Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7150

Search results for: particle-in cell simulation

7150 Simulation of a Pressure Driven Based Subsonic Steady Gaseous Flow inside a Micro Channel Using Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo Method

Authors: Asghar Ebrahimi, Elyas Lakzian


For the analysis of flow inside micro geometries, classical CFD methods can not accurately predict the behavior of flow. Alternatively, the gas flow through micro geometries can be investigated precisely using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In the present paper, a pressure boundary condition is utilized to simulate a gaseous flow inside a micro channel using the DSMC method. Accuracy of simulation is guaranteed by choosing proper cell dimension and number of particle per cell analysis. Also, results of simulation are compared with the results of reliable references. Good agreement with results certifies the correctness of new boundary condition implemented on the micro channel.

Keywords: pressure boundary condition, DSMC, micro channel, cell dimension, particle per cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
7149 Modeling and Simulation of InAs/GaAs and GaSb/GaAS Quantum Dot Solar Cells in SILVACO TCAD

Authors: Fethi Benyettou, Abdelkader Aissat, M. A. Benammar


In this work, we use Silvaco TCAD software for modeling and simulations of standard GaAs solar cell, InAs/GaAs and GaSb/GaAs p-i-n quantum dot solar cell. When comparing 20-layer InAs/GaAs, GaSb/GaAs quantum dots solar cells with standard GaAs solar cell, the conversion efficiency in simulation results increased from 16.48 % to 22.6% and 16.48% to 22.42% respectively. Also, the absorption range edge of photons with low energies extended from 900 nm to 1200 nm.

Keywords: SILVACO TCAD, the quantum dot, simulation, materials engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
7148 Comparison Between the Radiation Resistance of n/p and p/n InP Solar Cell

Authors: Mazouz Halima, Belghachi Abdrahmane


Effects of electron irradiation-induced deep level defects have been studied on both n/p and p/n indium phosphide solar cells with very thin emitters. The simulation results show that n/p structure offers a somewhat better short circuit current but the p/n structure offers improved circuit voltage, not only before electron irradiation, but also after 1MeV electron irradiation with 5.1015 fluence. The simulation also shows that n/p solar cell structure is more resistant than that of p/n structure.

Keywords: InP solar cell, p/n and n/p structure, electron irradiation, output parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
7147 Assessment of Drug Delivery Systems from Molecular Dynamic Perspective

Authors: M. Rahimnejad, B. Vahidi, B. Ebrahimi Hoseinzadeh, F. Yazdian, P. Motamed Fath, R. Jamjah


In this study, we developed and simulated nano-drug delivery systems efficacy in compare to free drug prescription. Computational models can be utilized to accelerate experimental steps and control the experiments high cost. Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS), in particular NAMD was utilized to better understand the anti-cancer drug interaction with cell membrane model. Paclitaxel (PTX) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were selected for the drug molecule and as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier, respectively. This work focused on two important interaction parameters between molecules in terms of center of mass (COM) and van der Waals interaction energy. Furthermore, we compared the simulation results of the PTX interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane. The molecular dynamic analysis resulted in low energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane as well as significant decrease of COM amount in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction. Thus, the drug vehicle showed notably better interaction with the cell membrane in compared to free drug interaction with the cell membrane.

Keywords: anti-cancer drug, center of mass, interaction energy, molecular dynamics simulation, nanocarrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
7146 Understanding Nanocarrier Efficacy in Drug Delivery Systems Using Molecular Dynamics

Authors: Maedeh Rahimnejad, Bahman Vahidi, Bahman Ebrahimi Hoseinzadeh, Fatemeh Yazdian, Puria Motamed Fath, Roghieh Jamjah


Introduction: The intensive labor and high cost of developing new vehicles for controlled drug delivery highlights the need for a change in their discovery process. Computational models can be used to accelerate experimental steps and control the high cost of experiments. Methods: In this work, to better understand the interaction of anti-cancer drug and the nanocarrier with the cell membrane, we have done molecular dynamics simulation using NAMD. We have chosen paclitaxel for the drug molecule and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier. Results: Next, center of mass (COM) between molecules and the van der Waals interaction energy close to the cell membrane has been analyzed. Furthermore, the simulation results of the paclitaxel interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane have been compared. Discussion: Analysis by molecular dynamics (MD) showed that not only the energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane is low, but also the center of mass amount decreases in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction; therefore they show significantly better interaction in comparison to the individual drug with the cell membrane.

