Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: sloshing-induced overflow

36 Predicting Mixing Patterns of Overflows from a Square Manhole

Authors: Modupe O. Jimoh


During manhole overflows, its contents pollute the immediate environment. Understanding the pollutant transfer characteristics between manhole’s incoming sewer and the overflow is therefore of great importance. A square manhole with sides 388 mm by 388 mm and height 700 mm with an overflow facility was used in the laboratory to carry out overflow concentration measurements. Two scenarios were investigated using three flow rates. The first scenario corresponded to when the exit of the pipe becomes blocked and the only exit for the flow is the manhole. The second scenario is when there is an overflow in combination with a pipe exit. The temporal concentration measurements showed that the peak concentration of pollutants in the flow was attenuated between the inlet and the overflow. A deconvolution software was used to predict the Residence time distribution (RTD) and consequently the Cumulative Residence time distribution (CRTD). The CRTDs suggest that complete mixing is occurring between the pipe inlet and the overflow, like what is obtained in a low surcharged manhole. The results also suggest that an instantaneous stirred tank reactor model can describe the mixing characteristics.

Keywords: CRTDs, instantaneous stirred tank reactor model, overflow, square manholes, surcharge, temporal concentration profiles

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35 Predicting Stack Overflow Accepted Answers Using Features and Models with Varying Degrees of Complexity

Authors: Osayande Pascal Omondiagbe, Sherlock a Licorish


Stack Overflow is a popular community question and answer portal which is used by practitioners to solve technology-related challenges during software development. Previous studies have shown that this forum is becoming a substitute for official software programming languages documentation. While tools have looked to aid developers by presenting interfaces to explore Stack Overflow, developers often face challenges searching through many possible answers to their questions, and this extends the development time. To this end, researchers have provided ways of predicting acceptable Stack Overflow answers by using various modeling techniques. However, less interest is dedicated to examining the performance and quality of typically used modeling methods, and especially in relation to models’ and features’ complexity. Such insights could be of practical significance to the many practitioners that use Stack Overflow. This study examines the performance and quality of various modeling methods that are used for predicting acceptable answers on Stack Overflow, drawn from 2014, 2015 and 2016. Our findings reveal significant differences in models’ performance and quality given the type of features and complexity of models used. Researchers examining classifiers’ performance and quality and features’ complexity may leverage these findings in selecting suitable techniques when developing prediction models.

Keywords: feature selection, modeling and prediction, neural network, random forest, stack overflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
34 Sloshing-Induced Overflow Assessment of the Seismically-Isolated Nuclear Tanks

Authors: Kihyon Kwon, Hyun T. Park, Gil Y. Chung, Sang-Hoon Lee


This paper focuses on assessing sloshing-induced overflow of the seismically-isolated nuclear tanks based on Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis. Typically, fluid motion in the seismically-isolated nuclear tank systems may be rather amplified and even overflowed under earthquake. Sloshing-induced overflow in those structures has to be reliably assessed and predicted since it can often cause critical damages to humans and environments. FSI analysis is herein performed to compute the total cumulative overflowed water volume more accurately, by coupling ANSYS with CFX for structural and fluid analyses, respectively. The approach is illustrated on a nuclear liquid storage tank, Spent Fuel Pool (SFP), forgiven conditions under consideration: different liquid levels, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGAs), and post earthquakes.

Keywords: FSI analysis, seismically-isolated nuclear tank system, sloshing-induced overflow

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33 A Virtual Grid Based Energy Efficient Data Gathering Scheme for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

Authors: Siddhartha Chauhan, Nitin Kumar Kotania


Traditional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) generally use static sinks to collect data from the sensor nodes via multiple forwarding. Therefore, network suffers with some problems like long message relay time, bottle neck problem which reduces the performance of the network. Many approaches have been proposed to prevent this problem with the help of mobile sink to collect the data from the sensor nodes, but these approaches still suffer from the buffer overflow problem due to limited memory size of sensor nodes. This paper proposes an energy efficient scheme for data gathering which overcomes the buffer overflow problem. The proposed scheme creates virtual grid structure of heterogeneous nodes. Scheme has been designed for sensor nodes having variable sensing rate. Every node finds out its buffer overflow time and on the basis of this cluster heads are elected. A controlled traversing approach is used by the proposed scheme in order to transmit data to sink. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by simulation.

