Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 305

Search results for: threshing cylinder

305 Optimum Design of Combine Threshing Cylinder for Soybean Harvest

Authors: Choi Duckkyu, Choi Yong, Kang Taegyoung, Jun Hyeonjong, Choi Ilsu, Hyun Changsik

Abstract:

This study was carried out to develop a soybean combine thresher that enables to reduce the damage rate of soybean threshing and the rate of unthreshing. The combine threshing cylinder was developed with 6 circular axis at each end and fixed with disc plates. It was attached to the prototype combine thresher. A combine thresher that has a cylinder with circular rod type threshing pegs was used for a comparative test. A series of comparative tests were conducted using dae-won soybean. The test of the soybean thresher was performed at the cylinder speeds of 210, 240, 270 and 300 rpm, and with the concave clearance of 10, 13 and 16 mm. The separating positions of soybean after threshing were researched on a separate box with 4 sections. The soybean positions of front, center, rear and rear outside, of 59.5%, 30.6%, 7.8% and 2.2% respectively, were obtained. At the cylinder speeds from 210 rpm to 300 rpm, the damage rate of soybean was increased from 0.1% to 4.2% correspondingly to speeds. The unthreshed rate of soybean under the same condition was increased from 0.9% to 4.1% correspondingly to speeds. 0.7% of the damage rate and 1.5% of the unthreshed rate was achieved at the cylinder speed of 240 rpm and with the concave clearance of 10 mm. For Daewon soybean, an optimum cylinder speed of 240 rpm and the concave clearance of 10 mm were identified. These results will be useful for the design, construction, and operation of soybean threshing harvesters.

Keywords: soybean harvest, combine threshing, threshing cylinder, optimum design

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
304 Construction and Evaluation of Soybean Thresher

Authors: Oladimeji Adetona Adeyeye, Emmanuel Rotimi Sadiku, Oluwaseun Olayinka Adeyeye

Abstract:

In order to resuscitate soybean production and post-harvest processing especially, in term of threshing, there is need to develop an affordable threshing machine which will reduce drudgery associated with manual soybean threshing. Soybean thresher was fabricated and evaluated at Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IAR&T Apata Ibadan. The machine component includes; hopper, threshing unit, shaker, cleaning unit and the seed outlet, all working together to achieve the main objective of threshing and cleaning. TGX1835 - 10E variety was used for evaluation because of its high resistance to pests, rust and pustules. The final moisture content of the used sample was about 15%. The sample was weighed and introduced into the machine. The parameters evaluated includes moisture content, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, machine capacity and speed. The threshing efficiency and capacity are 74% and 65.9kg/hr respectively. All materials used were sourced locally which makes the cost of production of the machine extremely cheaper than the imported soybean thresher.

Keywords: efficiency, machine capacity, speed, soybean, threshing

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
303 Performance Evaluation of Iar Multi Crop Thresher

Authors: Idris Idris Sunusi, U.S. Muhammed, N.A. Sale, I.B. Dalha, N.A. Adam

Abstract:

Threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damages are among the important parameters used in rating the performance of agricultural threshers. To be acceptable to farmers, threshers should have high threshing efficiency and low grain. The objective of the research is to evaluate the performances of the thresher using sorghum and millet, the performances parameters considered are; threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage. For millet, four drum speed levels; 700, 800, 900 and 1000 rpm were considered while for sorghum; 600, 700, 800 and 900 rpm were considered. The feed rate levels were 3, 4, 5 and 6 kg/min for both sorghum and millet; the levels of moisture content were 8.93 and 10.38% for sorghum and 9.21 and 10.81% for millet. For millet the test result showed a maximum of 98.37 threshing efficiencies and a minimum of 0.24% mechanical grain damage while for sorghum the test result indicated a maximum of 99.38 threshing efficiencies, and a minimum of 0.75% mechanical grain damage. In comparison to the previous thresher, the threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage of the modified machine has improved by 2.01% and 330.56% for millet and 5.31%, 287.64% for sorghum. Also analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that, the effect of drum speed, feed rate and moisture content were significant on the performance parameters.

