Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 334

Search results for: specifications

334 Developing a Test Specifications for an Internationalization Course: Environment for Health in Thai Context

Authors: Rungrawee Samawathdana, Aim-Utcha Wattanaburanon

Abstract:

Test specifications for open book or notes exams provide the essential information to identify the types of the test items with validity of the evaluations process. This article explains the purpose of test specifications and illustrates how to use it to help construct the approach of open book or notes exams. The complication of the course objectives is challenging for the test designing.

Keywords: course curriculum, environment for health, internationalization, test specifications

Procedia PDF Downloads 484
333 Validation of the Formal Model of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Service of Library Information System

Authors: Zainab Magaji Musa, Nordin M. A. Rahman, Julaily Aida Jusoh

Abstract:

The web services applications for digital reference service (WSDRS) of LIS model is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ needs in the reference section of libraries. The formal WSDRS model consists of the Z specifications of all the informal specifications of the model. This paper discusses the formal validation of the Z specifications of WSDRS model. The authors formally verify and thus validate the properties of the model using Z/EVES theorem prover.

Keywords: validation, verification, formal, theorem prover

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
332 Design Development, Fabrication, and Preliminary Specifications of Multi-Fingered Prosthetic Hand

Authors: Mogeeb A. El-Sheikh

Abstract:

The study has developed the previous design of an artificial anthropomorphic humanoid hand and accustomed it as a prosthetic hand. The main specifications of this design are determined. The development of our previous design involves the main artificial hand’s parts and subassemblies, palm, fingers, and thumb. In addition, the study presents an adaptable socket design for a transradial amputee. This hand has 3 fingers and thumb. It is more reliable, cosmetics, modularity, and ease of assembly. Its size and weight are almost as a natural hand. The socket cavity has the capability for different sizes of a transradial amputee. The study implements the developed design by using rapid prototype and specifies its main specifications by using a data glove and finite element method.

Keywords: adaptable socket, prosthetic hand, transradial amputee, data glove

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
331 Early Requirement Engineering for Design of Learner Centric Dynamic LMS

Authors: Kausik Halder, Nabendu Chaki, Ranjan Dasgupta

Abstract:

We present a modelling framework that supports the engineering of early requirements specifications for design of learner centric dynamic Learning Management System. The framework is based on i* modelling tool and Means End Analysis, that adopts primitive concepts for modelling early requirements (such as actor, goal, and strategic dependency). We show how pedagogical and computational requirements for designing a learner centric Learning Management system can be adapted for the automatic early requirement engineering specifications. Finally, we presented a model on a Learner Quanta based adaptive Courseware. Our early requirement analysis shows that how means end analysis reveals gaps and inconsistencies in early requirements specifications that are by no means trivial to discover without the help of formal analysis tool.

Keywords: adaptive courseware, early requirement engineering, means end analysis, organizational modelling, requirement modelling

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330 Systems Versioning: A Features-Based Meta-Modeling Approach

Authors: Ola A. Younis, Said Ghoul

Abstract:

Systems running these days are huge, complex and exist in many versions. Controlling these versions and tracking their changes became a very hard process as some versions are created using meaningless names or specifications. Many versions of a system are created with no clear difference between them. This leads to mismatching between a user’s request and the version he gets. In this paper, we present a system versions meta-modeling approach that produces versions based on system’s features. This model reduced the number of steps needed to configure a release and gave each version its unique specifications. This approach is applicable for systems that use features in its specification.

Keywords: features, meta-modeling, semantic modeling, SPL, VCS, versioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
329 Formal Specification of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Services of Library Information System

Authors: Magaji Zainab Musa, Nordin M. A. Rahman, Julaily Aida Jusoh

Abstract:

This paper discusses the formal specification of web services applications for digital reference services (WSDRS). Digital reference service involves a user requesting for help from a reference librarian and a reference librarian responding to the request of a user all by electronic means. In most cases users do not get satisfied while using digital reference service due to delay of response of the librarians. Another may be due to no response or due to librarian giving an irrelevant solution to the problem submitted by the user. WDSRS is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ need in the reference section of libraries. But informal model is in natural language which is inconsistent and ambiguous that may cause difficulties to the developers of the system. In order to solve this problem we decided to convert the informal specifications into formal specifications. This is supposed to reduce the overall development time and cost. Formal specification can be used to provide an unambiguous and precise supplement to natural language descriptions. It can be rigorously validated and verified leading to the early detection of specification errors. We use Z language to develop the formal model and verify it with Z/EVES theorem prover tool.

