Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 335

Search results for: self-sufficient town

335 Characteristics of New Town Planning between Neighborhood Unit and New Urbanism in Korea

Authors: In Su Na, Dongyeon Seo, Hwanyong Kim


This research focuses on new town planning methodology in aspects of Neighborhood Unit Formula and New Urbanism. In Korea, there were built many new towns since 1980’s. The urban design concepts also shifted variously in land use, transportation, open spaces and architectural design. This research aims to find out urban design planning and factors in each new town planning through comparison of four new town cases in aspects of land use, transportation and building design of metropolitan area of Seoul. In conclusion the recent new town has created an area with a unique place that has not been seen in the early new town, and it has a certain aspect that is in line with the planning principles of New Urbanism.

Keywords: compact city, neighborhood unit formula, new town planning, new urbanism

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334 Research on Planning Strategy of Characteristic Town from the Perspective of Ecological Concept: A Case Study on Hangzhou Dream Town in Zhejiang

Authors: Xiaohan Ye


Under the new normal situation, some urban spaces with the industrial base and regional features in Zhejiang, China have been selected to build a characteristic town, a kind of environmentally-friendly development platform with city-industry integrated, in an attempt to achieve the most optimized layout of productivity with the least space resource. After analysis on the connotation, mechanism and mode of characteristic town in Zhejiang, it is suggested in this paper that characteristic town should take improving the regional ecological environment as an important object in planning strategy from the perspective of ecological concept. Improved environmental quality, optimized resource allocation, and compact industrial distribution should be realized so as to drive the regional green and sustainable development. Finally, this paper analyzes location selection, industrial distribution, spatial organization and environment construction based on the exploration of the dream town of Zhejiang province, the first batch of provincial-level characteristic towns to demonstrate how to apply the ecological concept to the design of characteristic town.

Keywords: characteristic town, ecological concept, Hangzhou dream town, planning strategy

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333 Fengqiao: An Ongoing Experiment with 'UrbanMemory' Theory in an Ancient Town and ItsDesign Experience

Authors: Yibei Ye, Lei Xu, Zhenyu Cao


Ancient town is a unique carrier of urban culture, maintaining the core culture of a region and continuing the urban context. Fengqiao, a nearly 2000-year-old town was on the brink of dilapidation in the past few decades. The town faced such problems as poor construction quality, environmental degeneration, inadequate open space, cultural characteristics and industry vitality. Therefore, the research upholds the principle of ‘organic renewal’ and puts forward three practical updated strategies which are ‘Repair Old as Ever,' ‘Activate Function’ and ‘Fill in with The New’. Also as a participant in updating the design, the author aims to ‘keep the memory of the history and see the development of the present’ as the goal of updating the design and regards the process of town renewal as the experimental venue for realizing this purpose. The research will sum up innovations on the designing process and the engineering progress in the past two years, and find out the innovation experiment and the effect of its implementation on the methodological level of the organic renewal design in Fengqiao ancient town. From here, we can also enjoy the very characteristic development trend presented by China in the design practice of the organic renewal in the ancient town.

Keywords: characteristic town, Fengqiao, organic renewal, urban memory

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332 A Framework for Vacant City-Owned Land to Be Utilised for Urban Agriculture: The Case of Cape Town, South Africa

Authors: P. S. Van Staden, M. M. Campbell


Vacant City of Cape Town-owned land lying un-utilized and -productive could be developed for land uses such as urban agriculture that may improve the livelihoods of low income families. The new City of Cape Town zoning scheme includes an Urban Agriculture zoning for the first time. Unstructured qualitative interviews among town planners revealed their optimism about this inclusion as it will provide low-income residents with opportunities to generate an income. An existing farming community at Philippi, located within the municipal boundary of the city, was approached and empirical data obtained through questionnaires provided proof that urban agriculture could be viable in a coastal metropolitan city such as Cape Town even if farmers only produce for their own households. The lease method proposed for urban agriculture is a usufruct agreement conferring the right to another party, other than the legal owner, to enjoy the use and advantages of the property.

Keywords: land uses, urban agriculture, agriculture, food engineering

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331 Urban Heritage and Its Role in the Tourism Development in Yemen: Case Study of Historic Town of Zabid

Authors: Yasser Alhiagi, Moshalleh Almoraekhi, Sameh Refaat


Urban heritage has an important status in the process of developing the Yemeni tourism sector. Urban heritage in Yemen differs depending on the regions and historical cities such as City of Old Sana'a, Historic Town of Zabid, Shibam Hadhramout, Taiz, and others. Zabid is an old town with a long history, founded in the 9th century. It has been the capital of Yemen from the 13th to the 15th century and played, because of its Islamic university, an important role in the Arab and Muslim world for many centuries. The aim of this research is to promote the built heritage of Historic Town of Zabid and explore the possibilities of visiting the rehabilitated buildings and other heritage attractions through tourism. It examines the nature of the relationship exists between tourism and built heritage. The research is intended to contribute to the strategy development of national tourism for the purpose of protecting, developing, and utilizing cultural heritage. Also, the research depended chiefly on the results of a field work proposed to be carried out at Historic Town of Zabid.

