Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: silence

59 The Relationships between the Feelings of Bullying, Self- Esteem, Employee Silence, Anger, Self- Blame and Shame

Authors: Şebnem Aslan, Demet Akarçay


The objective of this study is to investigate the feelings of health employees occurred by bullying and the relationships between these feelings at work place. In this context, the relationships between bullying and the feelings of self-esteem, employee silence, anger, self- blame and shame. This study was conducted among 512 health employees in three hospitals in Konya by using survey method and simple random sampling. The scales of bullying, self-esteem, employee silence, anger, self-blame, and shame were performed within the study. The obtained data were analyzed with descriptive analysis, correlation, confirmative factor analysis, structural equation modeling and path analysis. The results of the study showed that while bullying had a positive effect on self-esteem (.61), employee silence (.41), anger (.18), a negative effect on self-blame and shame (-.26) was observed. Employee silence affected self-blame and shame (.83) as positively. Besides, self-esteem impacted on self- blame and shame (.18), employee silence (.62) positively and self-blame and shame was observed as negatively affecting on anger (-.20). Similarly, self-esteem was found as negatively affected on anger (-.13).

Keywords: bullying, self-esteem, employee silence, anger, shame and guilt, healthcare employee

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58 Haunted Pilgrims: The Absence of Touch and the Sounds of Silence in Online Communication

Authors: Karen Armstrong


This paper explores the impact of two aspects of online communication: the absence of touch and the sound of silence. In order to place the discussion in context, the paper begins with a brief description of communication itself and the many ways in which we communicate with each other both verbally and non-verbally. Next, the discussion moves to consider the general characteristics of online communication and the ways in which it is similar as well as very different from face to face communication. This examination considers the ways we communicate primarily in email, but also through texting, instagram stickers, and twitter—the primary modes of online communication aside from face to face videos, which are less common. With few exceptions of course, most such interactions take place without sound or physical contact. First to be examined is the absence of touch, followed by the presence of silence. The paper explores these issues, concluding with the ways in which both absence of touch and the prevalence of silence are important determinants shaping communication in our online universe.

Keywords: absence of touch, communication, face-to-face, haptics, online, silence

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57 The Relationship between Organizational Silence and Voice with the Quality of Work Life among Employees of the Youth and Sports Departments of Tehran Province

Authors: Soodabeh Dehghan, Siavash Hamidzadeh, Naqshbandi Seyyed Salahedin, Ali Mohammad Safania


The present research with the aim of the relationship between organizational silence and organizational voice with quality of work-life among employees of the sport and youth departments of Tehran Province was done. The statistical population of this research includes all employees of the sport and youth departments of Tehran province, and considering the not very large number of society, the sample and society were considered to be the same, and the sample was considered as the whole number. To measure each of these variables, a questionnaire was used. The research questionnaire was presented in four sections. The results showed that, since the extension of the process of organizational silence is usually done by managers, their attitude and attitudes toward this phenomenon are prioritized and also because silence reduces learning due to lack of knowledge sharing, makes it less effective and makes changes more difficult, it is necessary to take steps to break the silence and to further urge the staff (employees) to express their beliefs (organizational voices) and to share them in the organization's fate individuals, whose beliefs are respected and so called taken into account in the organization, would be dependent on the organization and feel obliged to remain with the organization during the hardships. This affects employees' quality of work life and their satisfaction too much.

Keywords: organizational silence, organizational voice, quality of work life, the sports and youth departments of Tehran province

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56 A Novel Method for Silence Removal in Sounds Produced by Percussive Instruments

Authors: B. Kishore Kumar, Rakesh Pogula, T. Kishore Kumar


The steepness of an audio signal which is produced by the musical instruments, specifically percussive instruments is the perception of how high tone or low tone which can be considered as a frequency closely related to the fundamental frequency. This paper presents a novel method for silence removal and segmentation of music signals produced by the percussive instruments and the performance of proposed method is studied with the help of MATLAB simulations. This method is based on two simple features, namely the signal energy and the spectral centroid. As long as the feature sequences are extracted, a simple thresholding criterion is applied in order to remove the silence areas in the sound signal. The simulations were carried on various instruments like drum, flute and guitar and results of the proposed method were analyzed.

Keywords: percussive instruments, spectral energy, spectral centroid, silence removal

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55 A Combined Feature Extraction and Thresholding Technique for Silence Removal in Percussive Sounds

Authors: B. Kishore Kumar, Pogula Rakesh, T. Kishore Kumar


The music analysis is a part of the audio content analysis used to analyze the music by using the different features of audio signal. In music analysis, the first step is to divide the music signal to different sections based on the feature profiles of the music signal. In this paper, we present a music segmentation technique that will effectively segmentize the signal and thresholding technique to remove silence from the percussive sounds produced by percussive instruments, which uses two features of music, namely signal energy and spectral centroid. The proposed method impose thresholds on both the features which will vary depends on the music signal. Depends on the threshold, silence part is removed and the segmentation is done. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analyzed using MATLAB.

