Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 483

Search results for: soybean harvest

483 Optimum Design of Combine Threshing Cylinder for Soybean Harvest

Authors: Choi Duckkyu, Choi Yong, Kang Taegyoung, Jun Hyeonjong, Choi Ilsu, Hyun Changsik

Abstract:

This study was carried out to develop a soybean combine thresher that enables to reduce the damage rate of soybean threshing and the rate of unthreshing. The combine threshing cylinder was developed with 6 circular axis at each end and fixed with disc plates. It was attached to the prototype combine thresher. A combine thresher that has a cylinder with circular rod type threshing pegs was used for a comparative test. A series of comparative tests were conducted using dae-won soybean. The test of the soybean thresher was performed at the cylinder speeds of 210, 240, 270 and 300 rpm, and with the concave clearance of 10, 13 and 16 mm. The separating positions of soybean after threshing were researched on a separate box with 4 sections. The soybean positions of front, center, rear and rear outside, of 59.5%, 30.6%, 7.8% and 2.2% respectively, were obtained. At the cylinder speeds from 210 rpm to 300 rpm, the damage rate of soybean was increased from 0.1% to 4.2% correspondingly to speeds. The unthreshed rate of soybean under the same condition was increased from 0.9% to 4.1% correspondingly to speeds. 0.7% of the damage rate and 1.5% of the unthreshed rate was achieved at the cylinder speed of 240 rpm and with the concave clearance of 10 mm. For Daewon soybean, an optimum cylinder speed of 240 rpm and the concave clearance of 10 mm were identified. These results will be useful for the design, construction, and operation of soybean threshing harvesters.

Keywords: soybean harvest, combine threshing, threshing cylinder, optimum design

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
482 Construction and Evaluation of Soybean Thresher

Authors: Oladimeji Adetona Adeyeye, Emmanuel Rotimi Sadiku, Oluwaseun Olayinka Adeyeye

Abstract:

In order to resuscitate soybean production and post-harvest processing especially, in term of threshing, there is need to develop an affordable threshing machine which will reduce drudgery associated with manual soybean threshing. Soybean thresher was fabricated and evaluated at Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IAR&T Apata Ibadan. The machine component includes; hopper, threshing unit, shaker, cleaning unit and the seed outlet, all working together to achieve the main objective of threshing and cleaning. TGX1835 - 10E variety was used for evaluation because of its high resistance to pests, rust and pustules. The final moisture content of the used sample was about 15%. The sample was weighed and introduced into the machine. The parameters evaluated includes moisture content, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, machine capacity and speed. The threshing efficiency and capacity are 74% and 65.9kg/hr respectively. All materials used were sourced locally which makes the cost of production of the machine extremely cheaper than the imported soybean thresher.

Keywords: efficiency, machine capacity, speed, soybean, threshing

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
481 Opportunity Cost of Producing Sugarcane, Sweet Orange and Soybean in Sri Lankan Context: An Economic Analysis

Authors: Tharsinithevy Kirupananthan

Abstract:

This study analyzed the decision on growing three different crops which suit dry zone of Sri Lanka using the opportunity cost concept in economics. The variable cost of production of sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean was 112,418.76, 13,463 and 10,928.08 Sri Lankan Rs. (LKR) per acre in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The yield of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean were 49.33 tons, 25,595 fruits, and 1032 kg per acre. The market price of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean were 4200 LKR/ton, LKR 14.66 per fruit and LKR 89.69 per kg. The market value or the total income of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean were LKR 207194.4, 283090.74, and 92560.08. The accounting profit of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean was 94,775.64, 269,627.74, and 81,632 LKR per acre. Therefore, the opportunity cost of sugarcane per acre in terms of accounting profit was LKR. 269,627.74 from sweet orange and LKR 81,632 from soybean. The highest opportunity cost per acre in terms of accounting profit was found when soybean is produced instead of sweet orange. The opportunity cost which compared among the crops in terms of market value for sugar cane per acre was LKR 283090.74 of sweet orange and LKR 92560.08 of soybean. The highest opportunity cost both in terms of accounting profit and market value was found when growing soybean instead of sweet orange by using the resource per acre of land. The economic profit of sugar cane production in place of sweet orange was LKR -188315.1 per acre. The highest economic profit LKR 177067.66 was found when sweet orange is produced in place of soybean. A positive value of economic profit was found in all combination of sweet orange production without considering the first harvest duration of the crop.

Keywords: agricultural economics, crop, opportunity cost, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
480 Optimization of Soybean Oil by Modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: N. R. Putra, A. H. Abdul Aziz, A. S. Zaini, Z. Idham, F. Idrus, M. Z. Bin Zullyadini, M. A. Che Yunus

Abstract:

The content of omega-3 in soybean oil is important in the development of infants and is an alternative for the omega-3 in fish oils. The investigation of extraction of soybean oil is needed to obtain the bioactive compound in the extract. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is modern and green technology to extract herbs and plants to obtain high quality extract due to high diffusivity and solubility of the solvent. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimum condition of soybean oil extraction by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. The soybean oil was extracted by using modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) under the temperatures of 40, 60, 80 °C, pressures of 150, 250, 350 Bar, and constant flow-rate of 10 g/min as the parameters of extraction processes. An experimental design was performed in order to optimize three important parameters of SC-CO2 extraction which are pressure (X1), temperature (X2) to achieve optimum yields of soybean oil. Box Behnken Design was applied for experimental design. From the optimization process, the optimum condition of extraction of soybean oil was obtained at pressure 338 Bar and temperature 80 °C with oil yield of 2.713 g. Effect of pressure is significant on the extraction of soybean oil by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. Increasing of pressure will increase the oil yield of soybean oil.