Keywords: Threshing Efficiency, Mechanical Grain Damages, Sorghum and Millet, Multi Crop Thresher

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
302 A 2D Numerical Model of Viscous Flow-Cylinder Interaction

Authors: Bang-Fuh Chen, Chih-Chun Chu

Abstract:

The flow induced cylinder vibration or earthquake-induced cylinder motion are moving in an arbitrary direction with time. The phenomenon of flow across cylinder is highly nonlinear and a linear-superposition of flow pattern across separated oscillating direction of cylinder motion is not valid to obtain the flow pattern across a cylinder oscillating in multiple directions. A novel finite difference scheme is developed to simulate the viscous flow across an arbitrary moving circular cylinder and we call this a complete 2D (two-dimensional) flow-cylinder interaction. That is, the cylinder is simultaneously oscillating in x- and y- directions. The time-dependent domain and meshes associated with the moving cylinder are mapped to a fixed computational domain and meshes, which are time independent. The numerical results are validated by several bench mark studies. Several examples are introduced including flow across steam-wise, transverse oscillating cylinder and flow across rotating cylinder and flow across arbitrary moving cylinder. The Morison’s formula can not describe the complex interaction phenomenon between cross flow and oscillating circular cylinder. And the completed 2D computational fluid dynamic analysis should be made to obtain the correct hydrodynamic force acting on the cylinder.

Keywords: 2D cylinder, finite-difference method, flow-cylinder interaction, flow induced vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
301 Effects of Viscous and Pressure Forces in Vortex and Wake Induced Vibrations

Authors: Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Abouzar Kaboudian, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman

Abstract:

Cross-flow vortex-induced vibrations of a circular cylinder are compared with the wake-induced oscillations of the downstream cylinder of a tandem cylinder arrangement. It is known that the synchronization of the frequency of vortex shedding with the natural frequency of the structure leads to large amplitude motions. In the case of tandem cylinders, the large amplitudes of the downstream cylinder found are compared to single cylinder setup. In this work, in the tandem arrangement, the upstream cylinder is fixed and the downstream cylinder is free to oscillate in transverse direction. We show that the wake from the upstream cylinder interacts with the downstream cylinder which influences the response of the coupled system. Extensive numerical experiments have been performed on single cylinder as well as tandem cylinder arrangements in cross-flow. Here, the wake interactions in connection to the forces generated are systematically studied. The ratio of the viscous loads to the pressure loads is found to play a major role in the displacement response of the single and tandem cylinder arrangements, as the viscous forces dissipate the energy.

Keywords: circular cylinder, vortex-shedding, VIV, wake-induced, vibrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
300 Design and Finite Element Analysis of Clamp Cylinder for Capacity Augmentation of Injection Moulding Machine

Authors: Vimal Jasoliya, Purnank Bhatt, Mit Shah

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The Injection Moulding is one of the principle methods of conversions of plastics into various end products using a very wide range of plastics materials from commodity plastics to specialty engineering plastics. Injection Moulding Machines are rated as per the tonnage force applied. The work present includes Design & Finite Element Analysis of a structure component of injection moulding machine i.e. clamp cylinder. The work of the project is to upgrade the 1300T clamp cylinder to 1500T clamp cylinder for injection moulding machine. The design of existing clamp cylinder of 1300T is checked. Finite Element analysis is carried out for 1300T clamp cylinder in ANSYS Workbench, and the stress values are compared with acceptance criteria and theoretical calculation. The relation between the clamp cylinder diameter and the tonnage capacity has been derived and verified for 1300T clamp cylinder. The same correlation is used to find out the thickness for 1500T clamp cylinder. The detailed design of 1500T cylinder is carried out based on calculated thickness.

Keywords: clamp cylinder, fatigue analysis, finite element analysis, injection moulding machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
299 The Effects of the Aspect Ratio of a Flexible Cylinder on the Vortex Dynamics

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman

Abstract:

The vortex structures observed in the wake of a flexible cylinder can be significantly different from those of a traditional vibrating, spring mounted, rigid cylinder. These differences can significantly affect the VIV characteristics of the flow and subsequently the VIV response of the cylindrical structures. In this work, we present how the aspect ratio of a flexible cylinder can change the vortex structures in its wake. We will discuss different vortex dynamics which can be observed in the wake of the vibrating flexible cylinder, and how they can affect the vibrational response of the cylinder. Moreover, we will study the transition of these structures versus the aspect ratio of the flexible cylinder. We will discuss how these transitions affect the in-line and transverse forces on the structure. In the end, we will provide general guidelines on the minimum acceptable aspect ratio for the offshore riser studies which may have grave implications for future numerical and experimental works.

