Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16843

Search results for: moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method

16843 3-D Modeling of Particle Size Reduction from Micro to Nano Scale Using Finite Difference Method

Authors: Himanshu Singh, Rishi Kant, Shantanu Bhattacharya

Abstract:

This paper adopts a top-down approach for mathematical modeling to predict the size reduction from micro to nano-scale through persistent etching. The process is simulated using a finite difference approach. Previously, various researchers have simulated the etching process for 1-D and 2-D substrates. It consists of two processes: 1) Convection-Diffusion in the etchant domain; 2) Chemical reaction at the surface of the particle. Since the process requires analysis along moving boundary, partial differential equations involved cannot be solved using conventional methods. In 1-D, this problem is very similar to Stefan's problem of moving ice-water boundary. A fixed grid method using finite volume method is very popular for modelling of etching on a one and two dimensional substrate. Other popular approaches include moving grid method and level set method. In this method, finite difference method was used to discretize the spherical diffusion equation. Due to symmetrical distribution of etchant, the angular terms in the equation can be neglected. Concentration is assumed to be constant at the outer boundary. At the particle boundary, the concentration of the etchant is assumed to be zero since the rate of reaction is much faster than rate of diffusion. The rate of reaction is proportional to the velocity of the moving boundary of the particle. Modelling of the above reaction was carried out using Matlab. The initial particle size was taken to be 50 microns. The density, molecular weight and diffusion coefficient of the substrate were taken as 2.1 gm/cm3, 60 and 10-5 cm2/s respectively. The etch-rate was found to decline initially and it gradually became constant at 0.02µ/s (1.2µ/min). The concentration profile was plotted along with space at different time intervals. Initially, a sudden drop is observed at the particle boundary due to high-etch rate. This change becomes more gradual with time due to declination of etch rate.

Keywords: particle size reduction, micromixer, FDM modelling, wet etching

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16842 PD Test in Gas Insulated Substation Using UHF Method

Authors: T. Prabakaran

Abstract:

Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) are widely used as important switchgear equipment because of its high reliability, low space requirement, low risk factor and easy maintenance, yet some failures have been reported. Some of the failures are due to presence of metallic particles inside the GIS compartment. The defect can be generated in GIS during production, maintenance, installation and can be due to ageing of the component. The Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) method is used to diagnose the insulation condition of GIS by detecting the PD signals in GIS. This paper identifies PD patterns for free moving particle defect and particle fixed on cone using UHF method. As insulation failure usually starts with PD activity, this paper investigates the differences in PD characteristics in SF6 gas with different types of defects. Experimental results show that correct identification of defects can be achieved based on considered PD characteristics. The method can be applied to prove the quality of assembly work at commissioning, also on a regular basis after many years in service to detect aged and conducting particles as a part of the condition based maintenance.

Keywords: gas insulated substation, partial discharge, free moving particle defect, particle fixed on cone defect, ultra high frequency method

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
16841 Development of 3D Particle Method for Calculating Large Deformation of Soils

Authors: Sung-Sik Park, Han Chang, Kyung-Hun Chae, Sae-Byeok Lee

Abstract:

In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) Particle method without using grid was developed for analyzing large deformation of soils instead of using ordinary finite element method (FEM) or finite difference method (FDM). In the 3D Particle method, the governing equations were discretized by various particle interaction models corresponding to differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was incorporated into the 3D Particle method to determine soil failure. The yielding and hardening behavior of soil before failure was also considered by varying viscosity of soil. First of all, an unconfined compression test was carried out and the large deformation following soil yielding or failure was simulated by the developed 3D Particle method. The results were also compared with those of a commercial FEM software PLAXIS 3D. The developed 3D Particle method was able to simulate the 3D large deformation of soils due to soil yielding and calculate the variation of normal and shear stresses following clay deformation.