Keywords: soybean oil, SC-CO₂ extraction, yield, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
479 Longevity of Soybean Seeds Submitted to Different Mechanized Harvesting Conditions

Authors: Rute Faria, Digo Moraes, Amanda Santos, Dione Morais, Maria Sartori

Abstract:

Seed vigor is a fundamental component for the good performance of the entire soybean production process. Seeds with mechanical damage at harvest time will be more susceptible to fungal and insect attack during storage, which will invariably reduce their vigor to the field, compromising uniformity and final stand performance. Harvesters, even the most modern ones, when not properly regulated or operated, can cause irreversible damages to the seeds, compromising even their commercialization. Therefore, the control of an efficient harvest is necessary in order to guarantee a good quality final product. In this work, the damage caused by two different harvesters (one rented, and another one) was evaluated, traveling in two speeds (4 and 8 km / h). The design was completely randomized in 2 x 2 factorial, with four replications. To evaluate the physiological quality seed germination and vigor tests were carried out over a period of six months. A multivariate analysis of Principal Components (PCA) and clustering allowed us to verify that the leased machine had better performance in the incidence of immediate damages in the seeds, but after a storage period of 6 months the vigor of these seeds reduced more than own machine evidencing that such a machine would bring more damages to the seeds.

Keywords: Glycine max (L.), cluster analysis, PCA, vigor

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
478 Heavy Metal Reduction in Plant Using Soil Amendment

Authors: C. Chaiyaraksa, T. Khamko

Abstract:

This study investigated the influence of limestone and sepiolite on heavy metals accumulation in the soil and soybean. The soil was synthesized to contaminate with zinc 150 mg/kg, copper 100 mg/kg, and cadmium 1 mg/kg. The contaminated soil was mixed with limestone and sepiolite at the ratio of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, and 2:1. The amount of soil modifier added to soil was 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8%. The metals determination was performed on soil both before and after soybean planting and in the root, shoot, and seed of soybean after harvesting. The study was also on metal translocate from root to seed and on bioaccumulation factor. Using of limestone and sepiolite resulted in a reduction of metals accumulated in soybean. For soil containing a high concentration of copper, cadmium, and zinc, a mixture of limestone and sepiolite (1:1) was recommended to mix with soil with the amount of 0.2%. Zinc could translocate from root to seed more than copper, and cadmium. From studying the movement of metals from soil to accumulate in soybean, the result was that soybean could absorb the highest amount of cadmium, followed by zinc, and copper, respectively.

Keywords: heavy metals, limestone, sepiolite, soil, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
477 Optimization of Batch to Up-Scaling of Soy-Based Prepolymer Polyurethane

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus

Abstract:

The chemical structure of soybean oils have to be chemically modified through its tryglyceride to attain resemblance properties with petrochemicals. Sulfur acid catalyst in peracetic acid co-reagent has good performance on modified soybean oil strucutures through its unsaturated fatty acid moiety to the desired hydroxyl functional groups. A series of screening reactions have indicated that the ratio of acetic/peroxide acid 1:7.25 (mol/mol) with temperature of 600°C for soy-epoxide synthesis are prevailed for up-scaling of bodied soybean into 10 and 20 folds from initials. A two-step process was conducted for the preparation of soy-polyol in designated temperatures.

Keywords: soybean, polyol, up-scaling, polyurethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
476 Reversibility of Photosynthetic Activity and Pigment-protein Complexes Expression During Seed Development of Soybean and Black Soybean

Authors: Tzan-Chain Lee

Abstract:

Seeds are non-leaves green tissues. Photosynthesis begins with light absorption by chlorophyll and then the energy transfer between two pigment-protein complexes (PPC). Most studies of photosynthesis and PPC expression were focused on leaves; however, during seeds’ development were rare. Developed seeds from beginning pod (stage R3) to dried seed (stage R8), and the dried seed after sowing for 1-4 day, were analyzed for their chlorophyll contents. Thornber and MARS gel systems analysis compositions of PPC. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used to detect maximal photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm). During soybean and black soybean seeds development (stages R3-R6), Fv/Fm up to 0.8, and then down-regulated after full seed (stage R7). In dried seed (stage R8), the two plant seeds lost photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm=0), but chlorophyll degradation only occurred in soybean after full seed. After seeds sowing for 4 days, chlorophyll drastically increased in soybean seeds, and Fv/Fm recovered to 0.8 in the two seeds. In PPC, the two soybean seeds contained all PPC during seeds development (stages R3-R6), including CPI, CPII, A1, AB1, AB2, and AB3. However, many proteins A1, AB1, AB2, and CPI were totally missing in the two dried seeds (stage R8). The deficiency of these proteins in dried seeds might be caused by the incomplete photosynthetic activity. After seeds germination and seedling exposed to light for 4 days, all PPC were recovered, suggesting that completed PPC took place in the two soybean seeds. This study showed the reversibility of photosynthetic activity and pigment-protein complexes during soybean and black soybean seeds development.

