Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1472

Search results for: joint stiffness

1472 The Nonlinear Research on Rotational Stiffness of Cuplock Joint

Authors: Liuyu Zhang, Di Mo, Qiang Yan, Min Liu

Abstract:

As the important equipment in the construction field, cuplock scaffold plays an important role in the construction process. As a scaffold connecting member, cuplock joint is of great importance. In order to explore the rotational stiffness nonlinear characteristics changing features of different structural forms of cuplock joint in different tightening torque condition under different conditions of load, ANSYS is used to establish four kinds of cuplock joint models with different forces to simulate the real force situation. By setting the different load conditions which means the cuplock is loaded at a certain distance from the cuplock joint in a certain direction until the cuplock is damaged and considering the gap between the cross bar joint and the vertical bar, the differences in the influence of the structural form and tightening torque on the rotation stiffness of the cuplock under different load conditions are compared. It is significantly important to improve the accuracy of calculating bearing capacity and stability of the cuplock steel pipe scaffold.

Keywords: cuplock joint, highway tunnel, non-linear characteristics, rotational stiffness, scaffold stability, theoretical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
1471 Effect of Sensory Manipulations on Human Joint Stiffness Strategy and Its Adaptation for Human Dynamic Stability

Authors: Aizreena Azaman, Mai Ishibashi, Masanori Ishizawa, Shin-Ichiroh Yamamoto

Abstract:

Sensory input plays an important role to human posture control system to initiate strategy in order to counterpart any unbalance condition and thus, prevent fall. In previous study, joint stiffness was observed able to describe certain issues regarding to movement performance. But, correlation between balance ability and joint stiffness is still remains unknown. In this study, joint stiffening strategy at ankle and hip were observed under different sensory manipulations and its correlation with conventional clinical test (Functional Reach Test) for balance ability was investigated. In order to create unstable condition, two different surface perturbations (tilt up-tilt (TT) down and forward-backward (FB)) at four different frequencies (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Hz) were introduced. Furthermore, four different sensory manipulation conditions (include vision and vestibular system) were applied to the subject and they were asked to maintain their position as possible. The results suggested that joint stiffness were high during difficult balance situation. Less balance people generated high average joint stiffness compared to balance people. Besides, adaptation of posture control system under repetitive external perturbation also suggested less during sensory limited condition. Overall, analysis of joint stiffening response possible to predict unbalance situation faced by human.

Keywords: balance ability, joint stiffness, sensory, adaptation, dynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
1470 Review for Mechanical Tests of Corner Joints on Wooden Windows and Effects to the Stiffness

Authors: Milan Podlena, Stepan Hysek, Jiri Prochazka, Martin Bohm, Jan Bomba

Abstract:

Corner joints are the weakest part of windows, where the members are connected together. Since the dimensions of the windows started become bigger, the strength requirements for corner joints started to increase as well. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the samples of corner joints of wooden windows. Moisture content of test specimens was stabilized in the climate chamber. After conditioning, test specimens were loaded in the laboratory conditions onto an universal testing machine and the failure load was measured. Data was recalculated by using goniometric, bending moment and stiffness equation to the stiffness coefficients and the bending moments were investigated. The results showed difference that was observed for the mortise with tenon joint and the dowel joint. This difference was explained by a varied adhesive bond area, which is related to the dimensions of dowels (diameter and length) as well. The bending moments and stiffness ware (except of type of corner joint) also affected by type of used adhesive, type of dowels and wood species.

Keywords: corner joint, wooden window, bending moment, stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
1469 Impact of Butt Joints on Flexural Properties of Nail Laminated Timber

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Bagheri, Tianying Ma, Meng Gong

Abstract:

Nail laminated timber (NLT) is widely used for constructing timber bridge decks in North America. Butt joints usually exist due to the length limits of lumber, leading to concerns about the decrease of structural performance of NLT. This study aimed at investigating the provisions incorporated in Canadian highway bridge design code on the use of but joints in wooden bridge decks. Three and five layers NLT specimens with various configurations were tested under 3-point bending test. It was found that the standard equation is capable of predicting the bending stiffness reduction due to butt joints and 1-m band limit in which, one but joint in every three adjacent lamination is allowed, sounds reasonable. The strength reduction also followed a pattern similar to stiffness reduction. Also reinforcement of the butt joint through nails and steel side plates was attempted. It was found that nail reinforcement recovers the stiffness slightly. In contrast, reinforcing the butt joint through steel side plate improved the flexural performance significantly when compared to the nail reinforcement.