Keywords: particle method, large deformation, soil column, confined compressive stress

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16840 Numerical Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction on Wedge Slamming Impact by Using Particle Method

Authors: Sung-Chul Hwang, Di Ren, Sang-Moon Yoon, Jong-Chun Park, Abbas Khayyer, Hitoshi Gotoh

Abstract:

The slamming impact problem has a very important engineering background. For seaplane landing, recycling for the satellite re-entry capsule, and the impact load of the bow in the adverse sea conditions, the slamming problem always plays the important role. Due to its strong nonlinear effect, however, it seems to be not easy to obtain the accurate simulation results. Combined with the strong interaction between the fluid field and the elastic structure, the difficulty for the simulation leads to a new level for challenging. This paper presents a fully Lagrangian coupled solver for simulations of fluid-structure interactions, which is based on the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method to solve the governing equations corresponding to incompressible flows as well as elastic structures. The developed solver is verified by reproducing the high velocity impact loads of deformable thin wedges with two different materials such as aluminum and steel on water entry. The present simulation results are compared with analytical solution derived using the hydrodynamic Wagner model and linear theory by Wan.

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, elastic structure, incompressible flow, wedge slamming impact

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16839 Hydraulic Performance of Curtain Wall Breakwaters Based on Improved Moving Particle Semi-Implicit Method

Authors: Iddy Iddy, Qin Jiang, Changkuan Zhang

Abstract:

This paper addresses the hydraulic performance of curtain wall breakwaters as a coastal structure protection based on the particles method modelling. The hydraulic functions of curtain wall as wave barriers by reflecting large parts of incident waves through the vertical wall, a part transmitted and a particular part was dissipating the wave energies through the eddy flows formed beneath the lower end of the plate. As a Lagrangian particle, the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method which has a robust capability for numerical representation has proven useful for design of structures application that concern free-surface hydrodynamic flow, such as wave breaking and overtopping. In this study, a vertical two-dimensional numerical model for the simulation of violent flow associated with the interaction between the curtain-wall breakwaters and progressive water waves is developed by MPS method in which a higher precision pressure gradient model and free surface particle recognition model were proposed. The wave transmission, reflection, and energy dissipation of the vertical wall were experimentally and theoretically examined. With the numerical wave flume by particle method, very detailed velocity and pressure fields around the curtain-walls under the action of waves can be computed in each calculation steps, and the effect of different wave and structural parameters on the hydrodynamic characteristics was investigated. Also, the simulated results of temporal profiles and distributions of velocity and pressure in the vicinity of curtain-wall breakwaters are compared with the experimental data. Herein, the numerical investigation of hydraulic performance of curtain wall breakwaters indicated that the incident wave is largely reflected from the structure, while the large eddies or turbulent flows occur beneath the curtain-wall resulting in big energy losses. The improved MPS method shows a good agreement between numerical results and analytical/experimental data which are compared to related researches. It is thus verified that the improved pressure gradient model and free surface particle recognition methods are useful for enhancement of stability and accuracy of MPS model for water waves and marine structures. Therefore, it is possible for particle method (MPS method) to achieve an appropriate level of correctness to be applied in engineering fields through further study.

Keywords: curtain wall breakwaters, free surface flow, hydraulic performance, improved MPS method

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16838 An Improved Tracking Approach Using Particle Filter and Background Subtraction

Authors: Amir Mukhtar, Dr. Likun Xia

Abstract:

An improved, robust and efficient visual target tracking algorithm using particle filtering is proposed. Particle filtering has been proven very successful in estimating non-Gaussian and non-linear problems. In this paper, the particle filter is used with color feature to estimate the target state with time. Color distributions are applied as this feature is scale and rotational invariant, shows robustness to partial occlusion and computationally efficient. The performance is made more robust by choosing the different (YIQ) color scheme. Tracking is performed by comparison of chrominance histograms of target and candidate positions (particles). Color based particle filter tracking often leads to inaccurate results when light intensity changes during a video stream. Furthermore, background subtraction technique is used for size estimation of the target. The qualitative evaluation of proposed algorithm is performed on several real-world videos. The experimental results demonstrate that the improved algorithm can track the moving objects very well under illumination changes, occlusion and moving background.