Keywords: formal, specifications, web services, digital reference services

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
328 Investigating the Potential for Introduction of Warm Mix Asphalt in Kuwait Using the Volcanic Ash

Authors: H. Al-Baghli, F. Al-Asfour

Abstract:

The current applied asphalt technology for Kuwait roads pavement infrastructure is the hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement, including both pen grade and polymer modified bitumen (PMBs), that is produced and compacted at high temperature levels ranging from 150 to 180 °C. There are no current specifications for warm and cold mix asphalts in Kuwait’s Ministry of Public Works (MPW) asphalt standard and specifications. The process of the conventional HMA is energy intensive and directly responsible for the emission of greenhouse gases and other environmental hazards into the atmosphere leading to significant environmental impacts and raising health risk to labors at site. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology, a sustainable alternative preferred in multiple countries, has many environmental advantages because it requires lower production temperatures than HMA by 20 to 40 °C. The reduction of temperatures achieved by WMA originates from multiple technologies including foaming and chemical or organic additives that aim to reduce bitumen and improve mix workability. This paper presents a literature review of WMA technologies and techniques followed by an experimental study aiming to compare the results of produced WMA samples, using a water containing additive (foaming process), at different compaction temperatures with the HMA control volumetric properties mix designed in accordance to the new MPW’s specifications and guidelines.

Keywords: warm-mix asphalt, water-bearing additives, foaming-based process, chemical additives, organic additives

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
327 Integration of Knowledge and Metadata for Complex Data Warehouses and Big Data

Authors: Jean Christian Ralaivao, Fabrice Razafindraibe, Hasina Rakotonirainy

Abstract:

This document constitutes a resumption of work carried out in the field of complex data warehouses (DW) relating to the management and formalization of knowledge and metadata. It offers a methodological approach for integrating two concepts, knowledge and metadata, within the framework of a complex DW architecture. The objective of the work considers the use of the technique of knowledge representation by description logics and the extension of Common Warehouse Metamodel (CWM) specifications. This will lead to a fallout in terms of the performance of a complex DW. Three essential aspects of this work are expected, including the representation of knowledge in description logics and the declination of this knowledge into consistent UML diagrams while respecting or extending the CWM specifications and using XML as pivot. The field of application is large but will be adapted to systems with heteroge-neous, complex and unstructured content and moreover requiring a great (re)use of knowledge such as medical data warehouses.

Keywords: data warehouse, description logics, integration, knowledge, metadata

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
326 Effect of the Orifice Plate Specifications on Coefficient of Discharge

Authors: Abulbasit G. Abdulsayid, Zinab F. Abdulla, Asma A. Omer

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On the ground that the orifice plate is relatively inexpensive, requires very little maintenance and only calibrated during the occasion of plant turnaround, the orifice plate has turned to be in a real prevalent use in gas industry. Inaccuracy of measurement in the fiscal metering stations may highly be accounted to be the most vital factor for mischarges in the natural gas industry in Libya. A very trivial error in measurement can add up a fast escalating financial burden to the custodian transactions. The unaccounted gas quantity transferred annually via orifice plates in Libya, could be estimated in an extent of multi-million dollars. As the oil and gas wealth is the solely source of income to Libya, every effort is now being exerted to improve the accuracy of existing orifice metering facilities. Discharge coefficient has become pivotal in current researches undertaken in this regard. Hence, increasing the knowledge of the flow field in a typical orifice meter is indispensable. Recently and in a drastic pace, the CFD has become the most time and cost efficient versatile tool for in-depth analysis of fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer of various industrial applications. Getting deeper into the physical phenomena lied beneath and predicting all relevant parameters and variables with high spatial and temporal resolution have been the greatest weighing pros counting for CFD. In this paper, flow phenomena for air passing through an orifice meter were numerically analyzed with CFD code based modeling, giving important information about the effect of orifice plate specifications on the discharge coefficient for three different tappings locations, i.e., flange tappings, D and D/2 tappings compared with vena contracta tappings. Discharge coefficients were paralleled with discharge coefficients estimated by ISO 5167. The influences of orifice plate bore thickness, orifice plate thickness, beveled angle, perpendicularity and buckling of the orifice plate, were all duly investigated. A case of an orifice meter whose pipe diameter of 2 in, beta ratio of 0.5 and Reynolds number of 91100, was taken as a model. The results highlighted that the discharge coefficients were highly responsive to the variation of plate specifications and under all cases, the discharge coefficients for D and D/2 tappings were very close to that of vena contracta tappings which were believed as an ideal arrangement. Also, in general sense, it was appreciated that the standard equation in ISO 5167, by which the discharge coefficient was calculated, cannot capture the variation of the plate specifications and thus further thorough considerations would be still needed.