Keywords: nail laminated timber, butt joint, bending stiffness, reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1468 Quantification of Dowel-Concrete Interaction in Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements Using 3D Numerical Simulation

Authors: Lakshmana Ravi Raj Gali, K. Sridhar Reddy, M. Amaranatha Reddy

Abstract:

Load transfer between adjacent slabs of the jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) system is inevitable for long-lasting performance. Dowel bars are generally used to ensure sufficient degree of load transfer, in addition to the load transferred by aggregate interlock mechanism at the joints. Joint efficiency is the measure of joint quality, a major concern and therefore the dowel bar system should be designed and constructed well. The interaction between dowel bars and concrete that includes various parameters of dowel bar and concrete will explain the degree of joint efficiency. The present study focuses on the methodology of selecting contact stiffness, which quantifies dowel-concrete interaction. In addition, a parametric study which focuses on the effect of dowel diameter, dowel shape, the spacing between dowel bars, joint opening, the thickness of the slab, the elastic modulus of concrete, and concrete cover on contact stiffness was also performed. The results indicated that the thickness of the slab is most critical among various parameters to explain the joint efficiency. Further displacement equivalency method was proposed to find out the contact stiffness. The proposed methodology was validated with the available field surface deflection data collected by falling weight deflectometer (FWD).

Keywords: contact stiffness, displacement equivalency method, Dowel-concrete interaction, joint behavior, 3D numerical simulation

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1467 Hybrid Finite Element Analysis of Expansion Joints for Piping Systems in Aircraft Engine External Configurations and Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Dong Wook Lee

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to analyze the stiffness of the expansion joint with structural support using a hybrid method combining computational and analytical methods. Many expansion joints found in tubes and ducts of mechanical structures are designed to absorb thermal expansion mismatch between their structural members and deal with misalignments introduced from the assembly/manufacturing processes. One of the important design perspectives is the system’s vibrational characteristics. We calculate the stiffness as a characterization parameter for structural joint systems using a combined Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and an analytical method. We apply the methods to two sample applications: external configurations of aircraft engines and nuclear power plant structures.

Keywords: expansion joint, expansion joint stiffness, finite element analysis, nuclear power plants, aircraft engine external configurations

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
1466 Studying the Load Sharing and Failure Mechanism of Hybrid Composite Joints Using Experiment and Finite Element Modeling

Authors: Seyyed Mohammad Hasheminia, Heoung Jae Chun, Jong Chan Park, Hong Suk Chang

Abstract:

Composite joints have been getting attention recently due to their high specific mechanical strength to weight ratio that is crucial for structures such as aircrafts and automobiles. In this study on hybrid joints, quasi-static experiments and finite element analysis were performed to investigate the failure mechanism of hybrid composite joint with respect to the joint properties such as the adhesive material, clamping force, and joint geometry. The outcomes demonstrated that the stiffness of the adhesive is the most imperative design parameter. In this investigation, two adhesives with various stiffness values were utilized. Regarding the joints utilizing the adhesive with the lower stiffness modulus, it was observed that the load was exchanged promptly through the adhesive since it was shared more proficiently between the bolt and adhesive. This phenomenon permitted the hybrid joints with low-modulus adhesive to support more prominent loads before failure when contrasted with the joints that utilize the stiffer adhesive. In the next step, the stress share between the bond and bolt as a function of various design parameters was studied using a finite element model in which it was understood that the geometrical parameters such as joint overlap and width have a significant influence on the load sharing between the bolt and the adhesive.

Keywords: composite joints, composite materials, hybrid joints, single-lap joint

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1465 The Effect of Impact on the Knee Joint Due to the Shocks during Double Impact Phase of Gait Cycle

Authors: Jobin Varghese, V. M. Akhil, P. K. Rajendrakumar, K. S. Sivanandan

Abstract:

The major contributor to the human locomotion is the knee flexion and extension. During heel strike, a huge amount of energy is transmitted through the leg towards knee joint, which in fact is damped at heel and leg muscles. During high shocks, although it is damped to a certain extent, the balance force transmits towards knee joint which could damage the knee. Due to the vital function of the knee joint, it should be protected against damage due to additional load acting on it. This work concentrates on the development of spring mass damper system which exactly replicates the stiffness at the heel and muscles and the objective function is optimized to minimize the force acting at the knee joint. Further, the data collected using force plate are put into the model to verify its integrity and are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: spring, mass, damper, knee joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
1464 Influence of Composite Adherents Properties on the Dynamic Behavior of Double Lap Bonded Joint

Authors: P. Saleh, G. Challita, R. Hazimeh, K. Khalil

Abstract:

In this paper 3D FEM analysis was carried out on double lap bonded joint with composite adherents subjected to dynamic shear. The adherents are made of Carbon/Epoxy while the adhesive is epoxy Araldite 2031. The maximum average shear stress and the stress homogeneity in the adhesive layer were examined. Three fibers textures were considered: UD; 2.5D and 3D with same volume fiber then a parametric study based on changing the thickness and the type of fibers texture in 2.5D was accomplished. Moreover, adherents’ dissimilarity was also investigated. It was found that the main parameter influencing the behavior is the longitudinal stiffness of the adherents. An increase in the adherents’ longitudinal stiffness induces an increase in the maximum average shear stress in the adhesive layer and an improvement in the shear stress homogeneity within the joint. No remarkable improvement was observed for dissimilar adherents.

Keywords: adhesive, composite adherents, impact shear, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
1463 Analysis of Artificial Hip Joint Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Syed Zameer, Mohamed Haneef

Abstract:

Hip joint plays very important role in human beings as it takes up the whole body forces generated due to various activities. These loads are repetitive and fluctuating depending on the activities such as standing, sitting, jogging, stair casing, climbing, etc. which may lead to failure of Hip joint. Hip joint modification and replacement are common in old aged persons as well as younger persons. In this research study static and Fatigue analysis of Hip joint model was carried out using finite element software ANSYS. Stress distribution obtained from result of static analysis, material properties and S-N curve data of fabricated Ultra High molecular weight polyethylene / 50 wt% short E glass fibres + 40 wt% TiO2 Polymer matrix composites specimens were used to estimate fatigue life of Hip joint using stiffness Degradation model for polymer matrix composites. The stress distribution obtained from static analysis was found to be within the acceptable range.The factor of safety calculated from linear Palmgren linear damage rule is less than one, which indicates the component is safe under the design.

Keywords: hip joint, polymer matrix composite, static analysis, fatigue analysis, stress life approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1462 Localisation of Fluorescently Labelled Drug-Free Phospholipid Vesicles to the Cartilage Surface of Rat Synovial Joints

Authors: Sam Yurdakul, Nick Baverstock, Jim Mills

Abstract:

TDT 064 (FLEXISEQ®) is a drug-free gel used to treat osteoarthritis (OA)-associated pain and joint stiffness. It contains ultra-deformable phospholipid Sequessome™ vesicles, which can pass through the skin barrier intact. In six randomized OA studies, topical TDT 064 was well tolerated and improved joint pain, physical function and stiffness. In the largest study, these TDT 064-mediated effects were statistically significantly greater than oral placebo and equivalent to celecoxib. To understand the therapeutic effects of TDT 064, we investigated the localisation of the drug-free vesicles within rat synovial joints. TDT 064 containing DiO-labelled Sequessome™ vesicles was applied to the knees of four 6-week-old CD® hairless rats (10 mg/kg/ joint), 2–3 times/day, for 3 days (representing the recommended clinical dose). Eighteen hours later, the animals and one untreated control were sacrificed, and the knee joints isolated, flash frozen and embedded in Acrytol Mounting Media™. Approximately 15 sections (10 µm) from each joint were analysed by fluorescence microscopy. To investigate whether the localisation of DiO fluorescence was associated with intact vesicles, an anti-PEG monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to detect Tween, a constituent of Sequessome™ vesicles. Sections were visualized at 484 nm (DiO) and 647 nm (anti-PEG mAb) and analysed using inForm 1.4 (Perkin Elmer, Inc.). Significant fluorescence was observed at 484 nm in sections from TDT 064-treated animals. No non-specific fluorescence was observed in control sections. Fluorescence was detected as discrete vesicles on the cartilage surfaces, inside the cartilaginous matrix and within the synovial space. The number of DiO-labelled vesicles in multiple fields of view was consistent and >100 in sections from four different treated knees. DiO and anti-PEG mAb co-localised within the collagenous tissues in four different joint sections. Under higher magnification (40x), vesicles were seen in the intercellular spaces of the synovial joint tissue, but no fluorescence was seen inside cells. These data suggest that the phospholipid vesicles in TDT 064 localize at the surface of the joint cartilage; these vesicles may therefore be supplementing the phospholipid deficiency reported in OA and acting as a biolubricant within the synovial joint.