Keywords: tracking, particle filter, histogram, corner points, occlusion, illumination

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16837 An Efficient Fundamental Matrix Estimation for Moving Object Detection

Authors: Yeongyu Choi, Ju H. Park, S. M. Lee, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved method for estimating fundamental matrix is proposed. The method is applied effectively to monocular camera based moving object detection. The method consists of corner points detection, moving object’s motion estimation and fundamental matrix calculation. The corner points are obtained by using Harris corner detector, motions of moving objects is calculated from pyramidal Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm. Through epipolar geometry analysis using RANSAC, the fundamental matrix is calculated. In this method, we have improved the performances of moving object detection by using two threshold values that determine inlier or outlier. Through the simulations, we compare the performances with varying the two threshold values.

Keywords: corner detection, optical flow, epipolar geometry, RANSAC

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
16836 Application of Adaptive Particle Filter for Localizing a Mobile Robot Using 3D Camera Data

Authors: Maysam Shahsavari, Seyed Jamalaldin Haddadi

Abstract:

There are several methods to localize a mobile robot such as relative, absolute and probabilistic. In this paper, particle filter due to its simple implementation and the fact that it does not need to know to the starting position will be used. This method estimates the position of the mobile robot using a probabilistic distribution, relying on a known map of the environment instead of predicting it. Afterwards, it updates this estimation by reading input sensors and control commands. To receive information from the surrounding world, distance to obstacles, for example, a Kinect is used which is much cheaper than a laser range finder. Finally, after explaining the Adaptive Particle Filter method and its implementation in detail, we will compare this method with the dead reckoning method and show that this method is much more suitable for situations in which we have a map of the environment.

Keywords: particle filter, localization, methods, odometry, kinect

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
16835 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Study of Flow near Moving Wall of Various Surface Types Using Moving Mesh Method

Authors: Khizir Mohd Ismail, Yu Jun Lim, Tshun Howe Yong

Abstract:

The study of flow behavior in an enclosed volume using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been around for decades. However, due to the knowledge limitation of adaptive grid methods, the flow in an enclosed volume near the moving wall using CFD is less explored. A CFD simulation of flow in an enclosed volume near a moving wall was demonstrated and studied by introducing a moving mesh method and was modeled with Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach. A static enclosed volume with controlled opening size in the bottom was positioned against a moving, translational wall with sliding mesh features. Controlled variables such as smoothed, crevices and corrugated wall characteristics, the distance between the enclosed volume to the wall and the moving wall speed against the enclosed chamber were varied to understand how the flow behaves and reacts in between these two geometries. These model simulations were validated against experimental results and provided result confidence when the simulation had shown good agreement with the experimental data. This study had provided better insight into the flow behaving in an enclosed volume when various wall types in motion were introduced within the various distance between each other and create a potential opportunity of application which involves adaptive grid methods in CFD.

Keywords: moving wall, adaptive grid methods, CFD, moving mesh method

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16834 On Periodic Integer-Valued Moving Average Models

Authors: Aries Nawel, Bentarzi Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper deals with the study of some probabilistic and statistical properties of a Periodic Integer-Valued Moving Average Model (PINMA_{S}(q)). The closed forms of the mean, the second moment and the periodic autocovariance function are obtained. Furthermore, the time reversibility of the model is discussed in details. Moreover, the estimation of the underlying parameters are obtained by the Yule-Walker method, the Conditional Least Square method (CLS) and the Weighted Conditional Least Square method (WCLS). A simulation study is carried out to evaluate the performance of the estimation method. Moreover, an application on real data set is provided.