Keywords: aspect ratio, flexible cylinder, vortex-shedding, VIV

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
298 Application of Metakaolin from Northeast of Thailand Used as Binder in Casting Process of Rice Polishing Cylinder

Authors: T. Boonkang, C. Santhaweesuk, N. Pianthong, P. Neeramon, A. Phimhlo, S. Bangphan

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to apply metakaolin from northeast of Thailand as a binder in the casting process of rice polishing cylinder in replacement of the imported calcined magnesite cement and to reduce the production cost of the cylinder. Metakaolin was obtained from three different regions (Udon Thani, Nakhon Phanom, and Ubon Ratchathani). The design of experiment analysis using the MINITAB Release 14 based on the compressive strength and tensile strength testing was conducted. According to the analysis results, it was found that the optimal proportions were calcined magnesite cement: metakaolin from Udon Thani, Nakhon Phanom and Ubon Ratchathani equal to 63:37, 71:29, and 100:0, respectively. When used this formula to cast the cylinder and test the rice milling, it was found that the average broken rice percent was 32.52 and 38.29 for the cylinder contained the metakaolin from Udon Thani and Nakhon Phanom, respectively, which implied that the cylinder which contained the metakaolin from Udon Thani has higher efficiency than the cylinder which contained the metakaolin from Nakhon Phanom at 0.05 level of statistical significance. Whereas, the average wear rate of cylinder from both resources were 7.27 and 6.53 g/h, respectively.

Keywords: binder, casting, metakaolin, rice polishing cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
297 Multiscale Structures and Their Evolution in a Screen Cylinder Wake

Authors: Azlin Mohd Azmi, Tongming Zhou, Akira Rinoshika, Liang Cheng

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The turbulent structures in the wake (x/d =10 to 60) of a screen cylinder have been reduced to understand the roles of the various structures as evolving downstream by comparing with those obtained in a solid circular cylinder wake at Reynolds number, Re of 7000. Using a wavelet multi-resolution technique, the flow structures are decomposed into a number of wavelet components based on their central frequencies. It is observed that in the solid cylinder wake, large-scale structures (of frequency f0 and 1.2 f0) make the largest contribution to the Reynolds stresses although they start to lose their roles significantly at x/d > 20. In the screen cylinder wake, the intermediate-scale structures (2f0 and 4f0) contribute the most to the Reynolds stresses at x/d =10 before being taken over by the large-scale structures (f0) further downstream.

Keywords: turbulent structure, screen cylinder, vortex, wavelet multi-resolution analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
296 Experimental Measurements of Mean and Turbulence Quantities behind the Circular Cylinder by Attaching Different Number of Tripping Wires

Authors: Amir Bak Khoshnevis, Mahdieh Khodadadi, Aghil Lotfi

Abstract:

For a bluff body, roughness elements in simulating a turbulent boundary layer, leading to delayed flow separation, a smaller wake, and lower form drag. In the present work, flow past a circular cylinder with using tripping wires is studied experimentally. The wind tunnel used for modeling free stream is open blow circuit (maximum speed = 30m/s and maximum turbulence of free stream = 0.1%). The selected Reynolds number for all tests was constant (Re = 25000). The circular cylinder selected for this experiment is 20 and 400mm in diameter and length, respectively. The aim of this research is to find the optimal operation mode. In this study installed some tripping wires 1mm in diameter, with a different number of wires on the circular cylinder and the wake characteristics of the circular cylinder is studied. Results showed that by increasing number of tripping wires attached to the circular cylinder (6, 8, and 10, respectively), The optimal angle for the tripping wires with 1mm in diameter to be installed on the cylinder is 60̊ (or 6 wires required at angle difference of 60̊). Strouhal number for the cylinder with tripping wires 1mm in diameter at angular position 60̊ showed the maximum value.

Keywords: wake of circular cylinder, trip wire, velocity defect, strouhal number

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295 Vibration Characteristics of Functionally Graded Thick Hollow Cylinders Using Galerkin Method

Authors: Pejman Daryabor, Kamal Mohammadi

Abstract:

In the present work, the study of vibration characteristics of a functionally graded thick hollow cylinder is investigated. The cylinder natural frequencies are obtained using Galerkin finite element method. The functionally graded cylinder is assumed to be made from many subcylinders. Each subcylinder is considered as an isotropic layer. Material’s properties in each layer are constant and functionally graded properties result by exponential function of layer radius in multilayer cylinder. To validate the FE results code, plane strain model of functionally graded cylinder are also modeled in ABAQUS. Analytical results are validated for both models. Also, a good agreement is found between the present results and those reported in the literature.