Keywords: buffer overflow problem, mobile sink, virtual grid, wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
32 BodeACD: Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities Detecting Based on Abstract Syntax Tree, Control Flow Graph, and Data Dependency Graph

Authors: Xinghang Lv, Tao Peng, Jia Chen, Junping Liu, Xinrong Hu, Ruhan He, Minghua Jiang, Wenli Cao


As one of the most dangerous vulnerabilities, effective detection of buffer overflow vulnerabilities is extremely necessary. Traditional detection methods are not accurate enough and consume more resources to meet complex and enormous code environment at present. In order to resolve the above problems, we propose the method for Buffer overflow detection based on Abstract syntax tree, Control flow graph, and Data dependency graph (BodeACD) in C/C++ programs with source code. Firstly, BodeACD constructs the function samples of buffer overflow that are available on Github, then represents them as code representation sequences, which fuse control flow, data dependency, and syntax structure of source code to reduce information loss during code representation. Finally, BodeACD learns vulnerability patterns for vulnerability detection through deep learning. The results of the experiments show that BodeACD has increased the precision and recall by 6.3% and 8.5% respectively compared with the latest methods, which can effectively improve vulnerability detection and reduce False-positive rate and False-negative rate.

Keywords: vulnerability detection, abstract syntax tree, control flow graph, data dependency graph, code representation, deep learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
31 Exploiting SLMail Server with a Developed Buffer Overflow with Kali Linux

Authors: Senesh Wijayarathne


This study focuses on how someone could develop a Buffer Overflow and could use that to exploit the SLMail Server. This study uses a Kali Linux V2018.4 Virtual Machine and Windows 7 - Internet Explorer V8 Virtual Machine (IPv4 Address - This study starts by sending continued bytes to the SLMail Server to find the crashing point range and creating a unique pattern of the length of the crashing point range to control the Extended Instruction Pointer (EIP). Then by sending all characters to SLMail Server, we could observe and find which characters are not rendered properly by the software, also known as Bad Characters. By finding the ‘Jump to the ESP register (JMP ESP) and with the help of ‘Mona Modules’, we could use msfvenom to create a non-stage windows reverse shell payload. By including all the details gathered previously on one script, we could get a system-level reverse shell of the Windows 7 PC. The end of this paper will discuss how to mitigate this vulnerability.

Keywords: slmail server, extended instruction pointer, jump to the esp register, bad characters, virtual machine, windows 7, kali Linux, buffer overflow, Seattle lab, vulnerability

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30 A Hedonic Valuation Approach to Valuing Combined Sewer Overflow Reductions

Authors: Matt S. Van Deren, Michael Papenfus


Seattle is one of the hundreds of cities in the United States that relies on a combined sewer system to collect and convey municipal wastewater. By design, these systems convey all wastewater, including industrial and commercial wastewater, human sewage, and stormwater runoff, through a single network of pipes. Serious problems arise for combined sewer systems during heavy precipitation events when treatment plants and storage facilities are unable to accommodate the influx of wastewater needing treatment, causing the sewer system to overflow into local waterways through sewer outfalls. CSOs (Combined Sewer Overflows) pose a serious threat to human and environmental health. Principal pollutants found in CSO discharge include microbial pathogens, comprising of bacteria, viruses, parasites, oxygen-depleting substances, suspended solids, chemicals or chemical mixtures, and excess nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus. While concentrations of these pollutants can vary between overflow events, CSOs have the potential to spread disease and waterborne illnesses, contaminate drinking water supplies, disrupt aquatic life, and effect a waterbody’s designated use. This paper estimates the economic impact of CSOs on residential property values. Using residential property sales data from Seattle, Washington, this paper employs a hedonic valuation model that controls for housing and neighborhood characteristics, as well as spatial and temporal effects, to predict a consumer’s willingness to pay for improved water quality near their homes. Initial results indicate that a 100,000-gallon decrease in the average annual overflow discharged from a sewer outfall within 300 meters of a home is associated with a 0.053% increase in the property’s sale price. For the average home in the sample, the price increase is estimated to be $18,860.23. These findings reveal some of the important economic benefits of improving water quality by reducing the frequency and severity of combined sewer overflows.

Keywords: benefits, hedonic, Seattle, sewer

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29 Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Height and Rate of Fluid Flow on a Stepped Spillway

Authors: Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Abbas Saki


Stepped spillways are composed of several steps, which start from around the spillway crest and continue to the downstream heel. Recently, such spillways have been receiving increasing attention due to the significant effect of the associated stairs on the flow’s rate of energy dissipation. Energy dissipation in the stepped spillways across the overflow can be explained by the watercourse contact with the stairs (i.e., large, harsh surfaces). In this context, less energy must be dissipated at the end of the spillway, and, hence, a smaller (less expensive) energy-dissipating structure is required. In this study, a stepped spillway was simulated using the model Fluent 3, and a standard model was used to model the flow disturbance. For this purpose, the energy dissipation from the stepped spillway was investigated in terms of the different numbers of stairs involved. Using k-ε, the disturbances of the numerical method for velocity and of flow depth at the downstream overflow were obtained, and, then, the energy that was dissipated throughout the spillway was calculated. Our results showed that an increase in the number of stairs can considerably increase the amount of energy dissipation for the fixed, upstream energy. In addition, the results of the numerical analyses were provided as isobar and velocity curves so points that were sensitive to cavitation could be determined.

