Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1642

Search results for: sloshing phenomenon

1642 Study the Sloshing Phenomenon in the Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V, Pradeep AG, Shivakumar Bhavi


Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels 25%, 50%, and 75% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for three different liquid levels has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles. Maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

Keywords: sloshing, CFD, VOF, baffles

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1641 Study the Sloshing Phenomenon in the Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Authors: Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V., Pradeep A. G., Shivakumar Bhavi


Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V, Pradeep AG, Shivakumar Bhavi Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid is involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels of 50% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for two different baffle configurations has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles; maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

Keywords: CFD, sloshing, VOF, multiphase

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1640 Sloshing Response of Liquid in Prismatic Container under Oscillation

Authors: P. R. Maiti, S. K. Bhattacharyya


Sloshing is a physical phenomenon characterized by the oscillation of unrestrained free surface of liquid in a partially liquid filled container subjected to external excitation. Determination of sloshing frequency in container is important to avoid resonance condition of the system. The complex behavior of the free surface movement and its combined mode of vibration make difficulty for exact analysis of sloshing. In the present study, numerical analysis is carried out for a partially liquid filled tank under external forces. Boundary element approach is used to formulate the sloshing problem in two -dimensional prismatic container with potential flow. Effort has been made to find slosh response for two dimensional problems in partially liquid filled prismatic container.

Keywords: sloshing, boundary element method, prismatic container, oscillation

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1639 Numerical Simulation of Sloshing Control Using Input Shaping

Authors: Dongjoo Kim


Effective control of sloshing in a liquid container is an important issue to be resolved in many applications. In this study, numerical simulations are performed to design the velocity profile of rectangular container and investigate the effectiveness of input shaping for sloshing control. Trapezoidal profiles of container velocity are chosen to be reference commands and they are convolved with a series of impulses to generate shaped ones that induce minimal residual oscillations. The performances of several input shapers are compared from the viewpoint of transient peak and residual oscillations of sloshing. Results show that sloshing can be effectively controlled by input shaping (Supported by the NRF programs, NRF-2015R1D1A1A01059675, of Korean government).

Keywords: input shaping, rectangular container, sloshing, trapezoidal profile

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1638 The Pressure Distribution on the Rectangular and Trapezoidal Storage Tanks' Perimeters Due to Liquid Sloshing Impact

Authors: Hassan Saghi, Gholam Reza Askarzadeh Garmroud, Seyyed Ali Reza Emamian


Sloshing phenomenon is a complicated free surface flow problem that increases the dynamic pressure on the sidewalls and the bottom of the storage tanks. When the storage tanks are partially filled, it is essential to be able to evaluate the fluid dynamic loads on the tank’s perimeter. In this paper, a numerical code was developed to determine the pressure distribution on the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact. Assuming the fluid to be inviscid, the Laplace equation and the nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are solved using coupled BEM-FEM. The code performance for sloshing modeling is validated against available data. Finally, this code is used for partially filled rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks and the pressure distribution on the tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact is estimated. The results show that the maximum pressure on the perimeter of the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks was decreased along the sidewalls from the top to the bottom. Furthermore, the period of the pressure distribution is different for different points on the tank’s perimeter and it is bigger in the trapezoidal tanks compared to the rectangular ones.

Keywords: pressure distribution, liquid sloshing impact, sway motion, trapezoidal storage tank, coupled BEM-FEM

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1637 An Optimization Algorithm for Reducing the Liquid Oscillation in the Moving Containers

Authors: Reza Babajanivalashedi, Stefania Lo Feudo, Jean-Luc Dion


Liquid sloshing is a crucial problem for the dynamic of moving containers in the packaging industries. Sloshing issues have been so far mainly modeled within the framework of fluid dynamics or by using equivalent mechanical models with different kinds of movements and shapes of containers. Nevertheless, these approaches do not allow to determinate the shape of the free surface of the liquid in case of the irregular shape of the moving containers, so that experimental measurements may be required. If there is too much slosh in the moving tank, the liquid can be splashed out on the packages. So, the free surface oscillation must be controlled/reduced to eliminate the splashing. The purpose of this research is to propose an optimization algorithm for finding an optimum command law to reduce surface elevation. In the first step, the free surface of the liquid is simulated based on the separation variable and weak formulation models. Then Genetic and Gradient algorithms are developed for finding the optimum command law. The optimum command law is compared with existing command laws, and the results show that there is a significant difference in surface oscillation between optimum and existing command laws. This algorithm is applicable for different varieties of bottles in case of using the camera for detecting the liquid elevation, and it can produce new command laws for different kinds of tanks to reduce the surface oscillation and remove the splashing phenomenon.