Keywords: natural frequency, functionally graded material, finite element method, thick cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
294 Numerical Analysis of Passive Controlled Turbulent Flow around a Circular Cylinder

Authors: Mustafa Soyler, Mustafa M. Yavuz, Bulent Yaniktepe, Coskun Ozalp

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In this study, unsteady two-dimensional turbulent flow around a circular cylinder and passive control of the flow with groove on the cylinder was examined. In the CFD analysis, solutions were made using turbulent flow conditions. Steady and unsteady solutions were used in turbulent flow analysis. Numerical analysis of the flow around the circular cylinder is difficult since flow is not in a stable regime when Reynold number is between 1000 and 10000. The analyses in this study were performed at a subcritical Re number of 5000 and the results were compared with available experimental results of the drag coefficient (Cd) and Strouhal (St) number values in the literature. The effect of different groove types and depths on the Cd coefficient has been analyzed and grooves increase the Cd coefficient compared to the smooth cylinder.

Keywords: CFD, drag coefficient, flow over cylinder, passive flow control

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
293 Analysis of Stall Angle Delay in Airfoil Coupled with Spinning Cylinder

Authors: N. Kiran, S. A. Vikas, Yatish Chandra, S. Srinivasan

Abstract:

Several Centuries ago, the aerodynamic studies on rotating cylinders and spheres have started. From the observation, the rotation of a cylinder has a remarkable effect on the aerodynamic characteristics is noticed. In case of airfoils as the angle of attack increases, the drag increases with reduction in lift i.e at the critical angle of attack. If at this point a strong impulse is imparted to the boundary layer by means of a spinning cylinder, the re-energisation of boundary layer is achieved and hence delaying the boundary layer separation and stalling characteristics. Analysis of aerodynamic effects spinning cylinder either at leading edge or at trailing edge of the airfoil is carried in the past, the positioning of cylinder close to trailing edge and its effects in delaying the stall are yet to be analyzed in depth. This paper aim is to understand the combined aerodynamic effects of coupling the spinning cylinder with the airfoil closer to the Trailing edge, by considering different spin ratio of the cylinder, its location and geometrical parameters in relation to the chord of the airfoil. From the analysis, it was observed that the spinning cylinder speed of rotation and location had a impact on stalling characteristics for a prescribed free stream condition. The results predicted through CFD analysis and experimental analysis showed a raise in aerodynamic efficiency and as the spin ratio increases, increase in stalling angle of attack is noticed when compared to the airfoil without spinning cylinder.

Keywords: aerodynamics, airfoil, spinning cylinder, stalling

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
292 Steady State Creep Behavior of Functionally Graded Thick Cylinder

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Harmanjit Singh

Abstract:

Creep behavior of thick-walled functionally graded cylinder consisting of AlSiC and subjected to internal pressure and high temperature has been analyzed. The functional relationship between strain rate with stress can be described by the well-known threshold stress based creep law with a stress exponent of five. The effect of imposing non-linear particle gradient on the distribution of creep stresses in the thick-walled functionally graded composite cylinder has been investigated. The study revealed that for the assumed non-linear particle distribution, the radial stress decreases throughout the cylinder, whereas the tangential, axial and effective stresses have averaging effect. The strain rates in the functionally graded composite cylinder could be reduced to significant extent by employing non-linear gradient in the distribution of reinforcement.

Keywords: functionally graded material, pressure, steady state creep, thick-cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
291 Experimental Study of Flow Characteristics for a Cylinder with Respect to Attached Flexible Strip Body of Various Reynolds Number

Authors: S. Teksin, S. Yayla

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate details of flow structure in downstream of a circular cylinder base mounted on a flat surface in a rectangular duct with the dimensions of 8000 x 1000 x 750 mm in deep water flow for the Reynolds number 2500, 5000 and 7500. A flexible strip was attached to behind the cylinder and compared the bare body. Also, it was analyzed that how boundary layer affects the structure of flow around the cylinder. Diameter of the cylinder was 60 mm and the length of the flexible splitter plate which had a certain modulus of elasticity was 150 mm (L/D=2.5). Time-averaged velocity vectors, vortex contours, streamwise and transverse velocity components were investigated via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity vectors and vortex contours were displayed through the sections in which boundary layer effect was not present. On the other hand, streamwise and transverse velocity components were monitored for both cases, i.e. with and without boundary layer effect. Experiment results showed that the vortex formation occured in a larger area for L/D=2.5 and the point where the vortex was maximum from the base of the cylinder was shifted. Streamwise and transverse velocity component contours were symmetrical with reference to the center of the cylinder for all cases. All Froud numbers based on the Reynolds numbers were quite smaller than 1. The flow characteristics of velocity component values of attached circular cylinder arrangement decreased approximately twenty five percent comparing to bare cylinder case.