Keywords: stepped spillway, fluent software, turbulence model of k-ε, VOF model

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28 Overtopping Protection Systems for Overflow Earth Dams

Authors: Omid Pourabdollah, Mohsen Misaghian


Overtopping is known as one the most important reasons for the failure of earth dams. In some cases, it has resulted in heavy damages and losses. Therefore, enhancing the safety of earth dams against overtopping has received much attention in the past four decades. In this paper, at first, the overtopping phenomena and its destructive consequences will be introduced. Then, overtopping failure mechanism of embankments will be described. Finally, different types of protection systems for stabilization of earth dams against overtopping will be presented. These include timber cribs, riprap and gabions, reinforced earth, roller compacted concrete, and the precast concrete blocks.

Keywords: embankment dam, overtopping, roller compacted concrete, wedge concrete block

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
27 Major Incident Tier System in the Emergency Department: An Approach

Authors: Catherine Bernard, Paul Ransom


Recent events have prompted emergency planners to re-evaluate their emergency response to major incidents and mass casualties. At the Royal Sussex County Hospital, we have adopted a tiered system comprised of three levels, anticipating an increasing P1, P2 or P3 load. This will aid planning in the golden period between Major Incident ‘Standby,’ and ‘Declared’. Each tier offers step-by-step instructions on appropriate patient movement within and out of the department, as well as suggestions for overflow areas and additional staffing levels. This system can be adapted to individual hospitals and provides concise instructions to be followed in a potentially overwhelming situation.

Keywords: disaster planning, emergency preparedness, major incident planning, mass casualty event

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
26 Contributions of Natural and Human Activities to Urban Surface Runoff with Different Hydrological Scenarios (Orléans, France)

Authors: Al-Juhaishi Mohammed, Mikael Motelica-Heino, Fabrice Muller, Audrey Guirimand-Dufour, Christian Défarge


This study aims at improving the urban hydrological cycle of the Orléans agglomeration (France) and understanding the relationship between physical and chemical parameters of urban surface runoff and the hydrological conditions. In particular water quality parameters such as pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, major dissolved cations and anions, and chemical and biological oxygen demands were monitored for three types of urban water discharges (wastewater treatment plant output (WWTP), storm overflow and stormwater outfall) under two hydrologic scenarii (dry and wet weather). The first results were obtained over a period of five months.Each investigated (Ormes and l’Egoutier) outfall represents an urban runoff source that receives water from runoff roads, gutters, the irrigation of gardens and other sources of flow over the Earth’s surface that drains in its catchments and carries it to the Loire River. In wet weather conditions there is rain water runoff and an additional input from the roof gutters that have entered the stormwater system during rainfall. For the comparison the results La Chilesse is a storm overflow that was selected in our study as a potential source of waste water which is located before the (WWTP).The comparison of the physical-chemical parameters (total dissolved solids, turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), concentration of major cations and anions) together with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) helped to characterize sources of runoff waters in the different watersheds. It also helped to highlight the infiltration of wastewater in some stormwater systems that reject directly in the Loire River. The values of the conductivity measured in the outflow of Ormes were always higher than those measured in the other two outlets. The results showed a temporal variation for the Ormes outfall of conductivity from 1465 µS cm-1 in the dry weather flow to 650 µS cm-1 in the wet weather flow and also a spatial variation in the wet weather flow from 650 µS cm-1 in the Ormes outfall to 281 μS cm-1 in L’Egouttier outfall. The ultimate BOD (BOD28) showed a significant decrease in La Corne outfall from 210 mg L-1 in the wet weather flow to 75 mg L-1 in the dry weather flow because of the nutrient load that was transported by the runoff.

Keywords: BOD, COD, the Loire River, urban hydrology, urban dry and wet weather discharges, macronutrients

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
25 High Capacity Reversible Watermarking through Interpolated Error Shifting

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee


Reversible watermarking that not only protects the copyright but also preserve the original quality of the digital content have been intensively studied. In particular, the demand for reversible watermarking has increased. In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on interpolation-error shifting and error precompensation. The intensity of a pixel is interpolated from the intensities of neighbouring pixels, and the difference histogram between the interpolated and the original intensities is obtained and modified to embed the watermark message. By restoring the difference histogram, the embedded watermark is extracted and the original image is recovered by compensating for the interpolation error. The overflow and underflow are prevented by error precompensation. To show the performance of the method, the proposed algorithm is compared with other methods using various test images.