Keywords: sloshing phenomenon, separation variables, weak formulation, optimization algorithm, command law

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1636 Evaluation of Sloshing in Process Equipment for Floating Cryogenic Application

Authors: Bo Jin


A variety of process equipment having flow in and out is widely used in industrial land-based cryogenic facilities. In some of this equipment, such as vapor-liquid separator, a liquid level is established during the steady operation. As the implementation of such industrial processes extends to off-shore floating facilities, it is important to investigate the effect of sea motion on the process equipment partially filled with liquid. One important aspect to consider is the occurrence of sloshing therein. The flow characteristics are different from the classical study of sloshing, where the fluid is enclosed inside a vessel (e.g., storage tank) with no flow in or out. Liquid inside process equipment continuously flows in and out of the system. To understand this key difference, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate the liquid motion inside a partially filled cylinder with and without continuous flow in and out. For a partially filled vertical cylinder without any continuous flow in and out, the CFD model is found to be able to capture the well-known sloshing behavior documented in the literature. For the cylinder with a continuous steady flow in and out, the CFD simulation results demonstrate that the continuous flow suppresses sloshing. Given typical cryogenic fluid has very low viscosity, an analysis based on potential flow theory is developed to explain why flow into and out of the cylinder changes the natural frequency of the system and thereby suppresses sloshing. This analysis further validates the CFD results.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, cryogenic process equipment, off-shore floating processes, sloshing

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1635 Sloshing-Induced Overflow Assessment of the Seismically-Isolated Nuclear Tanks

Authors: Kihyon Kwon, Hyun T. Park, Gil Y. Chung, Sang-Hoon Lee


This paper focuses on assessing sloshing-induced overflow of the seismically-isolated nuclear tanks based on Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis. Typically, fluid motion in the seismically-isolated nuclear tank systems may be rather amplified and even overflowed under earthquake. Sloshing-induced overflow in those structures has to be reliably assessed and predicted since it can often cause critical damages to humans and environments. FSI analysis is herein performed to compute the total cumulative overflowed water volume more accurately, by coupling ANSYS with CFX for structural and fluid analyses, respectively. The approach is illustrated on a nuclear liquid storage tank, Spent Fuel Pool (SFP), forgiven conditions under consideration: different liquid levels, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGAs), and post earthquakes.

Keywords: FSI analysis, seismically-isolated nuclear tank system, sloshing-induced overflow

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1634 Investigating the Sloshing Characteristics of a Liquid by Using an Image Processing Method

Authors: Ufuk Tosun, Reza Aghazadeh, Mehmet Bülent Özer


This study puts forward a method to analyze the sloshing characteristics of liquid in a tuned sloshing absorber system by using image processing tools. Tuned sloshing vibration absorbers have recently attracted researchers’ attention as a seismic load damper in constructions due to its practical and logistical convenience. The absorber is liquid which sloshes and applies a force in opposite phase to the motion of structure. Experimentally characterization of the sloshing behavior can be utilized as means of verifying the results of numerical analysis. It can also be used to identify the accuracy of assumptions related to the motion of the liquid. There are extensive theoretical and experimental studies in the literature related to the dynamical and structural behavior of tuned sloshing dampers. In most of these works there are efforts to estimate the sloshing behavior of the liquid such as free surface motion and total force applied by liquid to the wall of container. For these purposes the use of sensors such as load cells and ultrasonic sensors are prevalent in experimental works. Load cells are only capable of measuring the force and requires conducting tests both with and without liquid to obtain pure sloshing force. Ultrasonic level sensors give point-wise measurements and hence they are not applicable to measure the whole free surface motion. Furthermore, in the case of liquid splashing it may give incorrect data. In this work a method for evaluating the sloshing wave height by using camera records and image processing techniques is presented. In this method the motion of the liquid and its container, made of a transparent material, is recorded by a high speed camera which is aligned to the free surface of the liquid. The video captured by the camera is processed frame by frame by using MATLAB Image Processing toolbox. The process starts with cropping the desired region. By recognizing the regions containing liquid and eliminating noise and liquid splashing, the final picture depicting the free surface of liquid is achieved. This picture then is used to obtain the height of the liquid through the length of container. This process is verified by ultrasonic sensors that measured fluid height on the surface of liquid.