Keywords: percussive sounds, spectral centroid, spectral energy, silence removal, feature extraction

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54 Silencing the Protagonist: Gender and Rape Depiction in Pakistani Dramas

Authors: Saman R. Khan, Najma Sadiq


Silencing of opinions is an important aspect of Spiral of Silence theory however its applicability in rape-themed dramas requires investigation. This study focuses on the portrayal of female rape victim protagonists in Pakistani dramas and the factors influencing their behavior after rape. A quantitative content analysis was conducted on two prime-time dramas which directly dealt with female rape victims. Results indicate that the female protagonists who faced rape are shown as silent and submissive characters who are unable to communicate about their ordeal due to fear of social isolation. These findings lend support to the Spiral of Silence theory and indicate that the theory’s basic elements (inability to express opinions and fear of social isolation) exist in these TV dramas.

Keywords: gender stereotyping, rape victims, the spiral of silence, TV dramas

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53 Towards a Deconstructive Text: Beyond Language and the Politics of Absences in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot

Authors: Afia Shahid


The writing of Samuel Beckett is associated with meaning in the meaninglessness and the production of what he calls ‘literature of unword’. The casual escape from the world of words in the form of silences and pauses, in his play Waiting for Godot, urges to ask question of their existence and ultimately leads to investigate the theory behind their use in the play. This paper proposes that these absences (silence and pause) in Beckett’s play force to think ‘beyond’ language. This paper asks how silence and pause in Beckett’s text speak for the emergence of poststructuralist text. It aims to identify the significant features of the philosophy of deconstruction in the play of Beckett to demystify the hostile complicity between literature and philosophy. With the interpretive paradigm of poststructuralism this research focuses on the text as a research data. It attempts to delineate the relationship between poststructuralist theoretical concerns and text of Beckett. Keeping in view the theoretical concerns of Poststructuralist theorist Jacques Derrida, the main concern of the discussion is directed towards the notion of ‘beyond’ language into the absences that are aimed at silencing the existing discourse with the ‘radical irony’ of this anti-formal art that contains its own denial and thus represents the idea of ceaseless questioning and radical contradiction in art and any text. This article asks how text of Beckett vibrates with loud silence and has disrupted language to demonstrate the emptiness of words and thus exploring the limitless void of absences. Beckett’s text resonates with silence and pause that is neither negation nor affirmation rather a poststructuralist’s suspension of reality that is ever changing with the undecidablity of all meanings. Within the theoretical notion of Derrida’s Différance this study interprets silence and pause in Beckett’s art. The silence and pause behave like Derrida’s Différance and have questioned their own existence in the text to deconstruct any definiteness and finality of reality to extend an undecidable threshold of poststructuralists that aims to evade the ‘labyrinth of language’.

Keywords: Différance, language, pause, poststructuralism, silence, text

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52 Classroom Interaction Patterns as Correlates of Senior Secondary School Achievement in Chemistry in Awka Education Zone

Authors: Emmanuel Nkemakolam Okwuduba, Fransica Chinelo Offiah


The technique of teaching chemistry to students is one of the determining factors towards their achievement. Thus, the study investigated the relationship between classroom interaction patterns and students’ achievement in Chemistry. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of interaction in an observed chemistry classroom, determine the amount of teacher talk, student talk and period of silence and to find out the relationship between them and the mean achievement scores of students. Five research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study was a correlational survey. The sample consisted of 450 (212males and 238 females) senior secondary one students and 12 (5males and 7 females) chemistry teachers drawn from 12 selected secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra state. In each of the 12 selected schools, an intact class was used. Science Interaction Category (SIC) and Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) were developed, validated and used for data collection. Each teacher was observed three times and the interaction patterns coded using a coding sheet containing the Science Interaction Category. At the end of the observational period, the Chemistry Achievement Test (for collection of data on students’ achievement in chemistry) was administered on the students. Frequencies, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson product moment correlation were used for data analysis. The result showed that the percentages of teacher talk, student talk and silence were 59.6%, 37.6% and 2.8% respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient(r) for teacher talk, student talk and silence were -0.61, 0.76 and-0.18 respectively. The result showed negative and significant relationship between teacher talk and mean achievement scores of students; positive and significant relationship between student talk and mean achievement scores of students but there is no relationship between period of silence and mean achievement scores of students at 0.05 significant levels. The following recommendations were made based on the findings: teachers should establish high level of student talk through initiation and response as it promotes involvement and enhances achievement.

Keywords: academic achievement, chemistry, classroom, interactions patterns

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51 Social Media and Political Expression: Examining Affordances and Spiral of Silence Theories

Authors: Mustafa Oz


This study compares how do people express their opinions on the Facebook versus on Twitter. It was sought to understand whether people were more willing to express their opinions on some social media channels than others. It was assumed that fear of isolation and affordances may influence users’ opinion expression behaviors on social media websites. Thus two most popular social media websites, Twitter and Facebook, were compared. This study aims to provide the comprehensive understanding of political expression on social media platforms. An online survey (N=535) was conducted to understand respondents’ opinion expression behaviors. Overall, the results suggested that people were more likely to express their opinion on Twitter than Facebook when they think the majority does not support their opinion. The study concluded that people operate differently on Facebook versus Twitter.