Keywords: light-harvesting complex, pigment–protein complexes, soybean cotyledon, grana development

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
475 Development of a Harvest Mechanism for the Kahramanmaraş Chili Pepper

Authors: O. E. Akay, E. Güzel, M. T. Özcan

Abstract:

The pepper has quite a rich variety. The development of a single harvesting machine for all kinds of peppers is a difficult research topic. By development of harvesting mechanisms, we could be able to facilitate the pepper harvesting problems. In this study, an experimental harvesting machine was designed for chili pepper. Four-bar mechanism was used for the design of the prototype harvesting machine. At the result of harvest trials, 80% of peppers were harvested and 8% foreign materials were collected. These results have provided some tips on how to apply to large-scale pepper Four-bar mechanism of the harvest machine.

Keywords: kinematic simulation, four bar linkage, harvest mechanization, pepper harvest

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
474 Prevention of Biocompounds and Amino Acid Losses in Vernonia amygdalina duringPost Harvest Treatment Using Hot Oil-Aqueous Mixture

Authors: Nneka Nkechi Uchegbu, Temitope Omolayo Fasuan

Abstract:

This study investigated how to reduce bio-compounds and amino acids in V. amygdalina leaf during processing as a functional food ingredient. Fresh V. amygdalina leaf was processed using thermal oil-aqueous mixtures (soybean oil: aqueous and palm oil: aqueous) at 1:40 and 130 (v/v), respectively. Results indicated that the hot soybean oil-aqueous mixture was the most effective in preserving the bio-compounds and amino acids with retention potentials of 80.95% of the bio-compounds at the rate of 90-100%. Hot palm oil-aqueous mixture retained 61.90% of the bio-compounds at the rate of 90-100% and hot aqueous retained 9.52% of the bio-compounds at the same rate. During the debittering process, seven new bio-compounds were formed in the leaves treated with hot soybean oil-aqueous mixture, six in palm oil-aqueous mixture, and only four in hot aqueous leaves. The bio-compounds in the treated leaves have potential functions as antitumor, antioxidants, antihistaminic, anti-ovarian cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, hepatoprotective, antihistaminic, haemolytic 5-α reductase inhibitor, nt, immune-stimulant, diuretic, antiandrogenic, and anaemiagenic. Alkaloids and polyphenols were retained at the rate of 81.34-98.50% using oil: aqueous mixture while aqueous recorded the rate of 33.47-41.46%. Most of the essential amino acids were retained at a rate above 90% through the aid of oil. The process is scalable and could be employed for domestic and industrial applications.

Keywords: V. amygdalina leaf, bio-compounds, oil-aqueous mixture, amino acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
473 Intercropping Sugarcane and Soybean in Lowland and Upland to Support Self Sufficiency of Soybean in Indonesia

Authors: Mohammad Saeri, Zainal Arifin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to obtain information on technical and social-economic feasibility of sugarcane-soybean. To achieve these objectives, soybeans intercropping study was conducted in sugar cane crops. This assessment was conducted in two locations with different agroecosystem,ie lowland of low plain in Mojokerto, East Java, with altitude of 50m above sea level and upland of medium plain in Malang, East Javawithaltitude of 500 m above the sea level. The design used was Split plot, with the main plots, is the soybean varieties, consisting of: (a) Anjasmoro, (b) Argomulyo, and (c) Dena-1, while the subplot is bio-fertilizer, consisting of : (1) Agrimeth, (2) Agrisoy, and (3) Biovarm. The variables observed were growth, yield and yield components and economic analysis. The yield of soybean in lowland reached 0.74 t/ha of seeds with farm profit of Indonesian Rupiah 359.200. This result is relatively low due to the delay of soybean cultivation from sugar cane soup time so that sugar cane cover soybean cultivation, while in upland obtained 0.92t/ha seeds with farm profit of Indonesian Rupiah 2,015,000. Therefore, it is suggested that soybeans are planted immediately after ratoon cane so that soybean growth can be optimal before the growth of sugarcane cover the soil surface. The yield of sugar cane in the lowland reached 124.5 tons with a profit of Indonesian Rupiah. 21,200,000,- while in upland obtained by sugarcane yield equal to 78,5 ton with profit equal to Indonesian Rupiah 8,900,000,-.