Keywords: historic town of Zabid, strategy, tourism development, urban heritage

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330 The Analysis of New Town Hillside Development Pattern Guided by Low-Intensity Damage

Authors: Shan Zhou, Wenju Li, Kehui Chai


Along with economic globalization, marketization and regional development, strengthen planning and construction of the New Town, which is always the main way to optimize the structure and function of metropolitan spatial configuration. But, the new town is often of high-intensity development, bringing a series of natural, ecological and environmental issues, so it is difficult to achieve sustainable development. In this paper, taking the administrative center of Jiangping in Dongxing as an example. It is analyzed from the following three aspects:Vertical design of road traffic,Space layout of mountain buildings,and the design of landscape. The purpose is to elaborate the hillside design methods guided by low-intensity damage, and explore the guiding significance of sustainable development of the hillside construction in the future.

Keywords: low-intensity damage, new town construction,hillside,sustainable development, natural, ecology

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329 Factors for Success in Eco-Industrial Town Development in Thailand

Authors: Jirarat Teeravaraprug, Tarathorn Podcharathitikull


Nowadays, Ministry of Industry has given an attention to develop Eco-industrial towns in Thailand. Eco-industrial towns are a way of demonstrating the application of industrial ecology and are subjects of increased interest as government, business and society. This concept of Eco-industrial town is quite new in Thailand. It is used as a way of achieving more sustainable industrial development. However, many firms or organizations have misunderstood the concept and treated with suspicion. The planning and development of Eco-industrial towns is a significant challenge for the developers and public agencies. This research then gives an attempt to determine current problems of being Eco-Industrial towns and determine success factors for developing Eco-Industrial towns in Thailand. The research starts with giving knowledge about Eco-industrial towns to stakeholders and conducting public hearing in order to acquire the problems of being Eco-industrial towns. Then, factors effecting the development of Eco-Industrial town are collected. The obtained factors are analyzed by using the concept of IOC. Then, the remained factors are categorized and structured based on the concept of AHP. A questionnaire is constructed and distributed to the experts who are involved in the Eco-industrial town project. The result shows that the most significant success criterion is management teams of industrial parks or groups and the second most significant goes to governmental policies.

Keywords: AHP, Eco-Industrial town, success factors, Thailand

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328 Solid Waste Management in the Town of Maradi in Niger Republic

Authors: Hassidou Saidou, Soulé Aminou


As in many towns of African countries, the waste management, in particularly solid constitutes a major problem for the municipal authorities of Maradi. The aim of this study is to make a diagnosis of the present system of waste management in the town of Maradi. The approach was consisted to some interviews with the municipal authorities, cleaning up and health technicians and some housewives investigations. According to the health technicians of the town, the causes due to the problem of waste management in Maradi town are: collecting capacity insufficient, lack of effective sensitization of people, undeveloped and uncontrolled rubbish dumps, lack of gutter and its maintenance, and insufficient and unqualified human resources. As to the authorities, they denounce always the attitude and the behavior of citizens on the waste issue. The waste evacuation is doing by municipal collecting or by depositing in wild rubbish dump. Some people eliminate their waste by burning or duping in the streets or in their houses. According to our investigations, 52% of population evacuates their waste daily. The satisfaction rate of municipal collecting is for 32%. The analysis showed that the present system of waste management in Maradi town is failing. As solutions, we proposed to equip the technical offices with appropriated material and financial means, reinforce the involved actor’s capacities and making in application the operatives regulations for the waste management.

Keywords: maradi, municipal authorities, Niger Republic, solid waste management

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327 The Research on Decentralization Supervision Mechanism of Town and Village Culture Based On Authenticity Evaluation

Authors: Chao Ma


In this paper, the evaluation criteria of authenticity evaluation system model are taken as the foundation so as to discuss the establishment problems about decentralization supervision system and mechanism of historical cultural town and village. The filtration of fitting towns and village's authenticity is conducted from the level, characteristic index and authentic assessment of evaluation model, thereby, supervising subject -interest related- coordinate organization can be taken as the venation in the management level, thus supervision mechanism of town and village's cultural inheritance can be combed, and the cultural inheritance management system and mechanism which is suitable to historical and cultural Chinese town and village will be provided. As the settlement with strong self-organizing characteristic, town and village don't recognize the management system as deeply as city. Therefore, it is necessary to establish town and village cultural evaluation system based on authenticity evaluation criteria. In this paper, authenticity evaluation system is established by taking this village's value evaluation criteria and protection as the cores, and the classification of participating options is beneficial to distribute local limited resources, protect hierarchically and accord with the local characters of town and village, build the evaluation system to run through the whole process of cultural inheritance, moreover, provide abundant information resources and make sure the value judgment criteria, thus supervision and management can be strengthened to effectively guard risk. By the above judgement and filtration of participating options, the management object with clear functions and supervision and coordination organization are established, thereby, the managerial logic of interest-related persons' decentralization can be clarified, evaluation system can be established, and the more targeted decentralization supervision system and mechanism of historical and cultural village will be built ultimately. Taking this method as a fundamental in cultural protection of town and village, not only can it be carried forward in the mass media, but also can cultivate the identity sense of indigenous people to come back historical and cultural villages, and resist the replacement of city culture.