Keywords: CFD, discharge coefficients, orifice meter, orifice plate specifications

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325 Numerical Investigation of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Natural Refrigerant within a Vortex Tube

Authors: Mirza Popovac

Abstract:

This paper investigates the application of the vortex tubes towards increasing the efficiency of high temperature heat pumps based on natural refrigerants, by recovering a part of the expansion work within the refrigerant cycle. To this purpose the 3D Navier-Stokes solver is used to perform a set of numerical simulations, investigating the vortex tube performance. Firstly, the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for standard configurations of vortex tubes, and the obtained results are validated against the experimental and numerical data available in literature. Subsequently, different geometry specifications are analyzed, as well as the interplay between relevant heat pump operating conditions and the properties of natural refrigerants. Finally, the characteristic curve of performance will be derived for investigated vortex tubes specifications when used within high temperature heat pumps.

Keywords: heat pump, vortex tube, CFD, natural refrigerant

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
324 A Comparison of Design and Off-Design Performances of a Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Zeynep Aytaç, Nuri Yücel

Abstract:

Today, as the need for high efficiency and fuel-efficient engines have increased, centrifugal compressor designs are expected to be high-efficient and have high-pressure ratios than ever. The present study represents a design methodology of centrifugal compressor placed in a mini jet engine for the design and off-design points with the utilization of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and compares the performance characteristics at the mentioned two points. Although the compressor is expected to provide the required specifications at the design point, it is known that it is important for the design to deliver the required parameters at the off-design point also as it will not operate at the design point always. It was observed that the obtained mass flow rate, pressure ratio, and efficiency values are within the limits of the design specifications for the design and off-design points. Despite having different design inputs for the mentioned two points, they reveal similar flow characteristics in the general frame.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor, computational fluid dynamics, design point, off-design point

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323 Survey to Assess the Feasibility of Executing the Web-Based Collaboration Process Using WBCS

Authors: Mohamed A. Sullabi

Abstract:

The importance of the formal specification in the software life cycle is barely concealing to anyone. Formal specifications use mathematical notation to describe the properties of information system precisely, without unduly constraining the way in how these properties are achieved. Having a correct and quality software specification is not easy task. This study concerns with how a group of rectifiers can communicate with each other and work to prepare and produce a correct formal software specification. WBCS has been implemented based mainly in the proposed supported cooperative work model and a survey conducted on the existing Webbased collaborative writing tools. This paper aims to assess the feasibility of executing the web-based collaboration process using WBCS. The purpose of conducting this test is to test the system as a whole for functionality and fitness for use based on the evaluation test plan.

Keywords: formal methods, formal specifications, collaborative writing, usability testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
322 Finite Element Approach to Evaluate Time Dependent Shear Behavior of Connections in Hybrid Steel-PC Girder under Sustained Loading

Authors: Mohammad Najmol Haque, Takeshi Maki, Jun Sasaki

Abstract:

Headed stud shear connections are widely used in the junction or embedded zone of hybrid girder to achieve whole composite action with continuity that can sustain steel-concrete interfacial tensile and shear forces. In Japan, Japan Road Association (JRA) specifications are used for hybrid girder design that utilizes very low level of stud capacity than those of American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) specifications, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) specifications and EURO code. As low design shear strength is considered in design of connections, the time dependent shear behavior due to sustained external loading is not considered, even not fully studied. In this study, a finite element approach was used to evaluate the time dependent shear behavior for headed studs used as connections at the junction. This study clarified, how the sustained loading distinctively impacted on changing the interfacial shear of connections with time which was sensitive to lodging history, positions of flanges, neighboring studs, position of prestress bar and reinforcing bar, concrete strength, etc. and also identified a shear influence area. Stud strength was also confirmed through pushout tests. The outcome obtained from the study may provide an important basis and reference data in designing connections of hybrid girders with enhanced stud capacity with due consideration of their long-term shear behavior.