Keywords: intercropping, sugar cane, soybean, profit, farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
472 Determination of the Seed Vigor of Soybean Cultivated as Main and Second Crop in Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Engin Gökhan Kulan, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

Abstract:

This research was conducted to determine the difference in seed vigor between the seed lots cultivated in main and second crop of soybean in Turkey. Seeds from soybean cv. Cinsoy and Umut-2002 were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, emergence, cool test at 18°C for 10 days, and cold test at 10°C for 4 days and 25°C for 6 days. Result showed that the initial oil contents of Cinsoy and Umut-2002 and seeds were determined to be 19.8 and 20.1% in main crop, and 18.7 and 22.1% in second crop, respectively. It was determined that a clear difference between main and second crop soybean seed lots for seed vigor was found. Germination and emergence percentage were higher in the seed from second crop cultivation of the cultivars. There was no significant difference in germination percentage in cool and cold test while seedling growth was better in the seeds of second crop soybean. The highest seed vigor index (477.6) was found in the seeds of the cultivars grown at second crop. Standard germination percentage did not give a sensitive separation for determining seed vigor of soybean lots. It was concluded that second crop soybean seeds were found the most suitable for seed production while main crop soybean gave higher protein lower oil content.

Keywords: Glycine max L., germination, emergence, protein content, vigor test

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
471 Major Constraints to Adoption of Improved Post-harvest Technologies among Smallholder Farmers in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

Authors: Muganyizi Jonas Bisheko, G. Rejikumar

Abstract:

Reducing post-harvest losses could be a sustainable solution to enhance the food and income security of smallholder farmers in developing countries. While various research institutions have come up with a number of innovative post-harvest technologies for reducing post-harvest losses, most of them have not been extensively adopted by smallholder farmers. Despite this gap, the synthesized information about the major constraints of post-harvest technology is scarce. This study has been conducted to fill this gap and show the implications of the findings for future post-harvest research. The developed search strategy retrieved 2201 studies. However, after excluding duplicates, title, abstract and full article screening, a total of 41 documents were identified. The major findings are: (i) there is an outstanding deficiency of systematic evidence of the effect of climate change, off-farm income and sources of post-harvest information on the adoption of improved post-harvest technologies; (ii) there is very limited information on adoption constraints pertaining to matters of policy, rules and regulations; (iii) there is very thin literature on behavioral constraints associated with limited adoption of improved post-harvest technologies; (iv) most of the studies focused on post-harvest storage technologies (47%) followed by overall post-harvest management practices (25%), processing technologies (19%) and packaging technologies (3%). Much of the information was found on Cereals (58%), especially maize (44%); (v) geographically, Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 79% of the reviewed interventions, while South Asia occupied only 21%. The findings of this review are intended to guide various post-harvest technologists and decision-makers in addressing the challenge of huge post-harvest losses.

Keywords: constraints, post-harvest loss, post-harvest technology , smallholder farmer

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
470 Evolution of Propiconazole and Tebuconazole Residues through the Post-Harvest Application in 'Angeleno' Plum

Authors: M. J. Rodríguez, F. M. Sánchez, B. Velardo, P. Calvo, M. J. Serradilla, J. Delgado, J. M. López

Abstract:

The main problems in storage and later transport of fruits, are the decays developed that reduce the quality on destination’s markets. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the use of compounds to avoid decays in post-harvest. Triazole fungicides are agrochemicals widely used in the agricultural industry due to their wide spectrum of actions, and in some case, they are used in citrus fruit post-harvest. Moreover, its use is not authorized in plum post-harvest, but in order to a future possible authorization, the evolutions of propiconazole and tebuconazole residues are studied after its post-harvest application in ‘Angeleno’ plum.

Keywords: maximum residue limit (MRL), triazole fungicides, decay, Prunus salicina

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
469 The Efferent of Different Levels of Recycled Soybean Oil(RSO) on Growth and Performance of Broilers

Authors: Seyed Babak Asadi

Abstract:

In this experiment the effect of recycled soybean oil (RSO) on the growth and performance carcass of broiler was investigated. The percentages of recycled soybean oil (RSO) used in this experiment were 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. In this regard, 300 one-day-old broilers were selected randomly consisting of five treatments and three replicates(20 chickens per replicate). The chicks were kept in an accumulated manner for the first week, then divided between treatments and kept until they reached the age of 42 days. Body weight at 21 and 42, weight gain, food intake and food conversion ratio in starter (0-21 d), finisher (21-42 d) and overall were measured. At the end of the experiment (42 days-old) 2 chicks from each replicate which had the nearest weight to the average group in their group were selected, slaughtered and different parts of their carcass were weight separately. The result showed that the rate of feed intake and feed conversion coefficient have significantly increased with higher levels of recycled soybean oil. There was not a significant different between experimental groups for liver, heart, intestine and the weight of carcass. Results from this experiment showed that it is possible to use recycled soybean oil for up to 8 percent of food ration for broiler chicks without any significant effects on carcass quality.

