Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13125

Search results for: cryogenic process equipment

13125 Evaluation of Sloshing in Process Equipment for Floating Cryogenic Application

Authors: Bo Jin

Abstract:

A variety of process equipment having flow in and out is widely used in industrial land-based cryogenic facilities. In some of this equipment, such as vapor-liquid separator, a liquid level is established during the steady operation. As the implementation of such industrial processes extends to off-shore floating facilities, it is important to investigate the effect of sea motion on the process equipment partially filled with liquid. One important aspect to consider is the occurrence of sloshing therein. The flow characteristics are different from the classical study of sloshing, where the fluid is enclosed inside a vessel (e.g., storage tank) with no flow in or out. Liquid inside process equipment continuously flows in and out of the system. To understand this key difference, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate the liquid motion inside a partially filled cylinder with and without continuous flow in and out. For a partially filled vertical cylinder without any continuous flow in and out, the CFD model is found to be able to capture the well-known sloshing behavior documented in the literature. For the cylinder with a continuous steady flow in and out, the CFD simulation results demonstrate that the continuous flow suppresses sloshing. Given typical cryogenic fluid has very low viscosity, an analysis based on potential flow theory is developed to explain why flow into and out of the cylinder changes the natural frequency of the system and thereby suppresses sloshing. This analysis further validates the CFD results.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, cryogenic process equipment, off-shore floating processes, sloshing

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13124 Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Various Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Different Material: A Review

Authors: Prashant Dhiman, Viranshu Kumar, Pradeep Joshi

Abstract:

Lot of research is going on to study the effect of cryogenic treatment on materials. Cryogenic treatment is a heat treatment process which is used widely to enhance the mechanical and metallurgical properties of various materials whether the material is ferrous or non ferrous. In almost all ferrous metals, it is found that retained austenite is converted into martensite. Generally deep cryogenic treatment is done using liquid nitrogen having temperature of -195 ℃. The austenite is unstable at this stage and converts into martensite. In non ferrous materials there presents a microcavity and under the action of stress it becomes crack. When this crack propagates, fracture takes place. As the metal contract under low temperature, by doing cryogenic treatment these microcavities will be filled hence increases the soundness of the material. Properties which are enhanced by cryogenic treatment of both ferrous and non ferrous materials are hardness, tensile strength, wear rate, electrical and thermal conductivity, and others. Also there is decrease in residual stress. A large number of manufacturing process (EDM, CNC etc.) are using cryogenic treatment on different tools or workpiece to reduce their wear. In this Review paper the use of cryogenic heat treatment in different manufacturing has been shown along with their advantages.

Keywords: cyrogenic treatment, EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining), CNC (Computer Numeric Control), Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties

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13123 Cryogenic Machining of Sawdust Incorporated Polypropylene Composites

Authors: K. N. Umesh

Abstract:

Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) were synthesized artificially by combining polypropylene, wood and resin. It is difficult to obtain a good surface finish by conventional machining on WPC because of material degradation due to excessive heat generated during the process. In order to preserve the material property and deliver a better surface finish and accuracy, a proper solution is devised for the machining of wood composites at low temperature. This research focuses on studying the effects of parameters of cryogenic machining on sawdust incorporated polypropylene composite material, in view of evolving the most suitable composition and an appropriate combination of process parameters. The machining characteristics of the six different compositions of WPC were evaluated by analyzing the trend. An attempt is made to determine proper combinations material composition and process control parameters, through process capability studies. A WPC of 80%-wood (saw dust particles), 20%-polypropylene and 0%-resin was found to be the best alternative for obtaining the best surface finish under cryogenic machining conditions.

Keywords: Cryogenic Machining, Process Capability, Surface Finish, Wood Polymer Composites

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13122 Challenges of Cryogenic Fluid Metering by Coriolis Flowmeter

Authors: Evgeniia Shavrina, Yan Zeng, Boo Cheong Khoo, Vinh-Tan Nguyen

Abstract:

The present paper is aimed at providing a review of error sources in cryogenic metering by Coriolis flowmeters (CFMs). Whereas these flowmeters allow accurate water metering, high uncertainty and low repeatability are commonly observed at cryogenic fluid metering, which is often necessary for effective renewable energy production and storage. The sources of these issues might be classified as general and cryogenic specific challenges. A conducted analysis of experimental and theoretical studies shows that material behaviour at cryogenic temperatures, composition variety, and multiphase presence are the most significant cryogenic challenges. At the same time, pipeline diameter limitation, ambient vibration impact, and drawbacks of the installation may be highlighted as the most important general challenges of cryogenic metering by CFM. Finally, the techniques, which mitigate the impact of these challenges are reviewed, and future development direction is indicated.