Keywords: authenticity, rural culture, inheritance, supervision

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326 Historical Analysis of Two Types of Urbanization Changing Both the Aspect and Identity of a Town in Transylvania, Romania

Authors: Ágota Ladó


Miercurea Ciuc is a town in the historical region of Szeklerland in Transylvania, Romania, with a predominantly Hungarian population (its name in Hungarian being Csíkszereda) having an urban landscape and environment that has been shaped dramatically by different perceptions of urbanization during the history. The town has been part of Hungary and the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War. It even got an important role, becoming in 1876 the seat and administrative center of the historical Csík county. This marks the beginning of the first urbanization process: new administrative buildings, railways, a railway station, a hospital, a Redoute and new schools have been built, new streets have been opened. However, not only the public facilities have changed: the center of the town with its private houses has also transformed, new, modern decorative and lifestyle elements have appeared. One of the streets from the town center, Kossuth street, has been featured on many postcards of the time; even a novel has mentioned it as a symbol of modern urbanization. Right after the First World War, the town became part of Romania and aside from a short interruption (between 1940 and 1944), it is still part of it. The beginning of the second major urbanization process – exactly one hundred years later - is marked by the visit of the communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu in Miercurea Ciuc on the 6th of October 1976. In the upcoming years, he decided and started to demolish the old Kossuth street and to construct a new avenue with tall blocks of flats according to the principles of socialist urbanization. No other Transylvanian settlement has gone through such systematic abolition of its historical center and urban history during the Communist era. Not only the urban landscape has been affected. The collective memory and contemporary identity of the locals are also violated by this recent transformation of the town: important spaces, buildings, venues of activities and events simply cannot be localized, thus understood - by the younger generations.

Keywords: communist era, historical urban landscape, urban identity, urbanization

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325 Heavy Metal Pollution of the Soils around the Mining Area near Shamlugh Town (Armenia) and Related Risks to the Environment

Authors: G. A. Gevorgyan, K. A. Ghazaryan, T. H. Derdzyan


The heavy metal pollution of the soils around the mining area near Shamlugh town and related risks to human health were assessed. The investigations showed that the soils were polluted with heavy metals that can be ranked by anthropogenic pollution degree as follows: Cu>Pb>As>Co>Ni>Zn. The main sources of the anthropogenic metal pollution of the soils were the copper mining area near Shamlugh town, the Chochkan tailings storage facility and the trucks transferring are from the mining area. Copper pollution degree in some observation sites was unallowable for agricultural production. The total non-carcinogenic chronic hazard index (THI) values in some places, including observation sites in Shamlugh town, were above the safe level (THI<1) for children living in this territory. Although the highest heavy metal enrichment degree in the soils was registered in case of copper, the highest health risks to humans especially children were posed by cobalt which is explained by the fact that heavy metals have different toxicity levels and penetration characteristics.

Keywords: Armenia, copper mine, heavy metal pollution of soil, health risks

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324 Gis Database Creation for Impacts of Domestic Wastewater Disposal on BIDA Town, Niger State Nigeria

Authors: Ejiobih Hyginus Chidozie


Geographic Information System (GIS) is a configuration of computer hardware and software specifically designed to effectively capture, store, update, manipulate, analyse and display and display all forms of spatially referenced information. GIS database is referred to as the heart of GIS. It has location data, attribute data and spatial relationship between the objects and their attributes. Sewage and wastewater management have assumed increased importance lately as a result of general concern expressed worldwide about the problems of pollution of the environment contamination of the atmosphere, rivers, lakes, oceans and ground water. In this research GIS database was created to study the impacts of domestic wastewater disposal methods on Bida town, Niger State as a model for investigating similar impacts on other cities in Nigeria. Results from GIS database are very useful to decision makers and researchers. Bida Town was subdivided into four regions, eight zones, and 24 sectors based on the prevailing natural morphology of the town. GIS receiver and structured questionnaire were used to collect information and attribute data from 240 households of the study area. Domestic wastewater samples were collected from twenty four sectors of the study area for laboratory analysis. ArcView 3.2a GIS software, was used to create the GIS databases for ecological, health and socioeconomic impacts of domestic wastewater disposal methods in Bida town.

Keywords: environment, GIS, pollution, software, wastewater

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323 Measuring Housing Quality Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

Authors: Silvija ŠIljeg, Ante ŠIljeg, Ivan Marić


Measuring housing quality is being done on objective and subjective level using different indicators. During the research 5 urban and housing indicators formed according to 58 variables from different housing, domains were used. The aims of the research were to measure housing quality based on GIS approach and to detect critical points of housing in the example of Croatian coastal Town Zadar. The purposes of GIS in the research are to generate models of housing quality indexes by standardisation and aggregation of variables and to examine accuracy model of housing quality index. Analysis of accuracy has been done on the example of variable referring to educational objects availability. By defining weighted coefficients and using different GIS methods high, middle and low housing quality zones were determined. Obtained results can be of use to town planners, spatial planners and town authorities in the process of generating decisions, guidelines, and spatial interventions.