Keywords: finite element, hybrid girder, shear connections, sustained loading, time dependent behavior

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321 The Influence of Oil Price Fluctuations on Macroeconomics Variables of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khalid Mujaljal, Hassan Alhajhoj

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This paper empirically investigates the influence of oil price fluctuations on the key macroeconomic variables of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using unrestricted VAR methodology. Two analytical tools- Granger-causality and variance decomposition are used. The Granger-causality test reveals that almost all specifications of oil price shocks significantly Granger-cause GDP and demonstrates evidence of causality between oil price changes and money supply (M3) and consumer price index percent (CPIPC) in the case of positive oil price shocks. Surprisingly, almost all specifications of oil price shocks do not Granger-cause government expenditure. The outcomes from variance decomposition analysis suggest that positive oil shocks contribute about 25 percent in causing inflation in the country. Also, contribution of symmetric linear oil price shocks and asymmetric positive oil price shocks is significant and persistent with 25 percent explaining variation in world consumer price index till end of the period.

Keywords: Granger causality, oil prices changes, Saudi Arabian economy, variance decomposition

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320 Estimating the Effect of Fluid in Pressing Process

Authors: A. Movaghar, R. A. Mahdavinejad

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To analyze the effect of various parameters of fluid on the material properties such as surface and depth defects and/or cracks, it is possible to determine the affection of pressure field on these specifications. Stress tensor analysis is also able to determine the points in which the probability of defection creation is more. Besides, from pressure field, it is possible to analyze the affection of various fluid specifications such as viscosity and density on defect created in the material. In this research, the concerned boundary conditions are analyzed first. Then the solution network and stencil used are mentioned. With the determination of relevant equation on the fluid flow between notch and matrix and their discretion according to the governed boundary conditions, these equations can be solved. Finally, with the variation creations on fluid parameters such as density and viscosity, the affection of these variations can be determined on pressure field. In this direction, the flowchart and solution algorithm with their results as vortex and current function contours for two conditions with most applications in pressing process are introduced and discussed.

Keywords: pressing, notch, matrix, flow function, vortex

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
319 Parameters Influencing Human Machine Interaction in Hospitals

Authors: Hind Bouami

Abstract:

Handling life-critical systems complexity requires to be equipped with appropriate technology and the right human agents’ functions such as knowledge, experience, and competence in problem’s prevention and solving. Human agents are involved in the management and control of human-machine system’s performance. Documenting human agent’s situation awareness is crucial to support human-machine designers’ decision-making. Knowledge about risks, critical parameters and factors that can impact and threaten automation system’s performance should be collected using preventive and retrospective approaches. This paper aims to document operators’ situation awareness through the analysis of automated organizations’ feedback. The analysis of automated hospital pharmacies feedbacks helps to identify and control critical parameters influencing human machine interaction in order to enhance system’s performance and security. Our human machine system evaluation approach has been deployed in Macon hospital center’s pharmacy which is equipped with automated drug dispensing systems since 2015. Automation’s specifications are related to technical aspects, human-machine interaction, and human aspects. The evaluation of drug delivery automation performance in Macon hospital center has shown that the performance of the automated activity depends on the performance of the automated solution chosen, and also on the control of systemic factors. In fact, 80.95% of automation specification related to the chosen Sinteco’s automated solution is met. The performance of the chosen automated solution is involved in 28.38% of automation specifications performance in Macon hospital center. The remaining systemic parameters involved in automation specifications performance need to be controlled.

Keywords: life-critical systems, situation awareness, human-machine interaction, decision-making

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318 VeriFy: A Solution to Implement Autonomy Safely and According to the Rules

Authors: Michael Naderhirn, Marco Pavone

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Problem statement, motivation, and aim of work: So far, the development of control algorithms was done by control engineers in a way that the controller would fit a specification by testing. When it comes to the certification of an autonomous car in highly complex scenarios, the challenge is much higher since such a controller must mathematically guarantee to implement the rules of the road while on the other side guarantee aspects like safety and real time executability. What if it becomes reality to solve this demanding problem by combining Formal Verification and System Theory? The aim of this work is to present a workflow to solve the above mentioned problem. Summary of the presented results / main outcomes: We show the usage of an English like language to transform the rules of the road into system specification for an autonomous car. The language based specifications are used to define system functions and interfaces. Based on that a formal model is developed which formally correctly models the specifications. On the other side, a mathematical model describing the systems dynamics is used to calculate the systems reachability set which is further used to determine the system input boundaries. Then a motion planning algorithm is applied inside the system boundaries to find an optimized trajectory in combination with the formal specification model while satisfying the specifications. The result is a control strategy which can be applied in real time independent of the scenario with a mathematical guarantee to satisfy a predefined specification. We demonstrate the applicability of the method in simulation driving scenarios and a potential certification. Originality, significance, and benefit: To the authors’ best knowledge, it is the first time that it is possible to show an automated workflow which combines a specification in an English like language and a mathematical model in a mathematical formal verified way to synthesizes a controller for potential real time applications like autonomous driving.

