity while R ex has a maximum value of 53.62% for the highest wind speed.

Keywords: exergy, efficiency, performance evaluation, wind energy

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18001 Effect of Porous Multi-Layer Envelope System on Effective Wind Pressure of Building Ventilation

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo

Abstract:

Building ventilation performance is an important indicator of indoor comfort. However, in addition to the geometry of the building or the proportion of the opening, the ventilation performance is also very much related to the actual wind pressure of the building. There are more and more contemporary building designs built with multi-layer exterior envelope. Due to ventilation and view observatory requirement, the porous outer layer of the building is commonly adopted and has a significant wind damping effect, causing the phenomenon of actual wind pressure loss. However, the relationship between the wind damping effect and the actual wind pressure is not linear. This effect can make the indoor ventilation of the building rationalized to reasonable range under the condition of high wind pressure, and also maintain a good amount of ventilation performance under the condition of low wind pressure. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were carried out to simulate the different wind pressures flow through the porous outer layer, and observe the actual wind pressure strength engage with the window layer to find the decreasing relationship between the damping effect of the porous shell and the wind pressure. Experiment specimen scale was designed to be 1:50 for testing real-world building conditions; the study found that the porous enclosure has protective shielding without affecting low-pressure ventilation. Current study observed the porous skin may damp more wind energy to ease the wind pressure under high-speed wind. Differential wind speed may drop the pressure into similar pressure level by using porous skin. The actual mechanism and value of this phenomenon will need further study in the future.

Keywords: multi-layer facade, porous media, wind damping, wind tunnel test, building ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
18000 Wind Power Potential in Selected Algerian Sahara Regions

Authors: M. Dahbi, M. Sellam, A. Benatiallah, A. Harrouz

Abstract:

The wind energy is one of the most significant and rapidly developing renewable energy sources in the world and it provides a clean energy resource, which is a promising alternative in the short term in Algeria The main purpose of this paper is to compared and discuss the wind power potential in three sites located in sahara of Algeria (south west of Algeria) and to perform an investigation on the wind power potential of desert of Algeria. In this comparative, wind speed frequency distributions data obtained from the web site SODA.com are used to calculate the average wind speed and the available wind power. The Weibull density function has been used to estimate the monthly power wind density and to determine the characteristics of monthly parameters of Weibull for these three sites. The annual energy produced by the BWC XL.1 1KW wind machine is obtained and compared. The analysis shows that in the south west of Algeria, at 10 m height, the available wind power was found to vary between 136.59 W/m2 and 231.04 W/m2. The highest potential wind power was found at Adrar, with 21h per day and the mean wind speed is above 6 m/s. Besides, it is found that the annual wind energy generated by that machine lie between 512 KWh and 1643.2 kWh. However, the wind resource appears to be suitable for power production on the sahara and it could provide a viable substitute to diesel oil for irrigation pumps and rural electricity generation.

Keywords: Weibull distribution, parameters of Wiebull, wind energy, wind turbine, operating hours

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
17999 An Assessment of Wind Energy in Sanar Village in North of Iran Using Weibull Function

Authors: Ehsanolah Assareh, Mojtaba Biglari, Mojtaba Nedaei

Abstract:

Sanar village in north of Iran is a remote region with difficult access to electricity, grid and water supply. Thus the aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of wind as a power source either for electricity generation or for water pumping. In this study the statistical analysis has been performed by Weibull distribution function. The results show that the Weibull distribution has fitted the wind data very well. Also it has been demonstrated that wind speed at 40 m height is ranged from 1.75 m/s in Dec to 3.28 m/s in Aug with average value of 2.69 m/s. In this research, different wind speed characteristics such as turbulence intensity, wind direction, monthly air temperature, humidity wind power density and other related parameters have been investigated. Finally it was concluded that the wind energy in the Sanar village may be explored by employing modern wind turbines that require very lower start-up speeds.

Keywords: wind energy, wind turbine, weibull, Sanar village, Iran

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17998 Expanding the Evaluation Criteria for a Wind Turbine Performance

Authors: Ivan Balachin, Geanette Polanco, Jiang Xingliang, Hu Qin

Abstract:

The problem of global warming raised up interest towards renewable energy sources. To reduce cost of wind energy is a challenge. Before building of wind park conditions such as: average wind speed, direction, time for each wind, probability of icing, must be considered in the design phase. Operation values used on the setting of control systems also will depend on mentioned variables. Here it is proposed a procedure to be include in the evaluation of the performance of a wind turbine, based on the amplitude of wind changes, the number of changes and their duration. A generic study case based on actual data is presented. Data analysing techniques were applied to model the power required for yaw system based on amplitude and data amount of wind changes. A theoretical model between time, amplitude of wind changes and angular speed of nacelle rotation was identified.