Keywords: reversible watermarking, high capacity, high quality, interpolated error shifting, error precompensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
24 Adaptive Threshold Adjustment of Clear Channel Assessment in LAA Down Link

Authors: Yu Li, Dongyao Wang, Xiaobao Sun, Wei Ni


In long-term evolution (LTE), the carriers around 5GHz are planned to be utilized without licenses to further enlarge system capacity. This feature is termed licensed assisted access (LAA). The channel sensing (clean channel assessment, CCA) is required before any transmission on these unlicensed carriers, in order to make sure the harmonious co-existence of LAA with other radio access technology in the unlicensed band. Obviously, the CCA threshold is very critical, which decides whether the transmission right following CCA is delivered in time and without collisions. An improper CCA threshold may cause buffer overflow of some eNodeBs if the eNodeBs are heavily loaded with the traffic. Thus, to solve these problems, we propose an adaptive threshold adjustment method for CCA in the LAA downlink. Both the load and transmission opportunities are concerned. The trend of the LAA throughput as the threshold varies is obtained, which guides the threshold adjustment. The co-existing between LAA and Wi-Fi is particularly tested. The results from system-level simulation confirm the merits of our design, especially in heavy traffic cases.

Keywords: LTE, LAA, CCA, threshold adjustment

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
23 Fuzzy Logic and Control Strategies on a Sump

Authors: Nasser Mohamed Ramli, Nurul Izzati Zulkifli


Sump can be defined as a reservoir which contains slurry; a mixture of solid and liquid or water, in it. Sump system is an unsteady process owing to the level response. Sump level shall be monitored carefully by using a good controller to avoid overflow. The current conventional controllers would not be able to solve problems with large time delay and nonlinearities, Fuzzy Logic controller is tested to prove its ability in solving the listed problems of slurry sump. Therefore, in order to justify the effectiveness and reliability of these controllers, simulation of the sump system was created by using MATLAB and the results were compared. According to the result obtained, instead of Proportional-Integral (PI) and Proportional-Integral and Derivative (PID), Fuzzy Logic controller showed the best result by offering quick response of 0.32 s for step input and 5 s for pulse generator, by producing small Integral Absolute Error (IAE) values that are 0.66 and 0.36 respectively.

Keywords: fuzzy, sump, level, controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
22 Analysis of Hydraulic Velocity in Fishway Using CCHE2D Model

Authors: Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Masood Mohammad Shafipor, Amir Ghotboddin


Fish way is a structure that in generally using to migrate to the place where they are spawned and is made near the spillway. Preventing fish spawning or migrating to their original place by fishway structures can affect their lives in the river or even erase one access to intended environment. The main objective of these structures is establishing a safe path for fish migration. In the present study first the hydraulic specifications of Hamidieh diversion dam were assessed and then it is problems were evaluated. In this study the dimensions of the fish way, including velocity of pools, were evaluated by CCHE2D software. Then by change slope in this structure streamlines like velocity in the pools were measured. For calibration can be use measuring local velocities in some pools. The information can be seen the fishway width of 0.3 m has minimum rate of descent in the total number of structures (pools and overflow).

Keywords: fishway, velocity, Hamidieh-Diversion Dam, CCHE2D model

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21 Digital Elevation Model Analysis of Potential Prone Flood Disaster Watershed Citarum Headwaters Bandung

Authors: Faizin Mulia Rizkika, Iqbal Jabbari Mufti, Muhammad R. Y. Nugraha, Fadil Maulidir Sube


Flooding is an event of ponding on the flat area around the river as a result of the overflow of river water was not able to be accommodated by the river and may cause damage to the infrastructure of a region. This study aimed to analyze the data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for information that plays a role in the mapping of zones prone to flooding, mapping the distribution of zones prone to flooding that occurred in the Citarum upstream using secondary data and software (ArcGIS, MapInfo), this assessment was made distribution map of flooding, there were 13 counties / districts dam flood-prone areas in Bandung, and the most vulnerable districts are areas Baleendah-Dayeuhkolot-Bojongsoang-Banjaran. The area has a low slope and the same limits with boundary rivers and areas that have excessive land use, so the water catchment area is reduced.

Keywords: mitigation, flood, citarum, DEM

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20 Text Based Shuffling Algorithm on Graphics Processing Unit for Digital Watermarking

Authors: Zayar Phyo, Ei Chaw Htoon


In a New-LSB based Steganography method, the Fisher-Yates algorithm is used to permute an existing array randomly. However, that algorithm performance became slower and occurred memory overflow problem while processing the large dimension of images. Therefore, the Text-Based Shuffling algorithm aimed to select only necessary pixels as hiding characters at the specific position of an image according to the length of the input text. In this paper, the enhanced text-based shuffling algorithm is presented with the powered of GPU to improve more excellent performance. The proposed algorithm employs the OpenCL Aparapi framework, along with XORShift Kernel including the Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) Kernel. PRNG is applied to produce random numbers inside the kernel of OpenCL. The experiment of the proposed algorithm is carried out by practicing GPU that it can perform faster-processing speed and better efficiency without getting the disruption of unnecessary operating system tasks.