Keywords: joint pain, osteoarthritis, phospholipid vesicles, TDT 064

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1461 Foil Bearing Stiffness Estimation with Pseudospectral Scheme

Authors: Balaji Sankar, Sadanand Kulkarni

Abstract:

Compliant foil gas lubricated bearings are used for the support of light loads in the order of few kilograms at high speeds, in the order of 50,000 RPM. The stiffness of the foil bearings depends both on the stiffness of the compliant foil and on the lubricating gas film. The stiffness of the bearings plays a crucial role in the stable operation of the supported rotor over a range of speeds. This paper describes a numerical approach to estimate the stiffness of the bearings using pseudo spectral scheme. Methodology to obtain the stiffness of the foil bearing as a function of weight of the shaft is given and the results are presented.

Keywords: foil bearing, simulation, numerical, stiffness estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
1460 The Current State Of Human Gait Simulator Development

Authors: Stepanov Ivan, Musalimov Viktor, Monahov Uriy

Abstract:

This report examines the current state of human gait simulator development based on the human hip joint model. This unit will create a database of human gait types, useful for setting up and calibrating mechano devices, as well as the creation of new systems of rehabilitation, exoskeletons and walking robots. The system has ample opportunity to configure the dimensions and stiffness, while maintaining relative simplicity.

Keywords: hip joint, human gait, physiotherapy, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
1459 Ultra-deformable Drug-free Sequessome™ Vesicles (TDT 064) for the Treatment of Joint Pain Following Exercise: A Case Report and Clinical Data

Authors: Joe Collins, Matthias Rother

Abstract:

Background: Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the relief of joint pain during and post-exercise. However, oral NSAIDs increase the risk of systemic side effects, even in healthy individuals, and retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 (Flexiseq®), a topical formulation containing ultra-deformable drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles, has demonstrated equivalent efficacy to oral celecoxib in reducing osteoarthritis-associated joint pain and stiffness. TDT 064 does not cause NSAID-related adverse effects. We describe clinical study data and a case report on the effectiveness of TDT 064 in reducing joint pain after exercise. Methods: Participants with a pain score ≥3 (10-point scale) 12–16 hours post-exercise were randomized to receive TDT 064 plus oral placebo, TDT 064 plus oral ketoprofen, or ketoprofen in ultra-deformable phospholipid vesicles plus oral placebo. Results: In the 168 study participants, pain scores were significantly higher with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 than with TDT 064 plus placebo in the 7 days post-exercise (P = 0.0240) and recovery from muscle soreness was significantly longer (P = 0.0262). There was a low incidence of adverse events. These data are supported by clinical experience. A 24-year-old male professional rugby player suffered a traumatic lisfranc fracture in March 2014 and underwent operative reconstruction. He had no relevant medical history and was not receiving concomitant medications. He had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in 2008. The patient reported restricted training due to pain (score 7/10), stiffness (score 9/10) and poor function, as well as pain when changing direction and running on consecutive days. In July 2014 he started using TDT 064 twice daily at the recommended dose. In November 2014 he noted reduced pain on running (score 2-3/10), decreased morning stiffness (score 4/10) and improved joint mobility and was able to return to competitive rugby without restrictions. No side effects of TDT 064 were reported. Conclusions: TDT 064 shows efficacy against exercise- and injury-induced joint pain, as well as that associated with osteoarthritis. It does not retard muscle soreness recovery after exercise compared with an oral NSAID, making it an alternative approach for the treatment of joint pain during and post-exercise.

Keywords: exercise, joint pain, TDT 064, phospholipid vesicles

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1458 Evaluating the Fire Resistance of Offshore Tubular K-Joints Subjected to Balanced Axial Loads

Authors: Neda Azari Dodaran, Hamid Ahmadi

Abstract:

Results of 405 finite element (FE) analyses were used in the present research to study the effect of the joint geometry on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness of tubular K-joints subjected to axial loading at fire-induced elevated temperatures. The FE models were validated against the data available from experimental tests. Structural behavior under different temperatures (200ºC, 400ºC, 500ºC, and 700ºC) was investigated and compared to the behavior at ambient temperature (20ºC). A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effect of dimensionless geometrical parameters (β, γ, θ, and τ) on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness. Afterwards, ultimate strength data extracted from the FE analyses were compared with the values calculated from the equations proposed by available design codes in which the ultimate strength of the joint at elevated temperatures is obtained by replacing the yield stress of the steel at ambient temperature with the corresponding value at elevated temperature. It was indicated that this method may not have acceptable accuracy for K-joints under axial loading. Hence, a design formula was developed, through nonlinear regression analyses, to determine the ultimate strength of K-joints subjected to balanced axial loads at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: axial loading, elevated temperature, parametric equation, static strength, tubular K-joint