Keywords: field data processing, regression determination, wind turbine performance, wind turbine placing, yaw system losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
17997 Design of 100 kW Induction Generator for Wind Power Plant at Tamanjaya Village-Sukabumi

Authors: Andri Setiyoso, Agus Purwadi, Nanda Avianto Wicaksono

Abstract:

This paper present about induction generator design for 100kW power output capacity. Induction machine had been chosen because of the capability for energy conversion from electric energy to mechanical energy and vise-versa with operation on variable speed condition. Stator Controlled Induction Generator (SCIG) was applied as wind power plant in Desa Taman Jaya, Sukabumi, Indonesia. Generator was designed to generate power 100 kW with wind speed at 12 m/s and survival condition at speed 21 m/s.

Keywords: wind energy, induction generator, Stator Controlled Induction Generator (SCIG), variable speed generator

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17996 Simulation of Wind Generator with Fixed Wind Turbine under Matlab-Simulink

Authors: Mahdi Motahari, Mojtaba Farzaneh, Armin Parsian Nejad

Abstract:

The rapidly growing wind industry is highly expressing the need for education and training worldwide, particularly on the system level. Modelling and simulating wind generator system using Matlab-Simulink provides expert help in understanding wind systems engineering and system design. Working under Matlab-Simulink we present the integration of the developed WECS model with public electrical grid. A test of the calculated power and Cp related to the experimental equivalent data, using statistical analysis is performed. The statistical indicators of accuracy show better results of the presented method with RMSE: 21%, 22%, MBE : 0.77%, 0.12 % and MAE :3%, 4%.On the other hand we study its behavior when integrated in whole power system. Three level of wind speeds have been chosen: low with 5m/s as the mean value, medium with 8m/s as the mean value and high speed with 12m/s as the mean value. These allowed predicting and supervising the active power produced by the system, characterized respectively by the middle powers of -150 kW, -250kW and -480 kW which will be injected directly into the public electrical grid and the reactive power, characterized respectively by the middle powers of 60 kW, 180 kW and 320 kW and will be consumed by the wind generator.

Keywords: modelling, simulation, wind generator, fixed speed wind turbine, Matlab-Simulink

Procedia PDF Downloads 542
17995 Assessment of Pedestrian Comfort in a Portuguese City Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling and Wind Tunnel

Authors: Bruno Vicente, Sandra Rafael, Vera Rodrigues, Sandra Sorte, Sara Silva, Ana Isabel Miranda, Carlos Borrego

Abstract:

Wind comfort for pedestrians is an important condition in urban areas. In Portugal, a country with 900 km of coastline, the wind direction are predominantly from Nor-Northwest with an average speed of 2.3 m·s -1 (at 2 m height). As a result, a set of city authorities have been requesting studies of pedestrian wind comfort for new urban areas/buildings, as well as to mitigate wind discomfort issues related to existing structures. This work covers the efficiency evaluation of a set of measures to reduce the wind speed in an outdoor auditorium (open space) located in a coastal Portuguese urban area. These measures include the construction of barriers, placed at upstream and downstream of the auditorium, and the planting of trees, placed upstream of the auditorium. The auditorium is constructed in the form of a porch, aligned with North direction, driving the wind flow within the auditorium, promoting channelling effects and increasing its speed, causing discomfort in the users of this structure. To perform the wind comfort assessment, two approaches were used: i) a set of experiments using the wind tunnel (physical approach), with a representative mock-up of the study area; ii) application of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model VADIS (numerical approach). Both approaches were used to simulate the baseline scenario and the scenarios considering a set of measures. The physical approach was conducted through a quantitative method, using hot-wire anemometer, and through a qualitative analysis (visualizations), using the laser technology and a fog machine. Both numerical and physical approaches were performed for three different velocities (2, 4 and 6 m·s-1 ) and two different directions (NorNorthwest and South), corresponding to the prevailing wind speed and direction of the study area. The numerical results show an effective reduction (with a maximum value of 80%) of the wind speed inside the auditorium, through the application of the proposed measures. A wind speed reduction in a range of 20% to 40% was obtained around the audience area, for a wind direction from Nor-Northwest. For southern winds, in the audience zone, the wind speed was reduced from 60% to 80%. Despite of that, for southern winds, the design of the barriers generated additional hot spots (high wind speed), namely, in the entrance to the auditorium. Thus, a changing in the location of the entrance would minimize these effects. The results obtained in the wind tunnel compared well with the numerical data, also revealing the high efficiency of the purposed measures (for both wind directions).