Keywords: social media, spiral of silence, affordances, political expression

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50 Sports Racism in Australia: A Fifty Year Study of Bigotry and the Culture of Silence, from Mexico City to Melbourne

Authors: Tasneem Chopra


The 1968 Summer Olympics will forever be remembered for the silent protest against racism exhibited by American athletes Tommy Smith and John Carlos. Also standing on the medal podium was Australian Peter Norman, whose silent solidarity as a white sportsman completes the powerful, evocative image of that night in Mexico City. In the 50 years since Norman’s stance of solidarity with his American counterparts, Australian sports has traveled a wide arc of racism narratives, with athletes still experiencing episodes of bigotry, both on the pitch and elsewhere. Aboriginal athletes, like tennis champion Yvonne Goolagong, have endured the plaudits of appreciation for their achievements on both the national and international stage, while simultaneously being subject to both prejudice and even questions as to their right to represent their country as full, acceptable citizens. Racism in Australia is directed toward Australian athletes of colour as well as foreign sportspeople who visit the country. The complex, mutating nature of racism in Australia is also informed by the culture of silence, where fellow athletes stand mute in light of their colleagues’ experience with bigotry. This paper analyses the phenomenon of sports racism in Australia over the past fifty years, culminating in the most recent showdown between Heretier Lumumba, former Collingwood football player, and his public allegations of racism experienced by team mates over his 10 year career. It shall examine the treatment and mistreatment of athletes because of their race and will further assess how such public perceptions both shape Australian culture or are themselves a manifestation of preexisting pathologies of bigotry. Further, it will examine the efficacy of anti-racism initiatives in responding to this hate. This paper will analyse the growing influence of corporate and media entities in crafting the economics of Australian sports and assess the role of such factors in creating the narrative of racism in the nation, both as a sociological reality as well as a marker of national identity. Finally, this paper will examine the political, social and economic forces that contribute to the culture of silence in Australian society in defying racism.

Keywords: aboriginal, Australia, corporations, silence

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49 Tracing Digital Traces of Phatic Communion in #Mooc

Authors: Judith Enriquez-Gibson


This paper meddles with the notion of phatic communion introduced 90 years ago by Malinowski, who was a Polish-born British anthropologist. It explores the phatic in Twitter within the contents of tweets related to moocs (massive online open courses) as a topic or trend. It is not about moocs though. It is about practices that could easily be hidden or neglected if we let big or massive topics take the lead or if we simply follow the computational or secret codes behind Twitter itself and third party software analytics. It draws from media and cultural studies. Though at first it appears data-driven as I submitted data collection and analytics into the hands of a third party software, Twitonomy, the aim is to follow how phatic communion might be practised in a social media site, such as Twitter. Lurking becomes its research method to analyse mooc-related tweets. A total of 3,000 tweets were collected on 11 October 2013 (UK timezone). The emphasis of lurking is to engage with Twitter as a system of connectivity. One interesting finding is that a click is in fact a phatic practice. A click breaks the silence. A click in one of the mooc website is actually a tweet. A tweet was posted on behalf of a user who simply chose to click without formulating the text and perhaps without knowing that it contains #mooc. Surely, this mechanism is not about reciprocity. To break the silence, users did not use words. They just clicked the ‘tweet button’ on a mooc website. A click performs and maintains connectivity – and Twitter as the medium in attendance in our everyday, available when needed to be of service. In conclusion, the phatic culture of breaking silence in Twitter does not have to submit to the power of code and analytics. It is a matter of human code.

Keywords: click, Twitter, phatic communion, social media data, mooc

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48 The Role of Il-6-Mediated NS5ATP9 Expression in Autophagy of Liver Cancer Cells

Authors: Hongping Lu, Kelbinur Tursun, Yaru Li, Yu Zhang, Shunai Liu, Ming Han


Objective: To investigate whether NS5ATP9 is involved in IL-6 mediated autophagy and the relationship between IL-6 and NS5ATP9 in liver cancer cells. Methods: 1. Detect the mRNA and protein levels of Beclin 1 after HepG2 cells were treated with or without recombinant human IL-6 protein. 2. Measure and compare of the changes of autophagy-related genes with their respective control, after IL-6 was silenced or neutralized with monoclonal antibody against human IL-6. 3. HepG2 cells were incubated with 50 ng/ml of IL-6 in the presence or absence of PDTC. The expression of NS5ATP9 was analyzed by Western blot after 48 h. 4. After NS5ATP9-silenced HepG2 cells had been treated with 50 ng/ml recombinant IL-6 protein, we detected the Beclin 1 and LC3B (LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ) expression. 5. HepG2 cells were transfected with pNS5ATP9, si-NS5ATP9, and their respective control. Total RNA was isolated from cells and analyzed for IL-6. 6. Silence or neutralization of IL-6 in HepG2 cells which has been transfected with NS5ATP9. Beclin 1 and LC3 protein levels were analyzed by Western blot. Result: 1. After HepG2 were treated with recombinant human IL-6 protein, the expression of endogenous Beclin 1 was up-regulated at mRNA and protein level, and the conversion of endogenous LC3-I to LC3-II was also increased. These results indicated that IL-6 could induce autophagy. 2. When HepG2 cells were treated with IL-6 siRNA or monoclonal antibody against human IL-6, the expression of autophagy-related genes were decreased. 3. Exogenous human IL-6 recombinant protein up-regulated NS5ATP9 via NF-κB activation. 4. The expression of Beclin 1 and LC3B was down-regulated after IL-6 treated NS5ATP9-silenced HepG2 cells. 5. NS5ATP9 could reverse regulates IL-6 expression in HepG2 cells. 6. Silence or neutralization of IL-6 attenuates NS5ATP9-induced autophagy slightly. Conclusion: Our results implied that in HCC patients, maybe the higher level of IL-6 in the serum promoted the expression of NS5ATP9 and induced autophagy in cancer cells. And the over-expression of NS5ATP9 which induced by IL-6, in turn, increased IL-6 expression, further, promotes the IL-6/NS5ATP9-mediated autophagy and affects the progression of tumor. Therefore, NS5ATP9 silence might be a potential target for HCC therapy.