Keywords: Coriolis flowmeter, cryogenic, multicomponent flow, multiphase flow

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13121 Model for Remanufacture of Medical Equipment in Cross Border Collaboration

Authors: Kingsley Oturu, Winifred Ijomah, Wale Coker, Chibueze Achi

Abstract:

With the impact of BREXIT and the need for cross-border collaboration, this international research investigated the use of a conceptual model for remanufacturing medical equipment (with a focus on anesthetic machines and baby incubators). Early findings of the research suggest that contextual factors need to be taken into consideration, as well as an emphasis on cleaning (e.g., sterilization) during the process of remanufacturing medical equipment. For example, copper tubings may be more important in the remanufacturing of anesthetic equipment in tropical climates than in cold climates.

Keywords: medical equipment remanufacture, sustainability, circular business models, remanufacture process model

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
13120 Optimization of Machining Parameters by Using Cryogenic Media

Authors: Shafqat Wahab, Waseem Tahir, Manzoor Ahmad, Sarfraz Khan, M. Azam

Abstract:

Optimization and analysis of tool flank wear width and surface finish of alloy steel rods are studied in the presence of cryogenic media (LN2) by using Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404- WF 4215). Robust design concept of Taguchi L9(34) method and ANOVA is applied to determine the contribution of key cutting parameters and their optimum conditions. Through analysis, it revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear width while surface finish is mostly dependent on feed rate.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic fluid, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface roughness, taguchi

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13119 Optimization of Oxygen Plant Parameters Simulating with MATLAB

Authors: B. J. Sonani, J. K. Ratnadhariya, Srinivas Palanki

Abstract:

Cryogenic engineering is the fast growing branch of the modern technology. There are various applications of the cryogenic engineering such as liquefaction in gas industries, metal industries, medical science, space technology, and transportation. The low-temperature technology developed superconducting materials which lead to reduce the friction and wear in various components of the systems. The liquid oxygen, hydrogen and helium play vital role in space application. The liquefaction process is produced very low temperature liquid for various application in research and modern application. The air liquefaction system for oxygen plants in gas industries is based on the Claude cycle. The effect of process parameters on the overall system is difficult to be analysed by manual calculations, and this provides the motivation to use process simulators for understanding the steady state and dynamic behaviour of such systems. The parametric study of this system via MATLAB simulations provide useful guidelines for preliminary design of air liquefaction system based on the Claude cycle. Every organization is always trying for reduce the cost and using the optimum performance of the plant for the staying in the competitive market.

Keywords: cryogenic, liquefaction, low -temperature, oxygen, claude cycle, optimization, MATLAB

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13118 Production of Premium Quality Cinnamon Bark Powder Using Cryogenic Grinding

Authors: Monika R. Bhoi, R. F. Sutar, Bhaumik B. Patel

Abstract:

The objective of this research paper is to obtain the premium quality of cinnamon bark powder through cryogenic grinding technology. The effect of grinding temperature (0, -20, -40, -60, -80 and -100˚C), feed rate (8, 9 and 10 kg/h), and sieve size (0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm) were evaluated with respect to grinding time, volatile oil content, particle size, energy consumption, and liquid nitrogen consumption. Cryogenic grinding process parameters were optimized to obtain premium quality cinnamon bark powder was carried out using three factorial completely randomized design. The optimization revealed that grinding of cinnamon bark at -80⁰C temperature using 0.8 mm sieve size and 10 kg/h feed rate resulted in premium quality cinnamon bark powder containing volatile oil 3.01%. In addition, volatile oil retention in cryogenically ground powder was 88.23%, whereas control (ambient grinding) had 33.11%. Storage study of premium quality cryogenically ground powder was carried out under accelerated storage conditions (38˚C & 90% R.H). Accelerated storage of cryoground powder was found to be advantageous over the conventional ground for extended storage of the ground cinnamon powder with retention of its nutritional quality. Hence, grinding of spices at optimally low cryogenic temperature is a promising technology for the production of its premium quality powder economically.