Keywords: housing quality, GIS, housing quality index, indicators, models of housing quality

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322 Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy: The Case of School Adolescents of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Aleme Mekuria, Samuel Mathewos


Background: Teenage pregnancy has long been a worldwide social, economic and educational concern for the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. Studies on adolescent sexuality and pregnancy are very limited in our country. Therefore, this study aims at assessing the prevalence of teenage pregnancy and its determinants among school adolescents of Arba Minch town. Methods: Institution- based, cross-sectional study was conducted from 20-30 March 2014. Systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 578 students from four schools of the town. Data were collected by trained data collectors using a pre-tested, self-administered structured questionnaire. The analysis was made using the software SPSS version 20.0 statistical packages. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of teenage pregnancy. Results: The prevalence of teenage pregnancy among school adolescents of Arba Minch town was 7.7%. Being grade11(AOR=4.6;95%CI:1.4,9.3) and grade12 student (AOR=5.8;95% CI:1.3,14.4), not knowing the correct time to take emergency contraceptives(AOR=3.3;95%CI:1.4,7.4), substance use(AOR=3.1;95%CI:1.1,8.8), living with either of biological parents (AOR=3.3;95%CI:1.1,8.7) and poor parent-daughter interaction (AOR=3.1;95%CI:1.1,8.7) were found to be significant predictors of teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: This study revealed a high level of teenage pregnancy among school adolescents of Arba Minch town. A significant number of adolescent female school students were at risk of facing the challenges of teenage pregnancy in the study area. School-based reproductive health education and strong parent-daughter relationships should be strengthened.

Keywords: adolescent, Arba minch, risk factors, school, southern Ethiopia, teenage pregnancy

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321 Mining News Deserts: Impact of Local Newspaper's Closure on Political Participation and Engagement in Rural Australian Town of Lightning Ridge

Authors: Marco Magasic


This article examines how a local newspaper’s closure impacts the way everyday people in a rural Australian town are informed about and engage with political affairs. It draws on a two-month focused ethnographic study in the outback town of Lighting Ridge, New South Wales and explores people’s media-related practices following the closure of the towns’ only newspaper, The Ridge News, in 2015. While social media is considered to have partly filled the news void, there is an increasingly fragmented and less vibrant local public sphere that has led to growing complacency among individuals about political affairs. Local residents highlight a dearth of reliable, credible information and lament the loss of the newspaper and its role in community advocacy and fostering people’s engagement with political institutions, especially local government.

Keywords: public sphere, political participation, local news, democratic deficit

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320 Availability and Utilization of Health Care Facilities in Jalpaiguri Town

Authors: Sharmistha Mukherjee


Health care is the basic requirement for all. The prime question is who gets what, where and how? The unequal distribution of basic facilities do have a adverse effect on the users. The paper tries to examine health care in terms of available facilities, the health care need and how people perceive to it in a small town of Jalpaiguri in the midst of tea gardens in North Bengal. The morbidity pattern is also minutely observed with a section describing the organizational structure of health care keeping in mind the utilization.

Keywords: availability, distribution, health care, utilization

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319 Sponge Urbanism as a Resilient City Design to Overcome Urban Flood Risk, for the Case of Aluva, Kerala, India

Authors: Gayathri Pramod, Sheeja K. P.


Urban flooding has been seen rising in cities for the past few years. This rise in urban flooding is the result of increasing urbanization and increasing climate change. A resilient city design focuses on 'living with water'. This means that the city is capable of accommodating the floodwaters without having to risk any loss of lives or properties. The resilient city design incorporates green infrastructure, river edge treatment, open space design, etc. to form a city that functions as a whole for resilience. Sponge urbanism is a recent method for building resilient cities and is founded by China in 2014. Sponge urbanism is the apt method for resilience building for a tropical town like Aluva of Kerala. Aluva is a tropical town that experiences rainfall of about 783 mm per month during the rainy season. Aluva is an urbanized town which faces the risk of urban flooding and riverine every year due to the presence of Periyar River in the town. Impervious surfaces and hard construction and developments contribute towards flood risk by posing as interference for a natural flow and natural filtration of water into the ground. This type of development is seen in Aluva also. Aluva is designed in this research as a town that have resilient strategies of sponge city and which focusses on natural methods of construction. The flood susceptibility of Aluva is taken into account to design the spaces for sponge urbanism and in turn, reduce the flood susceptibility for the town. Aluva is analyzed, and high-risk zones for development are identified through studies. These zones are designed to withstand the risk of flooding. Various catchment areas are identified according to the natural flow of water, and then these catchment areas are designed to act as a public open space and as detention ponds in case of heavy rainfall. Various development guidelines, according to land use, is also prescribed, which help in increasing the green cover of the town. Aluva is then designed to be a completely flood-adapted city or sponge city according to the guidelines and interventions.