Keywords: urban microclimate, pedestrian comfort, numerical modelling, wind tunnel experiments

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17994 The Characteristics of the Operating Parameters of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for the Selected Wind Speed

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz

Abstract:

The paper discusses the results of the research into a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation which was performed with the open return wind tunnel, Gunt HM 170, at the laboratory of the Department of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Propulsion Aviation Systems of Lublin University of Technology. Wind tunnel experiments are a necessary step to construct any new type of wind turbine, to validate design assumptions and numerical results. This research focused on the rotor with the blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on adjusting angular aperture α of the top and bottom parts of the blades mounted on an axis. If this angle α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. The study was performed on scaled and geometrically similar models with the criteria of similarity relevant for the type of research preserved. The rotors with varied angular apertures of their blades were printed for the research with a powder 3D printer, ZPrinter® 450. This paper presents the research results for the selected flow speed of 6.5 m/s for the three angular apertures of the rotor blades, i.e. 30°, 60°, 90° at varied speeds. The test stand enables the turbine rotor to be braked to achieve the required speed and airflow speed and torque to be recorded. Accordingly, the torque and power as a function of airflow were plotted. The rotor with its adjustable blades enables turbine power to be adjusted within a wide range of wind speeds. A variable angular aperture of blade working surfaces α in a wind turbine enables us to control the speed of the turbine and consequently its output power. Reducing the angular aperture of working surfaces results in reduced speed, and if a special current generator applied, electrical output power is reduced, too. Speed adjusted by changing angle α enables the maximum load acting on rotor blades to be controlled. The solution under study is a kind of safety against a damage of a turbine due to possible high wind speed.

Keywords: drive torque, renewable energy, power, wind turbine, wind tunnel

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17993 Real Time Implementation of Efficient DFIG-Variable Speed Wind Turbine Control

Authors: Fayssal Amrane, Azeddine Chaiba, Bruno Francois

Abstract:

In this paper, design and experimental study based on Direct Power Control (DPC) of DFIG is proposed for Stand-alone mode in Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion System (VS-WECS). The proposed IDPC method based on robust IP (Integral-Proportional) controllers in order to control the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) by the means of the rotor current d-q axes components (Ird* and Irq*) of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) through AC-DC-AC converter. The implementation is realized using dSPACE dS1103 card under Sub and Super-synchronous operations (means < and > of the synchronous speed “1500 rpm”). Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed control using IP provides improved dynamic responses, and decoupled control of the wind turbine has driven DFIG with high performances (good reference tracking, short response time and low power error) despite for sudden variation of wind speed and rotor references currents.

Keywords: Direct Power Control (DPC), Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS), Experimental study.

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
17992 Enhancing Temporal Extrapolation of Wind Speed Using a Hybrid Technique: A Case Study in West Coast of Denmark

Authors: B. Elshafei, X. Mao

Abstract:

The demand for renewable energy is significantly increasing, major investments are being supplied to the wind power generation industry as a leading source of clean energy. The wind energy sector is entirely dependable and driven by the prediction of wind speed, which by the nature of wind is very stochastic and widely random. This s0tudy employs deep multi-fidelity Gaussian process regression, used to predict wind speeds for medium term time horizons. Data of the RUNE experiment in the west coast of Denmark were provided by the Technical University of Denmark, which represent the wind speed across the study area from the period between December 2015 and March 2016. The study aims to investigate the effect of pre-processing the data by denoising the signal using empirical wavelet transform (EWT) and engaging the vector components of wind speed to increase the number of input data layers for data fusion using deep multi-fidelity Gaussian process regression (GPR). The outcomes were compared using root mean square error (RMSE) and the results demonstrated a significant increase in the accuracy of predictions which demonstrated that using vector components of the wind speed as additional predictors exhibits more accurate predictions than strategies that ignore them, reflecting the importance of the inclusion of all sub data and pre-processing signals for wind speed forecasting models.

Keywords: data fusion, Gaussian process regression, signal denoise, temporal extrapolation

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17991 A Comparative Study between Ionic Wind and Conventional Fan

Authors: J. R. Lee, E. V. Lau

Abstract:

Ionic wind is developed when high voltage is supplied to an anode and a grounded cathode in a gaseous medium. This paper studies the ionic wind profile with different anode configurations, the relationship between electrode gap against the voltage supplied and finally a comparison of the heat transfer coefficient of ionic wind over a horizontal flat plate against a conventional fan experimentally. It is observed that increase in the distance between electrodes decreases at a rate of 1-e-0.0206x as the voltage supply is increased until a distance of 3.1536cm. It is also observed that the wind speed produced by ionic wind is stronger, 2.7ms-1 at 2W compared to conventional fan, 2.5ms-1 at 2W but the wind produced decays at a fast exponential rate and is more localized as compared to conventional fan wind that decays at a slower exponential rate and is less localized. Next, it is found out that the ionic wind profile is the same regardless of the position of the anode relative to the cathode. Lastly, it is discovered that ionic wind produced a heat transfer coefficient that is almost 1.6 times higher compared to a conventional fan with Nusselt number reaching 164 compared to 102 for conventional fan.