Keywords: autophagy, Hepatocellular carcinoma, IL-6, microenvironment, NS5ATP9

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47 The Feasibility and Usability of Antennas Silence Zone for Localization and Path Finding

Authors: S. Malebary, W. Xu


Antennas are important components that enable transmitting and receiving signals in mid-air (wireless). The radiation pattern of omni-directional (i.e., dipole) antennas, reflects the variation of power radiated by an antenna as a function of direction when transmitting. As the performance of the antenna is the same in transmitting and receiving, it also reflects the sensitivity of the antenna in different directions when receiving. The main observation when dealing with omni-directional antennas, regardless the application, is they equally radiate power in all directions in reference to Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP). Disseminating radio frequency signals in an omni-directional manner form a doughnut-shape-field with a cone in the middle of the elevation plane (when mounted vertically). In this paper, we investigate the existence of this physical phenomena namely silence cone zone (the zone where radiated power is nulled). First, we overview antenna types and properties that have the major impact on the shape of the electromagnetic field. Then we model various off the shelf dipoles in Matlab based on antennas’ features (dimensions, gain, operating frequency, … etc.) and compare the resulting radiation patterns. After that, we validate the existence of the null zone in Omni-directional antennas by conducting experiments and generating waveforms (using USRP1 and USRP2) at various frequencies using different types of antennas and gains in indoor/outdoor. We capture the generated waveforms around antennas' null zone in the reactive, near, and far field with a spectrum analyzer mounted on a drone, using various off the shelf antennas. We analyze the captured signals in RF-Explorer and plot the impact on received power and signal amplitude inside and around the null zone. Finally, it is concluded from evaluation and measurements the existence of null zones in Omni-directional antennas which we plan on extending this work in the near future to investigate the usability of the null zone for various applications such as localization and path finding.

Keywords: antennas, amplitude, field regions, frequency, FSPL, omni-directional, radiation pattern, RSSI, silence zone cone

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46 Candid Panchali's Unheard Womanhood: A Study of Chitra Divakurani's the Palace of Illusions

Authors: Shalini Attri


Silence has been 'scriptured' in women within dominating social structures, as the modes of speaking and behaving which deny women free investiture to language. A woman becomes the product of ideological constructions as language substantiates andro-centric bias. Constrained from writing/speaking in the public sphere, women have traditionally been confined to expressing themselves in writing private poetry, letters or diaries. The helplessness of a woman is revealed in the ways in which she is expected to speak a language, which, in fact, is man-made. There are visible binaries of coloniser- colonised; Western-Eastern; White-Black, Nature-Culture, even Male-Female that contribute significantly to our understanding of the concept of representation and its resultant politics. Normally, an author is labeled as feminist, humanist, or propagandist and this process of labeling correspond to a sense of politics besides his inclination to a particular field. One cannot even think of contemporary literature without this representational politics. Thus, each and every bit of analysis of a work of literature demands a political angle to be dealt with. Besides literature, the historical facts and manuscripts are also subject to this politics. The image of woman as someone either dependent on man or is exploited by him only provides half the picture of this representational politics. The present paper is an attempt to study Panchali’s (Draupadi of Mahabharata) voiceless articulation and her representation as a strong woman in Chitra Divakurani’s The Palace of Illusions.

Keywords: politics, representation, silence, social structures

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45 Translation as a Cultural Medium: Understanding the Mauritian Culture and History through an English Translation

Authors: Pooja Booluck


This project seeks to translate a chapter in Le Silence des Chagos by Shenaz Patel a Mauritian author whose work has never been translated before. The chapter discusses the attempt of the protagonist to return to her home country Diego Garcia after her deportation. The English translation will offer an historical account to the target audience of the deportation of Chagossians to Mauritius during the 1970s. The target audience comprises of English-speaking translation scholars translation students and African literature scholars. In light of making the cultural elements of Mauritian culture accessible the translation will maintain the cultural items such as food and oral discourses in Creole so as to preserve the authenticity of the source culture. In order to better comprehend the cultural elements mentioned the target reader will be provided with detailed footnotes explaining the cultural and historical references. This translation will also address the importance of folkloric songs in Mauritius and its intergenerational function in Mauritian communities which will also remain in Creole. While such an approach will help to preserve the meaning of the source text the borrowing technique and the foreignizing method will be employed which will in turn help the reader in becoming more familiar with the Mauritian community. Translating a text from French to English while maintaining certain words or discourses in a minority language such as Creole bears certain challenges: How does the translator ensure the comprehensibility of the reader? Are there any translation losses? What are the choices of the translator?