Keywords: fluid structure interaction, image processing, sloshing, tuned liquid damper

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1633 Coupled Analysis with Fluid and Flexible Multibody Dynamics of 6-DOF Platform with Liquid Sloshing Tank

Authors: Sung-Pill Kim, Dae-Gyu Sung, Hee-Sung Shin, Jong-Chun Park


When a sloshing tank filled partially with liquid is excited with the motion of platform, it can be observed that the center of mass inside the tank is changed and impact loads is instantaneously applied to the wall, which causes dynamic loads additionally to the supporting links of platform. In this case, therefore, the dynamic behavior of platform associated with fluid motion should be considered in the early stage of design for safety and economics of the system. In this paper, the dynamic loads due to liquid sloshing motion in a rectangular tank which is loaded up on the upper deck of a Stewart platform are simulated using a coupled analysis of Moving Particle Simulation (MPS) and Flexible Multi-Body Dynamics (FMBD). The co-simulation is performed using two commercial softwares, Recurdyn for solving FMBD and Particleworks for analyzing fluid motion based on MPS method. For validating the present coupled system, a rectangular sloshing tank being enforced with inline sway motion by 1-DOF motion platform is assumed, and time-varied free-surface elevation and reaction force at a fixed joint are compared with experiments.

Keywords: dynamic loads, liquid sloshing tank, Stewart platform, moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, flexible multi-body dynamics (FMBD)

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1632 Nonlinear Interaction of Free Surface Sloshing of Gaussian Hump with Its Container

Authors: Mohammad R. Jalali


Movement of liquid with a free surface in a container is known as slosh. For instance, slosh occurs when water in a closed tank is set in motion by a free surface displacement, or when liquid natural gas in a container is vibrated by an external driving force, such as an earthquake or movement induced by transport. Slosh is also derived from resonant switching of a natural basin. During sloshing, different types of motion are produced by energy exchange between the liquid and its container. In present study, a numerical model is developed to simulate the nonlinear even harmonic oscillations of free surface sloshing of an initial disturbance to the free surface of a liquid in a closed square basin. The response of the liquid free surface is affected by amplitude and motion frequencies of its container; therefore, sloshing involves complex fluid-structure interactions. In the present study, nonlinear interaction of free surface sloshing of an initial Gaussian hump with its uneven container is predicted numerically. For this purpose, Green-Naghdi (GN) equations are applied as governing equation of fluid field to produce nonlinear second-order and higher-order wave interactions. These equations reduce the dimensions from three to two, yielding equations that can be solved efficiently. The GN approach assumes a particular flow kinematic structure in the vertical direction for shallow and deep-water problems. The fluid velocity profile is finite sum of coefficients depending on space and time multiplied by a weighting function. It should be noted that in GN theory, the flow is rotational. In this study, GN numerical simulations of initial Gaussian hump are compared with Fourier series semi-analytical solutions of the linearized shallow water equations. The comparison reveals that satisfactory agreement exists between the numerical simulation and the analytical solution of the overall free surface sloshing patterns. The resonant free surface motions driven by an initial Gaussian disturbance are obtained by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the free surface elevation time history components. Numerically predicted velocity vectors and magnitude contours for the free surface patterns indicate that interaction of Gaussian hump with its container has localized effect. The result of this sloshing is applicable to the design of stable liquefied oil containers in tankers and offshore platforms.