Keywords: LSB based steganography, Fisher-Yates algorithm, text-based shuffling algorithm, OpenCL, XORShiftKernel

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
19 Safety System Design and Overfill Protection for Loading Asphalt onto Trucks

Authors: Wendy Ampadu, Ray Diezmos, Hassan Malik, Jeremy Hyslob


There are several technologies out there for use as high-level switches as part of a system for shutting down flow to a vessel. Given that the asphalt truck loading poses issues such as poor visibility, coating, condensation, and fumes, a solution that is robust enough to last in these conditions is often needed in industries. Furthermore, the design of the loading arm, rack, and process equipment should allow for the safety of workers. The objective of this report includes the redesign of structures for use at loading facilities and selecting an overflow technology protection from hot bitumen. The report is based on loading facilities at a Canadian bitumen production company. The engineering design approach was used to create multiple redesign concepts for the loading dock system. Research on overfill systems was also completed by surveying the existing market for technologies and securing quotes from over 20 Canadian and United States instrumentation companies. A final loading dock redesign and level transmitter for overfill protection solution were chosen.

Keywords: bitumen, reliability engineering, safety system, process safety management, asphalt, loading docks, tanker trucks

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
18 Research on Ultrafine Particles Classification Using Hydrocyclone with Annular Rinse Water

Authors: Tao Youjun, Zhao Younan


The separation effect of fine coal can be improved by the process of pre-desliming. It was significantly enhanced when the fine coal was processed using Falcon concentrator with the removal of -45um coal slime. Ultrafine classification tests using Krebs classification cyclone with annular rinse water showed that increasing feeding pressure can effectively avoid the phenomena of heavy particles passing into overflow and light particles slipping into underflow. The increase of rinse water pressure could reduce the content of fine-grained particles while increasing the classification size. The increase in feeding concentration had a negative effect on the efficiency of classification, meanwhile increased the classification size due to the enhanced hindered settling caused by high underflow concentration. As a result of optimization experiments with response indicator of classification efficiency which based on orthogonal design using Design-Expert software indicated that the optimal classification efficiency reached 91.32% with the feeding pressure of 0.03MPa, the rinse water pressure of 0.02MPa and the feeding concentration of 12.5%. Meanwhile, the classification size was 49.99 μm which had a good agreement with the predicted value.

Keywords: hydrocyclone, ultrafine classification, slime, classification efficiency, classification size

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17 Eco-Mini Bag: Mini trash Bag for Children Environment Awareness

Authors: Asep Adianto, Rinda Ulfah L., Wellya Wichi M., Lasmaria Manik


Garbage is the waste result of daily human activity which is in some to countries can leads to a crucial problem. It is realized that garbage can brings to disastrous consequences for the environment and humans. Piles of garbage will cause to overflow disaster and health problems for human being. Basically, garbage can be processed into recycled products or other utilization. However, in some cases, awareness of environment cleanliness by throwing the garbage to the dustbin is still lacking, in both adults and children. Children tend to do things based on their visual observations without thinking about the impact of their actions. Associated with awareness of cleanliness, children often littering due to the reluctance on throwing garbage to the dustbin because in some place, it’s not that easy to find where the dustbin is. The obstacle should be accommodated by making some kind of compatible dustbin. In addition, the influence of the social environment and lack of education to environmental concerns makes it even worse. Therefore, we need a method to educate people, especially children, to always care about the environment and neighborhood they live in. Because of the intended target is children, the required method should be fun, easy to do, and it doesn’t contain any compulsion act. Therefore, Eco-Mini Bag is one of considerable method to educate children in society to become more aware about environment cleanliness. Eco-Mini bag is a kind of compatible dustbin and it’s going to prevent the children not to throwing garbage in reckless way. In brief, Eco-Mini bag can increase the environment awareness on children and the whole society through exciting and convenience way.

Keywords: children, eco-mini bag, environment, garbage

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
16 Using Closed Frequent Itemsets for Hierarchical Document Clustering

Authors: Cheng-Jhe Lee, Chiun-Chieh Hsu


Due to the rapid development of the Internet and the increased availability of digital documents, the excessive information on the Internet has led to information overflow problem. In order to solve these problems for effective information retrieval, document clustering in text mining becomes a popular research topic. Clustering is the unsupervised classification of data items into groups without the need of training data. Many conventional document clustering methods perform inefficiently for large document collections because they were originally designed for relational database. Therefore they are impractical in real-world document clustering and require special handling for high dimensionality and high volume. We propose the FIHC (Frequent Itemset-based Hierarchical Clustering) method, which is a hierarchical clustering method developed for document clustering, where the intuition of FIHC is that there exist some common words for each cluster. FIHC uses such words to cluster documents and builds hierarchical topic tree. In this paper, we combine FIHC algorithm with ontology to solve the semantic problem and mine the meaning behind the words in documents. Furthermore, we use the closed frequent itemsets instead of only use frequent itemsets, which increases efficiency and scalability. The experimental results show that our method is more accurate than those of well-known document clustering algorithms.