Keywords: Chagos archipelagos in Exile, English translation, Le Silence des Chagos, Mauritian culture and history

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44 Fear-Mongering and Its Antidotes: The Case of the Hungarian Anti-Migrant Campaign

Authors: Zsofia Nagy


A sharp increase in the number of refugees crossing Hungary during 2015, coupled with the Hungarian government’s agenda-setting strategy led to a powerful anti-migrant campaign in public, framing asylum-seekers as external threats to the country. While this campaign was, by and large, unchallenged by the Hungarian parliamentary opposition, Two-Tailed Dog Party, a Hungarian mock-party launched a counter-billboard campaign attacking the governmental discourse. Taking the latter as a case of digitally supported civic action, the paper first discusses two theoretical problems related to contemporary social movements: the problem of voice and the problem of participation. Afterward the paper presents the case of the Hungarian anti-migrant billboard campaign led by the government and the counter-billboard campaign and examines their action repertoires. It argues that a number of strategic differences are noteworthy: contrasts between traditional and digital methods, the reliance on the ’spirals of silence’ on the one hand and the breaking of this very silence on the other, where people are holding a minority opinion were given a platform and visibility in public. On a deeper level, the counter-campaign challenged the hegemonic views about public discourse. It effectively contrasted the government’s one-to-many, top-bottom approach to political communication with a campaign that relied on many-to-many communication and a bottom-up approach. While it is true that through memetic engineering, the original governmental messages were altered and the outcomes were brought back to the streets of Hungary; the effects of the two campaigns nevertheless reinforced the original anti-migrant focus of the political agenda.

Keywords: counterpublics, migration, refugees, social movements

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43 Reclaiming the Lost Jewish Identity of a Second Generation Holocaust Survivor Raised as a Christian: The Role of Art and Art Therapy

Authors: Bambi Ward


Children of Holocaust survivors have been described as inheriting their parents’ trauma as a result of ‘vicarious memory’. The term refers to a process whereby second generation Holocaust survivors subconsciously remember aspects of Holocaust trauma, despite not having directly experienced it. This can occur even when there has been a conspiracy of silence in which survivors chose not to discuss the Holocaust with their children. There are still people born in various parts of the world such as Poland, Hungary, other parts of Europe, USA, Canada and Australia, who have only learnt of their Jewish roots as adults. This discovery may occur during a parent’s deathbed confession, or when an adult child is sorting through the personal belongings of a deceased family member. Some Holocaust survivors chose to deny their Jewish heritage and raise their children as Christians. Reasons for this decision include the trauma experienced during the Holocaust for simply being Jewish, the existence of anti-Semitism, and the desire to protect one’s self and one’s family. Although there has been considerable literature written about the transgenerational impact of trauma on children of Holocaust survivors, there has been little scholarly investigation into the effects of a hidden Jewish identity on these children. This paper presents a case study of an adult child of Hungarian Holocaust survivors who was raised as a Christian. At the age of eight she was told about her family’s Jewish background, but her parents insisted that she keep this a secret, even if asked directly. She honoured their request until she turned forty. By that time she had started the challenging process of reclaiming her Jewish identity. The paper outlines the tension between family loyalty and individual freedom, and discusses the role that art and art therapy played in assisting the subject of the case study to reclaim her Jewish identity and commence writing a memoir about her spiritual journey. The main methodology used in this case study is creative practice-led research. Particular attention is paid to the utilisation of an autoethnographic approach. The autoethnographic tools used include reflective journals of the subject of the case study. These journals reflect on the subject’s collection of autobiographical data relating to her family history, and include memories, drawings, products of art therapy, diaries, letters, photographs, home movies, objects, and oral history interviews with her mother. The case study illustrates how art and art therapy benefitted a second generation Holocaust survivor who was brought up having to suppress her Jewish identity. The process allowed her to express subconscious thoughts and feelings about her identity and free herself from the burden of the long term secret she had been carrying. The process described may also be of assistance to other traumatised people who have been trying to break the silence and who are seeking to express themselves in a positive and healing way.

Keywords: art, hidden identity, holocaust, silence

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42 Links and Blocks: the Role of Language in Samuel Beckett’s Selected Plays

Authors: Su-Lien Liao


This article explores the language in the four plays of Samuel Beckett–Waiting for Godot, Endgame, Krapp’s Last Tape, and Footfalls. It considers the way in which Beckett uses language, especially through fragmentation utterances, repetitions, monologues, contradictions, and silence. It discusses the function of language in modern society, in the theater of the absurd, and in the plays. Paradoxically enough, his plays attempts to communicate the incommunicability of language.

