Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 788

Search results for: Langmuir waves

788 The Effects of Electron Trapping by Electron-Ecoustic Waves Excited with Electron Beam

Authors: Abid Ali Abid

Abstract:

One-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) electrostatic simulations are carried out to investigate the electrostatic waves, whose constituents are hot, cold and beam electrons in the background of motionless positive ions. In fact, the electrostatic modes excited are electron acoustic waves, beam driven waves as well as Langmuir waves. It is assessed that the relevant plasma parameters, for example, hot electron temperature, beam electron drift speed, and the electron beam density significantly modify the electrostatics wave's profiles. In the nonlinear stage, the wave-particle interaction becomes more evident and the waves have obtained its saturation level. Consequently, electrons become trapped in the waves and trapping vortices are clearly formed. Because of this trapping vortices and mixing of the electrons in phase space, finally, lead to electrons thermalization. It is observed that for the high-density value of the beam-electron, the solitary waves having a bipolar form of the electric field. These solitons are the nonlinear Brenstein-Greene and Kruskal wave mode that attributes the trapping of electrons potential well of phase-space hole. These examinations revealed that electrostatic waves have been exited in beam-plasma model and producing waves having broad-frequency ranges, which may clarify the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) spectrum studied in the auroral zone.

Keywords: electron acoustic waves, trapping of cold electron, Langmuir waves, particle-in cell simulation

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787 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Floating Body Motion Interacting with Focused Waves

Authors: Seul-Ki Park, Jong-Chun Park, Gyu-Mok Jeon, Dae-Kyung Ock, Seung-Gyu Jeong

Abstract:

Rogue waves cause frequent accidents of ships and offshore structures, which can result in severe damage to the structures. The Rogue waves, which are also known as big waves, freak waves, extreme waves, monster waves, focused waves, giant waves and abnormal waves, are unexpected and suddenly appearing, and can have a breaking force to destroy the structure even though modern structures are designed to tolerate a breaking wave. In the present study, a series of focused waves are numerically reproduced by concentrating nonlinear multi-directional waves into a target point using a commercial CFD software, Star-CCM+. A flow analysis for investigating the physical characteristics of the focused waves is performed using the Star-CCM+, while it has several difficulties to examine the inner properties of the waves in existing potential theory and experiments. Additionally, the 6-DOF (Degree of Freedom) motion of a floating body interacting with the focused waves are simulated, and the dynamic response of the body are discussed.

Keywords: multidirectional waves, focused waves, rogue waves, wave-structure interaction, numerical wave tank, computational fluid dynamics

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786 Propagation of Weak Non-Linear Waves in Non-Equilibrium Flow

Authors: J. Jena, Monica Saxena

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In this paper, the propagation of weak nonlinear waves in non-equilibrium flow has been studied in detail using the perturbation method. The expansive action of receding piston undergoing infinite acceleration has been discussed. Central expansion fan, compression waves and shock fronts have been discussed and the solutions up to the first order in the characteristic plane and physical plane have been obtained.

Keywords: Characteristic wave front, weak non-linear waves, central expansion fan, compression waves

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785 Heating of Cold Ions by Emic Waves Using MMS Observations

Authors: Abid Ali Abid, Quanming Lu, Xing L. Gao, B. M. Alotaibi, S. Ali, M. N. S. Qureshi, Y. Al-Hadeethi, Shui Wang

Abstract:

The EMIC waves whose frequency ranges from 0.001 Hz to 5 Hz in the Earth’s magnetosphere and have received considerable attention for energy transport across the magnetosphere. Since these waves act as a mechanism for the loss of energetic electrons from the Van Allen radiation belts to the atmosphere, therefore, it is necessary to understand how and where they can be produced, as well as the direction of waves along the magnetic field lines. In this letter, the excitation of the EMIC waves is studied by taking into account the hot proton temperature anisotropy having energy ranging from 7 KeV to 26 KeV with a minimum resonant energy of 6.9KeV. However, the opposite effect can be observed for the hot protons for energy less than the minimum resonant energy. It is revealed that as long as the intensity of the EMIC waves increases, the number density and temperature anisotropy of the protons also increase within the energy range from 1eV to 100 eV.