Keywords: FIHC, documents clustering, ontology, closed frequent itemset

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15 An Experiential Learning of Ontology-Based Multi-document Summarization by Removal Summarization Techniques

Authors: Pranjali Avinash Yadav-Deshmukh


Remarkable development of the Internet along with the new technological innovation, such as high-speed systems and affordable large storage space have led to a tremendous increase in the amount and accessibility to digital records. For any person, studying of all these data is tremendously time intensive, so there is a great need to access effective multi-document summarization (MDS) systems, which can successfully reduce details found in several records into a short, understandable summary or conclusion. For semantic representation of textual details in ontology area, as a theoretical design, our system provides a significant structure. The stability of using the ontology in fixing multi-document summarization problems in the sector of catastrophe control is finding its recommended design. Saliency ranking is usually allocated to each phrase and phrases are rated according to the ranking, then the top rated phrases are chosen as the conclusion. With regards to the conclusion quality, wide tests on a selection of media announcements are appropriate for “Jammu Kashmir Overflow in 2014” records. Ontology centered multi-document summarization methods using “NLP centered extraction” outshine other baselines. Our participation in recommended component is to implement the details removal methods (NLP) to enhance the results.

Keywords: disaster management, extraction technique, k-means, multi-document summarization, NLP, ontology, sentence extraction

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14 Evaluation of Flood Events in Respect of Disaster Management in Turkey

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan, Hasan Uzun


Flood is the event which damage to the surrounding lands, residential places, infrastructure and vibrant, because of the streams overflow events from its bed for several reasons. Flood is a natural formation which develops due to its region's climatic conditions, technical and topographical characteristics. However, factors causing floods with global warming caused by human activity are events such as uncontrolled urbanization. Floods in Turkey are natural disasters which cause huge economic losses after the earthquake. At the same time, the flood disaster is one of the most observed hydrometeorological disasters, compared to 30%, in Turkey. Every year, there are around 200 flood-flood disasters and the disaster as a result of financial losses of $ 100 million per year are reported to occur in public institutions. The amount allocated for carrying out investment-project activities for reducing and controlling of flood damage control are around US $ 30 million per year. The existence of a linear increase in the number of flood disasters is noteworthy due to various reasons in the last 50 years of observation. In this study, first of all, big events of the flood in Turkey and their reasons were examined. And then, the information about the work to be done in order to prevent flooding by government was given with examples. Meteorological early warning systems, flood risk maps and regulation of urban development studies are described for this purpose. As a result, recommendations regarding in the event of the occurrence of floods disaster management were issues raised.

Keywords: flood, disaster, disaster management, Türkiye

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
13 Shallow Water Lidar System in Measuring Erosion Rate of Coarse-Grained Materials

Authors: Ghada S. Ellithy, John. W. Murphy, Maureen K. Corcoran


Erosion rate of soils during a levee or dam overtopping event is a major component in risk assessment evaluation of breach time and downstream consequences. The mechanism and evolution of dam or levee breach caused by overtopping erosion is a complicated process and difficult to measure during overflow due to accessibility and quickly changing conditions. In this paper, the results of a flume erosion tests are presented and discussed. The tests are conducted on a coarse-grained material with a median grain size D50 of 5 mm in a 1-m (3-ft) wide flume under varying flow rates. Each test is performed by compacting the soil mix r to its near optimum moisture and dry density as determined from standard Proctor test in a box embedded in the flume floor. The box measures 0.45 m wide x 1.2 m long x 0.25 m deep. The material is tested several times at varying hydraulic loading to determine the erosion rate after equal time intervals. The water depth, velocity are measured at each hydraulic loading, and the acting bed shear is calculated. A shallow water lidar (SWL) system was utilized to record the progress of soil erodibility and water depth along the scanned profiles of the tested box. SWL is a non-contact system that transmits laser pulses from above the water and records the time-delay between top and bottom reflections. Results from the SWL scans are compared with before and after manual measurements to determine the erosion rate of the soil mix and other erosion parameters.