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1457 Robust Design of a Ball Joint Considering Uncertainties

Authors: Bong-Su Sin, Jong-Kyu Kim, Se-Il Song, Kwon-Hee Lee

Abstract:

An automobile ball joint is a pivoting element used to allow rotational motion between the parts of the steering and suspension system. And it plays a role in smooth transmission of steering movement, also reduction in impact from the road surface. A ball joint is under various repeated loadings that may cause cracks and abrasion. This damages lead to safety problems of a car, as well as reducing the comfort of the driver's ride, and raise questions about the ball joint procedure and the whole durability of the suspension system. Accordingly, it is necessary to ensure the high durability and reliability of a ball joint. The structural responses of stiffness and pull-out strength were then calculated to check if the design satisfies the related requirements. The analysis was sequentially performed, following the caulking process. In this process, the deformation and stress results obtained from the analysis were saved. Sequential analysis has a strong advantage, in that it can be analyzed by considering the deformed shape and residual stress. The pull-out strength means the required force to pull the ball stud out from the ball joint assembly. The low pull-out strength can deteriorate the structural stability and safety performances. In this study, two design variables and two noise factors were set up. Two design variables were the diameter of a stud and the angle of a socket. And two noise factors were defined as the uncertainties of Young's modulus and yield stress of a seat. The DOE comprises 81 cases using these conditions. Robust design of a ball joint was performed using the DOE. The pull-out strength was generated from the uncertainties in the design variables and the design parameters. The purpose of robust design is to find the design with target response and smallest variation.

Keywords: ball joint, pull-out strength, robust design, design of experiments

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1456 Modifications in Design of Lap Joint of Fiber Metal Laminates

Authors: Shaher Bano, Samia Fida, Asif Israr

Abstract:

The continuous development and exploitation of materials and designs have diverted the attention of the world towards the use of robust composite materials known as fiber-metal laminates in many high-performance applications. The hybrid structure of fiber metal laminates makes them a material of choice for various applications such as aircraft skin panels, fuselage floorings, door panels and other load bearing applications. The synergistic effect of properties of metals and fibers reinforced laminates are responsible for their high damage tolerance as the metal element provides better fatigue and impact properties, while high stiffness and better corrosion properties are inherited from the fiber reinforced matrix systems. They are mostly used as a layered structure in different joint configurations such as lap and but joints. The FML layers are usually bonded with each other using either mechanical fasteners or adhesive bonds. This research work is also focused on modification of an adhesive bonded joint as a single lap joint of carbon fibers based CARALL FML has been modified to increase interlaminar shear strength and avoid delamination. For this purpose different joint modification techniques such as the introduction of spews and shoulder to modify the bond shape and use of nanofillers such as carbon nano-tubes as a reinforcement in the adhesive materials, have been utilized to improve shear strength of lap joint of the adhesively bonded FML layers. Both the simulation and experimental results showed that lap joint with spews and shoulders configuration have better properties due to stress distribution over a large area at the corner of the joint. The introduction of carbon nanotubes has also shown a positive effect on shear stress and joint strength as they act as reinforcement in the adhesive bond material.

Keywords: adhesive joint, Carbon Reinforced Aluminium Laminate (CARALL), fiber metal laminates, spews

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1455 Layout Design Optimization of Spars under Multiple Load Cases of the High-Aspect-Ratio Wing

Authors: Yu Li, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong

Abstract:

The spar layout will affect the wing’s stiffness characteristics, and irrational spar arrangement will reduce the overall bending and twisting resistance capacity of the wing. In this paper, the active structural stiffness design theory is used to match the stiffness-center axis position and load-cases under the corresponding multiple flight conditions, in order to achieve better stiffness properties of the wing. The combination of active stiffness method and principle of stiffness distribution is proved to be reasonable supplying an initial reference for wing designing. The optimized layout of spars is eventually obtained, and the high-aspect-ratio wing will have better stiffness characteristics.