Keywords: broiler, recycled soybean oil (RSO), growth, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
468 Oxidative Stability of an Iranian Ghee (Butter Fat) Versus Soybean Oil During Storage at Different Temperatures

Authors: Kooshan Nayebzadeh, Maryam Enteshari

Abstract:

In this study, the oxidative stability of soybean oil under different storage temperatures (4 and 25 ˚C) and during 6-month shelf-life was investigated by various analytical methods and headspace-liquid phase microextraction (HS-LPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Oxidation changes were monitored by analytical parameters consisted of acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-AV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), fatty acids profile, iodine value (IV) and oxidative stability index (OSI). In addition, concentrations of hexanal and heptanal as secondary volatile oxidation compounds were determined by HS-LPME/GC-MS technique. Rate of oxidation in soybean oil which stored at 25 ˚C was so higher. The AV, p-AV, and TBA were gradually increased during 6 months, while the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, IV, and OSI decreased. Other parameters included concentrations of both hexanal and heptanal, and PV exhibited increasing trend during primitive months of storage; then, at the end of third and fourth months a sudden decrement was understood for the concentrations of hexanal and heptanal and the amount of PV, simultaneously. The latter parameters increased again until the end of shelf-time. As a result, the temperature and time were effective factors in oxidative stability of soybean oil. Also intensive correlations were found for soybean oil at 4 ˚C between AV and TBA (r2=0.96), PV and p-AV (r2=0.9), IV and TBA (-r2=0.9), and for soybean oil stored at 4 ˚C between p-AV and TBA (r2=0.99).

Keywords: headspace-liquid phase microextraction, oxidation, shelf-life, soybean oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
467 Applicability of Soybean as Bio-Catalyst in Calcite Precipitated Method for Soil Improvement

Authors: Heriansyah Putra, Erizal Erizal, Sutoyo Sutoyo, Hideaki Yasuhara

Abstract:

This paper discusses the possibility of organic waste material, i.e., soybean, as the bio-catalyst agent on the calcite precipitation method. Several combinations of soybean powder and jack bean extract are used as the bio-catalyst and mixed with the reagent composed of calcium chloride and urea. Its productivity in promoting calcite crystal is evaluated through a transparent test-tube experiment. The morphological and mineralogical aspects of precipitated calcite are also investigated using scanning electromagnetic (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The applicability of this material to improve the engineering properties of soil are examined using the direct shear and unconfined compressive test. The result of this study shows that the utilization of soybean powder brings about a significant effect on soil strength. In addition, the use of soybean powder as a substitution material of urease enzyme also increases the efficacy of calcite crystal as the binder materials. The low calcite content promotes the high strength of the soil. The strength of 300 kPa is obtained in the presence of 2% of calcite content within the soil. The result of this study elucidated that substitution of soybean to jack bean extract is the potential and valuable alternative to improve the applicability of calcite precipitation method as soil improvement technique.

Keywords: calcite precipitation, jack bean, soil improvement, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
466 Assessment of the Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Sown in Different Types of Moroccan Soils

Authors: F. Z. Aliyat, B. Ben Messaoud, L. Nassiri, E. Bouiamrine, J. Ibijbijen

Abstract:

The present study aims to assess the biological nitrogen fixation in the soybean tested in different Moroccan soils combined with the rhizobial inoculation. These effects were evaluated by the plant growth mainly by the aerial biomass production, total nitrogen content and the proportion of the nitrogen fixed. This assessment clearly shows that the inoculation with bacteria increases the growth of soybean. Five different soils and a control (peat) were used. The rhizobial inoculation was performed by applying the peat that contained a mixture of 2 strains Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 and Bradyrhizobium. The biomass, the total nitrogen content and the proportion of nitrogen fixed were evaluated under different treatments. The essay was realized at the greenhouse the Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University. The soybean has shown a great response for the parameters assessed. Moreover, the best response was reported by the inoculated plants compared to non- inoculated and to the absolute control. Finally, good production and the best biological nitrogen fixation present an important ecological technology to improve the sustainable production of soybean and to ensure the increase of the fertility of soils.

Keywords: biological nitrogen fixation, inoculation, rhizobium, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
465 Soybean Based Farming System Assessment in Pasuruan East Java Indonesia

Authors: Mohammad Saeri, Noor Rizkiyah, Kambang Vetrani Asie, Titin Apung Atikah

Abstract:

The study aims to assess efficient specific-location soybean farming technology assembly by assisting the farmers in applying the suggested technology. Superimposed trial was conducted to know NPK fertilizer effect toward soybean growth and yield and soybean improved variety test for the dissemination of improved variety. The assessment was conducted at the farmers group of Sumber Rejeki, Kepulungan Village, Gempol Sub-district, Pasuruan Regency as the soybean central at Pasuruan area. The number of farmers involved in the study was 38 people with 25 ha soybean area. This study was held from July to October 2012.  The recommended technology package agreed at the socialization time and used in this research were: using Argomulyo variety seeds of 40 kg/ha, planting by drilling, planting by distance of 40x10 cm, deciding the seeds amount of 2-3 seeds per hole, and giving fertilization based on recommendation of East Java AIAT of 50 kg Urea, 100 kg SP-36 and 50 kg KCl.  Farmers around the research location were used as control group. Assessment on soybean farming system was considered effective because it could increase the production up to 38%. The farming analysis showed that the result collaborator farmers gained were positively higher than non-collaborator farmers with RC ratio of 2.03 and 1.54, respectively. Argomulyo variety has the prospect to be developed due to the high yield of about 2 tons/ha and the larger seeds. The NPK fertilization test at the soybean plants showed that the fertilization had minor effect on the yield.