Keywords: coarse-grained materials, erosion rate, LIDAR system, soil erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
12 Assessment of Water Quality Based on Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Parameters in Batllava Lake, Case Study Kosovo

Authors: Albana Kashtanjeva-Bytyçi, Idriz Vehapi, Rifat Morina, Osman Fetoshi


The purpose of this study is to determine the water quality in Batllava Leka through which a part of the population of the Prishtina region is supplied with drinking water. Batllava Leka is a lake built in the 70s. This lake is located in the village of Btlava in the municipality of Podujeva, with coordinates 42 ° 49′33 ″ V 21 ° 18′25 ″ L, with an area of 3.07 km2. Water supply is from the river Brvenica- Batllavë. In order to take preventive measures and improve water quality, we have conducted periodic/monthly monitoring of water quality in Lake Batllava, through microbiological and physico-chemical indicators. The monitoring was carried out during the period December 2020 - December 2021. Samples were taken at three sampling sites: at the entrance of the lake, in the middle and at the overflow, on two levels, water surface and at a depth of 30 cm. The microbiological parameters analyzed are: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, aerobic mesophilic bacteria and actinomycetes. Within the physico-chemical parameters: Dissolved Oxygen, Saturation with O2, water temperature, pH value, electrical conductivity, total soluble matter, total suspended matter, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, nitrate, total hardness, hardness of calcium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium ion, chloride, sulfates, flourine, M-alkalines, bicarbonates and heavy metals, such as: Fe, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd. The results showed that most of the physico-chemical and microbiological parameters are within the limit allowed by the WHO, except in the case of the rainiest season that exceeded some parameters.

Keywords: batllava lake, monitoring of water, physico-chemical, microbiological, heavy metals

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11 The Environmental Effects of the Flood Disaster in Anambra State

Authors: U. V. Okpala


Flood is an overflow of water that submerges or ‘drowns’ land. In developing countries it occurs as a result of blocking of natural and man-made drainages and poor maintenance of water dams/reservoirs which seldom give way after persistent heavy down pours. In coastal lowlands and swamp lands, flooding is aided mainly by blocked channels and indiscriminate sand fling of coastal swamp areas and natural drainage channel for urban development/constructions. In this paper, the causes of flood and possible scientific, technological, political, economic and social impacts of flood disaster on the environment a case study of Anambra State have been studied. Often times flooding is caused by climate change, especially in the developed economy where scientific mitigating options are highly employed. Researchers have identified Green Houses Gases (GHG) as the cause of global climate change. The recent flood disaster in Anambra State which caused physical damage to structures, social dislocation, contamination of clean drinking water, spread of water-borne diseases, shortage of crops and food supplies, death of non-tolerant tree species, disruption in transportation system, serious economic loss and psychological trauma is a function of climate change. There is need to encourage generation of renewable energy sources, use of less carbon intensive fuels and other energy efficient sources. Carbon capture/sequestration, proper management of our drainage systems and good maintenance of our dams are good option towards saving the environment.

Keywords: flooding, climate change, carbon capture, energy systems

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10 Integrated Design of Froth Flotation Process in Sludge Oil Recovery Using Cavitation Nanobubbles for Increase the Efficiency and High Viscose Compatibility

Authors: Yolla Miranda, Marini Altyra, Karina Kalmapuspita Imas


Oily sludge wastes always fill in upstream and downstream petroleum industry process. Sludge still contains oil that can use for energy storage. Recycling sludge is a method to handling it for reduce the toxicity and very probable to get the remaining oil around 20% from its volume. Froth flotation, a common method based on chemical unit for separate fine solid particles from an aqueous suspension. The basic composition of froth flotation is the capture of oil droplets or small solids by air bubbles in an aqueous slurry, followed by their levitation and collection in a froth layer. This method has been known as no intensive energy requirement and easy to apply. But the low efficiency and unable treat the high viscosity become the biggest problem in froth flotation unit. This study give the design to manage the high viscosity of sludge first and then entering the froth flotation including cavitation tube on it to change the bubbles into nano particles. The recovery in flotation starts with the collision and adhesion of hydrophobic particles to the air bubbles followed by transportation of the hydrophobic particle-bubble aggregate from the collection zone to the froth zone, drainage and enrichment of the froth, and finally by its overflow removal from the cell top. The effective particle separation by froth flotation relies on the efficient capture of hydrophobic particles by air bubbles in three steps. The important step is collision. Decreasing the bubble particles will increasing the collision effect. It cause the process more efficient. The pre-treatment, froth flotation, and cavitation tube integrated each other. The design shows the integrated unit and its process.