Keywords: climate change, flooding, resilient city, sponge city, sponge urbanism, urbanization

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318 Developing a Town Based Soil Database to Assess the Sensitive Zones in Nutrient Management

Authors: Sefa Aksu, Ünal Kızıl


For this study, a town based soil database created in Gümüşçay District of Biga Town, Çanakkale, Turkey. Crop and livestock production are major activities in the district. Nutrient management is mainly based on commercial fertilizer application ignoring the livestock manure. Within the boundaries of district, 122 soil sampling points determined over the satellite image. Soil samples collected from the determined points with the help of handheld Global Positioning System. Labeled samples were sent to a commercial laboratory to determine 11 soil parameters including salinity, pH, lime, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc. Based on the test results soil maps for mentioned parameters were developed using remote sensing, GIS, and geostatistical analysis. In this study we developed a GIS database that will be used for soil nutrient management. Methods were explained and soil maps and their interpretations were summarized in the study.

Keywords: geostatistics, GIS, nutrient management, soil mapping

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317 Evaluation of Urban-Rural Integration of Characteristic Towns in Yunnan Province

Authors: Huang Yong, Chen Qianting, Zhao Shurong


In order to identify the role and effect of Characteristic Towns as an important means to promote urban-rural integration, this paper uses Flow Theory and complex network analysis methods to jointly construct the identification path of urban-rural integration capabilities of Characteristic Towns. Take the National Characteristic Towns of Yunnan Province as the empirical objects to identify their role laws. The study found that in the implementation of the National Characteristic Town Project in Yunnan Province, (1) the population is more susceptible to the impact of the Characteristic Town Project than the technical elements, but the stability is poor; (2) The flow capacity of urban and rural technical elements is weak, and the quality of the enterprise cooperation network in general; (3) Compared with the batch of Characteristic Towns in 2016, its ability to promote urban-rural integration is higher in 2017; (4) The role of the Characteristic Town Project on urban-rural integration focuses on the improvement of the number of urban and rural flow elements. This paper analyzes the mode of the role of Characteristic Towns on urban-rural integration from the perspective of ‘flow,’ establishes a research paradigm for evaluating the role of Characteristic Towns in urban-rural integration capabilities, and builds a path for the application of Characteristic Towns to support the realization of urban-rural integration goals.

Keywords: characteristic town, urban-rural integration, flow theory, complex network analysis

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316 Distribution and Densities of Anopheles Mosquito in El Obied Town, Sudan

Authors: Adam Musa Adam Eissa


Environmental and weather changes especially rainfall affects the distribution and densities of mosquitoes. This work was carried out to study the distribution and densities of mosquitoes adults and larvae in a total of five selected stations in El Obied Town. A cross-sectional survey of Anopheline mosquito larval habitats was conducted. The survey was conducted during the dry season (January 2013). Larvae were collected by using the standard dipping technique, while adult stages were collected by rearing larvae in cage, because the density of adults Anopheles mosquito per room was zero by using spray sheet method by using Permethrin pesticide 25%E.C, during the study period. The results revealed that (2347) Anopheline mosquito larvae were found and collected from only one station. All of which (2347) larvae (100%) were classified as probably Anopheles Squamosus. The study also showed that, a number of 81 adults (100%) Anopheline mosquito were classified as probably Anopheles Squamosus. Anopheles Squamosus were found only in the shallow pond water habitat in Alrahma west area of El Obied, the mean Anopheline density in the study area for larvae was 0.313 per dip while the mean density of adult was 0 per room. The high mosquito larval density in Alrahma west area indicated that, this part of El Obied Town is at risk of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria. This study recommended to apply the control program against mosquito at this part of the Town.

Keywords: anopheles, squamosus, Alrahma, distribution

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315 Storm-water Management for Greenfield Area Using Low Impact Development Concept for Town Planning Scheme Mechanism

Authors: Sahil Patel


Increasing urbanization leads to a concrete forest. The effects of new development practices occur in the natural hydrologic cycle. Here the concerns have been raised about the groundwater recharge in sufficient quantity. With further development, porous surfaces reduce rapidly. A city like Ahmedabad, with a non-perennial river, is 100% dependent on groundwater. The Ahmedabad city receives its domestic use water from the Narmada river, located about 200 km away. The expenses to bring water is much higher. Ahmedabad city receives annually 800 mm rainfall, and mostly this water increases the local level waterlogging problems; after that, water goes to the Sabarmati river and merges into the sea. The existing developed area of Ahmedabad city is very dense, and does not offer many chances to change the built form and increase porous surfaces to absorb storm-water. Therefore, there is a need to plan upcoming areas with more effective solutions to manage storm-water. This paper is focusing on the management of stormwater for new development by retaining natural hydrology. The Low Impact Development (LID) concept is used to manage storm-water efficiently. Ahmedabad city has a tool called the “Town Planning Scheme,” which helps the local body drive new development by land pooling mechanism. This paper gives a detailed analysis of the selected area (proposed Town Planning Scheme area by the local authority) in Ahmedabad. Here the development control regulations for individual developers and some physical elements for public places are presented to manage storm-water. There is a different solution for the Town Planning scheme than that of the conventional way. A local authority can use it for any area, but it can be site-specific. In the end, there are benefits to locals with some financial analysis and comparisons.