Keywords: formal system verification, reachability, real time controller, hybrid system

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
317 Complex Decision Rules in Quality Assurance Processes for Quick Service Restaurant Industry: Human Factors Determining Acceptability

Authors: Brandon Takahashi, Marielle Hanley, Gerry Hanley

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The large-scale quick-service restaurant industry is a complex business to manage optimally. With over 40 suppliers providing different ingredients for food preparation and thousands of restaurants serving over 50 unique food offerings across a wide range of regions, the company must implement a quality assurance process. Businesses want to deliver quality food efficiently, reliably, and successfully at a low cost that the public wants to buy. They also want to make sure that their food offerings are never unsafe to eat or of poor quality. A good reputation (and profitable business) developed over the years can be gone in an instant if customers fall ill eating your food. Poor quality also results in food waste, and the cost of corrective actions is compounded by the reduction in revenue. Product compliance evaluation assesses if the supplier’s ingredients are within compliance with the specifications of several attributes (physical, chemical, organoleptic) that a company will test to ensure that a quality, safe to eat food is given to the consumer and will deliver the same eating experience in all parts of the country. The technical component of the evaluation includes the chemical and physical tests that produce numerical results that relate to shelf-life, food safety, and organoleptic qualities. The psychological component of the evaluation includes organoleptic, which is acting on or involving the use of the sense organs. The rubric for product compliance evaluation has four levels: (1) Ideal: Meeting or exceeding all technical (physical and chemical), organoleptic, & psychological specifications. (2) Deviation from ideal but no impact on quality: Not meeting or exceeding some technical and organoleptic/psychological specifications without impact on consumer quality and meeting all food safety requirements (3) Acceptable: Not meeting or exceeding some technical and organoleptic/psychological specifications resulting in reduction of consumer quality but not enough to lessen demand and meeting all food safety requirements (4) Unacceptable: Not meeting food safety requirements, independent of meeting technical and organoleptic specifications or meeting all food safety requirements but product quality results in consumer rejection of food offering. Sampling of products and consumer tastings within the distribution network is a second critical element of the quality assurance process and are the data sources for the statistical analyses. Each finding is not independently assessed with the rubric. For example, the chemical data will be used to back up/support any inferences on the sensory profiles of the ingredients. Certain flavor profiles may not be as apparent when mixed with other ingredients, which leads to weighing specifications differentially in the acceptability decision. Quality assurance processes are essential to achieve that balance of quality and profitability by making sure the food is safe and tastes good but identifying and remediating product quality issues before they hit the stores. Comprehensive quality assurance procedures implement human factors methodologies, and this report provides recommendations for systemic application of quality assurance processes for quick service restaurant services. This case study will review the complex decision rubric and evaluate processes to ensure the right balance of cost, quality, and safety is achieved.

Keywords: decision making, food safety, organoleptics, product compliance, quality assurance

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316 The Implementation of the Multi-Agent Classification System (MACS) in Compliance with FIPA Specifications

Authors: Mohamed R. Mhereeg

Abstract:

The paper discusses the implementation of the MultiAgent classification System (MACS) and utilizing it to provide an automated and accurate classification of end users developing applications in the spreadsheet domain. However, different technologies have been brought together to build MACS. The strength of the system is the integration of the agent technology with the FIPA specifications together with other technologies, which are the .NET widows service based agents, the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services, the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), and Oracle Data Mining (ODM). Microsoft's .NET windows service based agents were utilized to develop the monitoring agents of MACS, the .NET WCF services together with SOA approach allowed the distribution and communication between agents over the WWW. The Monitoring Agents (MAs) were configured to execute automatically to monitor excel spreadsheets development activities by content. Data gathered by the Monitoring Agents from various resources over a period of time was collected and filtered by a Database Updater Agent (DUA) residing in the .NET client application of the system. This agent then transfers and stores the data in Oracle server database via Oracle stored procedures for further processing that leads to the classification of the end user developers.