Keywords: EMIC waves, temperature anisotropy of hot protons, energization of the cold proton, magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) satellite observations

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
784 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang

Abstract:

Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: characteristic equation, interface waves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structure

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783 The Kinks, the Solitons, and the Shocks in Series Connected Discrete Josephson Transmission Lines

Authors: Eugene Kogan

Abstract:

We analytically study the localized running waves in the discrete Josephson transmission lines (JTL), constructed from Josephson junctions (JJ) and capacitors. The quasi-continuum approximation reduces the calculation of the running wave properties to the problem of equilibrium of an elastic rod in the potential field. Making additional approximations, we reduce the problem to the motion of the fictitious Newtonian particle in the potential well. We show that there exist running waves in the form of supersonic kinks and solitons and calculate their velocities and profiles. We show that the nonstationary smooth waves, which are small perturbations on the homogeneous non-zero background, are described by Korteweg-de Vries equation, and those on zero background -by the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. We also study the effect of dissipation on the running waves in JTL and find that in the presence of the resistors, shunting the JJ and/or in series with the ground capacitors, the only possible stationary running waves are the shock waves, whose profiles are also found.

Keywords: Josephson transmission line, shocks, solitary waves, nonlinear waves

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782 Comparative Study of Soliton Collisions in Uniform and Nonuniform Magnetized Plasma

Authors: Renu Tomar, Hitendra K. Malik, Raj P. Dahiya

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Similar to the sound waves in air, plasmas support the propagation of ion waves, which evolve into the solitary structures when the effect of non linearity and dispersion are balanced. The ion acoustic solitary waves have been investigated in details in homogeneous plasmas, inhomogeneous plasmas, and magnetized plasmas. The ion acoustic solitary waves are also found to reflect from a density gradient or boundary present in the plasma after propagating. Another interesting feature of the solitary waves is their collision. In the present work, we carry out analytical calculations for the head-on collision of solitary waves in a magnetized plasma which has dust grains in addition to the ions and electrons. For this, we employ Poincar´e-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method. To lowest nonlinear order, the problem of colliding solitary waves leads to KdV (modified KdV) equations and also yields the phase shifts that occur in the interaction. These calculations are accomplished for the uniform and nonuniform plasmas, and the results on the soliton properties are discussed in detail.

Keywords: inhomogeneous magnetized plasma, dust charging, soliton collisions, magnetized plasma

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781 Effects of Charge Fluctuating Positive Dust on Linear Dust-Acoustic Waves

Authors: Sanjit Kumar Paul, A. A. Mamun, M. R. Amin

Abstract:

The Linear propagation of the dust-acoustic wave in a dusty plasma consisting of Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions and mobile charge fluctuating positive dust grains has been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. It has been shown that the dust charge fluctuation is a source of dissipation and its responsible for the formation of the dust-acoustic waves in such a dusty plasma. The basic features of such dust-acoustic waves have been identified. It has been proposed to design a new laboratory experiment which will be able to identify the basic features of the dust-acoustic waves predicted in this theoretical investigation.

Keywords: dust acoustic waves, dusty plasma, Boltzmann distributed electrons, charge fluctuation

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780 Model of Cosserat Continuum Dispersion in a Half-Space with a Scatterer

Authors: Francisco Velez, Juan David Gomez

Abstract:

Dispersion effects on the Scattering for a semicircular canyon in a micropolar continuum are analyzed, by using a computational finite element scheme. The presence of microrotational waves and the dispersive SV waves affects the propagation of elastic waves. Here, a contrast with the classic model is presented, and the dependence with the micropolar parameters is studied.