Keywords: fluid-structure interactions, free surface sloshing, Gaussian hump, Green-Naghdi equations, numerical predictions

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1631 Nonlinear Modelling of Sloshing Waves and Solitary Waves in Shallow Basins

Authors: Mohammad R. Jalali, Mohammad M. Jalali


The earliest theories of sloshing waves and solitary waves based on potential theory idealisations and irrotational flow have been extended to be applicable to more realistic domains. To this end, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are widely used. Three-dimensional CFD methods such as Navier-Stokes solvers with volume of fluid treatment of the free surface and Navier-Stokes solvers with mappings of the free surface inherently impose high computational expense; therefore, considerable effort has gone into developing depth-averaged approaches. Examples of such approaches include Green–Naghdi (GN) equations. In Cartesian system, GN velocity profile depends on horizontal directions, x-direction and y-direction. The effect of vertical direction (z-direction) is also taken into consideration by applying weighting function in approximation. GN theory considers the effect of vertical acceleration and the consequent non-hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, in GN theory, the flow is rotational. The present study illustrates the application of GN equations to propagation of sloshing waves and solitary waves. For this purpose, GN equations solver is verified for the benchmark tests of Gaussian hump sloshing and solitary wave propagation in shallow basins. Analysis of the free surface sloshing of even harmonic components of an initial Gaussian hump demonstrates that the GN model gives predictions in satisfactory agreement with the linear analytical solutions. Discrepancies between the GN predictions and the linear analytical solutions arise from the effect of wave nonlinearities arising from the wave amplitude itself and wave-wave interactions. Numerically predicted solitary wave propagation indicates that the GN model produces simulations in good agreement with the analytical solution of the linearised wave theory. Comparison between the GN model numerical prediction and the result from perturbation analysis confirms that nonlinear interaction between solitary wave and a solid wall is satisfactorilly modelled. Moreover, solitary wave propagation at an angle to the x-axis and the interaction of solitary waves with each other are conducted to validate the developed model.

Keywords: Green–Naghdi equations, nonlinearity, numerical prediction, sloshing waves, solitary waves

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1630 Behavior of an Elevated Liquid Storage Tank under Near-Fault Earthquakes

Authors: Koushik Roy, Sourav Gur, Sudib K. Mishra


Evidence of pulse type features in near-fault ground motions has raised serious concern to the structural engineering community, in view of their possible implications on the behavior of structures located on the fault regions. Studies in the recent past explore the effects of pulse type ground motion on the special structures, such as transmission towers in view of their high flexibility. Identically, long period sloshing of liquid in the storage tanks under dynamic loading might increase their failure vulnerability under near-fault pulses. Therefore, the behavior of the elevated liquid storage tank is taken up in this study. Simple lumped mass model is considered, with the bilinear force-deformation hysteresis behavior. Set of near-fault seismic ground acceleration time histories are adopted for this purpose, along with the far-field records for comparison. It has been demonstrated that pulse type motions lead to significant increase of the responses; in particular, sloshing of the fluid mass could be as high as 5 times, then the far field counterpart. For identical storage capacity, slender tanks are found to be more vulnerable than the broad ones.

Keywords: far-field motion, hysteresis, liquid storage tank, near fault earthquake, sloshing

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1629 Response Regimes and Vibration Mitigation in Equivalent Mechanical Model of Strongly Nonlinear Liquid Sloshing

Authors: Maor Farid, Oleg Gendelman


Equivalent mechanical model of liquid sloshing in partially-filled cylindrical vessel is treated in the cases of free oscillations and of horizontal base excitation. The model is designed to cover both the linear and essentially nonlinear sloshing regimes. The latter fluid behaviour might involve hydraulic impacts interacting with the inner walls of the tank. These impulsive interactions are often modeled by high-power potential and dissipation functions. For the sake of analytical description, we use the traditional approach by modeling the impacts with velocity-dependent restitution coefficient. This modelling is similar to vibro-impact nonlinear energy sink (VI NES) which was recently explored for its vibration mitigation performances and nonlinear response regimes. Steady-state periodic regimes and chaotic strongly modulated responses (CSMR) are detected. Those dynamical regimes were described by the system's slow motion on the slow invariant manifold (SIM). There is a good agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulations. Subsequently, Finite-Element (FE) method is used to determine and verify the model parameters and to identify dominant dynamical regimes, natural modes and frequencies. The tank failure modes are identified and critical locations are identified. Mathematical relation is found between degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) motion and the mechanical stress applied in the tank critical section. This is the prior attempt to take under consideration large-amplitude nonlinear sloshing and tank structure elasticity effects for design, regulation definition and resistance analysis purposes. Both linear (tuned mass damper, TMD) and nonlinear (nonlinear energy sink, NES) passive energy absorbers contribution to the overall system mitigation is firstly examined, in terms of both stress reduction and time for vibration decay.