Keywords: MACS, implementation, multi-agent, SOA, autonomous, WCF

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315 Ergonomics and Its Applicability in the Design Process in Egypt Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Mohamed Moheyeldin Mahmoud

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Egypt suffers from a severe shortage of data and charts concerning the physical dimensions, measurements, qualities and consumer behavior. The shortage of needed information and appropriate methods has forced the Egyptian designer to use any other foreign standard when designing a product for the Egyptian consumer which has led to many problems. The urgently needed database concerning the physical specifications, measurements of the Egyptian consumers, as well as the need to support the Ergonomics given courses in many colleges and institutes with the latest technologies, is stated as the research problem. Descriptive analytical method relying on the compiling, comparing and analyzing of information and facts in order to get acceptable perceptions, ideas and considerations is the used methodology by the researcher. The research concludes that: 1. Good interaction relationship between users and products shows the success of that product. 2. An integration linkage between the most prominent fields of science specially Ergonomics, Interaction Design and Ethnography should be encouraged to provide an ultimately updated database concerning the nature, specifications and environment of the Egyptian consumer, in order to achieve a higher benefit for both user and product. 3. Chinese economic policy based on the study of market requirements long before any market activities should be emulated. 4. Using Ethnography supports the design activities creating new products or updating existent ones through measuring the compatibility of products with their environment and user expectations, While contracting a joint cooperation between military colleges, sports education institutes from one side, and design institutes from the other side to provide an ultimately updated (annually updated) database concerning some specifications about students of both sexes applying in those institutes (height, weight, etc.) to provide the Industrial designer with the needed information when creating a new product or updating an existing one concerning that category is recommended by the researcher.

Keywords: adapt, ergonomics, ethnography, interaction design

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
314 A Study on the Influence of Internal Sulfate on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Abbas S. Al-Ameeri Rawaa H. Issa

Abstract:

The internal sulfate attack is considered as a very important problem of concrete manufacture in Iraq and Middle East countries. Sulfate drastically influences the properties of concrete. This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effect of internal sulfates on fresh and some of the hardened properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) made from locally available materials. Tests were conducted on five mixes, with five SO3 levels (3.9, 5, 6, 7 and 8) (% by wt. of cement). The last four SO3 levels are outside the limits of the Iraqi specifications (IQS NO.45/1984). The results indicated that sulfate passively influenced the fresh properties such as decreased workability, and effect on hardened properties of the self compacting concrete. Also, the result indicated the optimum SO3 content which gives maximum strength and little tendency to expanding, which showed up at a content equal to 5% (by wt of cement), is more than acceptable limits of Iraqi specifications. Further increase in sulfates content in concrete after this optimum value showed a considerable reduction in mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete, and increment in expansion of concrete. The percentages of reduction in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity at their later age were ranged between 10.89-36.14%, 12.90-33.33%, 7.98-36.35%, 16.36 -38.37% and 1.03-10.88% respectively.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, sulfate attack, internal sulfate attack, fresh properties, harden properties, optimum SO3 content

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313 Optimum Er: YAG Laser Parameters for Orthodontic Composite Debonding: An in vitro Study

Authors: Mohammad Zamzam, Wesam Bachir, Imad Asaad

Abstract:

Several studies have produced estimates of Er:YAG laser parameters and specifications but there is still insufficient data for reliable selection of laser parameters. As a consequence, there is a heightened need for ideal specifications of Er:YAG laser to reduce the amount of enamel ablation. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of Er:YAG laser parameters, energy level and pulse duration, on orthodontic composite removal after bracket debonding. The sample consisted of 45 cuboids of orthodontic composite made by plastic moulds. The samples were divided into three groups, each was irradiated with Er:YAG laser set at different energy levels and three values for pulse durations (50 µs, 100 µs, and 300 µs). Geometrical parameters (depth and area) of cavities formed by laser irradiation were determined. ANCOVA test showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.0.5) between the groups indicating a potential effect of laser pulse duration on the geometrical parameters after controlling laser energy level. A post-hoc Bonferroni test ranked the 50µ Er:YAG laser pulse as the most influential factor for all geometrical parameters in removing remnant composite from enamel surface. Also, 300 mJ laser pulses caused the largest removal of the composite. The results of the present study demonstrated the efficacy of 50 µs and 300 mJ Er:YAG laser pulse for removal of remnant orthodontic composite.

Keywords: enamel, Er:YAG, geometrical parameters, orthodontic composite, remnant composite

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312 Aerodynamic Design of Three-Dimensional Bellmouth for Low-Speed Open-Circuit Wind Tunnel

Authors: Harshavardhan Reddy, Balaji Subramanian

Abstract:

A systematic parametric study to find the optimum bellmouth profile by relating geometric and performance parameters to satisfy a set of specifications is reported. A careful aerodynamic design of bellmouth intake is critical to properly direct the flow with minimal losses and maximal flow uniformity into the honeycomb located inside the settling chamber of an indraft wind tunnel, thus improving the efficiency of the entire unit. Design charts for elliptically profiled bellmouths with two different contraction ratios (9 and 18) and three different test section speeds (25 m/s, 50 m/s, and 75 m/s) were presented. A significant performance improvement - especially in the Coefficient of discharge and in the flow angularity and boundary layer thickness at the honeycomb inlet - was observed when an entry corner radius (r/D = 0.08) was added to the bellmouth profile. The nonuniformity at the honeycomb inlet drops by about three times (~1% to 0.3%) when moving from square to regular octagonal cross-section. An octagonal cross-sectioned bellmouth intake with L/d = 0.55, D/d = 1.625, and r/D = 0.08 met all the four target performance specifications and is proposed as the best choice for a low-speed wind tunnel.