Keywords: conventional fan, heat transfer, ionic wind, wind profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
17990 Simultaneous Measurement of Wave Pressure and Wind Speed with the Specific Instrument and the Unit of Measurement Description

Authors: Branimir Jurun, Elza Jurun

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is the description of an instrument called 'Quattuor 45' and defining of wave pressure measurement. Special attention is given to measurement of wave pressure created by the wind speed increasing obtained with the instrument 'Quattuor 45' in the investigated area. The study begins with respect to theoretical attitudes and numerous up to date investigations related to the waves approaching the coast. The detailed schematic view of the instrument is enriched with pictures from ground plan and side view. Horizontal stability of the instrument is achieved by mooring which relies on two concrete blocks. Vertical wave peak monitoring is ensured by one float above the instrument. The synthesis of horizontal stability and vertical wave peak monitoring allows to create a representative database for wave pressure measuring. Instrument ‘Quattuor 45' is named according to the way the database is received. Namely, the electronic part of the instrument consists of the main chip ‘Arduino', its memory, four load cells with the appropriate modules and the wind speed sensor 'Anemometers'. The 'Arduino' chip is programmed to store two data from each load cell and two data from the anemometer on SD card each second. The next part of the research is dedicated to data processing. All measured results are stored automatically in the database and after that detailed processing is carried out in the MS Excel. The result of the wave pressure measurement is synthesized by the unit of measurement kN/m². This paper also suggests a graphical presentation of the results by multi-line graph. The wave pressure is presented on the left vertical axis, while the wind speed is shown on the right vertical axis. The time of measurement is displayed on the horizontal axis. The paper proposes an algorithm for wind speed measurements showing the results for two characteristic winds in the Adriatic Sea, called 'Bura' and 'Jugo'. The first of them is the northern wind that reaches high speeds, causing low and extremely steep waves, where the pressure of the wave is relatively weak. On the other hand, the southern wind 'Jugo' has a lower speed than the northern wind, but due to its constant duration and constant speed maintenance, it causes extremely long and high waves that cause extremely high wave pressure.

Keywords: instrument, measuring unit, waves pressure metering, wind seed measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
17989 Adaptive Nonlinear Control of a Variable Speed Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine: Controller for Optimal Power Capture

Authors: Rana M. Mostafa, Nouby M. Ghazaly, Ahmed S. Ali

Abstract:

This article introduces a solution for increasing the wind energy extracted from turbines to overcome the more electric power required. This objective provides a new science discipline; wind turbine control. This field depends on the development in power electronics to provide new control strategies for turbines. Those strategies should deal with all turbine operating modes. Here there are two control strategies developed for variable speed horizontal axis wind turbine for rated and over rated wind speed regions. These strategies will support wind energy validation, decrease manufacturing overhead cost. Here nonlinear adaptive method was used to design speed controllers to a scheme for ‘Aeolos50 kw’ wind turbine connected to permanent magnet generator via a gear box which was built on MATLAB/Simulink. These controllers apply maximum power point tracking concept to guarantee goal achievement. Procedures were carried to test both controllers efficiency. The results had been shown that the developed controllers are acceptable and this can be easily declared from simulation results.

Keywords: adaptive method, pitch controller, wind energy, nonlinear control

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
17988 Prediction of the Mechanical Power in Wind Turbine Powered Car Using Velocity Analysis

Authors: Abdelrahman Alghazali, Youssef Kassem, Hüseyin Çamur, Ozan Erenay

Abstract:

Savonius is a drag type vertical axis wind turbine. Savonius wind turbines have a low cut-in speed and can operate at low wind speed. This makes it suitable for electricity or mechanical generation in low-power applications such as individual domestic installations. Therefore, the primary purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the type of Savonius rotor and the torque and mechanical power generated. And it was to illustrate how the type of rotor might play an important role in the prediction of mechanical power of wind turbine powered car. The main purpose of this paper is to predict and investigate the aerodynamic effects by means of velocity analysis on the performance of a wind turbine powered car by converting the wind energy into mechanical energy to overcome load that rotates the main shaft. The predicted results based on theoretical analysis were compared with experimental results obtained from literature. The percentage of error between the two was approximately around 20%. Prediction of the torque was done at a wind speed of 4 m/s, and an angular velocity of 130 RPM according to meteorological statistics in Northern Cyprus.

Keywords: mechanical power, torque, Savonius rotor, wind car

Procedia PDF Downloads 228