Keywords: periodic integer-valued moving average, periodically correlated process, time reversibility, count data

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16833 Motion of a Dust Grain Type Particle in Binary Stellar Systems

Authors: Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah

Abstract:

In this present paper, we use the photogravitational version of the restricted three body problem (RTBP) in binary systems. In the photogravitational RTBP, an infinitesimal particle (dust grain) is moving under the gravitational attraction and radiation pressure from the two bigger primaries. The third particle does not affect the motion of two bigger primaries. The zero-velocity curves, zero-velocity surfaces and their projections on the plane are studied. We have used existing analytical method to solve the equations of motion. We have obtained the Lagrangian points in some binary stellar systems. It is found that mass reduction factor affects the Lagrangian points. The linear stability of Lagrangian points is studied and found that these points are unstable. Moreover, trajectories of the infinitesimal particle at the triangular points are studied.

Keywords: binary systems, Lagrangian points, linear stability, photogravitational RTBP, trajectories

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16832 Super Harmonic Nonlinear Lateral Vibration of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, S. Bab, F. Rahimi Dehgolan

Abstract:

The motion of an axially moving beam with rotating prismatic joint with a tip mass on the end is analyzed to investigate the nonlinear vibration and dynamic stability of the beam. The beam is moving with a harmonic axially and rotating velocity about a constant mean velocity. A time-dependent partial differential equation and boundary conditions with the aid of the Hamilton principle are derived to describe the beam lateral deflection. After the partial differential equation is discretized by the Galerkin method, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain analytical solutions. Frequency response curves are plotted for the super harmonic resonances of the first and the second modes. The effects of non-linear term and mean velocity are investigated on the steady state response of the axially moving beam. The results are validated with numerical simulations.

Keywords: super harmonic resonances, non-linear vibration, axially moving beam, Galerkin method

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16831 Dynamic Response of Euler- Bernoulli Beam on Variable Pre-stressed under a Partially Distributed Moving Load

Authors: Idowu Ibikunle Albert

Abstract:

In this 21st century, all areas of transport have experienced large advances characterized by increasing in higher speeds and weight of vehicles. As a result, the structures and weight of vehicles move have been subjected to different vibrations and dynamics. In this paper dynamics response of the Euler-Bernoulli beam on variable pre-stressed under a partially distributed moving load was investigated. The governed equation of the fourth-order partially differential equation (PDE), which was reduced to the second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE), using an analytical method in term of series solution which was solved numerically using mathematics software (MAPLE 16). The Results show the response amplitude of both moving masses and moving force for variable pre-stressed increase as the mass of the load increases, and the deflection of the beam decrease as the values of pre-stressed (N) increases for both moving mass and moving force. The comparison of moving mass and moving force shows that moving mass is larger than that of moving force.

Keywords: dynamic response, Euler-Bernoulli beam, moving load, partially distributed, variable pre-stressed foundation

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16830 Critical Velocities for Particle Transport from Experiments and CFD Simulations

Authors: Sajith Sajeev, Brenton McLaury, Siamack Shirazi

Abstract:

In the petroleum industry, solid particles are often present along with the produced fluids. It is imperative to keep particles from accumulating in flow lines. In this study, various experiments are conducted to study sand particle transport, where critical velocity is defined as the average fluid velocity to keep particles continuously moving. Many parameters related to the fluid, particles and pipe affect the transport process. Experimental results are presented varying the particle concentration. Additionally, CFD simulations using a discrete element modeling (DEM) approach are presented to compare with experimental result.

Keywords: particle transport, critical velocity, CFD, DEM

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16829 Shock and Particle Velocity Determination from Microwave Interrogation

Authors: Benoit Rougier, Alexandre Lefrancois, Herve Aubert

Abstract:

Microwave interrogation in the range 10-100 GHz is identified as an advanced technique to investigate simultaneously shock and particle velocity measurements. However, it requires the understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation in a multi-layered moving media. The existing models limit their approach to wave guides or evaluate the velocities with a fitting method, restricting therefore the domain of validity and the precision of the results. Moreover, few data of permittivity on high explosives at these frequencies under dynamic compression have been reported. In this paper, shock and particle velocities are computed concurrently for steady and unsteady shocks for various inert and reactive materials, via a propagation model based on Doppler shifts and signal amplitude. Refractive index of the material under compression is also calculated. From experimental data processing, it is demonstrated that Hugoniot curve can be evaluated. The comparison with published results proves the accuracy of the proposed method. This microwave interrogation technique seems promising for shock and detonation waves studies.