Keywords: cinnamon bark, cryogenic grinding, feed rate, volatile oil

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13117 Methodology of Construction Equipment Optimization for Earthwork

Authors: Jaehyun Choi, Hyunjung Kim, Namho Kim

Abstract:

Earthwork is one of the critical civil construction operations that require large-quantities of resources due to its intensive dependency upon construction equipment. Therefore, efficient construction equipment management can highly contribute to productivity improvements and cost savings. Earthwork operation utilizes various combinations of construction equipment in order to meet project requirements such as time and cost. Identification of site condition and construction methods should be performed in advance in order to develop a proper execution plan. The factors to be considered include capacity of equipment assigned, the method of construction, the size of the site, and the surrounding condition. In addition, optimal combination of various construction equipment should be selected. However, in real world practice, equipment utilization plan is performed based on experience and intuition of management. The researchers evaluated the efficiency of various alternatives of construction equipment combinations by utilizing the process simulation model, validated the model from a case study project, and presented a methodology to find optimized plan among alternatives.

Keywords: earthwork operation, construction equipment, process simulation, optimization

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13116 Energy Efficient Retrofitting and Optimization of Dual Mixed Refrigerant Natural Gas Liquefaction Process

Authors: Muhammad Abdul Qyyum, Kinza Qadeer, Moonyong Lee

Abstract:

Globally, liquefied natural gas (LNG) has drawn interest as a green energy source in comparison with other fossil fuels, mainly because of its ease of transport and low carbon dioxide emissions. It is expected that demand for LNG will grow steadily over the next few decades. In addition, because the demand for clean energy is increasing, LNG production facilities are expanding into new natural gas reserves across the globe. However, LNG production is an energy and cost intensive process because of the huge power requirements for compression and refrigeration. Therefore, one of the major challenges in the LNG industry is to improve the energy efficiency of existing LNG processes through economic and ecological strategies. The advancement in expansion devices such as two-phase cryogenic expander (TPE) and cryogenic hydraulic turbine (HT) were exploited for energy and cost benefits in natural gas liquefaction. Retrofitting the conventional Joule–Thompson (JT) valve with TPE and HT have the potential to improve the energy efficiency of LNG processes. This research investigated the potential feasibility of the retrofitting of a dual mixed refrigerant (DMR) process by replacing the isenthalpic expansion with isentropic expansion corresponding to energy efficient LNG production. To fully take the potential benefit of the proposed process retrofitting, the proposed DMR schemes were optimized by using a Coggins optimization approach, which was implemented in Microsoft Visual Studio (MVS) environment and linked to the rigorous HYSYS® model. The results showed that the required energy of the proposed isentropic expansion based DMR process could be saved up to 26.5% in comparison with the conventional isenthalpic based DMR process using the JT valves. Utilization of the recovered energy into boosting the natural gas feed pressure could further improve the energy efficiency of the LNG process up to 34% as compared to the base case. This work will help the process engineers to overcome the challenges relating to energy efficiency and safety concerns of LNG processes. Furthermore, the proposed retrofitting scheme can also be implemented to improve the energy efficiency of other isenthalpic expansion based energy intensive cryogenic processes.

Keywords: cryogenic liquid turbine, Coggins optimization, dual mixed refrigerant, energy efficient LNG process, two-phase expander

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13115 Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on Aluminium Alloy Used for Making Heat Exchangers in Automotive HVAC System

Authors: H. Mohit

Abstract:

In automotive air conditioning system, two heat exchangers are used as evaporator and condenser which are placed inside the bonnet of a car in a compact manner. The dust particles from outside and moisture content produced during the process leads to formation of impure particles on the surface of evaporator coil. But in condenser coil, the impure particles are settling down due to dust from atmosphere. The major problem of the heat exchanger used in automotive air conditioning is leakage of refrigerant due to corrosion. This effect of corrosion will lead to damage on the surface of heat exchanger and leakage of refrigerant from the system. To protect from corrosion, coatings are applied on its surfaces. Nowadays, to improve the corrosion resistance of these heat exchangers, hydrophilic coatings are used, which is very expensive. Cryogenic treatment is one method which involves the treatment of materials below -150 °C using the cryogenic fluid such as liquid nitrogen. In this project work, a study of improvement in corrosion resistance of materials of aluminium alloys of various grades as AA 1100, AA 6061, AA 6063 and AA 2024 that are mainly used for fin and tube heat exchangers in automotive air conditioning system is made. In total, five different processes are selected for these grades of aluminium alloy and various parameters like corrosion rate, dimensional stability, hardness and microstructure are measured. The improvements were observed in these parameters while comparing it with conventional heat treatment process.