Keywords: anti-cancer drug, center of mass, interaction energy, molecular dynamics simulation, nanocarrier

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7145 Active Power Control of PEM Fuel Cell System Power Generation Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Khaled Mammar


This paper presents an application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller for PEM fuel cell system. The model proposed for control include a fuel cell stack model, reformer model and DC/AC inverter model. Furthermore, a Fuzzy Logic (FLC) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy controllers are used to control the active power of PEM fuel cell system. The controllers modify the hydrogen flow feedback from the terminal load. The validity of the controller is verified when the fuel cell system model is used in conjunction with the ANFIS controller to predict the response of the active power. Simulation results confirmed the high-performance capability of the neuo-fuzzy to control power generation.

Keywords: fuel cell, PEMFC, modeling, simulation, Fuzzy Logic Controller, FLC, adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller, ANFIS

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7144 Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Substrate Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cell Performances

Authors: Mekhannene Amine


In this paper, we began in the first step by two-dimensional simulation of a CIGS solar cell, in order to increase the current record efficiency of 20.48% for a single CIGS cell. Was created by utilizing a set of physical and technological parameters a solar cell of reference (such as layer thicknesses, gallium ratio, doping levels and materials properties) documented in bibliography and very known in the experimental field. This was accomplished through modeling and simulation using Atlas SILVACO-TCAD, an tool two and three dimensions very powerful and very adapted. This study has led us to determine the influence of different environmental parameters such as illumination (G) and temperature (T). In the second step, we continued our study by determining the influence of physical parameters (the acceptor of concentration NA) and geometric (thickness t) of the CIGS absorber layer, were varied to produce an optimum efficiency of 24.36%. This approach is promising to produce a CIGS classic solar cell to conduct a maximum performance.

Keywords: solar cell, cigs, photovoltaic generator, illumination, temperature, Atlas SILVACO-TCAD

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7143 User-Friendly Task Creation Using a CAD Integrated Robotic System on a Real Workcell

Authors: Alireza Changizi, Arash Rezaei, Jamal Muhammad, Jyrki Latokartano, Minna Lanz


Offline programming (OLP) is a new method in robot programming which is used widely in the industry nowadays which is a simulation base method that can produce the robot codes for motion according to virtual world in the simulation software. In this project Delmia v5 is used as simulation software. First the work cell component was modelled by Catia v5 and all of them was imported to a process file in Delmia and placed roughly to form the virtual work cell. Then robot was added to the work cell from the Delmia library. Work cell was calibrated corresponding to real world work cell to have accurate code. Tool calibration is the first step of calibration scheme and then work cell equipment can be calibrated using 6 point calibration method. Finally generated code needs to be reformed to match related controller code instruction. At the last stage IO were set to accomplish robots cooperation and make their motion synchronized. The pros and cons also will be discussed to clarify the presented results show the feasibility of the method and its effect on production line efficiency. Finally the positive and negative points of the implementation will be discussed.

Keywords: robotic, automated, production, offline programming, CAD

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
7142 Modelling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Cell

Authors: Fouad Berrabeh, Sabir Messalti


The performances of the photovoltaic systems are very dependent on different conditions, such as solar irradiation, temperature, etc. Therefore, it is very important to provide detailed studies for different cases in order to provide continuously power, so the photovoltaic system must be properly sized. This paper presents the modelling and simulation of the photovoltaic cell using single diode model. I-V characteristics and P-V characteristics are presented and it verified at different conditions (irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect).