Keywords: sludge oil recovery, froth flotation, cavitation tube, nanobubbles, high viscosity

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9 The Effect of the Side-Weir Crest Height to Scour in Clay-Sand Mixed Sediments

Authors: F. A. Saracoglu Varol, H. Agaccıoglu


Experimental studies to investigate the depth of the scour conducted at a side-weir intersection located at the 1800 curved flume which located Hydraulic Laboratory of Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey. Side weirs were located at the middle of the straight part of the main channel. Three different lengths (25, 40 and 50 cm) and three different weir crest height (7, 10 and 12 cm) of the side weir placed on the side weir station. There is no scour when the material is only kaolin. Therefore, the cohesive bed was prepared by properly mixing clay material (kaolin) with 31% sand in all experiments. Following 24h consolidation time, in order to observe the effect of flow intensity on the scour depth, experiments were carried out for five different upstream Froude numbers in the range of 0.33-0.81. As a result of this study the relation between scour depth and upstream flow intensity as a function of time have been established. The longitudinal velocities decreased along the side weir; towards the downstream due to overflow over the side-weirs. At the beginning, the scour depth increases rapidly with time and then asymptotically approached constant values in all experiments for all side weir dimensions as in non-cohesive sediment. Thus, the scour depth reached equilibrium conditions. Time to equilibrium depends on the approach flow intensity and the dimensions of side weirs. For different heights of the weir crest, dimensionless scour depths increased with increasing upstream Froude number. Equilibrium scour depths which formed 7 cm side-weir crest height were obtained higher than that of the 12 cm side-weir crest height. This means when side-weir crest height increased equilibrium scour depths decreased. Although the upstream side of the scour hole is almost vertical, the downstream side of the hole is inclined.

Keywords: clay-sand mixed sediments, scour, side weir, hydraulic structures

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8 INNPT Nano Particles Material Technology as Enhancement Technology for Biological WWTP Performance and Capacity

Authors: Medhat Gad


Wastewater treatment became a big issue in this decade due to shortage of water resources, growth of population and modern live requirements. Reuse of treated wastewater in industrial and agriculture sectors has a big demand to substitute the shortage of clean water supply as well as to save the eco system from dangerous pollutants in insufficient treated wastewater In last decades, most of wastewater treatment plants are built using primary or secondary biological treatment technology which almost does not provide enough treatment and removal of phosphorus and nitrogen. those plants which built ten to 15 years ago also now suffering from overflow which decrease the treatment efficiency of the plant. Discharging treated wastewater which contains phosphorus and nitrogen to water reservoirs and irrigation canals destroy ecosystem and aquatic life. Using chemical material to enhance treatment efficiency for domestic wastewater but it leads to huge amount of sludge which cost a lot of money. To enhance wastewater treatment, we used INNPT nano material which consists of calcium, aluminum and iron oxides and compounds plus silica, sodium and magnesium. INNPT nano material used with a dose of 100 mg/l to upgrade SBR treatment plant in Cairo Egypt -which has three treatment tanks each with a capacity of 2500 cubic meters per day - to tertiary treatment level by removing Phosphorus, Nitrogen and increase dissolved oxygen in final effluent. The results showed that the treatment retention time decreased from 9 hours in SBR system to one hour using INNPT nano material with improvement in effluent quality while increasing plant capacity to 20 k cubic meters per day. Nitrogen removal efficiency achieved 77%, while phosphorus removal efficiency achieved 90% and COD removal efficiency was 93% which all comply with tertiary treatment limits according to Egyptian law.

Keywords: INNPT technology, nanomaterial, tertiary wastewater treatment, capacity extending

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7 Urban Water Logging Adversity: A Case Study on Disruption of Urban Landscape Due to Water Logging Problems and Probable Analytical Solutions for Urban Region on Port City Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Obidul Haque, Abbasi Khanm


Port city Chittagong, the commercial capital of Bangladesh, is flourished with fascinating topography and climatic context along with basic resources for livelihood; both shape this city and become living archives of its ecologies. Chittagong has been witnessing numerous urban development measures being taken by city development authority, though some of those seem incomplete because of lack of proper planning. Due to this unplanned trail, the blessings of nature have become the reason of sufferings for city dwellers. One of which is the water clogging due to heavy rainfall, seepage, high tide, absence of well-knit underground drainage system, and so on. The problem has reached such an extent that the first monsoon rain is enough to shut down the entire city and causing immense sufferings to livestock, specially most vulnerable groups such as children and office going people. Study shows that total discharge is higher than present drainage capacity of the canals, thus, resulting in overflow, as major channels are clogged up by dumping waste or illegal encroachment, which are supposed to flush out rain water. This paper aims to address natural and manmade causes behind urban water clogging, adverse socio-environmental hazardous effects, possibilities for probable solutions on basis of local people’s experience and rational urban planning and landscape architectural proposals such as facilitating well planned drainage system, along with waste management policies etc. which can be able to intervene in these movements to activate the mighty port city’s unfulfilled potentials.

Keywords: drainage, high-tide, urban storm water logging (USWL), urban planning, water management

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