Keywords: farming system, soybean, variety, location specific

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
464 Evaluation of Oxidative Changes in Soybean Oil During Shelf-Life by Physico-Chemical Methods and Headspace-Liquid Phase Microextraction (HS-LPME) Technique

Authors: Maryam Enteshari, Kooshan Nayebzadeh, Abdorreza Mohammadi

Abstract:

In this study, the oxidative stability of soybean oil under different storage temperatures (4 and 25˚C) and during 6-month shelf-life was investigated by various analytical methods and headspace-liquid phase microextraction (HS-LPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Oxidation changes were monitored by analytical parameters consisted of acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-AV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), fatty acids profile, iodine value (IV), and oxidative stability index (OSI). In addition, concentrations of hexanal and heptanal as secondary volatile oxidation compounds were determined by HS-LPME/GC-MS technique. Rate of oxidation in soybean oil which stored at 25˚C was so higher. The AV, p-AV, and TBA were gradually increased during 6 months while the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, IV, and OSI decreased. Other parameters included concentrations of both hexanal and heptanal, and PV exhibited increasing trend during primitive months of storage; then, at the end of third and fourth months a sudden decrement was understood for the concentrations of hexanal and heptanal and the amount of PV, simultaneously. The latter parameters increased again until the end of shelf-time. As a result, the temperature and time were effective factors in oxidative stability of soybean oil. Also intensive correlations were found for soybean oil at 4 ˚C between AV and TBA (r2=0.96), PV and p-AV (r2=0.9), IV and TBA (-r2=0.9), and for soybean oil stored at 4˚C between p-AV and TBA (r2=0.99).

Keywords: headspace-liquid phase microextraction, oxidation, shelf-life, soybean oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
463 Mechanized Harvest Impact on Reproductive Performance of Ewes of Some Villages

Authors: Jaber Jafarzadeh

Abstract:

The two nodes of treatment for the study of indirect effects on the reproductive performance of sheep farming machines used. During the harvest period of 30 days (from 20th July to 20th September) and coincides with the period, sheep are also harvested the following day why the fields and in the second group were 30 ewes and were kept in farms that harvest was done by machinery during harvest about 15-20 days (from 20th July to early September), respectively. -Ya Term mating season is better than the ram up Astafadh Knym- of early September, no matter the point of beginning. Based on the data obtained, it was found that the rate of return to oestrus in the first group is lower than the second group and the rate of lambing in the first group was significantly (0.05> P) is greater than the second group (138% vs. 97%). Estrus synchronization in the first group and the second group was better than that.

Keywords: mechanized harvest, twin birth, mating season, reproductive performance of ewes

Procedia PDF Downloads 514
462 Effect of Phosphorus and Potassium Nutrition on Growth, Yield and Minerals Accumulation of Two Soybean Cultivars Differing in Phytate Contents

Authors: Taliman Nisar Ahmad, Hirofume Saneoka

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A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrition on grain yield, phytic acid and grain quality of high-phytate (Akimaro) and low-phytate line. Phosphorus and potassium were applied as; P₁ (20 kg ha⁻¹) and P₂ (100 kg ha⁻¹), same as K₁ (20 kg ha⁻¹) and K₂ (100 kg ha⁻¹), respectively. Low-phytate soybean had the highest grain yield, and 75% increase was observed compared to the high-phytate under same treatments. Highly significant differences of seed phytate P were observed in both cultivars, and the phytate P in high-phytate was found 39% higher than low-phytate, whereas no significant differences observed in response to P and K treatment. Percentage of phytate P from total P in seeds was 28 to 35% in low-phytate and 72 to 81% in high-phytate in different treatments. The lipid content in low-phytate was found lowered compared to that of high-phytate. Crude protein in grains was also found significantly higher in PK combined. No significant difference was observed in seed calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and Zinc (Zn) in different treatments, but high-phytate showed 87% increase in seed Ca and 76% of Mg compared to low-phytate; however, low-phytate showed 82% increase in Zn content over high-phytate. The result illustrates that low-phytate soybean achieved higher grain yield and grain Pi in response to increased P and K nutrition. To achieve higher yield and quality seeds from the low-phytate soybean, it is recommended that proper phosphorus and potassium nutrition to be applied suggested in this study.

Keywords: phytic acid, low-phytate soybean, high-phytate soybean, P and K nutrition, protein content, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
461 Application of 1-MCP on ‘Centro’ Melon at Different Days after Harvest

Authors: L. P. L. Nguyen, G. Hitka, T. Zsom, Z. Kókai

Abstract:

This study is aimed to investigate the influence of postharvest delays of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on prolonging the storage potential of melon. Melons were treated with 625-650 ppb 1-MCP at 10 °C for 24 hours on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day after harvest. Decreased ethylene production and retarded softening of melon fruits after 7 days of storage at 10 °C plus 3 days of shelflife were obtained by 1-MCP applications. 1-MCP strongly affected the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and hue angle values of melon. After shelf-life, the peel color of treated melon was slow in turning to yellow compared to the control. Additionally, firmness of melons treated on the first day after harvest was 38% higher than that of the control fruit. Results showed that fruits treated on the 1st and the 3rd day after harvest could maintain the quality of melon.