Keywords: partical image velocimetry, elastic plate, cylinder, flow structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
290 Experimental Investigation of Flow Structure around a Rectangular Cylinder in Different Configurations

Authors: Cemre Polat, Dogan B. Saydam, Mustafa Soyler, Coskun Ozalp

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In this study, the flow structure was investigated by particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) method at Re = 26000 for two different rectangular cylinders placed perpendicular and parallel to the flow direction. After obtaining streamwise and spanwise velocity data, average vorticity, streamlines, velocity magnitude, turbulence kinetic energy, root mean square of streamwise and spanwise velocity fluctuations are calculated, and critical points of flow structure are explained. As a result of the study, it was seen that the vertical configuration has less effect on the flow structure in the back region of the body compared to the horizontal configuration. When the streamwise velocity component is examined in both configurations, it is seen that the negative velocity component is stronger on the long sides compared to the short sides. It has been observed that the vertically positioned cylinder expands the flow separation point compared to the horizontally positioned cylinder; also the vertical cylinder creates an increase in turbulence kinetic energy compared to the horizontal cylinder.

Keywords: bluff body, flow characteristics, PIV, rectangular cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
289 Flow Visualization around a Rotationally Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Cemre Polat, Mustafa Soyler, Bulent Yaniktepe, Coskun Ozalp

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In this study, it was aimed to control the flow actively by giving an oscillating rotational motion to a vertically placed cylinder, and flow characteristics were determined. In the study, firstly, the flow structure around the flat cylinder was investigated with dye experiments, and then the cylinders with different oscillation angles (θ = 60°, θ = 120°, and θ = 180°) and different rotation speeds (15 rpm and 30 rpm) the flow structure around it was examined. Thus, the effectiveness of oscillation and rotation speed in flow control has been investigated. In the dye experiments, the dye/water mixture obtained by mixing Rhodamine 6G in powder form with water, which shines under laser light and allows detailed observation of the flow structure, was used. During the experiments, the dye was injected into the flow with the help of a thin needle at a distance that would not affect the flow from the front of the cylinder. In dye experiments, 100 frames per second were taken with a Canon brand EOS M50 (24MP) digital mirrorless camera at a resolution of 1280 * 720 pixels. Then, the images taken were analyzed, and the pictures representing the flow structure for each experiment were obtained. As a result of the study, it was observed that no separation points were formed at 180° swing angle at 15 rpm speed, 120° and 180° swing angle at 30 rpm, and the flow was controlled according to the fixed cylinder.

Keywords: active flow control, cylinder, flow visualization rotationally oscillating

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288 Nonstationary Waves Excited by the Rigid Cylinder in Elastic Medium

Authors: Tukeaban Hasanova, Jamila Imamalieva

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By the operational method, the problem on two-dimensional wave propagation in elastic medium excited by the round cylinder is solved. An analytical solution responding to instantaneous application of speed to the inclusion at its subsequent change is constructed. The two-dimensional problem on wave propagation in an elastic medium is considered.

Keywords: cylinder, inclusion, wave, elastic medium, speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
287 Numerical Simulation of External Flow Around D-Shaped Cylinders

Authors: Ouldouz Nourani Zonouz, Mehdi Salmanpour

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Investigation and analysis of flow behavior around different shapes bluff bodies is one of the reputed topics for several years. The importance of these researches is about the unwanted phenomena called flow separation. The location of separation and the size of the wake region should be considered in different industrial designs. In this research a bluff body with D-shaped cross section has been analyzed. In circular cylinder flow separation point changes with Reynolds number but in D-Shaped cylinder there is fix flow separation point. So there is more wake steadiness in D-Shaped cylinder as compared to Circular cylinder and drag reduction because of wake steadiness. In the present work CFD simulation is carried out for flow past a D-Shaped cylinder to see the wake behavior. The Reynolds number regime currently studied corresponds to low Reynolds number and nominally two-dimensional wake. Also the effect of D-Shaped cylinders on the rate of heat transfer has been considered. Various results such as velocity, pressure and temperature contours and also some dimensionless numbers like drag coefficient, pressure coefficient and Nusselt number calculated for different cases.