Keywords: electromagnetic propagation, experimental setup, Hugoniot measurement, shock propagation

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16828 Coupled Analysis with Fluid and Flexible Multibody Dynamics of 6-DOF Platform with Liquid Sloshing Tank

Authors: Sung-Pill Kim, Dae-Gyu Sung, Hee-Sung Shin, Jong-Chun Park

Abstract:

When a sloshing tank filled partially with liquid is excited with the motion of platform, it can be observed that the center of mass inside the tank is changed and impact loads is instantaneously applied to the wall, which causes dynamic loads additionally to the supporting links of platform. In this case, therefore, the dynamic behavior of platform associated with fluid motion should be considered in the early stage of design for safety and economics of the system. In this paper, the dynamic loads due to liquid sloshing motion in a rectangular tank which is loaded up on the upper deck of a Stewart platform are simulated using a coupled analysis of Moving Particle Simulation (MPS) and Flexible Multi-Body Dynamics (FMBD). The co-simulation is performed using two commercial softwares, Recurdyn for solving FMBD and Particleworks for analyzing fluid motion based on MPS method. For validating the present coupled system, a rectangular sloshing tank being enforced with inline sway motion by 1-DOF motion platform is assumed, and time-varied free-surface elevation and reaction force at a fixed joint are compared with experiments.

Keywords: dynamic loads, liquid sloshing tank, Stewart platform, moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, flexible multi-body dynamics (FMBD)

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16827 Design and Manufacture of Non-Contact Moving Load for Experimental Analysis of Beams

Authors: Firooz Bakhtiari-Nejad, Hamidreza Rostami, Meysam Mirzaee, Mona Zandbaf

Abstract:

Dynamic tests are an important step of the design of engineering structures, because the accuracy of predictions of theoretical–numerical procedures can be assessed. In experimental test of moving loads that is one of the major research topics, the load is modeled as a simple moving mass or a small vehicle. This paper deals with the applicability of Non-Contact Moving Load (NML) for vibration analysis. For this purpose, an experimental set-up is designed to generate the different types of NML including constant and harmonic. The proposed method relies on pressurized air which is useful, especially when dealing with fragile or sensitive structures. To demonstrate the performance of this system, the set-up is employed for a modal analysis of a beam and detecting crack of the beam. The obtained results indicate that the experimental set-up for NML can be an attractive alternative to the moving load problems.

Keywords: experimental analysis, moving load, non-contact excitation, materials engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
16826 Simulation of Complex - Shaped Particle Breakage with a Bonded Particle Model using the Discrete Element Method

Authors: Felix Platzer, Eric Fimbinger

Abstract:

In Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations, particle breakage behavior is possible to be simulated in different ways. In the case of relatively large and furthermore complex-shaped particles that show various breakage patterns depending on the scenario leading to the failure and which often only show breakage appearing locally instead of a full fracture of the particle, some DEM simulation methods do not lead to realistic results. This is due to the fact that in those methods, such as the Particle Replacement Method (PRM) or Voronoi Fracture, the initial particle is completely replaced by sub-particles when certain breakage criteria are reached, for instance, when exceeding a certain predefined fracture energy level. This aspect highlights why those methods are commonly used for the simulation of materials that fracture completely instead of breaking locally. For enabling particle models to allow local failure, it is advisable to pre-build the initial particle from sub-particles that are bonded together. The dimensions of these sub-particles automatically define the minimum size of the fracture results. This structure of bonded sub-particles enables the initial particle conglomerate to break at the location of the highest local bonding load due to the failure of these bonds in those areas; correspondingly, with several sub-particle clusters being the result of the fracture, which further again allow breakage. In this project, different methods for the generation and calibration of complex-shaped particle conglomerates, further with the ability to depict realistic fracture behavior, were evaluated based on the example of filter cake fragments. The method that proved to be suited best for this purpose is presented in this paper, thus enabling an efficient and realistic simulation of the breakage behavior of complex-shaped particles, which moreover allows the application to industrial-sized simulations due to their computational-efficient characteristics as revealed.