Keywords: scattering, semicircular canyon, wave dispersion, micropolar medium, FEM modeling

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779 Investigating Viscous Surface Wave Propagation Modes in a Finite Depth Fluid

Authors: Arash Ghahraman, Gyula Bene

Abstract:

The object of this study is to investigate the effect of viscosity on the propagation of free-surface waves in an incompressible viscous fluid layer of arbitrary depth. While we provide a more detailed study of properties of linear surface waves, the description of fully nonlinear waves in terms of KdV-like (Korteweg-de Vries) equations is discussed. In the linear case, we find that in shallow enough fluids, no surface waves can propagate. Even in any thicker fluid layers, propagation of very short and very long waves is forbidden. When wave propagation is possible, only a single propagating mode exists for any given horizontal wave number. The numerical results show that there can be two types of non-propagating modes. One type is always present, and there exist still infinitely many of such modes at the same parameters. In contrast, there can be zero, one or two modes belonging to the other type. Another significant feature is that KdV-like equations. They describe propagating nonlinear viscous surface waves. Since viscosity gives rise to a new wavenumber that cannot be small at the same time as the original one, these equations may not exist. Nonetheless, we propose a reasonable nonlinear description in terms of 1+1 variate functions that make possible successive approximations.

Keywords: free surface wave, water waves, KdV equation, viscosity

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778 Cd2+ Ions Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Alginite

Authors: Vladimír Frišták, Martin Pipíška, Juraj Lesný

Abstract:

Alginate has been evaluated as an efficient pollution control material. In this paper, alginate from maar Pinciná (SR) for removal of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution was studied. The potential sorbent was characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (RFA) analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectral Analysis (FT-IR) and Specific Surface Area (SSA) was also determined. The sorption process was optimized from the point of initial cadmium concentration effect and effect of pH value. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to interpret the sorption behaviour of Cd2+ ions, and the results showed that experimental data were well fitted by the Langmuir equation. Alginate maximal sorption capacity (QMAX) for Cd2+ ions calculated from Langmuir isotherm was 34 mg/g. Sorption process was significantly affected by initial pH value in the range from 4.0-7.0. Alginate is a comparable sorbent with other materials for toxic metals removal.

Keywords: alginates, Cd2+, sorption, QMAX

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777 Lamb Waves in Plates Subjected to Uniaxial Stresses

Authors: Munawwar Mohabuth, Andrei Kotousov, Ching-Tai Ng

Abstract:

On the basis of the finite deformation theory, the effect of homogeneous stress on the propagation of Lamb waves in an initially isotropic hyperelastic plate is analysed. The equations governing the propagation of small amplitude waves in the prestressed plate are derived using the theory of small deformations superimposed on large deformations. By enforcing traction free boundary conditions at the upper and lower surfaces of the plate, acoustoelastic dispersion equations for Lamb wave propagation are obtained, which are solved numerically. Results are given for an aluminum plate subjected to a range of applied stresses.

Keywords: acoustoelasticity, dispersion, finite deformation, lamb waves

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776 Analysis of Seismic Waves Generated by Blasting Operations and their Response on Buildings

Authors: S. Ziaran, M. Musil, M. Cekan, O. Chlebo

Abstract:

The paper analyzes the response of buildings and industrially structures on seismic waves (low frequency mechanical vibration) generated by blasting operations. The principles of seismic analysis can be applied for different kinds of excitation such as: earthquakes, wind, explosions, random excitation from local transportation, periodic excitation from large rotating and/or machines with reciprocating motion, metal forming processes such as forging, shearing and stamping, chemical reactions, construction and earth moving work, and other strong deterministic and random energy sources caused by human activities. The article deals with the response of seismic, low frequency, mechanical vibrations generated by nearby blasting operations on a residential home. The goal was to determine the fundamental natural frequencies of the measured structure; therefore it is important to determine the resonant frequencies to design a suitable modal damping. The article also analyzes the package of seismic waves generated by blasting (Primary waves – P-waves and Secondary waves S-waves) and investigated the transfer regions. For the detection of seismic waves resulting from an explosion, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and modal analysis, in the frequency domain, is used and the signal was acquired and analyzed also in the time domain. In the conclusions the measured results of seismic waves caused by blasting in a nearby quarry and its effect on a nearby structure (house) is analyzed. The response on the house, including the fundamental natural frequency and possible fatigue damage is also assessed.