Keywords: nonlinear energy sink (NES), reduced-order modelling, liquid sloshing, vibration mitigation, vibro-impact dynamics

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1628 Vibration Mitigation in Partially Liquid-Filled Vessel Using Passive Energy Absorbers

Authors: Maor Farid, Oleg Gendelman


The following study deals with fluid vibration of a liquid in a partially filled vessel under periodic ground excitation. This external excitation might lead to hidraulic impact applied on the vessel inner walls. In order to model these sloshing dynamic regimes, several equivalent mechanical models were suggested in the literature, such as series of pendula or mass-spring systems that are able to impact the inner tank walls. In the following study, we use the latter methodology, use parameter values documented in literature corresponding to cylindrical tanks and consider structural elasticity of the tank. The hydraulic impulses are modeled by the high-exponent potential function. Additional system parameters are found with the help of Finite-Element (FE) analysis. Model-driven stress assessment method is developed. Finally, vibration mitigation performances of both tuned mass damper (TMD) and nonlinear energy sink (NES) are examined.

Keywords: nonlinear energy sink (NES), reduced-order modelling, liquid sloshing, vibration mitigation, vibro-impact dynamics

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1627 Improvement of Performance of Anti-Splash Device for Cargo Oil Tank Vent Pipe Using CFD Simulation

Authors: Sung-Min Kim, Joon-Hong Park, Hyuk Choi


This study is focused on the comparative analysis and improvement to grasp the flow characteristic of the anti-splash device located under the P/V valve and new concept design models using the CFD. The P/V valve located upper deck to solve the pressure rising and vacuum condition of inner tank of the liquid cargo ships occurred oil outflow accident by transverse and longitudinal sloshing force. Anti-splash device is fitted to improve and prevent this problem in the shipbuilding industry, but the oil outflow accidents are still reported by ship owners. Thus, 4 types of new design model are presented by this study, and then comparative analysis is conducted with new models and existing model. Mostly the key criterion of this problem is flux in the outlet of the anti-splash device. Therefore, the flow and velocity are grasped by transient analysis, and then it decided optimum model and design parameters to develop model. Later, it is needed to develop an anti-splash device by flow test to get certification and verification using experiment equipments.

Keywords: anti-splash device, P/V valve, sloshing, CFD

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1626 A Study on Improvement of Performance of Anti-Splash Device for Cargo Oil Tank Vent Pipe Using CFD Simulation and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Min-Woo Kim, Ok-Kyun Na, Jun-Ho Byun, Jong-Hwan Park, Seung-Hwa Yang, Joon-Hong Park, Young-Chul Park


This study is focused on the comparative analysis and improvement to grasp the flow characteristic of the Anti-Splash Device located under the P/V Valve and new concept design models using the CFD analysis and Artificial Neural Network. The P/V valve located upper deck to solve the pressure rising and vacuum condition of inner tank of the liquid cargo ships occurred oil outflow accident by transverse and longitudinal sloshing force. Anti-Splash Device is fitted to improve and prevent this problem in the shipbuilding industry. But the oil outflow accidents are still reported by ship owners. Thus, four types of new design model are presented by study. Then, comparative analysis is conducted with new models and existing model. Mostly the key criterion of this problem is flux in the outlet of the Anti-Splash Device. Therefore, the flow and velocity are grasped by transient analysis. And then it decided optimum model and design parameters to develop model. Later, it needs to develop an Anti-Splash Device by Flow Test to get certification and verification using experiment equipment.