Keywords: bonded particle model, DEM, filter cake, particle breakage

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16825 Structural Characterization and Application of Tio2 Nano-Partical

Authors: Maru Chetan, Desai Abhilash

Abstract:

The structural characteristics & application of TiO2 powder with different phases are study by various techniques in this paper. TTIP, EG and citric acid use as Ti source and catalyst respectively synthesis for sol gel synthesis of TiO2 powder. To replace sol gel method we develop the new method of making nano particle of TiO2 powder. It is two route method one is physical and second one is chemical route. Specific aim to this process is to minimize the production cost and the large scale production of nano particle The synthesis product work characterize by EDAX, SEM, XRD tests.

Keywords: mortal and pestle, nano particle , TiO2, TTIP

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16824 Effect of Bi-Dispersity on Particle Clustering in Sedimentation

Authors: Ali Abbas Zaidi

Abstract:

In free settling or sedimentation, particles form clusters at high Reynolds number and dilute suspensions. It is due to the entrapment of particles in the wakes of upstream particles. In this paper, the effect of bi-dispersity of settling particles on particle clustering is investigated using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. Immersed boundary method is used for particle fluid interactions and discrete element method is used for particle-particle interactions. The solid volume fraction used in the simulation is 1% and the Reynolds number based on Sauter mean diameter is 350. Both solid volume fraction and Reynolds number lie in the clustering regime of sedimentation. In simulations, the particle diameter ratio (i.e. diameter of larger particle to smaller particle (d₁/d₂)) is varied from 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. For each case of particle diameter ratio, solid volume fraction for each particle size (φ₁/φ₂) is varied from 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. For comparison, simulations are also performed for monodisperse particles. For studying particles clustering, radial distribution function and instantaneous location of particles in the computational domain are studied. It is observed that the degree of particle clustering decreases with the increase in the bi-dispersity of settling particles. The smallest degree of particle clustering or dispersion of particles is observed for particles with d₁/d₂ equal to 4:1 and φ₁/φ₂ equal to 1:2. Simulations showed that the reduction in particle clustering by increasing bi-dispersity is due to the difference in settling velocity of particles. Particles with larger size settle faster and knockout the smaller particles from clustered regions of particles in the computational domain.

Keywords: dispersion in bi-disperse settling particles, particle microstructures in bi-disperse suspensions, particle resolved direct numerical simulations, settling of bi-disperse particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
16823 Particle Swarm Optimization and Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization to Multidimensional Function Approximation

Authors: Diogo Silva, Fadul Rodor, Carlos Moraes

Abstract:

This work compares the results of multidimensional function approximation using two algorithms: the classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO). These algorithms were both tested on three functions - The Rosenbrock, the Rastrigin, and the sphere functions - with different characteristics by increasing their number of dimensions. As a result, this study shows that the higher the function space, i.e. the larger the function dimension, the more evident the advantages of using the QPSO method compared to the PSO method in terms of performance and number of necessary iterations to reach the stop criterion.

Keywords: PSO, QPSO, function approximation, AI, optimization, multidimensional functions

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16822 A Background Subtraction Based Moving Object Detection Around the Host Vehicle

Authors: Hyojin Lim, Cuong Nguyen Khac, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose moving object detection method which is helpful for driver to safely take his/her car out of parking lot. When moving objects such as motorbikes, pedestrians, the other cars and some obstacles are detected at the rear-side of host vehicle, the proposed algorithm can provide to driver warning. We assume that the host vehicle is just before departure. Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based background subtraction is basically applied. Pre-processing such as smoothing and post-processing as morphological filtering are added.We examine “which color space has better performance for detection of moving objects?” Three color spaces including RGB, YCbCr, and Y are applied and compared, in terms of detection rate. Through simulation, we prove that RGB space is more suitable for moving object detection based on background subtraction.