Keywords: building structure, seismic waves, spectral analysis, structural response

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775 Observations of Magnetospheric Ulf Waves in Connection to the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability at Mercury

Authors: Elisabet Liljeblad, Tomas Karlsson, Torbjorn Sundberg, Anita Kullen

Abstract:

The magnetospheric magnetic field data from the MESSENGER spacecraft is investigated to establish the presence of ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves in connection to 131 previously observed nonlinear Kelvin-Helmholtz waves (KHWs) at Mercury. Distinct ULF signatures are detected in 44 out of the 131 magnetospheric traversals prior to or after observing a KHW. In particular, 39 of these 44 ULF events are highly coherent at the frequency of maximum power spectral density. The waves observed at the dayside, which appears mainly at the duskside and naturally following the KHW occurrence asymmetry, are significantly different to the events behind the dawn-dusk terminator and have the following distinct wave characteristics: they oscillate clearly in the perpendicular (azimuthal) direction to the mean magnetic field with a wave normal angle more in the parallel than the perpendicular direction, increase in absolute ellipticity with distance from noon, are almost exclusively right-hand polarized, and are observed mainly for frequencies in the range 0.02-0.04 Hz. These results indicate that the dayside ULF waves are likely to shear Alfvén waves driven by KHWs at the magnetopause, which in turn manifests the importance of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in terms of mass transport throughout the Mercury magnetosphere.

Keywords: ultra-low frequency waves, kelvin-Helmholtz instability, magnetospheric processes, mercury, messenger, energy and momentum transfer in planetary environments

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774 Using Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for Extracting Acoustic Microwaves (Bulk Acoustic Waves) in Piezoelectric Material

Authors: Hafdaoui Hichem, Mehadjebia Cherifa, Benatia Djamel

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method for Bulk detection of an acoustic microwave signal during the propagation of acoustic microwaves in a piezoelectric substrate (Lithium Niobate LiNbO3). We have used the classification by probabilistic neural network (PNN) as a means of numerical analysis in which we classify all the values of the real part and the imaginary part of the coefficient attenuation with the acoustic velocity in order to build a model from which we note the Bulk waves easily. These singularities inform us of presence of Bulk waves in piezoelectric materials. By which we obtain accurate values for each of the coefficient attenuation and acoustic velocity for Bulk waves. This study will be very interesting in modeling and realization of acoustic microwaves devices (ultrasound) based on the propagation of acoustic microwaves.

Keywords: piezoelectric material, probabilistic neural network (PNN), classification, acoustic microwaves, bulk waves, the attenuation coefficient

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773 Removal of Copper(II) and Lead(II) from Aqueous Phase by Plum Stone Activated Carbon

Authors: Serife Parlayici, Erol Pehlivan

Abstract:

In this study, plum stone shell activated carbon (PS-AC) was prepared to adsorb Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions. Some important parameters that influence the adsorption of metal ions such as pH, contact time and metal concentration have been systematically investigated in batch type reactors. The characterization of adsorbent is carried out by means of FTIR and SEM. It was found that the adsorption capacities of PS-AC were pH-dependent, and the optimal pH values were 4.5 and 5.0 for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption was rapid and the equilibrium was reached within 60 minutes to remove of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions. The adsorption stability was studied in various doses of adsorbent. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium studies of PS-AC. Adsorption data showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) is compatible with Langmuir isotherm model. The result showed that adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 33.22 mg/g and 57.80 mg/g for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

Keywords: plum-stone, activated carbon, copper and lead, isotherms

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772 A Review on the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Caisson Breakwater

Authors: T. J. Jemi Jeya, V. Sriram, V. Sundar

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Caisson breakwaters are gravity structures resting on the seabed and piercing the free surface sunk in coastal waters to break the energy in the waves and protect the water area behind them by creating tranquil conditions on its lee side for the purpose of berthing of vessels. A number of formula and methodologies have been proposed for calculating the forces on caissons due to waves, most of which being evolved through intensive laboratory and field measurements. The reflection of waves from such breakwaters often generates clapotis, leading to an amplification of waves in its vicinity. This result in increased pressures and forces, forcing researchers to modify its seaside shape as well as placing dissipaters in the form of screens. Apart from the above aspects, this paper also discusses the other important phenomena, like overtopping that dictates the stability of caisson breakwaters.