Keywords: 1-MCP, muskmelon, storage, treatment.

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
460 Energy Use and Econometric Models of Soybean Production in Mazandaran Province of Iran

Authors: Majid AghaAlikhani, Mostafa Hojati, Saeid Satari-Yuzbashkandi

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This paper studies energy use patterns and relationship between energy input and yield for soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) in Mazandaran province of Iran. In this study, data were collected by administering a questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Results revealed that the highest share of energy consumption belongs to chemical fertilizers (29.29%) followed by diesel (23.42%) and electricity (22.80%). Our investigations showed that a total energy input of 23404.1 MJ.ha-1 was consumed for soybean production. The energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy values were estimated as 0.12 kg MJ-1, 8.03 MJ kg-1, and 49412.71 MJ.ha-1, respectively. The ratio of energy outputs to energy inputs was 3.11. Obtained results indicated that direct, indirect, renewable and non-renewable energies were (56.83%), (43.17%), (15.78%) and (84.22%), respectively. Three econometric models were also developed to estimate the impact of energy inputs on yield. The results of econometric models revealed that impact of chemical, fertilizer, and water on yield were significant at 1% probability level. Also, direct and non-renewable energies were found to be rather high. Cost analysis revealed that total cost of soybean production per ha was around 518.43$. Accordingly, the benefit-cost ratio was estimated as 2.58. The energy use efficiency in soybean production was found as 3.11. This reveals that the inputs used in soybean production are used efficiently. However, due to higher rate of nitrogen fertilizer consumption, sustainable agriculture should be extended and extension staff could be proposed substitution of chemical fertilizer by biological fertilizer or green manure.

Keywords: Cobbe Douglas function, economical analysis, energy efficiency, energy use patterns, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
459 An Assessment of Vegetable Farmers’ Perceptions about Post-harvest Loss Sources in Ghana

Authors: Kofi Kyei, Kenchi Matsui

Abstract:

Loss of vegetable products has been a major constraint in the post-harvest chain. Sources of post-harvest loss in the vegetable industry start from the time of harvesting to its handling and at the various market centers. Identifying vegetable farmers’ perceptions about post-harvest loss sources is one way of addressing this issue. In this paper, we assessed farmers’ perceptions about sources of post-harvest losses in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We also identified the factors that influence their perceptions. To clearly understand farmers’ perceptions, we selected Sekyere-Kumawu District in the Ashanti Region. Sekyere-Kumawu District is one of the major producers of vegetables in the Region. Based on a questionnaire survey, 100 vegetable farmers growing tomato, pepper, okra, cabbage, and garden egg were purposely selected from five communities in Sekyere-Kumawu District. For farmers’ perceptions, the five points Likert scale was employed. On a scale from 1 (no loss) to 5 (extremely high loss), we processed the scores for each vegetable harvest. To clarify factors influencing farmers’ perceptions, the Pearson Correlation analysis was used. Our findings revealed that farmers perceive post-harvest loss by pest infestation as the most extreme loss. However, vegetable farmers did not perceive loss during transportation as a serious source of post-harvest loss. The Pearson Correlation analysis results further revealed that farmers’ age, gender, level of education, and years of experience had an influence on their perceptions. This paper then discusses some recommendations to minimize the post-harvest loss in the region.

Keywords: Ashanti Region, pest infestation, post-harvest loss, vegetable farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
458 Increasing Soybean (Glycine Max L) Drought Resistance with Osmolit Sorbitol

Authors: Aminah Muchdar

Abstract:

Efforts to increase soybean production have been pursued for years in Indonesia through the process of intensification and extensification. Increased production through intensification of increasing grain yield per hectare, among others includes the improvement of cultivation system such as the use of cultivars that have superior resistance to drought. Increased soybean production has been through the expansion of planting areas utilizing available idle dry land. However, one of the constraints faced in dryland agriculture was the limited water supply due to low intensity of rainfall that leads to low crop production. In order to ensure that soybeans are cultivated on dry land remains capable of high production, it is necessary to physiologically engineer the soybean with open stomata. The study was conducted in the greenhouse of Balai Penelitian Tanaman Serealia (BALITSEREAL) Maros, Sulawesi, Indonesia with a completely randomized block design h factorial pattern. The first factor was the water stress stadia while the second was the amount of sorbitol osmolit concentration application. Results indicated that there was an interaction between the plant height growth and number of leaves between the water clamping time and concentration of the osmolit sorbitol. The vegetative stage especially during flowering and pod formation was inhibited when the water was clamped, but by spraying osmolit sorbitol, soybean growth in terms of its height and number of leaves was enhanced. This study implies that the application of osmolit sorbitol may enhance the drought resistance of soybean growth. Future research suggested that more work should be done on the application of osmolit sorbital to other agriculture crops to increase their drought resistance in the drylands.