Keywords: language, Samuel Beckett, theater of the absurd, foreign language teaching

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41 Lovely, Lyrical, Lilting: Kubrick’s Translation of Lolita’s Voice

Authors: Taylor La Carriere


“What I had madly possessed was not she, but my own creation, another, fanciful Lolita perhaps, more real than Lolita; overlapping, encasing he and having no will, no consciousness indeed, no life of her own,” Vladimir Nabokov writes in his seminal work, Lolita. Throughout Nabokov’s novel, the eponymous character is rendered nonexistent through unreliable narrator Humbert Humbert’s impenetrable narrative, infused with lyrical rationalization. Instead, Lolita is “safely solipsised,” as Humbert muses, solidifying the potential for the erasure of Lolita’s agency and identity. In this literary work, Lolita’s voice is reduced to a nearly invisible presence, only seen through the eyes of her captor. However, in Stanley Kubrick’s film adaptation of Lolita (1962), the “nymphet,” as Nabokov coins, reemerges with a voice of her own, fueled by a lyric impulse, that displaces Humbert’s first-person narration. The lyric, as defined by Catherine Ing, is the voice of the invisible; it is also characterized by performance, the concentrated utterance of individual emotion, and the appearance of spontaneity. The novel’s lyricism is largely in the service of Humbert’s “seductive” voice, while the film reorients it more to Lolita’s subjectivity. Through a close analysis of Kubrick’s cinematic techniques, this paper examines the emergence and translation of Lolita’s voice in contrast with Humbert’s attempts to silence her in Nabokov’s Lolita, hypothesizing that Kubrick translates Lolita’s presence into a visual and aural voice with lyrical attributes, exemplified through the establishment of an altered power dynamic, Sue Lyon’s transformative performance as the titular character, Nelson Riddle and Bob Harris’ musical score, and the omission of Humbert’s first-person point-of-view. In doing so, the film reclaims Lolita’s agency by taking instances of Lolita’s voice in the novel as depicted in the last half of the work and expanding upon them in a way only cinematic depictions could allow. The results of this study suggest that Lolita’s voice in Kubrick’s adaptation functions without disrupting the lyricism present in Nabokov’s source text, materializing through the actions, expressions, and performance of Sue Lyon in the film. This voice, fueled by a lyric impulse of its own, refutes the silence bestowed upon the titular character and enables its ultimate reclamation upon the silver screen.

Keywords: cinema, adaptation, Lolita, lyric voice

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40 The Marriage of a Sui Juris Girl: Permission of Wali (Guardian) or Consent of Ward in the Context of Personal Law in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Farooq


The present article explores the woman's consent as a paramount element in contracting a Muslim marriage. Also, whether permission of the wali (guardian) is a condition per se for a valid nikah (marriage deed) in the eye of law and Sharia. The researcher attempts to treat it through the related issues, inter alia; the marriage guardian, the women's legal capacity to give consent whether she is a virgin or nonvirgin and how that consent is to be given or may be understood. Does her laugh, tears or salience needs a legal interpretation as well as other female manifestations of emotion explained by the Muslim jurists? The silence of Muslim Family Law Ordinance 1961 (hereafter; MFLO 1961) in this regard and the likely reasons behind such silence is also inquired in brief. Germane to the theme, the various cases in which the true notion of woman's consent is interpreted by courts in Pakistan are also examined. In order to address the issue in hand, it is proposed to provide a brief overview of a few contemporary writers' opinions in which the real place of woman's consent in Muslim marriage is highlighted. Key to the idea of young Muslim woman's marriage, the doctrine of kafa'a (equality or suitability) between the man and woman is argued here to be grounded in the patriarchal and social norms. It is, therefore, concluded that such concept was the result of analogical reasoning and has less importance in the present time. As such it is not a valid factor in current scenarios to validate or invalidate marital bonds. A standard qualitative convention is used for this research. Among primary and secondary sources; for examples, Qur'an, Sunnah, Books, Scholarly articles, texts of law and case law is used to point out the researcher's view. In summation, the article is concluded with a bold statement that a young woman being a party to the contract, is absolutely entitled to 'full and free' consent for the Muslim marriage contract. It is the woman, an indispensable partaker and her consent (not the guardian' permission) that does validate or invalidate the said agreement in the eye of contemporary personal law and in Sharia.

Keywords: consent of woman, ejab (declaration), Nikah (marriage agreement), qabol (acceptance), sui juris (of age; independent), wali (guardian), wilayah (guardianship)

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39 Gender Based Violence and Women’s Health

Authors: Sangita Bharati


Violence against women is now well recognised as a public health problem and human rights violation of worldwide significance. It is an important risk factor for women's ill health, with far reaching consequences for both their physical and mental health. Gender based violence takes many forms and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm to the women throughout their lives. Gender based violence often manifests unequal power relation between men and women in society and the secondary status of the women because of which women have to suffer a range of health problems in silence. This paper will aim at describing a few problems related to women’s health which are directly linked to their experience as victims of gender based violence.