Keywords: water management, green field development, low impact development, town planning scheme

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314 Management of Local Towns (Tambon) According to Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

Authors: Wichian Sriprachan, Chutikarn Sriviboon


The objectives of this research were to study the management of local towns and to develop a better model of town management according to the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy. This study utilized qualitative research, field research, as well as documentary research at the same time. A total of 10 local towns or Tambons of Supanburi province, Thailand were selected for an in-depth interview. The findings revealed that the model of local town management according to Philosophy of Sufficient Economy was in a level of “good” and the model of management has the five basic guidelines: 1) ability to manage budget information and keep it up-to-date, 2) ability to decision making according to democracy rules, 3) ability to use check and balance system, 4) ability to control, follow, and evaluation, and 5) ability to allow the general public to participate. In addition, the findings also revealed that the human resource management according to Philosophy of Sufficient Economy includes obeying laws, using proper knowledge, and having integrity in five areas: plan, recruit, select, train, and maintain human resources.

Keywords: management, local town (Tambon), principles of sufficiency economy, marketing management

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313 Managing and Marketing a Modern Art Museum in a Small Town: A Case Study on Odunpazarı Modern Museum

Authors: Mehmet Sinan Erguven


Modern art is relatively new but a popular area in Turkish art society. Modern art museums are mainly located in big cities like Istanbul and Ankara where cultural life is more dynamic. Odunpazarı Modern Museum (OMM) will open its doors on September 2019 and be the only modern art museum located in a small town in Turkey. OMM executives declare the mission of the museum as; art must go beyond the metropolises of the world, give a new lease of life to cities that make a difference with their cultural texture, and reach a greater audience through that expansion. So OMM will not only serve as a museum but a landmark for regenerating the city brand of Eskişehir like the Guggenheim in Bilbao. OMM is located in the Odunpazarı area, the heart of Eskişehir. Named after the historical timber market it once hosted, Odunpazarı is a nominated site for the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List, and is Eskişehir’s first area of settlement. This study focuses on the complex nature of opening a modern art museum in a small town. The management and marketing dynamics of OMM are discussed in the study. Content analysis technique is used on local and national news to display the perception differences before and after the opening of OMM. In depth interviews with the executives of the museum are conducted in order to enlighten the insights of opening a modern art museum in a small town. Early findings of the content analysis point out that, the comments on the national press are mostly positive. On the other hand, different views occur on the local press. The location OMM is constructed and grandness of the museum building are criticized by some of the local newspapers. OMM’s potential as a tourist attraction is agreed by most of the media. OMM executives stated the most challenging task as reaching the different target audiences on international, national and local levels. These early findings will be improved and compared shortly before and after the opening of the museum.

Keywords: management, marketing, Odunpazarı modern museum, small town

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312 Research on Spatial Distribution of Service Facilities Based on Innovation Function: A Case Study of Zhejiang University Zijin Co-Maker Town

Authors: Zhang Yuqi


Service facilities are the boosters for the cultivation and development of innovative functions in innovative cluster areas. At the same time, reasonable service facilities planning can better link the internal functional blocks. This paper takes Zhejiang University Zijin Co-Maker Town as the research object, based on the combination of network data mining and field research and verification, combined with the needs of its internal innovative groups. It studies the distribution characteristics and existing problems of service facilities and then proposes a targeted planning suggestion. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) From the perspective of view, the town is rich in general life-supporting services, but lacking of provision targeted and distinctive service facilities for innovative groups; (2) From the perspective of scale structure, small-scale street shops are the main business form, lack of large-scale service center; (3) From the perspective of spatial structure, service facilities layout of each functional block is too fragile to fit the characteristics of 2aggregation- distribution' of innovation and entrepreneurial activities; (4) The goal of optimizing service facilities planning should be guided for fostering function of innovation and entrepreneurship and meet the actual needs of the innovation and entrepreneurial groups.

Keywords: the cultivation of innovative function, Zhejiang University Zijin Co-Maker Town, service facilities, network data mining, space optimization advice

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311 Study on the Protection and Transformation of Stone House Building in Shitang Town, Wenling, Zhejiang

Authors: Zhang Jiafeng


Stone houses, represented by Shitang town, Wenling town, Taizhou city, are very precious cultural relics in Zhejiang province and even in the whole country. The coastal residences in eastern Zhejiang with distinctive regional characteristics are completely different from the traditional residential styles in the inland areas of Zhejiang. However, with the aggravation of the conflict between the use function of traditional stone houses and the modern lifestyle, and the lack of effective protection, stone houses are disappearing in large numbers. Therefore, it is very important to protect and inherit the stone house building, and make effective and feasible development strategies. This paper will analyze the formation background, location selection, plane layout, architectural form, spatial organization, material application, and construction technology of the stone houses through literature research and field investigation. In addition, a series of feasibility studies are carried out on the protection and renovation of stone houses. The ultimate purpose is to attract people's attention and provide some reference for the protection, inheritance, development, and utilization of traditional houses in coastal areas.