Keywords: cryogenic treatment, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, materials science

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13114 Simulations of Cryogenic Cavitation of Low Temperature Fluids with Thermodynamics Effects

Authors: A. Alhelfi, B. Sunden

Abstract:

Cavitation in cryogenic liquids is widely present in contemporary science. In the current study, we re-examine a previously validated acoustic cavitation model which was developed for a gas bubble in liquid water. Furthermore, simulations of cryogenic fluids including the thermal effect, the effect of acoustic pressure amplitude and the frequency of sound field on the bubble dynamics are presented. A gas bubble (Helium) in liquids Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen in an acoustic field at ambient pressure and low temperature is investigated numerically. The results reveal that the oscillation of the bubble in liquid Hydrogen fluctuates more than in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen. The oscillation of the bubble in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen is approximately similar.

Keywords: cryogenic liquids, cavitation, rocket engineering, ultrasound

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13113 Examining of Tool Wear in Cryogenic Machining of Cobalt-Based Haynes 25 Superalloy

Authors: Murat Sarıkaya, Abdulkadir Güllü

Abstract:

Haynes 25 alloy (also known as L-605 alloy) is cobalt based super alloy which has widely applications such as aerospace industry, turbine and furnace parts, power generators and heat exchangers and petroleum refining components due to its excellent characteristics. However, the workability of this alloy is more difficult compared to normal steels or even stainless. In present work, an experimental investigation was performed under cryogenic cooling to determine cutting tool wear patterns and obtain optimal cutting parameters in turning of cobalt based superalloy Haynes 25. In experiments, uncoated carbide tool was used and cutting speed (V) and feed rate (f) were considered as test parameters. Tool wear (VBmax) were measured for process performance indicators. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the importance of machining parameters.

Keywords: cryogenic machining, difficult-to-cut alloy, tool wear, turning

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13112 Improvement in Tool Life Through Optimizing Cutting Parameters Using Cryogenic Media in Machining of Aerospace Alloy Steel

Authors: Waseem Tahir, Syed Hussain Imran Jaffery, Mohammad Azam

Abstract:

In this research work, liquid nitrogen gas (LN2) is used as a cryogenic media to optimize the cutting parameters for evaluation of tool flank wear width of Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404-WF 4215) while turning a high strength alloy steel. Robust design concept of Taguchi L9 (34) method is applied to determine the optimum conditions. The analysis is revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear. However, High Speed Machining is shown most significant as compare to cooling media on work piece surface roughness.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic cooling, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface finish

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13111 Enhancement of Critical Temperature and Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide Superconductor

Authors: Hamed Rahmati

Abstract:

Nowadays, increasing demand for electric energy makes applying high-temperature superconductors inevitable. However, the most important problem of the superconductors is their critical temperature, which necessitates using a cryogenic system for keeping these substances’ temperatures lower than the critical level. Cryogenic systems used for this reason are not efficient enough, and keeping these large systems maintained is costly. Moreover, the low critical temperature of superconductors has delayed using them in electrical equipment. In this article, at first, characteristics of three superconductors, magnesium diboride (MgB2), yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO), and iron-based superconductors (FeSC), have been analyzed and a new structure of YBCO superconductors is presented. Generally, YBCO (YBa2Cu7O2) has a weak mechanical structure. By introducing some changes in its configuration and adding one silver atom (Ag) to it, its mechanical characteristics improved significantly. Moreover, for each added atom, a star-form structure was introduced in which changing the location of Ag atom led to considerable changes in temperature. In this study, Ag has been added by applying two accurate methods named random and substitute ones. The results of both methods have been examined. It has been shown that adding Ag by applying the substitute method can improve the mechanical properties of the superconductor in addition to increasing its critical temperature. In the mentioned strategy (using the substitute method), the critical temperature of the superconductor was measured up to 99 Kelvin. This new structure is usable in designing superconductors’ rings to be applied in superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). It can also lead to a reduction in the cryogenic system size, a decline in conductor wastes, and a decrease in costs of the whole system.

Keywords: critical temperature, cryogenic system, high-temperature superconductors, YBCO

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13110 Design and Implementation of Agricultural Machinery Equipment Scheduling Platform Based On Case-Based Reasoning

Authors: Wen Li, Zhengyu Bai, Qi Zhang

Abstract:

The demand for smart scheduling platform in agriculture, particularly in the scheduling process of machinery equipment, is high. With the continuous development of agricultural machinery equipment technology, a large number of agricultural machinery equipment and agricultural machinery cooperative service organizations continue to appear in China. The large area of cultivated land and a large number of agricultural activities in the central and western regions of China have made the demand for smart and efficient agricultural machinery equipment scheduling platforms more intense. In this study, we design and implement a platform for agricultural machinery equipment scheduling to allocate agricultural machinery equipment resources reasonably. With agricultural machinery equipment scheduling platform taken as the research object, we discuss its research significance and value, use the service blueprint technology to analyze and characterize the agricultural machinery equipment schedule workflow, the network analytic method to obtain the demand platform function requirements, and divide the platform functions through the platform function division diagram. Simultaneously, based on the case-based reasoning (CBR) algorithm, the equipment scheduling module of the agricultural machinery equipment scheduling platform is realized; finally, a design scheme of the agricultural machinery equipment scheduling platform architecture is provided, and the visualization interface of the platform is established via VB programming language. It provides design ideas and theoretical support for the construction of a modern agricultural equipment information scheduling platform.