Keywords: D-shaped, CFD, external flow, low Reynolds number, square cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
286 Numerical Simulation of Flow Past Inline Tandem Cylinders in Uniform Shear Flow

Authors: Rajesh Bhatt, Dilip Kumar Maiti

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The incompressible shear flow past a square cylinder placed parallel to a plane wall of side length A in presence of upstream rectangular cylinder of height 0.5A and width 0.25A in an inline tandem arrangement are numerically investigated using finite volume method. The discretized equations are solved by an implicit, time-marching, pressure correction based SIMPLE algorithm. This study provides the qualitative insight in to the dependency of basic structure (i.e. vortex shedding or suppression) of flow over the downstream square cylinder and the upstream rectangular cylinder (and hence the aerodynamic characteristics) on inter-cylinder spacing (S) and Reynolds number (Re). The spacing between the cylinders is varied systematically from S = 0.5A to S = 7.0A so the sensitivity of the flow structure between the cylinders can be inspected. A sudden jump in strouhal number is observed, which shows the transition of flow pattern in the wake of the cylinders. The results are presented at Re = 100 and 200 in term of Strouhal number, RMS and mean of lift and drag coefficients and contour plots for different spacing.

Keywords: square cylinder, vortex shedding, isolated, tandem arrangement, spacing distance

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285 Unsteady Temperature Distribution in a Finite Functionally Graded Cylinder

Authors: A. Amiri Delouei

Abstract:

In the current study, two-dimensional unsteady heat conduction in a functionally graded cylinder is studied analytically. The temperature distribution is in radial and longitudinal directions. Heat conduction coefficients are considered a power function of radius both in radial and longitudinal directions. The proposed solution can exactly satisfy the boundary conditions. Analytical unsteady temperature distribution for different parameters of functionally graded cylinder is investigated. The achieved exact solution is useful for thermal stress analysis of functionally graded cylinders. Regarding the analytical approach, this solution can be used to understand the concepts of heat conduction in functionally graded materials.

Keywords: functionally graded materials, unsteady heat conduction, cylinder, temperature distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
284 Characteristics of the Wake behind a Heated Cylinder in Relatively High Reynolds Number

Authors: Morteza Khashehchi, Kamel Hooman

Abstract:

Thermal effects on the dynamics and stability of the flow past a circular cylinder operating in the mixed convection regime is studied experimentally for Reynolds number (ReD) between 1000 and 4000, and different cylinder wall temperatures (Tw) between 25 and 75°C by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experiments were conducted in a horizontal wind tunnel with the heated cylinder placed horizontally. With such assumptions, the direction of the thermally induced buoyancy force acting on the fluid surrounding the heated cylinder would be perpendicular to the flow direction. In each experiment, to acquire 3000 PIV image pairs, the temperature and Reynolds number of the approach flow were held constant. By adjusting different temperatures in different Reynolds numbers, the corresponding Richardson number (RiD = Gr/Re^2) was varied between 0:0 (unheated) and 10, resulting in a change in the heat transfer process from forced convection to mixed convection. With increasing temperature of the wall cylinder, significant modifications of the wake flow pattern and wake vortex shedding process were clearly revealed. For cylinder at low wall temperature, the size of the wake and the vortex shedding process are found to be quite similar to those of an unheated cylinder. With high wall temperature, however, the high temperature gradient in the wake shear layer creates a type of vorticity with opposite sign to that of the shear layer vorticity. This temperature gradient vorticity weakens the strength of the shear layer vorticity, causing delay in reaching the recreation point. In addition to the wake characteristics, the shedding frequency for the heated cylinder is determined for all aforementioned cases. It is found that, as the cylinder wall is heated, the organization of the vortex shedding is altered and the relative position of the first detached vortices with respect to the second one is changed. This movement of the first detached vortex toward the second one increases the frequency of the shedding process. It is also found that the wake closure length decreases with increasing the Richardson number.

Keywords: heated cylinder, PIV, wake, Reynolds number

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283 Analysis of the Secondary Stationary Flow Around an Oscillating Circular Cylinder

Authors: Artem Nuriev, Olga Zaitseva

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This paper is devoted to the study of a viscous incompressible flow around a circular cylinder performing harmonic oscillations, especially the steady streaming phenomenon. The research methodology is based on the asymptotic explanation method combined with the computational bifurcation analysis. Present studies allow to identify several regimes of the secondary streaming with different flow structures. The results of the research are in good agreement with experimental and numerical simulation data.