Keywords: active structural stiffness design theory, high-aspect-ratio wing, flight load cases, layout of spars

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1454 Effect of Different Knee-Joint Positions on Passive Stiffness of Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle and Aponeuroses during Passive Ankle Motion

Authors: Xiyao Shan, Pavlos Evangelidis, Adam Kositsky, Naoki Ikeda, Yasuo Kawakami

Abstract:

The human triceps surae (two bi-articular gastrocnemii and one mono-articular soleus) have aponeuroses in the posterior and anterior aspects of each muscle, where the anterior aponeuroses of the gastrocnemii adjoin the posterior aponeurosis of the soleus, possibly contributing to the intermuscular force transmission between gastrocnemii and soleus. Since the mechanical behavior of these aponeuroses at different knee- and ankle-joint positions remains unclear, the purpose of this study was to clarify this through observations of the localized changes in passive stiffness of the posterior aponeuroses, muscle belly and adjoining aponeuroses of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) induced by different knee and ankle angles. Eleven healthy young males (25 ± 2 yr, 176.7 ± 4.7 cm, 71.1 ± 11.1 kg) participated in this study. Each subject took either a prone position on an isokinetic dynamometer while the knee joint was fully extended (K180) or a kneeling position while the knee joint was 90° flexed (K90), in a randomized and counterbalanced order. The ankle joint was then passively moved through a 50° range of motion (ROM) by the dynamometer from 30° of plantar flexion (PF) to 20° of dorsiflexion (DF) at 2°/s and the ultrasound shear-wave velocity was measured to obtain shear moduli of the posterior aponeurosis, MG belly, and adjoining aponeuroses. The main findings were: 1) shear modulus in K180 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than K90 for the posterior aponeurosis (across all ankle angles, 10.2 ± 5.7 kPa-59.4 ± 28.7 kPa vs. 5.4 ± 2.2 kPa-11.6 ± 4.1 kPa), MG belly (from PF10° to DF20°, 9.7 ± 2.2 kPa-53.6 ± 18.6 kPa vs. 8.0 ± 2.7 kPa-9.5 ± 3.7 kPa), and adjoining aponeuroses (across all ankle angles, 17.3 ± 7.8 kPa-80 ± 25.7 kPa vs. 12.2 ± 4.5 kPa-52.4 ± 23.0 kPa); 2) shear modulus of the posterior aponeuroses significantly increased (p < 0.05) from PF10° to PF20° in K180, while shear modulus of MG belly significantly increased (p < 0.05) from 0° to PF20° only in K180 and shear modulus of adjoining aponeuroses significantly increased (p < 0.05) across the whole ROM of ankle both in K180 and K90. These results suggest that different knee-joint positions can affect not only the bi-articular gastrocnemius but also influence the mechanical behavior of aponeuroses. In addition, compared to the gradual stiffening of the adjoining aponeuroses across the whole ROM of ankle, the posterior aponeurosis became slack in the plantar flexed positions and then was stiffened gradually as the knee was fully extended. This suggests distinct stiffening for the posterior and adjoining aponeuroses which is joint position-dependent.

Keywords: aponeurosis, plantar flexion and dorsiflexion, shear modulus, shear wave elastography

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1453 Design Modification of Lap Joint of Fiber Metal Laminates (CARALL)

Authors: Shaher Bano, Samia Fida, Asif Israr

Abstract:

The synergistic effect of properties of metals and fibers reinforced laminates has diverted attention of the world towards use of robust composite materials known as fiber-metal laminates in many high performance applications. In this study, modification of an adhesively bonded joint as a single lap joint of carbon fibers based CARALL FML has done to increase interlaminar shear strength of the joint. The effect of different configurations of joint designs such as spews, stepped and modification in adhesive by addition of nano-fillers was studied. Both experimental and simulation results showed that modified joint design have superior properties as maximum force experienced stepped joint was 1.5 times more than the simple lap joint. Addition of carbon nano-tubes as nano-fillers in the adhesive joint increased the maximum force due to crack deflection mechanism.

Keywords: adhesive joint, Carbon Reinforced Aluminium Laminate (CARALL), fiber metal laminates, spews

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
1452 Joint Physical Custody: Lessons from the European Union

Authors: Katarzyna Kamińska

Abstract:

When thinking about custodial arrangements after divorce or separation, there has been a shift from sole custody, particularly maternal preference, to joint physical custody. In many Western countries, an increasing of children with separated parents have joint physical custody, which is believed to be in the best interests of the child, as children can maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis. The aim of the article is to examine joint physical custody, both from the perspective of the binding legal instruments that are relevant to joint physical custody, the Principles of European Family Law drafted by the CEFL, as well as the international research on this matter. The thesis underlying this paper is that joint physical custody is in itself neither good nor bad, and it depends on how the arrangements are managed by the parents. The paper includes a reflection on joint physical custody in the face of the COVID-19 crisis. The results indicate that in normal circumstances, joint physical custody demands broad communication, and now it times of crisis, we need over-communication about children and plans. Only a very tight and coordinated co-parenting plan make the whole family safer.