Keywords: caisson breakwater, Jarlan type breakwater, screens, circular breakwater

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771 Exposure to Radio Frequency Waves of Mobile Phone and Temperature Changes of Brain Tissue

Authors: Farhad Forouharmajd, Hossein Ebrahimi, Siamak Pourabdian

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Introduction: Prevalent use of cell phones (mobile phones) has led to increasing worries about the effect of radiofrequency waves on the physiology of human body. This study was done to determine different reactions of the temperatures in different depths of brain tissue in confronting with radiofrequency waves of cell phones. Methodology: This study was an empirical research. A cow's brain tissue was placed in a compartment and the effects of radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was analyzed during confrontation and after confrontation, in three different depths of 2, 12, and 22 mm of the tissue, in 4 mm and 4 cm distances of the tissue to a cell phone, for 15 min. Lutron thermometer was used to measure the tissue temperatures. Data analysis was done by Lutron software. Findings: The rate of increasing the temperature at the depth of 22 mm was higher than 2 mm and 12mm depths, during confrontation of the brain tissue at the distance of 4 mm with the cell phone, such that the tissue temperatures at 2, 12, and 22 mm depths increased by 0.29 ˚C, 0.31 ˚C, and 0.37 ˚C, respectively, relative to the base temperature (tissue temperature before confrontation). Moreover, the temperature of brain tissue at the distance of 4 cm by increasing the tissue depth was more than other depths. Increasing the tissue temperature also existed by increasing the brain tissue depth after the confrontation with the cell phone. The temperature of the 22 mm depth increased with higher speed at the time confrontation. Conclusion: Not only radiofrequency waves of cell phones increased the tissue temperature in all the depths of the brain tissue, but also the temperature due to radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was more at the depths higher than 22 mm of the tissue. In fact, the thermal effect of radiofrequency waves was higher in higher depths.

Keywords: mobile phone, radio frequency waves, brain tissue, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
770 Using Peer Instruction in Physics of Waves for Pre-Service Science Teacher

Authors: Sumalee Tientongdee

Abstract:

In this study, it was aimed to investigate Physics achievement of the pre-service science teacher studying in general science program at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. The program has provided the new curriculum that focuses on 21st-century skills development. Active learning approaches are used to teach in all subjects. One of the active learning approaches Peer Instruction, or PI was used in this study to teach physics of waves as a compulsory course. It was conducted in the second semester from January to May of 2017. The concept test was given to evaluate pre-service science teachers’ understanding in concept of waves. Problem-solving assessment form was used to evaluate their problem-solving skill. The results indicated that after they had learned through Peer Instruction in physics of waves course, their concepts in physics of waves was significantly higher at 0.05 confident levels. Their problem-solving skill from the whole class was at the highest level. Based on the group interview on the opinions of using Peer Instruction in Physics class, they mostly felt that it was very useful and helping them understand more about physics, especially for female students.