Keywords: case-based reasoning, service blueprint, system design, ANP, VB programming language

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13109 An Investigation of Machinability of Inconel 718 in EDM Using Different Cryogenic Treated Tools

Authors: Pradeep Joshi, Prashant Dhiman, Shiv Dayal Dhakad

Abstract:

Inconel 718 is a family if Nickel-Chromium based Superalloy; it has very high oxidation and corrosion resistance. Inconel 718 is widely being used in aerospace, engine, turbine etc. due to its high mechanical strength and creep resistance. Being widely used, its machining should be easy but in real its machining is very difficult, especially by using traditional machining methods. It becomes easy to machine only by using non Traditional machining such as EDM. During EDM machining there is wear of both tool and workpiece, the tool wear is undesired because it changes tool shape, geometry. To reduce the tool wear rate (TWR) cryogenic treatment is performed on tool before the machining operation. The machining performances of the process are to be evaluated in terms of MRR, TWR which are functions of Discharge current, Pulse on-time, Pulse Off-time.

Keywords: EDM, cyrogenic, TWR, MRR

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13108 A Quantitative Model for Replacement of Medical Equipment Based on Technical and Environmental Factors

Authors: Ghadeer Mohammad Said El-Sheikh, Samer Mohamad Shalhoob

Abstract:

Medical equipment operation state is a valid reflection of health care organizations' performance, where such equipment highly contributes to the quality of healthcare services on several levels in which quality improvement has become an intrinsic part of the discourse and activities of health care services. In healthcare organizations, clinical and biomedical engineering departments play an essential role in maintaining the safety and efficiency of such equipment. One of the most challenging topics when it comes to such sophisticated equipment is the lifespan of medical equipment, where many factors will impact such characteristics of medical equipment through its life cycle. So far, many attempts have been made in order to address this issue where most of the approaches are kind of arbitrary approaches and one of the criticisms of existing approaches trying to estimate and understand the lifetime of a medical equipment lies under the inquiry of what are the environmental factors that can play into such a critical characteristic of a medical equipment. In an attempt to address this shortcoming, the purpose of our study rises where in addition to the standard technical factors taken into consideration through the decision-making process by a clinical engineer in case of medical equipment failure, the dimension of environmental factors shall be added. The investigations, researches and studies applied for the purpose of supporting the decision making process by a clinical engineers and assessing the lifespan of healthcare equipment’s in the Lebanese society was highly dependent on the identification of technical criteria’s that impacts the lifespan of a medical equipment where the affecting environmental factors didn’t receive the proper attention. The objective of our study is based on the need for introducing a new well-designed plan for evaluating medical equipment depending on two dimensions. According to this approach, the equipment that should be replaced or repaired will be classified based on a systematic method taking into account two essential criteria; the standard identified technical criteria and the added environmental criteria.

Keywords: technical, environmental, healthcare, characteristic of medical equipment

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13107 Advanced Technology for Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Recovery Using Residue Gas Split

Authors: Riddhiman Sherlekar, Umang Paladia, Rachit Desai, Yash Patel

Abstract:

The competitive scenario of the oil and gas market is a challenge for today’s plant designers to achieve designs that meet client expectations with shrinking budgets, safety requirements, and operating flexibility. Natural Gas Liquids have three main industrial uses. They can be used as fuels, or as petrochemical feedstock or as refinery blends that can be further processed and sold as straight run cuts, such as naphtha, kerosene and gas oil. NGL extraction is not a chemical reaction. It involves the separation of heavier hydrocarbons from the main gas stream through pressure as temperature reduction, which depending upon the degree of NGL extraction may involve cryogenic process. Previous technologies i.e. short cycle dry desiccant absorption, Joule-Thompson or Low temperature refrigeration, lean oil absorption have been giving results of only 40 to 45% ethane recoveries, which were unsatisfying depending upon the current scenario of down turn market. Here new technology has been suggested for boosting up the recoveries of ethane+ up to 95% and up to 99% for propane+ components. Cryogenic plants provide reboiling to demethanizers by using part of inlet feed gas, or inlet feed split. If the two stream temperatures are not similar, there is lost work in the mixing operation unless the designer has access to some proprietary design. The concept introduced in this process consists of reboiling the demethanizer with the residue gas, or residue gas split. The innovation of this process is that it does not use the typical inlet gas feed split type of flow arrangement to reboil the demethanizer or deethanizer column, but instead uses an open heat pump scheme to that effect. The residue gas compressor provides the heat pump effect. The heat pump stream is then further cooled and entered in the top section of the column as a cold reflux. Because of the nature of this design, this process offers the opportunity to operate at full ethane rejection or recovery. The scheme is also very adaptable to revamp existing facilities. This advancement can be proven not only in enhancing the results but also provides operational flexibility, optimize heat exchange, introduces equipment cost reduction, opens a future for the innovative designs while keeping execution costs low.

Keywords: deethanizer, demethanizer, residue gas, NGL

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13106 Performance Complexity Measurement of Tightening Equipment Based on Kolmogorov Entropy

Authors: Guoliang Fan, Aiping Li, Xuemei Liu, Liyun Xu

Abstract:

The performance of the tightening equipment will decline with the working process in manufacturing system. The main manifestations are the randomness and discretization degree increasing of the tightening performance. To evaluate the degradation tendency of the tightening performance accurately, a complexity measurement approach based on Kolmogorov entropy is presented. At first, the states of performance index are divided for calibrating the discrete degree. Then the complexity measurement model based on Kolmogorov entropy is built. The model describes the performance degradation tendency of tightening equipment quantitatively. At last, a study case is applied for verifying the efficiency and validity of the approach. The research achievement shows that the presented complexity measurement can effectively evaluate the degradation tendency of the tightening equipment. It can provide theoretical basis for preventive maintenance and life prediction of equipment.

Keywords: complexity measurement, Kolmogorov entropy, manufacturing system, performance evaluation, tightening equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
13105 Investigation of the Working Processes in Thermocompressor Operating on Cryogenic Working Fluid

Authors: Evgeny V. Blagin, Aleksandr I. Dovgjallo, Dmitry A. Uglanov

Abstract:

This article deals with research of the working process in the thermocompressor which operates on cryogenic working fluid. Thermocompressor is device suited for the conversation of heat energy directly to the potential energy of pressure. Suggested thermocompressor is suited for operation during liquid natural gas (LNG) re-gasification and is placed after evaporator. Such application of thermocompressor allows using of the LNG cold energy for rising of working fluid pressure, which then can be used for electricity generation or another purpose. Thermocompressor consists of two chambers divided by the regenerative heat exchanger. Calculation algorithm for unsteady calculation of thermocompressor working process was suggested. The results of this investigation are to change of thermocompressor’s chambers temperature and pressure during the working cycle. These distributions help to find out the parameters, which significantly influence thermocompressor efficiency. These parameters include regenerative heat exchanger coefficient of the performance (COP) dead volume of the chambers, working frequency of the thermocompressor etc. Exergy analysis was performed to estimate thermocompressor efficiency. Cryogenic thermocompressor operated on nitrogen working fluid was chosen as a prototype. Calculation of the temperature and pressure change was performed with taking into account heat fluxes through regenerator and thermocompressor walls. Temperature of the cold chamber significantly differs from the results of steady calculation, which is caused by friction of the working fluid in regenerator and heat fluxes from the hot chamber. The rise of the cold chamber temperature leads to decreasing of thermocompressor delivery volume. Temperature of hot chamber differs negligibly because losses due to heat fluxes to a cold chamber are compensated by the friction of the working fluid in the regenerator. Optimal working frequency was selected. Main results of the investigation: -theoretical confirmation of thermocompressor operation capability on the cryogenic working fluid; -optimal working frequency was found; -value of the cold chamber temperature differs from the starting value much more than the temperature of the hot chamber; -main parameters which influence thermocompressor performance are regenerative heat exchanger COP and heat fluxes through regenerator and thermocompressor walls.

Keywords: cold energy, liquid natural gas, thermocompressor, regenerative heat exchanger

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13104 Failure Mode Analysis of a Multiple Layer Explosion Bonded Cryogenic Transition Joint

Authors: Richard Colwell, Thomas Englert

Abstract:

In cryogenic liquefaction processes, brazed aluminum core heat exchangers are used to minimize surface area/volume of the exchanger. Aluminum alloy (5083-H321; UNS A95083) piping must transition to higher melting point 304L stainless steel piping outside of the heat exchanger kettle or cold box for safety reasons. Since aluminum alloys and austenitic stainless steel cannot be directly welded to together, a transition joint consisting of 5 layers of different metals explosively bonded are used. Failures of two of these joints resulted in process shut-down and loss of revenue. Failure analyses, FEA analysis, and mock-up testing were performed by multiple teams to gain a further understanding into the failure mechanisms involved.