Keywords: joint physical custody, co-parenting, child welfare, COVID-19

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
1451 Numerical Study on the Ultimate Load of Offshore Two-Planar Tubular KK-Joints at Fire-Induced Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari-Dodaran

Abstract:

A total of 270 nonlinear steady-state finite element (FE) analyses were performed on 54 FE models of two-planar circular hollow section (CHS) KK-joints subjected to axial loading at five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). The primary goal was to investigate the effects of temperature and geometrical characteristics on the ultimate strength, modes of failure, and initial stiffness of the KK-joints. Results indicated that on an average basis, the ultimate load of a two-planar tubular KK-joint at 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC is 90%, 75%, 45%, and 16% of the joint’s ultimate load at ambient temperature, respectively. Outcomes of the parametric study showed that replacing the yield stress at ambient temperature with the corresponding value at elevated temperature to apply the EN 1993-1-8 equations for the calculation of the joint’s ultimate load at elevated temperatures may lead to highly unconservative results that might endanger the safety of the structure. Results of the parametric study were then used to develop a set of design formulas, through nonlinear regression analyses, to calculate the ultimate load of two-planar tubular KK-joints subjected to axial loading at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: ultimate load, two-planar tubular KK-joint, axial loading, elevated temperature, parametric equation

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1450 Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness

Authors: Nitish Kumar Vaja, Oumar Barry, Brian DeJong

Abstract:

Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum assumptions. However it is not easy to analytically model the complex geometry of the messenger. Therefore an equivalent stiffness must be determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical model with the equivalent stiffness is validated using the full scale finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.

Keywords: equivalent stiffness, finite element model, free vibration response, Stockbridge damper

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1449 Comparison of Meshing Stiffness of Altered Tooth Sum Spur Gear Tooth with Different Pressure Angles

Authors: H. K. Sachidananda, K. Raghunandana, B. Shivamurthy

Abstract:

The estimation of gear tooth stiffness is important for finding the load distribution between the gear teeth when two consecutive sets of teeth are in contact. Based on dynamic model a C-program has been developed to compute mesh stiffness. By using this program position dependent mesh stiffness of spur gear tooth for various profile shifts have been computed for a fixed center distance and altering tooth-sum gearing (100 by ± 4%). It is found that the C-program using dynamic model is one of the rapid soft computing technique which helps in design of gears. The mesh tooth stiffness along the path of contact is studied for both 20° and 25° pressure angle gears at various profile shifts. Better tooth stiffness is noticed in case of negative alteration tooth-sum gears compared to standard and positive alteration tooth-sum gears. Also, in case of negative alteration tooth-sum gearing better mesh stiffness is noticed in 20° pressure angle when compared to 25°.

Keywords: altered tooth-sum gearing, bending fatigue, mesh stiffness, spur gear

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1448 Effect of the Drawbar Force on the Dynamic Characteristics of a Spindle-Tool Holder System

Authors: Jui-Pui Hung, Yu-Sheng Lai, Tzuo-Liang Luo, Kung-Da Wu, Yun-Ji Zhan

Abstract:

This study presented the investigation of the influence of the tool holder interface stiffness on the dynamic characteristics of a spindle tool system. The interface stiffness was produced by drawbar force on the tool holder, which tends to affect the spindle dynamics. In order to assess the influence of interface stiffness on the vibration characteristic of spindle unit, we first created a three dimensional finite element model of a high speed spindle system integrated with tool holder. The key point for the creation of FEM model is the modeling of the rolling interface within the angular contact bearings and the tool holder interface. The former can be simulated by a introducing a series of spring elements between inner and outer rings. The contact stiffness was calculated according to Hertz contact theory and the preload applied on the bearings. The interface stiffness of the tool holder was identified through the experimental measurement and finite element modal analysis. Current results show that the dynamic stiffness was greatly influenced by the tool holder system. In addition, variations of modal damping, static stiffness and dynamic stiffness of the spindle tool system were greatly determined by the interface stiffness of the tool holder which was in turn dependent on the draw bar force applied on the tool holder. Overall, this study demonstrates that identification of the interface characteristics of spindle tool holder is of very importance for the refinement of the spindle tooling system to achieve the optimum machining performance.