Keywords: bellmouth intake, low-speed wind tunnel, coefficient of discharge, nonuniformity, flow angularity, boundary layer thickness, CFD, aerodynamics

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311 Lessons from Vernacular Architecture for Lightweight Construction

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

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With the gravity load reduction in the structural and non-structural components, the lightweight construction will be achieved as well as the improvement of efficiency and functional specifications. The advantages of lightweight construction can be examined in two levels. The first is the mass reduction of load bearing structure which results in increasing internal useful space and the other one is the mass reduction of building which decreases the effects of seismic load as a result. In order to achieve this goal, the essential building materials specifications and also optimum load bearing geometry of structural systems and elements have to be considered, so lightweight materials selection particularly with lightweight aggregate for building components will be the first step of lightweight construction. In the next step, in addition to selecting the prominent samples of Iran's traditional architecture, the process of these works improvement is analyzed through the viewpoints of structural efficiency and lightweighting and also the practical methods of lightweight construction have been extracted. The optimum design of load bearing geometry of structural system has to be considered not only in the structural system elements, but also in their composition and the selection of dimensions, proportions, forms and optimum orientations, can lead to get a maximum materials efficiency for loads and stresses bearing.

Keywords: gravity load, light-weighting structural system, load bearing geometry, seismic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
310 Soil Moisture Control System: A Product Development Approach

Authors: Swapneel U. Naphade, Dushyant A. Patil, Satyabodh M. Kulkarni

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In this work, we propose the concept and geometrical design of a soil moisture control system (SMCS) module by following the product development approach to develop an inexpensive, easy to use and quick to install product targeted towards agriculture practitioners. The module delivers water to the agricultural land efficiently by sensing the soil moisture and activating the delivery valve. We start with identifying the general needs of the potential customer. Then, based on customer needs we establish product specifications and identify important measuring quantities to evaluate our product. Keeping in mind the specifications, we develop various conceptual solutions of the product and select the best solution through concept screening and selection matrices. Then, we develop the product architecture by integrating the systems into the final product. In the end, the geometric design is done using human factors engineering concepts like heuristic analysis, task analysis, and human error reduction analysis. The result of human factors analysis reveals the remedies which should be applied while designing the geometry and software components of the product. We find that to design the best grip in terms of comfort and applied force, for a power-type grip, a grip-diameter of 35 mm is the most ideal.

Keywords: agriculture, human factors, product design, soil moisture control

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
309 Applied Methods for Lightweighting Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

Abstract:

With gravity load reduction in the structural and non-structural components, the lightweight construction will be achieved as well as the improvement of efficiency and functional specifications. The advantages of lightweight construction can be examined in two levels. The first is the mass reduction of load bearing structure which results in increasing internal useful space and the other one is the mass reduction of building which decreases the effects of seismic load as a result. In order to achieve this goal, the essential building materials specifications and also optimum load bearing geometry of structural systems and elements have to be considered, so lightweight materials selection particularly with lightweight aggregate for building components will be the first step of lightweight construction. In the next step, in addition to selecting the prominent samples of Iran's traditional architecture, the process of these works improvement is analyzed through the viewpoints of structural efficiency and lightweighting and also the practical methods of lightweight construction have been extracted. The optimum design of load bearing geometry of structural system has to be considered not only in the structural system elements, but also in their composition and the selection of dimensions, proportions, forms and optimum orientations, can lead to get a maximum materials efficiency for loads and stresses bearing.