Keywords: explosion bonding, intermetallic compound, thermal strain, titanium-nickel Interface

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13103 Equipment Design for Lunar Lander Landing-Impact Test

Authors: Xiaohuan Li, Wangmin Yi, Xinghui Wu

Abstract:

In order to verify the performance of lunar lander structure, landing-impact test is urgently needed. Moreover, the test equipment is necessary for the test. The functions and the key points of the equipment is presented to satisfy the requirements of the test,and the design scheme is proposed. The composition, the major function and the critical parts’ design of the equipment are introduced. By the load test of releasing device and single-beam hoist, and the compatibility test of landing-impact testing system, the rationality and reliability of the equipment is proved.

Keywords: landing-impact test, lunar lander, releasing device, test equipment

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13102 Equipment Donation: A Perspective from a Teaching Tertiary Care Hospital in North India

Authors: Jitender Sodhi, Shweta Talati, A. K. Gupta, Pankaj Arora

Abstract:

Background:Equipment donation to hospitals in resource-limited settings can significantly benefit services in these settings albeit requires important ethical, practical and financial issues to be considered before accepting donations. Objective: To understand the decision making process leading to acceptance/ rejection/ deferment of equipment donation from the perspective of a public sector teaching tertiary care hospital. Design: Retrospective, record based study. Setting: 2000-bedded public sector teaching tertiary care hospital in North India. Methods: A total of 30 cases of equipment donation from March 2010-October 2013, were analysed for their decision process leading to acceptance/rejection/deferment.Each case was studied retrospectively and data pertaining to the agenda and decision taken was collected. Results: A total of 30 cases of equipment donation received from March 2010- October 2013 were screened, out of which 17 (56.6%) were for diagnostic purpose and 13 (43.3%) for therapeutic purpose. Out of 30 cases, 16 (53.3%) were accepted and 8 (26.6%) were rejected. The remaining 6 cases included 3 (10%) which required further clarification and other 3 (10%) which were out of the domain of committee. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of equipment donation in resource limited settings and considerations involved while making decisions for acceptance/rejections/defermentof such donations.

Keywords: equipment donation, teaching hospital, decision-making, North India

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13101 Naphtha Catalytic Reform: Modeling and Simulation of Unity

Authors: Leal Leonardo, Pires Carlos Augusto de Moraes, Casiraghi Magela

Abstract:

In this work were realized the modeling and simulation of the catalytic reformer process, of ample form, considering all the equipment that influence the operation performance. Considered it a semi-regenerative reformer, with four reactors in series intercalated with four furnaces, two heat exchanges, one product separator and one recycle compressor. A simplified reactional system was considered, involving only ten chemical compounds related through five reactions. The considered process was the applied to aromatics production (benzene, toluene, and xylene). The models developed to diverse equipment were interconnecting in a simulator that consists of a computer program elaborate in FORTRAN 77. The simulation of the global model representative of reformer unity achieved results that are compatibles with the literature ones. It was then possible to study the effects of operational variables in the products concentration and in the performance of the unity equipment.

Keywords: catalytic reforming, modeling, simulation, petrochemical engineering

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13100 Magnetocaloric Effect in Ho₂O₃ Nanopowder at Cryogenic Temperature

Authors: K. P. Shinde, M. V. Tien, H. Lin, H.-R. Park, S.-C.Yu, K. C. Chung, D.-H. Kim

Abstract:

Magnetic refrigeration provides an attractive alternative cooling technology due to its potential advantages such as high cooling efficiency, environmental friendliness, low noise, and compactness over the conventional cooling techniques based on gas compression. Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) occurs by changes in entropy (ΔS) and temperature (ΔT) under external magnetic fields. We have been focused on identifying materials with large MCE in two temperature regimes, not only room temperature but also at cryogenic temperature for specific technological applications, such as space science and liquefaction of hydrogen in fuel industry. To date, the commonly used materials for cryogenic refrigeration are based on hydrated salts. In the present work, we report giant MCE in rare earth Ho2O3 nanopowder at cryogenic temperature. HoN nanoparticles with average size of 30 nm were prepared by using plasma arc discharge method with gas composition of N2/H2 (80%/20%). The prepared HoN was sintered in air atmosphere at 1200 oC for 24 hrs to convert it into oxide. Structural and morphological properties were studied by XRD and SEM. XRD confirms the pure phase and cubic crystal structure of Ho2O3 without any impurity within error range. It has been discovered that Holmium oxide exhibits giant MCE at low temperature without magnetic hysteresis loss with the second-order antiferromagnetic phase transition with Néels temperature around 2 K. The maximum entropy change was found to be 25.2 J/kgK at an applied field of 6 T.