Keywords: gaussian mixture model, background subtraction, moving object detection, color space, morphological filtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
16821 Time-Frequency Feature Extraction Method Based on Micro-Doppler Signature of Ground Moving Targets

Authors: Ke Ren, Huiruo Shi, Linsen Li, Baoshuai Wang, Yu Zhou

Abstract:

Since some discriminative features are required for ground moving targets classification, we propose a new feature extraction method based on micro-Doppler signature. Firstly, the time-frequency analysis of measured data indicates that the time-frequency spectrograms of the three kinds of ground moving targets, i.e., single walking person, two people walking and a moving wheeled vehicle, are discriminative. Then, a three-dimensional time-frequency feature vector is extracted from the time-frequency spectrograms to depict these differences. At last, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is trained with the proposed three-dimensional feature vector. The classification accuracy to categorize ground moving targets into the three kinds of the measured data is found to be over 96%, which demonstrates the good discriminative ability of the proposed micro-Doppler feature.

Keywords: micro-doppler, time-frequency analysis, feature extraction, radar target classification

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16820 Numerical Simulation of a Three-Dimensional Framework under the Action of Two-Dimensional Moving Loads

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to develop a general technique so that one may predict the dynamic behaviour of a three-dimensional scale crane model subjected to time-dependent moving point forces by means of conventional finite element computer packages. To this end, the whole scale crane model is divided into two parts: the stationary framework and the moving substructure. In such a case, the dynamic responses of a scale crane model can be predicted from the forced vibration responses of the stationary framework due to actions of the four time-dependent moving point forces induced by the moving substructure. Since the magnitudes and positions of the moving point forces are dependent on the relative positions between the trolley, moving substructure and the stationary framework, it can be found from the numerical results that the time histories for the moving speeds of the moving substructure and the trolley are the key factors affecting the dynamic responses of the scale crane model.

Keywords: moving load, moving substructure, dynamic responses, forced vibration responses

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16819 Discrete Element Modeling of the Effect of Particle Shape on Creep Behavior of Rockfills

Authors: Yunjia Wang, Zhihong Zhao, Erxiang Song

Abstract:

Rockfills are widely used in civil engineering, such as dams, railways, and airport foundations in mountain areas. A significant long-term post-construction settlement may affect the serviceability or even the safety of rockfill infrastructures. The creep behavior of rockfills is influenced by a number of factors, such as particle size, strength and shape, water condition and stress level. However, the effect of particle shape on rockfill creep still remains poorly understood, which deserves a careful investigation. Particle-based discrete element method (DEM) was used to simulate the creep behavior of rockfills under different boundary conditions. Both angular and rounded particles were considered in this numerical study, in order to investigate the influence of particle shape. The preliminary results showed that angular particles experience more breakages and larger creep strains under one-dimensional compression than rounded particles. On the contrary, larger creep strains were observed in he rounded specimens in the direct shear test. The mechanism responsible for this difference is that the possibility of the existence of key particle in rounded particles is higher than that in angular particles. The above simulations demonstrate that the influence of particle shape on the creep behavior of rockfills can be simulated by DEM properly. The method of DEM simulation may facilitate our understanding of deformation properties of rockfill materials.

Keywords: rockfills, creep behavior, particle crushing, discrete element method, boundary conditions

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16818 The Improved Element Free Galerkin Method for 2D Heat Transfer Problems

Authors: Imen Debbabi, Hédi BelHadjSalah

Abstract:

The Improved Element Free Galerkin (IEFG) method is presented to treat the steady states and the transient heat transfer problems. As a result of a combination between the Improved Moving Least Square (IMLS) approximation and the Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method, the IEFG's shape functions don't have the Kronecker delta property and the penalty method is used to impose the Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, two heat transfer problems, transient and steady states, are studied to improve the efficiency of this meshfree method for 2D heat transfer problems. The performance of the IEFG method is shown using the comparison between numerical and analytic results.