Keywords: peer instruction, physics of waves, pre-service science teacher, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat university

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769 Existence and Stability of Periodic Traveling Waves in a Bistable Excitable System

Authors: M. Osman Gani, M. Ferdows, Toshiyuki Ogawa

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In this work, we proposed a modified FHN-type reaction-diffusion system for a bistable excitable system by adding a scaled function obtained from a given function. We study the existence and the stability of the periodic traveling waves (or wavetrains) for the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) system and the modified one and compare the results. The stability results of the periodic traveling waves (PTWs) indicate that most of the solutions in the fast family of the PTWs are stable for the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations. The instability occurs only in the waves having smaller periods. However, the smaller period waves are always unstable. The fast family with sufficiently large periods is always stable in FHN model. We find that the oscillation of pulse widths is absent in the standard FHN model. That motivates us to study the PTWs in the proposed FHN-type reaction-diffusion system for the bistable excitable media. A good agreement is found between the solutions of the traveling wave ODEs and the corresponding whole PDE simulation.

Keywords: bistable system, Eckhaus bifurcation, excitable media, FitzHugh-Nagumo model, periodic traveling waves

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768 Discussion on Dispersion Curves of Non-penetrable Soils from in-Situ Seismic Dilatometer Measurements

Authors: Angelo Aloisio Dag, Pasquale Pasca, Massimo Fragiacomo, Ferdinando Totani, Gianfranco Totani

Abstract:

The estimate of the velocity of shear waves (Vs) is essential in seismic engineering to characterize the dynamic response of soils. There are various direct methods to estimate the Vs. The authors report the results of site characterization in Macerata, where they measured the Vs using the seismic dilatometer in a 100m deep borehole. The standard Vs estimation originates from the cross-correlation between the signals acquired by two geophones at increasing depths. This paper focuses on the estimate of the dependence of Vs on the wavenumber. The dispersion curves reveal an unexpected hyperbolic dispersion curve typical of Lamb waves. Interestingly, the contribution of Lamb waves may be notable up to 100m depth. The amplitude of surface waves decrease rapidly with depth: still, their influence may be essential up to depths considered unusual for standard geotechnical investigations, where their effect is generally neglected. Accordingly, these waves may bias the outcomes of the standard Vs estimations, which ignore frequency-dependent phenomena. The paper proposes an enhancement of the accepted procedure to estimate Vs and addresses the importance of Lamb waves in soil characterization.

Keywords: dispersion curve, seismic dilatometer, shear wave, soil mechanics

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767 Biosorption Kinetics, Isotherms, and Thermodynamic Studies of Copper (II) on Spirogyra sp.

Authors: Diwan Singh

Abstract:

The ability of non-living Spirogyra sp. biomass for biosorption of copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions was explored. The effect of contact time, pH, initial copper ion concentration, biosorbent dosage and temperature were investigated in batch experiments. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir Isotherms were found applicable on the experimental data (R2>0.98). Qmax obtained from the Langmuir Isotherms was found to be 28.7 mg/g of biomass. The values of Gibbs free energy (ΔGº) and enthalpy change (ΔHº) suggest that the sorption is spontaneous and endothermic at 20ºC-40ºC.

Keywords: biosorption, Spirogyra sp., contact time, pH, dose

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766 Recovery of Fried Soybean Oil Using Bentonite as an Adsorbent: Optimization, Isotherm and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak, Avinash Kumar, Uma Dash, Kalpana Rayaguru

Abstract:

Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils, worldwide. Deep-fat frying of foods at higher temperatures adds unique flavour, golden brown colour and crispy texture to foods. But it brings in various changes like hydrolysis, oxidation, hydrogenation and thermal alteration to oil. The presence of Peroxide value (PV) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of the deep-fat fried oil. Using bentonite as an adsorbent, the PV can be reduced, thereby improving the quality of the soybean oil. In this study, operating parameters like heating time of oil (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30 h), contact time ( 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 h) and concentration of adsorbent (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/ 100 ml of oil) have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) considering percentage reduction of PV as a response. Adsorption data were analysed by fitting with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The results show that the Langmuir model shows the best fit compared to the Freundlich model. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Keywords: bentonite, Langmuir isotherm, peroxide value, RSM, soybean oil

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765 Nonlinear Internal Waves in Rotating Ocean

Authors: L. A. Ostrovsky, Yu. A. Stepanyants

Abstract:

Effect of Earth rotation on nonlinear waves is a practically important and theoretically challenging problem of fluid mechanics and geophysics. Whereas the large-scale, geostrophic processes such as Rossby waves are a classical object of oceanic and atmospheric physics, rotation effects on mesoscale waves are not well studied. In particular, the Coriolis force can radically modify the behavior of nonlinear internal gravity waves in the ocean having spatial scales of 1-10 kilometers and time durations of few hours. In the last decade, such a non-trivial behavior was observed more than once. Similar effects are possible for magnetic sound in the ionosphere. Here we outline the main physical peculiarities in the behavior of nonlinear internal waves due to the rotation effect and present some results of our recent studies. The consideration is based on the fourth-order equation derived by one of the authors as a rotation-modified Korteweg–de Vries (rKdV) equation which includes two types of dispersion: one is responsible for the finiteness of depth as in the classical KdV equation; another is due to the Coriolis effect. This equation is, in general, non-integrable; moreover, under the conditions typical of oceanic waves (positive dispersion parameter), it does not allow solitary solutions at all. In the opposite case (negative dispersion) which is possible for, e.g., magnetic sound, solitary solutions do exist and can form complex bound states (multisoliton). Another non-trivial properties of nonlinear internal waves with rotation include, to name a few, the ‘terminal’ damping of the initial KdV soliton disappearing in a finite time due to radiation losses caused by Earth’s rotation, and eventual transformation of a KdV soliton into a wave packet (an envelope soliton). The new results to be discussed refer to the interaction of a soliton with a long background wave. It is shown, in particular, that in this case internal solitons can exist since the radiation losses are compensated by energy pumping from the background wave. Finally, the relevant oceanic observations of rotation effect on internal waves are briefly described.

Keywords: Earth rotation, internal waves, nonlinear waves, solitons

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764 Study of Ultrasonic Waves in Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Composite Plates for the Aerospace Applications

Authors: DucTho Le, Duy Kien Dao, Quoc Tinh Bui, Haidang Phan

Abstract:

The article is concerned with the motion of ultrasonic guided waves in a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite plate under acoustic sources. Such unidirectional composite material has orthotropic elastic properties as it is very stiff along the fibers and rather compliant across the fibers. The dispersion equations of free Lamb waves propagating in an orthotropic layer are derived that results in the dispersion curves. The connection of these equations to the Rayleigh-Lamb frequency relations of isotropic plates is discussed. By the use of reciprocity in elastodynamics, closed-form solutions of elastic wave motions subjected to time-harmonic loads in the layer are computed in a simple manner. We also consider the problem of Lamb waves generated by a set of time-harmonic sources. The obtained computations can be very useful for developing ultrasound-based methods for nondestructive evaluation of composite structures.

Keywords: lamb waves, fiber-reinforced composite plates, dispersion equations, nondestructive evaluation, reciprocity theorems

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763 Numerical Modeling of Storm Swells in Harbor by Boussinesq Equations Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

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The purpose of work is to study the phenomenon of agitation of storm waves at basin caused by different directions of waves relative to the current provision thrown numerical model based on the equation in shallow water using Boussinesq model MIKE 21 BW. According to the diminishing effect of penetration of a wave optimal solution will be available to be reproduced in reduced model. Another alternative arrangement throws will be proposed to reduce the agitation and the effects of the swell reflection caused by the penetration of waves in the harbor.

Keywords: agitation, Boussinesq equations, combination, harbor

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762 Kinetic Model to Interpret Whistler Waves in Multicomponent Non-Maxwellian Space Plasmas

Authors: Warda Nasir, M. N. S. Qureshi

Abstract:

Whistler waves are right handed circularly polarized waves and are frequently observed in space plasmas. The Low frequency branch of the Whistler waves having frequencies nearly around 100 Hz, known as Lion roars, are frequently observed in magnetosheath. Another feature of the magnetosheath is the observations of flat top electron distributions with single as well as two electron populations. In the past, lion roars were studied by employing kinetic model using classical bi-Maxwellian distribution function, however, could not be justified both on quantitatively as well as qualitatively grounds. We studied Whistler waves by employing kinetic model using non-Maxwellian distribution function such as the generalized (r,q) distribution function which is the generalized form of kappa and Maxwellian distribution functions by employing kinetic theory with single or two electron populations. We compare our results with the Cluster observations and found good quantitative and qualitative agreement between them. At times when lion roars are observed (not observed) in the data and bi-Maxwellian could not provide the sufficient growth (damping) rates, we showed that when generalized (r,q) distribution function is employed, the resulted growth (damping) rates exactly match the observations.