Keywords: anti-splash device, P/V valve, sloshing, artificial neural network

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1625 Terrorism: Definition, History and Different Approaches in the Analysis of Terrorism Phenomenon

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen, Farzad Ravanbod


Nowadays, the political phenomenon of terrorism is considered as an effective factor on political, social, and economic changes. It has replaced the recognized political phenomena such as revolutions, wars (total war among two or more political units with distinct identities in the form of national states), coups d’état, insurgencies and etc. and has challenged political life in all its levels (sub national, national, and international political groups). In this paper by using descriptive-analytical method, the authors try to explain the spread of this political phenomenon across the world, its definition and types, also analyze different approaches to understand it. The authors believe that the Logical-Rational approach is the best way to explain and understand this phenomenon.

Keywords: logical approach, psychological- social approach, religious approach, terrorism

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1624 A Theoretical Overview of Thermoluminescence

Authors: Sadhana Agrawal, Tarkeshwari Verma, Shmbhavi Katyayan


The magnificently accentuating phenomenon of luminescence has gathered a lot of attentions from last few decades. Probably defined as the one involving emission of light from certain kinds of substances on absorbing various energies in the form of external stimulus, the phenomenon claims a versatile pertinence. First observed and reported in an extract of Ligrium Nephriticum by Monards, the phenomenon involves turning of crystal clear water into colorful fluid when comes in contact with the special wood. In words of Sir G.G. Stokes, the phenomenon actually involves three different techniques – absorption, excitation and emission. With variance in external stimulus, the corresponding luminescence phenomenon is obtained. Here, this paper gives a concise discussion of thermoluminescence which is one of the types of luminescence obtained when the external stimulus is given in form of heat energy. A deep insight of thermoluminescence put forward a qualitative analysis of various parameters such as glow curves peaks, trap depth, frequency factors and order of kinetics.

Keywords: frequency factor, glow curve peaks, thermoluminescence, trap depth

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1623 Transferring of Digital DIY Potentialities through a Co-Design Tool

Authors: Marita Canina, Carmen Bruno


Digital Do It Yourself (DIY) is a contemporary socio-technological phenomenon, enabled by technological tools. The nature and potential long-term effects of this phenomenon have been widely studied within the framework of the EU funded project ‘Digital Do It Yourself’, in which the authors have created and experimented a specific Digital Do It Yourself (DiDIY) co-design process. The phenomenon was first studied through a literature research to understand its multiple dimensions and complexity. Therefore, co-design workshops were used to investigate the phenomenon by involving people to achieve a complete understanding of the DiDIY practices and its enabling factors. These analyses allowed the definition of the DiDIY fundamental factors that were then translated into a design tool. The objective of the tool is to shape design concepts by transferring these factors into different environments to achieve innovation. The aim of this paper is to present the ‘DiDIY Factor Stimuli’ tool, describing the research path and the findings behind it.

Keywords: co-design process, digital DIY, innovation, toolkit

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1622 Populism and the Democratic Crisis: Comparative Study of Four Countries

Authors: Hyein Ko


In 2017, many signs of populism occurred around the world. This paper suggests that populism is not a sudden phenomenon, but a manifestation of common people’s will. By analyzing previous research, this paper proposes three factors related to populism: Inequality, experience of economic crisis, and rapid cultural change. With these three elements, four cases will be investigated in this article; two countries experienced populism, and the other two countries did not experience it. Comparing four cases by using three elements will give a fruitful foundation for further analysis regarding populism. In sum, aforementioned three elements are highly related to the occurrence of populism. However, there is one hidden factor: dissatisfaction with established politics. Thus, populism is not a temporal phenomenon. It is a red alert for democratic crisis.