Keywords: meshfree methods, the Improved Moving Least Square approximation (IMLS), the Improved Element Free Galerkin method (IEFG), heat transfer problems

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16817 Investigation of Single Particle Breakage inside an Impact Mill

Authors: E. Ghasemi Ardi, K. J. Dong, A. B. Yu, R. Y. Yang

Abstract:

In current work, a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM) was developed which provided information about particle dynamic and impact event condition inside a laboratory scale impact mill (Fritsch). It showed that each particle mostly experiences three impacts inside the mill. While the first impact frequently happens at front surface of the rotor’s rib, the frequent location of the second impact is side surfaces of the rotor’s rib. It was also showed that while the first impact happens at small impact angle mostly varying around 35º, the second impact happens at around 70º which is close to normal impact condition. Also analyzing impact energy revealed that varying mill speed from 6000 to 14000 rpm, the ratio of first impact’s average impact energy and minimum required energy to break particle (Wₘᵢₙ) increased from 0.30 to 0.85. Moreover, it was seen that second impact poses intense impact energy on particle which can be considered as the main cause of particle splitting. Finally, obtained information from DEM simulation along with obtained data from conducted experiments was implemented in semi-empirical equations in order to find selection and breakage functions. Then, using a back-calculation approach, those parameters were used to predict the PSDs of ground particles under different impact energies. Results were compared with experiment results and showed reasonable accuracy and prediction ability.

Keywords: single particle breakage, particle dynamic, population balance model, particle size distribution, discrete element method

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16816 Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution (RESS) Carbon Dioxide as an Environmental Friendly Method for Ginger Rhizome Solid Oil Particles Formation

Authors: N. A. Zainuddin, I. Norhuda, I. S. Adeib, A. N. Mustapa, S. H. Sarijo

Abstract:

Recently, RESS (Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution) method has been used by researchers to produce fine particles for pharmaceutical drug substances. Since RESS technology acknowledges a lot of benefits compare to conventional method of ginger extraction, it is suggested to use this method to explore particle formation of bioactive compound from powder ginger. The objective of this research is to produce direct solid oil particles formation from ginger rhizome which contains valuable compounds by using RESS-CO2 process. RESS experiments were carried using extraction pressure of 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000psi and at different extraction temperature of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70°C for 40 minutes extraction time and contant flowrate (24ml/min). From the studies conducted, it was found that at extraction pressure 5000psi and temperature 40°C, the smallest particle size obtained was 2.22μm on 99 % reduction from the original size of 370μm.

Keywords: particle size, RESS, solid oil particle, supercritical carbon dioxide,

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16815 Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed

Authors: Zhao Wang, Hong Yan

Abstract:

In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved. The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.

Keywords: gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme, momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization

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16814 Non-Linear Vibration and Stability Analysis of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating-Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, F. Rahimi Dehgolan

Abstract:

In this paper, the dynamic modeling of a single-link flexible beam with a tip mass is given by using Hamilton's principle. The link has been rotational and translational motion and it was assumed that the beam is moving with a harmonic velocity about a constant mean velocity. Non-linearity has been introduced by including the non-linear strain to the analysis. Dynamic model is obtained by Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption and modal expansion method. Also, the effects of rotary inertia, axial force, and associated boundary conditions of the dynamic model were analyzed. Since the complex boundary value problem cannot be solved analytically, the multiple scale method is utilized to obtain an approximate solution. Finally, the effects of several conditions on the differences among the behavior of the non-linear term, mean velocity on natural frequencies and the system stability are discussed.

Keywords: non-linear vibration, stability, axially moving beam, bifurcation, multiple scales method

Procedia PDF Downloads 244