Keywords: oscillating cylinder, secondary streaming, flow regimes, asymptotic and bifurcation analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
282 On the Effects of External Cross-Flow Excitation Forces on the Vortex-Induced-Vibrations of an Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman

Abstract:

Vortex induced vibrations can significantly affect the effectiveness of structures in aerospace as well as offshore marine industries. The oscillatory nature of the forces resulting from the vortex shedding around bluff bodies can result in undesirable effects such as increased loading, stresses, deflections, vibrations and noise in the structures, and also reduced fatigue life of the structures. To date, most studies concentrate on either the free oscillations or the prescribed motion of the bluff bodies. However, the structures in operation are usually subject to the external oscillatory forces (e.g. due to the platform motions in offshore industries). In this work, we present the effects of the external cross-flow forces on the vortex-induced vibrations of an oscillating cylinder. The effects of the amplitude, as well as the frequency of the external force on the fluid-forces on the oscillating cylinder are carefully studied and presented. Moreover, we present the transition of the response to be dominated by the vortex-induced-vibrations to the range where it is mostly dictated by the external oscillatory forces. Furthermore, we will discuss how the external forces can affect the flow structures around a cylinder. All results are compared against free oscillations of the cylinder.

Keywords: circular cylinder, external force, vortex-shedding, VIV

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
281 Heat Transfer from a Cylinder in Cross-Flow of Single and Multiphase Flows

Authors: F. A. Hamad, S. He

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In this paper, the average heat transfer characteristics for a cross flow cylinder of 16 mm diameter in a vertical pipe has been studied for single-phase flow (water/oil) and multicomponent (non-boiling) flow (water-air, water-oil, oil-air and water-oil-air). The cylinder is uniformly heated by electrical heater placed at the centre of the element. The results show that the values of average heat transfer coefficients for water are around four times the values for oil flow. Introducing air as a second phase with water has very little effect on heat transfer rate, while the heat transfer increased by 70% in case of oil. For water–oil flow, the heat transfer coefficient values are reflecting the percentage of water up to 50%, but increasing the water more than 50% leads to a sharp increase in the heat transfer coefficients to become close to the values of pure water. The enhancement of heat transfer by mixing two phases may be attributed to the changes in flow structure near to cylinder surface which lead to thinner boundary layer and higher turbulence. For three-phase flow, the heat transfer coefficients for all cases fall within the limit of single-phase flow of water and oil and are very close to pure water values. The net effect of the turbulence augmentation due to the introduction of air and the attenuation due to the introduction of oil leads to a thinner boundary layer of oil over the cylinder surface covered by a mixture of water and air bubbles.

Keywords: circular cylinder, cross flow, hear transfer, multicomponent multiphase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
280 Beyond the “Breakdown” of Karman Vortex Street

Authors: Ajith Kumar S., Sankaran Namboothiri, Sankrish J., SarathKumar S., S. Anil Lal

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A numerical analysis of flow over a heated circular cylinder is done in this paper. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes, and energy equation within the Boussinesq approximation along with continuity equation are solved using hybrid FEM-FVM technique. The density gradient created due to the heating of the cylinder will induce buoyancy force, opposite to the direction of action of acceleration due to gravity, g. In the present work, the flow direction and the direction of buoyancy force are taken as same (vertical flow configuration), so that the buoyancy force accelerates the mean flow past the cylinder. The relative dominance of the buoyancy force over the inertia force is characterized by the Richardson number (Ri), which is one of the parameter that governs the flow dynamics and heat transfer in this analysis. It is well known that above a certain value of Reynolds number, Re (ratio of inertia force over the viscous forces), the unsteady Von Karman vortices can be seen shedding behind the cylinder. The shedding wake patterns could be seriously altered by heating/cooling the cylinder. The non-dimensional shedding frequency called the Strouhal number is found to be increasing as Ri increases. The aerodynamic force coefficients CL and CD are observed to change its value. In the present vertical configuration of flow over the cylinder, as Ri increases, shedding frequency gets increased and suddenly drops down to zero at a critical value of Richardson number. The unsteady vortices turn to steady standing recirculation bubbles behind the cylinder after this critical Richardson number. This phenomenon is well known in literature as "Breakdown of the Karman Vortex Street". It is interesting to see the flow structures on further increase in the Richardson number. On further heating of the cylinder surface, the size of the recirculation bubble decreases without loosing its symmetry about the horizontal axis passing through the center of the cylinder. The separation angle is found to be decreasing with Ri. Finally, we observed a second critical Richardson number, after which the the flow will be attached to the cylinder surface without any wake behind it. The flow structures will be symmetrical not only about the horizontal axis, but also with the vertical axis passing through the center of the cylinder. At this stage, there will be a "single plume" emanating from the rear stagnation point of the cylinder. We also observed the transition of the plume is a strong function of the Richardson number.