Keywords: regional, stone house building, traditional houses, Wenling Shitang

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310 Land Transfer for New Township and Its Impact from Dwellers' Point of View: A Case Study of New Town Kolkata

Authors: Subhra Chattopadhyay


New Towns are usually built up at city-periphery with an eye to accommodate overspill population and functions of the city. ‘New towns are self-sufficient planned towns having a full range of urban economic and social activities, so it can provide employments for all of its inhabitants as well as a balanced self-content social community could be maintained’. In 3rd world countries New towns often emerge from scratch i.e on the area having no urban background and therefore, it needs a massive land conversion from rural to urban. This paper aims to study the implication of such land title transfer into rural sustainability with a case study at Jatragachi, New Town Kolkata. Broad objectives of this study are to understand 1. new changes in this area like i)changes in land use, ii) demographic changes, iii) occupational changes of the local people and 2.their view about new town planning. Major observations are stated below. The studied area was completely rural till recent years and is now at the heart of New Town Kolkata. Though this area is now under the jurisdiction of New Town Kolkata Development Authority (NKDA), it is still administrated by rural self-government.It creates administrative confusion and misuse of public capital. It is observed in this study that cultivation was the mainstay of livelihood for the majority of residents till recent past. There was a dramatic rise in irrigated area in the decade of 90’s pointing out agricultural prosperity.The area achieved the highest productivity of rice in the District. Percentage of marginal workers dropped significantly.In addition to it, ascending women’s literacy rate as found in this rural Mouza obviously indicates a constant social progress .Through land conversion, this flourishing agricultural land has been transformed into urban area with highly sophisticated uses. Such development may satisfy educated urban elite but the dwellers of the area suffer a lot. They bear the cost of new town planning through loss of their assured food and income as well as their place identity. The number of marginal workers increases abruptly. The growth of female literacy drops down. The area loses its functional linkages with its surroundings and fails to prove its actual growth potentiality. The physical linkages( like past roads and irrigation infrastructure) which had developed through time to support the economy become defunct. The ecological services which were provided by the agricultural field are denied. The historicity of this original site is demolished. Losses of the inhabitants of the area who have been evicted are also immense and cannot be materially compensated. Therefore, the ethos of such new town planning in stake of rural sustainability is under question. Need for an integrated approach for rural and urban development planning is felt in this study.

Keywords: new town, sustainable development, growth potentiality, land transfer

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309 Research on the Updating Strategy of Public Space in Small Towns in Zhejiang Province under the Background of New-Style Urbanization

Authors: Chen Yao, Wang Ke


Small towns are the most basic administrative institutions in our country, which are connected with cities and rural areas. Small towns play an important role in promoting local urban and rural economic development, providing the main public services and maintaining social stability in social governance. With the vigorous development of small towns and the transformation of industrial structure, the changes of social structure, spatial structure, and lifestyle are lagging behind, causing that the spatial form and landscape style do not belong to both cities and rural areas, and seriously affecting the quality of people’s life space and environment. The rural economy in Zhejiang Province has started, the society and the population are also developing in relative stability. In September 2016, Zhejiang Province set out the 'Technical Guidelines for Comprehensive Environmental Remediation of Small Towns in Zhejiang Province,' so as to comprehensively implement the small town comprehensive environmental remediation with the main content of strengthening the plan and design leading, regulating environmental sanitation, urban order and town appearance. In November 2016, Huzhou City started the comprehensive environmental improvement of small towns, strived to use three years to significantly improve the 115 small towns, as well as to create a number of high quality, distinctive and beautiful towns with features of 'clean and livable, rational layout, industrial development, poetry and painting style'. This paper takes Meixi Town, Zhangwu Town and Sanchuan Village in Huzhou City as the empirical cases, analyzes the small town public space by applying the relative theory of actor-network and space syntax. This paper also analyzes the spatial composition in actor and social structure elements, as well as explores the relationship of actor’s spatial practice and public open space by combining with actor-network theory. This paper introduces the relevant theories and methods of spatial syntax, carries out research analysis and design planning analysis of small town spaces from the perspective of quantitative analysis. And then, this paper proposes the effective updating strategy for the existing problems in public space. Through the planning and design in the building level, the dissonant factors produced by various spatial combination of factors and between landscape design and urban texture during small town development will be solved, inhabitant quality of life will be promoted, and town development vitality will be increased.