Keywords: gravity load, lightweighting structural system, load bearing geometry, seismic behavior

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308 Effect of Magnesium Inoculation on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Spheroidal Cast Iron Knuckle: A Focus on the Steering Arm

Authors: Steven Mavhungu, Didier Nyembwe, Daniel Sekotlong

Abstract:

The steering knuckle is an integral component of the suspension and stability control system of modern vehicles. Good mechanical properties with an emphasis on the fatigue properties are essential for this component as it is subjected to cyclical load of significant magnitude during service. These properties are a function of the microstructure achieved in the component during the various manufacturing processes including forging and casting. The strut mount of the knuckle is required to meet specified microstructure and mechanical properties. However, in line with the recent trend of stringent quality requirements of cast components, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have had to extend the specifications to other sections of the knuckle. This paper evaluates the effect of cored wire inoculation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the steering arm of a typical spheroidal cast iron component. The investigation shows that the use of a cored wire having higher rare earth content formulation could possibly lead to a homogeneous matrix containing consistent graphite nodule morphology. However, this was found not to be the condition for better mechanical properties along the knuckle arm in line with required specifications. The findings in this paper contribute to a better understanding of steering knuckle properties to allow its production for safer automobile applications.

Keywords: inoculation, magnesium cored wire, spheroidal graphie, steering knuckle

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307 Design of Multi-Loop Controller for Minimization of Energy Consumption in the Distillation Column

Authors: Vinayambika S. Bhat, S. Shanmuga Priya, I. Thirunavukkarasu, Shreeranga Bhat

Abstract:

An attempt has been made to design a decoupling controller for systems with more inputs more outputs with dead time in it. The de-coupler is designed for the chemical process industry 3×3 plant transfer function with dead time. The Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) based controller has also been designed here for the 2×2 distillation column transfer function. The developed control techniques were simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink. Also, the stability of the process was analyzed, together with the presence of various perturbations in it. Time domain specifications like setting time along with overshoot and oscillations were analyzed to prove the efficiency of the de-coupler method. The load disturbance rejection was tested along with its performance. The QFT control technique was synthesized based on the stability and performance specifications in the presence of uncertainty in time constant of the plant transfer function through sequential loop shaping technique. Further, the energy efficiency of the distillation column was improved by proper tuning of the controller. A distillation column consumes 3% of the total energy consumption of the world. A suitable control technique is very important from an economic point of view. The real time implementation of the process is under process in our laboratory.

Keywords: distillation, energy, MIMO process, time delay, robust stability

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306 Six Sigma-Based Optimization of Shrinkage Accuracy in Injection Molding Processes

Authors: Sky Chou, Joseph C. Chen

Abstract:

This paper focuses on using six sigma methodologies to reach the desired shrinkage of a manufactured high-density polyurethane (HDPE) part produced by the injection molding machine. It presents a case study where the correct shrinkage is required to reduce or eliminate defects and to improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for an injection molding process. To improve this process and keep the product within specifications, the six sigma methodology, design, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) approach, was implemented in this study. The six sigma approach was paired with the Taguchi methodology to identify the optimized processing parameters that keep the shrinkage rate within the specifications by our customer. An L9 orthogonal array was applied in the Taguchi experimental design, with four controllable factors and one non-controllable/noise factor. The four controllable factors identified consist of the cooling time, melt temperature, holding time, and metering stroke. The noise factor is the difference between material brand 1 and material brand 2. After the confirmation run was completed, measurements verify that the new parameter settings are optimal. With the new settings, the process capability index has improved dramatically. The purpose of this study is to show that the six sigma and Taguchi methodology can be efficiently used to determine important factors that will improve the process capability index of the injection molding process.

Keywords: injection molding, shrinkage, six sigma, Taguchi parameter design

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305 Integrated Evaluation of Green Design and Green Manufacturing Processes Using a Mathematical Model

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Shin-Han Lin

Abstract:

In this research, a mathematical model for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. To design a product, there can be alternative options to design the detailed components to fulfill the same product requirement. In the design alternative cases, the components of the product can be designed with different materials and detailed specifications. If several design alternative cases are proposed, the different materials and specifications can affect the manufacturing processes. In this paper, a new concept for integrating green design and green manufacturing processes is presented. A green design can be determined based the manufacturing processes of the designed product by evaluating the green criteria including energy usage and environmental impact, in addition to the traditional criteria of manufacturing cost. With this concept, a mathematical model is developed to find the green design and the associated green manufacturing processes. In the mathematical model, the cost items include material cost, manufacturing cost, and green related cost. The green related cost items include energy cost and environmental cost. The objective is to find the decisions of green design and green manufacturing processes to achieve the minimized total cost. In practical applications, the decision-making can be made to select a good green design case and its green manufacturing processes. In this presentation, an example product is illustrated. It shows that the model is practical and useful for integrated evaluation of green design and green manufacturing processes.

Keywords: supply chain management, green supply chain, green design, green manufacturing, mathematical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 491