Keywords: drag reduction, flow over circular cylinder, flow control, mixed convection flow, vortex shedding, vortex breakdown

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279 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Flow around Square Cylinders with EHD Phenomenon

Authors: M. Salmanpour, O. Nourani Zonouz

Abstract:

In this research, a numerical simulation of an Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) actuator’s effects on the flow around a square cylinder by using a finite volume method has been investigated. This is one of the newest ways for controlling the fluid flows. Two plate electrodes are flush-mounted on the surface of the cylinder and one wire electrode is placed on the line with zero angle of attack relative to the stagnation point and excited with DC power supply. The discharge produces an electric force and changes the local momentum behaviors in the fluid layers. For this purpose, after selecting proper domain and boundary conditions, the electric field relating to the problem has been analyzed and then the results in the form of electrical body force have been entered in the governing equations of fluid field (Navier-Stokes equations). The effect of ionic wind resulted from the Electrohydrodynamic actuator, on the velocity, pressure and the wake behind cylinder has been considered. According to the results, it is observed that the fluid flow accelerates in the nearest wall of the frontal half of the cylinder and the pressure difference between frontal and hinder cylinder is increased.

Keywords: CFD, corona discharge, electro hydrodynamics, flow around square cylinders, simulation

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278 Mixed Convection Enhancement in a 3D Lid-Driven Cavity Containing a Rotating Cylinder by Applying an Artificial Roughness

Authors: Ali Khaleel Kareem, Shian Gao, Ahmed Qasim Ahmed

Abstract:

A numerical investigation of unsteady mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D moving top wall enclosure, which has a central rotating cylinder and uses either artificial roughness on the bottom hot plate or smooth bottom hot plate to study the heat transfer enhancement, is completed for fixed circular cylinder, and anticlockwise and clockwise rotational speeds, -1 ≤ Ω ≤ 1, at Reynolds number of 5000. The top lid-driven wall was cooled, while the other remaining walls that completed obstructed cubic were kept insulated and motionless. A standard k-ε model of Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) method is involved to deal with turbulent flow. It has been clearly noted that artificial roughness can strongly control the thermal fields and fluid flow patterns. Ultimately, the heat transfer rate has been dramatically increased by involving artificial roughness on the heated bottom wall in the presence of rotating cylinder.

Keywords: artificial roughness, lid-driven cavity, mixed convection heat transfer, rotating cylinder, URANS method

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277 Estimation of Residual Stresses in Thick Walled Cylinder by Radial Basis Artificial Neural

Authors: Mohammad Heidari

Abstract:

In this paper a method for high strength steel is proposed of residual stresses in autofrettaged tubes by combination of artificial neural networks is presented. Many different thick walled cylinders that were subjected to different conditions were studied. At first, the residual stress is calculated by analytical solution. Then by changing of the parameters that influenced in residual stresses such as percentage of autofrettage, internal pressure, wall ratio of cylinder, material property of cylinder, bauschinger and hardening effect factor, a neural network is created. These parameters are the input of network. The output of network is residual stress. Numerical data, employed for training the network and capabilities of the model in predicting the residual stress has been verified. The output obtained from neural network model is compared with numerical results, and the amount of relative error has been calculated. Based on this verification error, it is shown that the radial basis function of neural network has the average error of 2.75% in predicting residual stress of thick wall cylinder. Further analysis of residual stress of thick wall cylinder under different input conditions has been investigated and comparison results of modeling with numerical considerations shows a good agreement, which also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the adopted approach.

Keywords: thick walled cylinder, residual stress, radial basis, artificial neural network

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276 Vortex-Induced Vibrations of Two Cylinders in Close Proximity

Authors: Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Abouzar Kaboudian, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman

Abstract:

The phenomenon of vortex-induced vibration has applications in off-shore industry, power transmission, energy extraction, etc. Two cylinders in crossflow whose centers are displaced in transverse direction are considered in the present work. The effects of the gap distance between the cylinders on the vortex shedding are presented. The inline distance between the cylinder centers is kept at zero. Two setups are considered for the study: first, we assume the two cylinders vibrate as a single rigid body mounted on a spring, and in the other case, each cylinder is mounted on a separate spring with no rigid connection to the other cylinder. The study focuses on the effect of transverse gap on the fluid-structure coupled response of two setups mentioned and corresponding flow contours. Incompressible flow is assumed in the Eulerian framework. The cylinder movement is modeled by a single degree of freedom rigid body motion (translational motion) in the Lagrangian framework. The governing equations were numerically solved by standard Petrov-Galerkin second order finite element schemes.

Keywords: cross-flow, vortex-induced vibrations, cylinder, close proximity

Procedia PDF Downloads 414