Keywords: kinetic model, whistler waves, non-maxwellian distribution function, space plasmas

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761 Scaling Analysis for the Liquefaction Phenomena Generated by Water Waves

Authors: E. Arcos, E. Bautista, F. Méndez

Abstract:

In this work, a scaling analysis of the liquefaction phenomena is presented. The characteristic scales are obtained by balancing term by term of the well-known partial dynamics governing equations, (U − P). From the above, the order of magnitude of the horizontal displacement is very smaller compared with the vertical displacement and therefore the governing equation is only a function of the dependent vertical variables. The U − P approximation is reduced and presented in its dimensionless version. This scaling analysis can be used to obtain analytical solutions of the liquefaction phenomena under the action of the water waves.

Keywords: approximation U-P, porous seabed, scaling analysis, water waves

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760 Adsorption Isotherm, Kinetic and Mechanism Studies of Some Substituted Phenols from Aqueous Solution by Jujuba Seeds Activated Carbon

Authors: O. Benturki, A. Benturki

Abstract:

Activated carbon was prepared from Jujube seeds by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH), followed by pyrolysis at 800°C. Batch studies were conducted for kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of phenol (P) and 2-4 dichlorophenol (2-4 DCP) from aqueous solution, than the adsorption capacities followed the order of 2-4 dichlorophenol > phenol. The operating variables studied were initial phenols concentration, contact time, temperature and solution pH. Results show that the pH value of 7 is favorable for the adsorption of phenols. The sorption data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The isotherm data followed Langmuir Model. The adsorption processes conformed to the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibb’s free energy changes were also calculated and it was found that the sorption of phenols by Jujuba seeds activated carbon was a spontaneous process The maximum adsorption efficiency of phenol and 2-4 dichlorophenol was 142.85 mg.g−1 and 250 mg.g−1, respectively.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, isotherms, Jujuba seeds, phenols, langmuir

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759 Lamb Waves Wireless Communication in Healthy Plates Using Coherent Demodulation

Authors: Rudy Bahouth, Farouk Benmeddour, Emmanuel Moulin, Jamal Assaad

Abstract:

Guided ultrasonic waves are used in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for inspection and damage detection. Recently, wireless data transmission using ultrasonic waves in solid metallic channels has gained popularity in some industrial applications such as nuclear, aerospace and smart vehicles. The idea is to find a good substitute for electromagnetic waves since they are highly attenuated near metallic components due to Faraday shielding. The proposed solution is to use ultrasonic guided waves such as Lamb waves as an information carrier due to their capability of propagation for long distances. In addition to this, valuable information about the health of the structure could be extracted simultaneously. In this work, the reliable frequency bandwidth for communication is extracted experimentally from dispersion curves at first. Then, an experimental platform for wireless communication using Lamb waves is described and built. After this, coherent demodulation algorithm used in telecommunications is tested for Amplitude Shift Keying, On-Off Keying and Binary Phase Shift Keying modulation techniques. Signal processing parameters such as threshold choice, number of cycles per bit and Bit Rate are optimized. Experimental results are compared based on the average Bit Error Rate. Results have shown high sensitivity to threshold selection for Amplitude Shift Keying and On-Off Keying techniques resulting a Bit Rate decrease. Binary Phase Shift Keying technique shows the highest stability and data rate between all tested modulation techniques.

Keywords: lamb waves communication, wireless communication, coherent demodulation, bit error rate

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