Keywords: common people, democratic crisis, populism, Trump phenomenon

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1621 The Phenomenon of Suicide in the Social Consciousness: Recommendations for the Educational Strategy of the Society and Prevention of Suicide

Authors: Aldona Anna Osajda


Suicide is a phenomenon that worries both the public and scientists in various fields. In society, suicide is a taboo subject, and in addition, there are many myths and stereotypes that are detrimental to the proper understanding and appropriate response of a person at risk of suicide. It is necessary to educate society and the suicide prevention system for various age groups. The research covers the level of knowledge and views of Polish society, including teachers and youth, regarding suicides. The main research problem is to establish the level of awareness of Polish society about the phenomenon of suicides. The study will be based on the diagnostic survey method, using the survey technique. Information about the research will be disseminated electronically on the Internet via social messaging. The collected data will be analyzed using appropriate statistics. On the basis of the obtained results, answers will be given to research questions, which will become the basis for designing an appropriate educational strategy for the society in the field of suicide and developing recommendations and recommendations for teachers to conduct classes in the field of suicide prevention for children and adolescents.

Keywords: phenomenon of suicides, suicide, suicide prevention, suicidology

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1620 The Solution of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equation for The Phenomenon of Instability in Homogeneous Porous Media by Homotopy Analysis Method

Authors: Kajal K. Patel, M. N. Mehta, T. R. Singh


When water is injected in oil formatted area in secondary oil recovery process the instability occurs near common interface due to viscosity difference of injected water and native oil. The governing equation gives rise to the non-linear partial differential equation and its solution has been obtained by Homotopy analysis method with appropriate guess value of the solution together with some conditions and standard relations. The solution gives the average cross-sectional area occupied by the schematic fingers during the occurs of instability phenomenon. The numerical and graphical presentation has developed by using Maple software.

Keywords: capillary pressure, homotopy analysis method, instability phenomenon, viscosity

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1619 Binocular Heterogeneity in Saccadic Suppression

Authors: Evgeny Kozubenko, Dmitry Shaposhnikov, Mikhail Petrushan


This work is focused on the study of the binocular characteristics of the phenomenon of perisaccadic suppression in humans when perceiving visual objects. This phenomenon manifests in a decrease in the subject's ability to perceive visual information during saccades, which play an important role in purpose-driven behavior and visual perception. It was shown that the impairment of perception of visual information in the post-saccadic time window is stronger (p < 0.05) in the ipsilateral eye (the eye towards which the saccade occurs). In addition, the observed heterogeneity of post-saccadic suppression in the contralateral and ipsilateral eyes may relate to depth perception. Taking the studied phenomenon into account is important when developing ergonomic control panels in modern operator systems.

Keywords: eye movement, natural vision, saccadic suppression, visual perception

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1618 The Strengths and Limitations of the Statistical Modeling of Complex Social Phenomenon: Focusing on SEM, Path Analysis, or Multiple Regression Models

Authors: Jihye Jeon


This paper analyzes the conceptual framework of three statistical methods, multiple regression, path analysis, and structural equation models. When establishing research model of the statistical modeling of complex social phenomenon, it is important to know the strengths and limitations of three statistical models. This study explored the character, strength, and limitation of each modeling and suggested some strategies for accurate explaining or predicting the causal relationships among variables. Especially, on the studying of depression or mental health, the common mistakes of research modeling were discussed.

Keywords: multiple regression, path analysis, structural equation models, statistical modeling, social and psychological phenomenon

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1617 Wellbore Spiraling Induced through Systematic Micro-Sliding

Authors: Christopher Viens, Bosko Gajic, Steve Krase


Stick-Slip is a term that is often overused and commonly diagnosed from surface drilling parameters of torque and differential pressure, but the actual magnitude of the condition is rarely captured at the BHA level as the necessary measurements are seldom deployed. Deployment of an accurate stick-slip measurement downhole has led to an interesting discovery that goes against long held traditional drilling lore. A divide has been identified between stick-slip as independent bit and BHA conditions. This phenomenon in horizontal laterals is common, but few M/LWD systems have been able to capture it. Utilizing measurements of downhole RPM bore pressure, high-speed magnetometer data, bending moment, and continuous inclination, the wellbore spiraling phenomenon is able to be captured, quantified, and intimately tied back to systematic effects of BHA stalling and micro-sliding. An operator in the Permian Basin has identified that this phenomenon is contributing to increased tortuosity and drag. Utilizing downhole torque measurements the root causes of the stick-slip and spiraling phenomenon were identified and able to engineered out of the system.