Keywords: DROUGHT, engineered physiology, osmolit sorbitol, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
457 Formulation, Acceptability, and Characteristics of Instant Surabi Based on Composite Rice-Soybean Flour and Supplemented with Torbangun Powder for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children

Authors: Dewi Hapsari Ratna Muninggar, M. Rizal Martua Damanik

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to develop a formulation of instant Indonesian traditional pancake (Surabi) based on composite rice and soybean flour and supplemented with Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour) powder as an alternative snack for ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) children. Completely randomised factorial design by two factors which were the ratio of composite rice and soybean flour (75:25; 70:30; 65:35) as well as the addition of Torbangun powder (3%; 5%; 7%) was used in this study. This study revealed that the best formula was instant surabi with 65:35 composite rice and soybean flour and 5% addition of Torbangun powder by considering hedonic test result, functional aspect and nutrients contribution. Then, both chemical and physical characteristics from the best formula of instant surabi were measured. Nutrients content of the chosen instant surabi per 100 g wet basis were 62.68 g moisture, 1.30 g ash, 6.81 g protein, 0.75 g fat, 28.47 g carbohydrate, 88.62 mg calcium, 4.14 mg iron, and 144 kcal energy while physical characteristics, such as water activity, cohesiveness, and hardness were 0.97, 0.569, 5582.2 g force consecutively. The results of this research suggested that instant surabi which can be possibly beneficial for ADHD children had 65:35 for rice and soybean flour ratio as well as 5% for the addition of Torbangun powder.

Keywords: ADHD children, instant surabi, soybean, torbangun

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
456 Black Soybeans Show Acute and Chronic Liver Protective Functions against CCl4 Induced Liver Damage

Authors: Cheng-Kuang Hsu, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Chi-Chih Wang

Abstract:

Black soybeans contain high amount of antioxidants including polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavones. The protective function of black soybean against CCl4 (a strong oxidant) induced acute and chronic liver damage was investigated in vivo using SD rats or ICR mouse. The evaluation of CCl4 induced oxidative stress in the liver tissues included the measurements of the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase GPx), as well as the level of histological lesion in the liver tissues. For chronic experiment, a decoction at the concentration of 100 or 1000 mg/kg of body weight, produced by baking black soybean at 130°C for 5 min and followed by immerging in 100°C hot water for 20 min, showed the inhibitory effect against CCl4 induced liver damage in SD rats. Hot-water extract (80 °C for 30 min) from un-preheated black soybean at the concentration of 200 mg/kg of body weight could not reduce ALT and AST levels in CCl4 treated SD rats, but the hot-water extract from preheated black soybean did enhance antioxidant enzymes activities, decline ALT and AST levels. Specially, the hot-water extract from the seed cost of black soybean had the highest liver protective function since it can reduce vacuolization and necrosis in the liver tissues. For acute experiment, the hot-water extracts from black soybean and the seed coat, as well as pure cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) could reduce ALT and AST levels of CCl4 induced ICR mouse. The decoction and hot-water extract from the seed coat of black soybean had higher total polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavones contents than those extracts from whole black soybean. Such results agreed with high liver protective function in the decoction and hot-water from the seed coat of black soybean. Black soybean showed protective function only after preheating process (baking at 130°C for 5 to 10 min) because preheating treatment damaged the cell wall and made the extraction of the antioxidants more effectively.

Keywords: black soybean, liver protective function, antioxidant, antioxidative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
455 The Role of Thermo Priming on Improving Seedling Production Technology (ISPT) in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Seed's

Authors: Behzad Sani, Vida Jodaeian

Abstract:

In order to determine the impact of thermo priming on germination of soybean seeds, an experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with three replications. The factors of studied included different time thermo priming (control, 5 and 10 minutes) through the placing seeds were exposed to oven. The results showed that the effect of thermo priming was significant on germination percentage, seedling dry weight and seedling vigour in P ≤ 0.05. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (77 %), seedling dry weight (1.39 g) and seedling vigour (107.03) were achieved by 10 minutes thermo priming.

Keywords: thermo priming, seedling, seedling production, seedling growth, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
454 Recovery of Fried Soybean Oil Using Bentonite as an Adsorbent: Optimization, Isotherm and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak, Avinash Kumar, Uma Dash, Kalpana Rayaguru

Abstract:

Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils, worldwide. Deep-fat frying of foods at higher temperatures adds unique flavour, golden brown colour and crispy texture to foods. But it brings in various changes like hydrolysis, oxidation, hydrogenation and thermal alteration to oil. The presence of Peroxide value (PV) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of the deep-fat fried oil. Using bentonite as an adsorbent, the PV can be reduced, thereby improving the quality of the soybean oil. In this study, operating parameters like heating time of oil (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30 h), contact time ( 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 h) and concentration of adsorbent (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/ 100 ml of oil) have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) considering percentage reduction of PV as a response. Adsorption data were analysed by fitting with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The results show that the Langmuir model shows the best fit compared to the Freundlich model. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Keywords: bentonite, Langmuir isotherm, peroxide value, RSM, soybean oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 274