Keywords: violence, health, women, society

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38 Revising Australia’s Collective Memory through Post-Colonial Storytelling

Authors: Linda Jane Wells


In 1914 Topsy Smith, a woman of the First Nations Arabana tribe arrived in Alice Springs with her seven children and a herd of goats. They had come in from the goldfields at Arltunga where they had been living, and Topsy’s husband, Welsh-born Bill Smith, had recently died. Sergeant Stott, the local policeman and sub-protector of Aborigines for the region, erected a tin shed for Topsy and the children to live in, which became known as the Bungalow for half-castes. Over the years that followed many more children of mixed descent were removed from their families and brought to live at the Bungalow until, a decade later, sixty children were growing up there, cared for predominantly by Topsy Smith; Ida Standley who was the first, white schoolteacher for the town; and Sergeant Stott. The story of the Bungalow is pivotal to the foundations of social relations in the town of Alice Springs and beyond. At the same time, it is little known, recognised or understood locally, let alone more broadly. This is typical of the dominant historic narratives that have emerged out of the Australian colonial project and led to ‘the Great Australian Silence.’ The term was coined by Australian anthropologist WEH Stanner in his 1968 Boyer Lectures, in reference to the omission of the Aboriginal experience from the dominant narratives of the nation’s history. In his lecture, he attributed this silence to something that may have begun as a simple forgetting of other possible views which turned, under habit and over time, into something like a cult of forgetfulness practised on a national scale. This doctoral project, underpinned by a methodology of practice-led research, engages a bricolage of methods including archival research, ethnography, and oral histories to research the bungalow and the context in which it operated. Techniques of fictocriticism, speculative biography, autoethnography, and archival poetics are then engaged to write the research outcomes into a post-colonial, multi-genre work of creative non-fiction that speaks into the silences in the archives. The overall intent of this doctoral work is to explore and demonstrate how techniques of creative non-fiction can be used to rewrite narratives of Australian colonial history that resonate beyond the academy, thus contributing to the bank of post-colonial stories and working towards a more just, honest and inclusive national ‘memory’ and identity.

Keywords: Australian history, collective memory, creative non-fiction, postcolonialism

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37 The Speech Act Responses of Students on the Teacher’s Request in the EFL Classroom

Authors: Agis Andriani


To create an effective teaching condition, the teacher requests the students as the instruction to guide the them interactively in the learning activities in the classroom. This study involves 160 Indonesian students who study English in the university, as participants in the discourse completion test, and ten of them are interviewed. The result shows that when the students response the teacher’s request, it realizes assertives, directives, commisives, expressives, and declaratives. These indicate that the students are active, motivated, and responsive in the learning process, although in the certain condition these responses are to prevent their faces from the shyness of their silence in interaction. Therefore, it needs the teacher’s creativity to give the conducive atmosphere in order to support the students’ participation in learning English.

Keywords: discourse completion test, effective teaching, request, teacher’s creativity

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36 Debate, Discontent and National Identity in a Secular State

Authors: Man Bahadur Shahu


The secularism is a controversial, debatable and misinterpreted issue since its endorsement in the 2007 constitution in Nepal. The unprecedented acts have been seen favoring and disfavoring against the secularism within the public domain—which creates the fallacies and suspicions in the rationalization and modernization process. This paper highlights three important points: first, the secularization suddenly ruptures the silence and institutional decline of religion within the state. Second, state effort on secularism simultaneously fosters the state neutrality and state separation from religious institutions that amplify the recognition of all religious groups through the equal treatment in their festivity, rituals, and practices. Third, no state would completely secular because of their deep-rooted mindset and disposition with their own religious faiths and beliefs that largely enhance intergroup conflict, dispute, riot and turbulence in post-secular period in the name of proselytizing and conversion.

Keywords: conflict, proselytizing, religion, secular

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35 Mathematical Modelling of the Effect of Glucose on Pancreatic Alpha-Cell Activity

Authors: Karen K. Perez-Ramirez, Genevieve Dupont, Virginia Gonzalez-Velez


Pancreatic alpha-cells participate on glucose regulation together with beta cells. They release glucagon hormone when glucose level is low to stimulate gluconeogenesis from the liver. As other excitable cells, alpha cells generate Ca2+ and metabolic oscillations when they are stimulated. It is known that the glucose level can trigger or silence this activity although it is not clear how this occurs in normal and diabetic people. In this work, we propose an electric-metabolic mathematical model implemented in Matlab to study the effect of different glucose levels on the electrical response and Ca2+ oscillations of an alpha cell. Our results show that Ca2+ oscillations appear in opposite phase with metabolic oscillations in a window of glucose values. The model also predicts a direct relationship between the level of glucose and the intracellular adenine nucleotides showing a self-regulating pathway for the alpha cell.

Keywords: Ca2+ oscillations, mathematical model, metabolic oscillations, pancreatic alpha cell

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34 Sexual Violence against Men in Conflicts: A Neglected Serious Issue

Authors: Olalekan Olaluwoye, Joanne Williams, Elizabeth Hoban, Sonia Brockington


Cases of sexual violence against men have been reported in at least twenty-five conflict situations in history. However, there is a paucity of academic literature and minimal media, policy and legal discussions on sexual violence against men. Most studies and discussions remain locked in the ‘male perpetrators, female victims’ paradigm. Male victims continue to suffer the consequences of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings in silence. A rigorous narrative systematic review of the literature revealed few studies on the subject and those that exist have a narrow focus on rape as the only form of sexual violence despite the existence of other forms of sexual violence that have equally devastating effects. This paper argues that while research and discussions on sexual violence against women should continue, it is time to conduct rigorous mixed methods research to understand the experiences of men and boys survivors of sexual violence. There is a need to study sexual violence more broadly, without limiting it to rape, and to understand the determinants and health implications of sexual violence perpetrated on men. The paper concludes by proposing a research approach that gives voice to the experiences of male survivors of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings.