Keywords: bending moment, downhole dynamics measurements, micro sliding, wellbore spiraling

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1616 Simulating the Hot Hand Phenomenon in Basketball with Bayesian Hidden Markov Models

Authors: Gabriel Calvo, Carmen Armero, Luigi Spezia


A basketball player is said to have a hot hand if his/her performance is better than expected in different periods of time. A way to deal with this phenomenon is to make use of latent variables, which can indicate whether the player is ‘on fire’ or not. This work aims to model the hot hand phenomenon through a Bayesian hidden Markov model (HMM) with two states (cold and hot) and two different probability of success depending on the corresponding hidden state. This task is illustrated through a comprehensive simulation study. The simulated data sets emulate the field goal attempts in an NBA season from different profile players. This model can be a powerful tool to assess the ‘streakiness’ of each player, and it provides information about the general performance of the players during the match. Finally, the Bayesian HMM allows computing the posterior probability of any type of streak.

Keywords: Bernoulli trials, field goals, latent variables, posterior distribution

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1615 Diagnose of the Future of Family Businesses Based on the Study of Spanish Family Businesses Founders

Authors: Fernando Doral


Family businesses are a key phenomenon within the business landscape. Nevertheless, it involves two terms (“family” and “business”) which are nowadays rapidly evolving. Consequently, it isn't easy to diagnose if a family business will be a growing or decreasing phenomenon, which is the objective of this study. For that purpose, a sample of 50 Spanish-established companies from various sectors was taken. Different factors were identified for each enterprise, related to the profile of the founders, such as age, the number of sons and daughters, or support received from the family at the moment to start it up. That information was taken as an input for a clustering method to identify groups, which could help define the founders' profiles. That characterization was carried as a base to identify three factors whose evolution should be analyzed: family structures, business landscape and entrepreneurs' motivations. The analysis of the evolution of these three factors seems to indicate a negative tendency of family businesses. Therefore the consequent diagnosis of this study is to consider family businesses as a declining phenomenon.

Keywords: business diagnose, business trends, family business, family business founders

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1614 Self-Healing Phenomenon Evaluation in Cementitious Matrix with Different Water/Cement Ratios and Crack Opening Age

Authors: V. G. Cappellesso, D. M. G. da Silva, J. A. Arndt, N. dos Santos Petry, A. B. Masuero, D. C. C. Dal Molin


Concrete elements are subject to cracking, which can be an access point for deleterious agents that can trigger pathological manifestations reducing the service life of these structures. Finding ways to minimize or eliminate the effects of this aggressive agents’ penetration, such as the sealing of these cracks, is a manner of contributing to the durability of these structures. The cementitious self-healing phenomenon can be classified in two different processes. The autogenous self-healing that can be defined as a natural process in which the sealing of this cracks occurs without the stimulation of external agents, meaning, without different materials being added to the mixture, while on the other hand, the autonomous seal-healing phenomenon depends on the insertion of a specific engineered material added to the cement matrix in order to promote its recovery. This work aims to evaluate the autogenous self-healing of concretes produced with different water/cement ratios and exposed to wet/dry cycles, considering two ages of crack openings, 3 days and 28 days. The self-healing phenomenon was evaluated using two techniques: crack healing measurement using ultrasonic waves and image analysis performed with an optical microscope. It is possible to observe that by both methods, it possible to observe the self-healing phenomenon of the cracks. For young ages of crack openings and lower water/cement ratios, the self-healing capacity is higher when compared to advanced ages of crack openings and higher water/cement ratios. Regardless of the crack opening age, these concretes were found to stabilize the self-healing processes after 80 days or 90 days.

Keywords: sealf-healing, autogenous, water/cement ratio, curing cycles, test methods

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1613 Decision Making for Industrial Engineers: From Phenomenon to Value

Authors: Ali Abbas


Industrial Engineering is a broad multidisciplinary field with intersections and applications in numerous areas. In out current environment, the path from a phenomenon to value involves numerous people with expertise in various areas including domain knowledge of a field and the ability to make decisions within an operating environment that lead to value creation. We propose some skills that industrial engineering programs should focus on, and argue that an industrial engineer is a decision maker instead of a problem solver.

Keywords: decision analysis, problem-solving, value creation, industrial engineering

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