Keywords: dynamic stiffness, spindle-tool holder, interface stiffness, drawbar force

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1447 Implicit Force Control of a Position Controlled Robot - A Comparison with Explicit Algorithms

Authors: Alexander Winkler, Jozef Suchý

Abstract:

This paper investigates simple implicit force control algorithms realizable with industrial robots. A lot of approaches already published are difficult to implement in commercial robot controllers, because the access to the robot joint torques is necessary or the complete dynamic model of the manipulator is used. In the past we already deal with explicit force control of a position controlled robot. Well known schemes of implicit force control are stiffness control, damping control and impedance control. Using such algorithms the contact force cannot be set directly. It is further the result of controller impedance, environment impedance and the commanded robot motion/position. The relationships of these properties are worked out in this paper in detail for the chosen implicit approaches. They have been adapted to be implementable on a position controlled robot. The behaviors of stiffness control and damping control are verified by practical experiments. For this purpose a suitable test bed was configured. Using the full mechanical impedance within the controller structure will not be practical in the case when the robot is in physical contact with the environment. This fact will be verified by simulation.

Keywords: robot force control, stiffness control, damping control, impedance control, stability

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1446 Seismic Response Analysis of Frame Structures Based on Super Joint Element Model

Authors: Li Xu, Yang Hong, T. Zhao Wen

Abstract:

Experimental results of many RC beam-column subassemblage indicate that slippage of longitudinal beam rebar within the joint and the shear deformation of joint core have significant influence on seismic behavior of the subassemblage. However, rigid joint assumption has been generally used in the seismic response analysis of RC frames, in which two kinds of inelastic deformation of joint have been ignored. Based on OpenSees platform, ‘Super Joint Element Model’ with more detailed inelastic mechanism is used to simulate the inelastic response of joints. Two finite element models of typical RC plane frame, namely considering or ignoring the inelastic deformation of joint respectively, were established and analyzed under seven strong earthquake waves. The simulated global and local inelastic deformations of the RC plane frame is shown and discussed. The analyses also confirm the security of the earthquake-resistant frame designed according to Chinese codes.

Keywords: frame structure, beam-column joint, longitudinal bar slippage, shear deformation, nonlinear analysis

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1445 Development of Sound Tactile Interface by Use of Human Sensation of Stiffness

Authors: K. Doi, T. Nishimura, M. Umeda

Abstract:

There are very few sound interfaces that both healthy people and hearing handicapped people can use to play together. In this study, we developed a sound tactile interface that makes use of the human sensation of stiffness. The interface comprises eight elastic objects having varying degrees of stiffness. Each elastic object is shaped like a column. When people with and without hearing disabilities press each elastic object, different sounds are produced depending on the stiffness of the elastic object. The types of sounds used were “Do Re Mi sounds.” The interface has a major advantage in that people with or without hearing disabilities can play with it. We found that users were able to recognize the hardness sensation and relate it to the corresponding Do Re Mi sounds.

Keywords: tactile sense, sound interface, stiffness perception, elastic object

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1444 Shock Isolation Performance of a Pre-Compressed Large Deformation Shock Isolator with Quasi-Zero-Stiffness Characteristic

Authors: Ji Chen, Chunhui Zhang, Fanming Zeng, Lei Zhang, Ying Li, Wei Zhang

Abstract:

Based on the synthetic principle of force, a pre-compressed nonlinear isolator with quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS) is developed for shock isolation of ship equipment. The proposed isolator consists of a vertical spring with positive stiffness and several lateral springs with negative stiffness. An analytical expression of vertical stiffness of the nonlinear isolator is derived and numerical simulation on the effect of the geometric design parameters is carried out. Besides, a pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system model is established. The stiffness characteristic of the system is studied and the effects of excitation amplitude and friction damping on shock isolation performance are discussed respectively. The research results show that in comparison with linear shock isolation system, the pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system could realize constant-force or approximately constant-force function and perform better anti-impact performance.

Keywords: quasi-zero-stiffness, constant-force, pre-compressed, large deformation, shock isolation, friction damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 528
1443 A Compact Quasi-Zero Stiffness Vibration Isolator Using Flexure-Based Spring Mechanisms Capable of Tunable Stiffness

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents a quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) vibration isolator using flexure-based spring mechanisms which afford both negative and positive stiffness elements, which enable self-adjustment. The QZS property of the isolator is achieved at the equilibrium position. A nonlinear mathematical model is then developed, based on the pre-compression of the flexure-based spring mechanisms. The dynamics are further analyzed using the Harmonic Balance method. The vibration attention efficiency is illustrated using displacement transmissibility, which is then compared with the corresponding linear isolator. The effects of parameters on performance are also investigated by numerical solutions. The flexure-based spring mechanisms are subsequently designed using the concept of compliant mechanisms, with evaluation by ANSYS software, and simulations of the QZS isolator.

Keywords: vibration isolator, quasi-zero stiffness, flexure-based spring mechanisms, compliant mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 373