Keywords: conflict, male survivors, post-conflict settings, sexual violence

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33 Mothers' Perspective on Services for Children with Autism in Indonesia

Authors: Wike Wike


The aim of this study is to investigate the experience of mothers of autistic children in Indonesia in raising the children and obtaining services for them through the adequate of information. The study seeks to contribute to the knowledge emerging from the women as a mother of children with autism on health and disability area. There is silence in the Indonesian literature on this perspective, especially about the parents and/or mothers of autistic children that is the focus of this analysis. Therefore, in order to capture the points of view emerging from the mothers, a qualitative study design has been applied. The main data for this qualitative study was collected from interviews (semi-structured interview and focus group discussion) with the mothers of children with autism who are member of parenting group in autistic schools and rehabilitation centers in one of Indonesian regional cities. This study reveals that the mothers’ experience in raising a child who is diagnosed with autism is rooted in limited knowledge on autism, limited knowledge on availability of services and limited knowledge on service options. Compounding this is limited availability and accessibility of the services that are important to their child's development. An important contribution of this study is to show how tapping into the experience of mothers can provide much needed information to policy making and service planners and implementers that can improve the services for children with autism and their families.

Keywords: mothers, children with autism, disability services and policy, services

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32 National Security Threat and Fear of Rising Islamic Extremism in Bangladesh due to Influx of Rohingya Refugees

Authors: Afsana Afsar Tuly


The Rohingyas are a group of minority Muslimsin Myanmar who witnessed series of persecution, violence, and torture from Burmese military since 1948. In 2017, around 700,000 Rohingyas fled to the neighboring country Bangladesh and took shelter as refugees after facing clashes with Myanmar security forces. The number increased to 1.8 million in 2020, creating one of the largest refugee crises of recent times. This research focuses on the vulnerability and poverty faced by Rohingyas in refugee camps and how thelack of long-term solution and silence from international communitycan pose national security threat and increasing Islamic extremism in Bangladesh. Islamic religious and terrorist groups have used the Rohingyas position as stateless people to influence them into speaking against the secular government of Bangladesh. There has been increasing crime rates and formation of different rebel groups in refugee camps, causing clashes with Bangladeshi police and authority. Human trafficking, illegal drug dealings, prostitution, and other illicit activities have continuously gone up in the southeastern part of Bangladesh. Some economic, social, and environmental factors are studied and analyzed to show the change in Bangladesh between 2017 and 2020.

Keywords: national security threat, islamic extremism, rohingya refugees, refugee studies, Bangladesh, myanmar

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31 Bakla Po Ako (I Am Gay): A Case Study on the Communication Styles of Selected Filipino Gays in Disclosing Their Sexual Orientation to Their Parents

Authors: Bryan Christian Baybay, M. Francesca Ronario


This study is intended to answer the question “What are the communication styles of selected Filipino gays in breaking their silence on their sexual orientation to their parents?” In this regard, six cases of Filipino gay disclosures were examined through in-depth interviews. The participants were selected through purposive sampling and snowball technique. The theories, Rhetorical Sensitivity of Roderick Hart and Communicator Style of Robert Norton were used to analyze the gathered data and to give support to the communication attitudes, message processing, message rendering and communication styles exhibited in each disclosure. As secondary data and validation, parents and experts in the field of communication, sociology, and psychology were also interviewed and consulted. The study found that Filipino gays vary in the communication styles they use during the disclosure with their parents. All communication styles: impression-leaving, contentious, open, dramatic, dominant, precise, relaxed, friendly, animated, and communicator image were observed by the gays depending on their motivation, relationship and thoughts contemplated. These results lend ideas for future researchers to look into the communication patterns and/or styles of lesbians, bisexuals, transgenders and queers or expand researches on the same subject and the utilization of Social Judgment and Relational Dialectics theories in determining and analyzing LGBTQ communication.

Keywords: communication attitudes, communication styles, Filipino gays, self-disclosure, sexual orientation

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30 Noise of Aircraft Flyovers Affects Reading Saccades

Authors: Svea Missfeldt, Rainer Höger


A number of studies show that aircraft noise around airports negatively affects the reading comprehension of children attending schools in the neighbourhood. Yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Explanatory approaches discuss the attention capturing effect of noise sources which occupy mental capacity. Research suggests that attentional capacities are especially demanded when different modalities are involved at the same time. To explore whether aircraft noise affects reading processes in specific manners, students read texts in variable sound conditions while their eye movements were recorded. Besides noise caused by aircraft flyovers, which represent moving sound sources, saccades were also recorded under the condition of white noise, a natural sound setting and silence for comparison. Data showed an increase in regressive saccades when the sound of moving sources was presented. Interestingly, this effect was significantly high when the aircrafts moved in the opposite of the reading direction. Especially the latter result is not compatible with the hypothesis of a general impairment of cognitive processes by noise where the direction of movement should not have an influence. Reading is assumed to be based on two different attentional mechanisms: overt and covert attention, where the latter supports control and pre-planning of eye movements during reading. We believe that covert attention is affected by moving sound sources, resulting in an enhanced number of backwardly directed saccades.

Keywords: aircraft noise, attentional processes, cognition, eye movements, reading saccades

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