Keywords: magnetocaloric effect, Ho₂O₃, magnetic entropy change, nanopowder

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
13099 Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Hybrid Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: B. Vinod, L. J. Sudev

Abstract:

Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material are gaining lot of attention in recent years. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites are gaining importance. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen temperature, polymer composite, tensile properties, flexural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
13098 Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Hemp/Jute Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature

Authors: B. Vinod, L. Jsudev

Abstract:

Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material is gaining lot of attention in recent years, as they are light in weight, less in cost, and ecologically advanced surrogate material to glass and carbon fibers in composites. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites like cryogenic wind tunnels, cryogenic transport vessels, support structures in space shuttles and rockets are gaining importance. In these unique cryogenic applications, the requirements of polymer composites are extremely severe and complicated. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures such as liquid helium (4.2 K), liquid hydrogen (20 K), liquid nitrogen (77 K), and liquid oxygen (90 K) temperatures, etc., to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hemp and Jute fibers are used as reinforcement material as they have high specific strength, stiffness and good adhering property and has the potential to replace the synthetic fibers. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen temperature, polymer composite, tensile properties, flexural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
13097 Optimal MRO Process Scheduling with Rotable Inventory to Minimize Total Earliness

Authors: Murat Erkoc, Kadir Ertogral

Abstract:

Maintenance, repair and overhauling (MRO) of high cost equipment used in many industries such as transportation, military and construction are typically subject to regulations set by local governments or international agencies. Aircrafts are prime examples for this kind of equipment. Such equipment must be overhauled at certain intervals for continuing permission of use. As such, the overhaul must be completed by strict deadlines, which often times cannot be exceeded. Due to the fact that the overhaul is typically a long process, MRO companies carry so called rotable inventory for exchange of expensive modules in the overhaul process of the equipment so that the equipment continue its services with minimal interruption. The extracted module is overhauled and returned back to the inventory for future exchange, hence the name rotable inventory. However, since the rotable inventory and overhaul capacity are limited, it may be necessary to carry out some of the exchanges earlier than their deadlines in order to produce a feasible overhaul schedule. An early exchange results with a decrease in the equipment’s cycle time in between overhauls and as such, is not desired by the equipment operators. This study introduces an integer programming model for the optimal overhaul and exchange scheduling. We assume that there is certain number of rotables at hand at the beginning of the planning horizon for a single type module and there are multiple demands with known deadlines for the exchange of the modules. We consider an MRO system with identical parallel processing lines. The model minimizes total earliness by generating optimal overhaul start times for rotables on parallel processing lines and exchange timetables for orders. We develop a fast exact solution algorithm for the model. The algorithm employs full-delay scheduling approach with backward allocation and can easily be used for overhaul scheduling problems in various MRO settings with modular rotable items. The proposed procedure is demonstrated by a case study from the aerospace industry.

Keywords: rotable inventory, full-delay scheduling, maintenance, overhaul, total earliness

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
13096 Application of Computer Aided Engineering Tools in Performance Prediction and Fault Detection of Mechanical Equipment of Mining Process Line

Authors: K. Jahani, J. Razavi

Abstract:

Nowadays, to decrease the number of downtimes in the industries such as metal mining, petroleum and chemical industries, predictive maintenance is crucial. In order to have efficient predictive maintenance, knowing the performance of critical equipment of production line such as pumps and hydro-cyclones under variable operating parameters, selecting best indicators of this equipment health situations, best locations for instrumentation, and also measuring of these indicators are very important. In this paper, computer aided engineering (CAE) tools are implemented to study some important elements of copper process line, namely slurry pumps and cyclone to predict the performance of these components under different working conditions. These modeling and simulations can be used in predicting, for example, the damage tolerance of the main shaft of the slurry pump or wear rate and location of cyclone wall or pump case and impeller. Also, the simulations can suggest best-measuring parameters, measuring intervals, and their locations.

Keywords: computer aided engineering, predictive maintenance, fault detection, mining process line, slurry pump, hydrocyclone

Procedia PDF Downloads 274