Keywords: small towns, urbanization, public space, updating

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308 Soil Micromorphological Analysis from the Hinterland of the Pharaonic Town, Sai Island, Sudan

Authors: Sayantani Neogi, Sean Taylor, Julia Budka


This paper presents the results of the investigations of soil/sediment sequences associated with the New Kingdom town at Sai Island, Sudan. During the course of this study, geoarchaeological surveys have been undertaken in the vicinity of this Pharaonic town within the island and the soil block samples for soil micromorphological analysis were accordingly collected. The intention was to better understand the archaeological site in its environmental context and the nature of the land surface prior to the establishment of the settlement. Soil micromorphology, a very powerful geoarchaeological methodology, is concerned with the description, measurement and interpretation of soil components and pedological features at a microscopic scale. Since soil profiles themselves are archives of their own history, soil micromorphology investigates the environmental and cultural signatures preserved within buried soils and sediments. A study of the thin sections from these soils/sediments has been able to provide robust data for providing interesting insights into the various nuances of this site, for example, the nature of the topography and existent environmental condition during the time of Pharaonic site establishment. These geoarchaeological evaluations have indicated that there is a varied hidden landscape context for this pharaonic settlement, which indicates a symbiotic relationship with the Nilotic environmental system.

Keywords: geoarchaeology, New Kingdom, Nilotic environment, soil micromorphology

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307 Architectural Experience of the Everyday in Phuket Old Town

Authors: Thirayu Jumsai na Ayudhya


Initial attempts to understand about what architecture means to people as they go about their everyday life through my previous research revealed that knowledge such as environmental psychology, environmental perception, environmental aesthetics, did not adequately address a perceived need for the contextualized and holistic theoretical framework. In my previous research, it is found that people’s making senses of their everyday architecture can be described in terms of four super‐ordinate themes; (1) building in urban (text), (2) building in (text), (3) building in human (text), (4) and building in time (text). For more comprehensively understanding of how people make sense of their everyday architectural experience, in this ongoing research Phuket Old town was selected as the focal urban context where the distinguish character of Chino-Portuguese is remarkable. It is expected that in a unique urban context like Phuket old town unprecedented super-ordinate themes will be unveiled through the reflection of people’s everyday experiences. The ongoing research of people’s architectural experience conducted in Phuket Island, Thailand, will be presented succinctly. The research will address the question of how do people make sense of their everyday architecture/buildings especially in a unique urban context, Phuket Old town, and identify ways in which people make sense of their everyday architecture. Participant-Produced-Photograph (PPP) and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) are adopted as main methodologies. PPP allows people to express experiences of their everyday urban context freely without any interference or forced-data generating by researchers. With IPA methodology a small pool of participants is considered desirable given the detailed level of analysis required and its potential to produce a meaningful outcome.

Keywords: architectural experience, the everyday architecture, Phuket, Thailand

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306 Ethnic Tourism and Real Estate Development: A Case of Yiren Ancient Town, China

Authors: Li Yang


Tourism is employed by many countries to facilitate socioeconomic development and to assist in the heritage preservation. An “ethnic culture boom” is currently driving the tourism industry in China. Ethnic minorities, commonly portrayed as primitive, colorful and exotic, have become a big tourist draw. Many cultural attractions have been built throughout China to meet the demands of domestic tourists. Sacred cultural heritage sites have been rehabilitated as a major component of ethnic tourism. The purpose of this study is to examine the interconnected consequences of tourism development and tourism-related leisure property development and, and to discuss, in a broader context, issues and considerations that are pertinent to the management and development of ethnic attractions. The role of real estate in tourism development and its sociocultural consequences are explored. An empirical research was conducted in Yiren Ancient Town (literally, "Ancient Town of Yi People") in Chuxiong City, Yunnan Province, China. Multiple research methods, including in-depth interviews, informal discussions, on-site observations, and secondary data review were employed to measure residents and tourism decision-makers’ perceptions of ethnic tourism and to explore the impacts of tourism on local community. Key informants from government officials, tourism developers and local communities were interviewed individually to gather what they think about benefits and costs of tourism, and what their concerns about and hopes for tourism development are. Yiren Ancient Town was constructed in classical Yi architecture style featuring tranquil garden scenery. Commercial streets, entertainment complexes, and accommodation facilities occupied the center of the town, creating culturally distinctive and visually stimulating places for tourists. A variety of activities are presented to visitors, including walking tours of the town, staged dance shows, musical performances, ethnic festivals and ceremonies, tasting minority food and wedding shows. This study reveals that tourism real estate has transformed the town from a traditional neighborhood into diverse real estate landscapes. Ethnic architecture, costumes, festivals and folk culture have been represented, altered and reinvented through the tourist gaze and mechanisms of cultural production. Tourism is now a new economic driver of the community providing opportunities for the creation of small businesses. There was a general appreciation in the community that tourism has created many employment opportunities, especially for self-employment. However, profit-seeking is a primary motivation for the government, developers, businesses, and other actors involved in the tourism development process. As the town has attracted an increasing number of visitors, commercialization and business competition are intense in the town. Many residents complained about elevated land prices, making the town and the surroundings comparatively high-value locales. Local community is also concerned about the decline of traditional ethnic culture and an erosion of the sense of identity and place. A balance is difficult to maintain between protection and development. The preservation of ethnic culture and heritage should be enhanced if long-term sustainable development of tourism is to occur and the loss of ethnic identities is to be avoided.

Keywords: ancient town, ethnic tourism, local community, real estate, China

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