Keywords: photovoltaic cell, BP SX 150 BP solar photovoltaic module, irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect, I–V characteristics, P–V characteristics

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7141 Numerical Simulation of a Single Cell Passing through a Narrow Slit

Authors: Lanlan Xiao, Yang Liu, Shuo Chen, Bingmei Fu


Most cancer-related deaths are due to metastasis. Metastasis is a complex, multistep processes including the detachment of cancer cells from the primary tumor and the migration to distant targeted organs through blood and/or lymphatic circulations. During hematogenous metastasis, the emigration of tumor cells from the blood stream through the vascular wall into the tissue involves arrest in the microvasculature, adhesion to the endothelial cells forming the microvessel wall and transmigration to the tissue through the endothelial barrier termed as extravasation. The narrow slit between endothelial cells that line the microvessel wall is the principal pathway for tumor cell extravasation to the surrounding tissue. To understand this crucial step for tumor hematogenous metastasis, we used Dissipative Particle Dynamics method to investigate an individual cell passing through a narrow slit numerically. The cell membrane was simulated by a spring-based network model which can separate the internal cytoplasm and surrounding fluid. The effects of the cell elasticity, cell shape and cell surface area increase, and slit size on the cell transmigration through the slit were investigated. Under a fixed driven force, the cell with higher elasticity can be elongated more and pass faster through the slit. When the slit width decreases to 2/3 of the cell diameter, the spherical cell becomes jammed despite reducing its elasticity modulus by 10 times. However, transforming the cell from a spherical to ellipsoidal shape and increasing the cell surface area only by 3% can enable the cell to pass the narrow slit. Therefore the cell shape and surface area increase play a more important role than the cell elasticity in cell passing through the narrow slit. In addition, the simulation results indicate that the cell migration velocity decreases during entry but increases during exit of the slit, which is qualitatively in agreement with the experimental observation.

Keywords: dissipative particle dynamics, deformability, surface area increase, cell migration

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7140 Cell Elevator: A Novel Technique for Cell Sorting and Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Discrimination

Authors: Kevin Zhao, Norman J. Horing


A methodology for cells sorting and circulating tumor cell detection and discrimination is presented in this paper. The technique is based on Dielectrophoresis and microfluidic device theory. Specifically, the sorting of the cells is realized by adjusting the relation among the sedimentation forces, the drag force provided by the fluid, and the Dielectrophortic force that is relevant to the bias voltage applied on the device. The relation leads to manipulation of the elevation of the cells of the same kind to a height by controlling the bias voltage. Once the cells have been lifted to a position next to the bottom of the cell collection channel, the buffer fluid flashes them into the cell collection channel. Repeated elevation of the cells leads to a complete sorting of the cells in the sample chamber. A proof-of-principle example is presented which verifies the feasibility of the methodology.

Keywords: cell sorter, CTC cell, detection and discrimination, dielectrophoresisords, simulation

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7139 Modelling and Simulation of Light and Temperature Efficient Interdigitated Back- Surface-Contact Solar Cell with 28.81% Efficiency Rate

Authors: Mahfuzur Rahman


Back-contact solar cells improve optical properties by moving all electrically conducting parts to the back of the cell. The cell's structure allows silicon solar cells to surpass the 25% efficiency barrier and interdigitated solar cells are now the most efficient. In this work, the fabrication of a light, efficient and temperature resistant interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cell is investigated. This form of solar cell differs from a conventional solar cell in that the electrodes are located at the back of the cell, eliminating the need for grids on the top, allowing the full surface area of the cell to receive sunlight, resulting in increased efficiency. In this project, we will use SILVACO TCAD, an optoelectronic device simulator, to construct a very thin solar cell with dimensions of 100x250um in 2D Luminous. The influence of sunlight intensity and atmospheric temperature on solar cell output power is highly essential and it has been explored in this work. The cell's optimum performance with 150um bulk thickness provides 28.81% efficiency with an 87.68% fill factor rate making it very thin, flexible and resilient, providing diverse operational capabilities.

Keywords: interdigitated, shading, recombination loss, incident-plane, drift-diffusion, luminous, SILVACO

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7138 Sensitivity Studies for a Pin Homojunction a-Si:H Solar Cell

Authors: Leila Ayat, Afak Meftah


Amorphous-silicon alloys have great promise as low cost solar cell materials. They have excellent photo-conductivity and high optical absorption to sunlight. Now PIN a-Si:H based solar cells are widely used in power generation modules. However, to improve the performance of these cells further, a better fundamental under-standing of the factors limiting cell performance in the homo junction PIN structure is necessary. In this paper we discuss the sensitivity of light J-V characteristics to various device and material parameters in PIN homo junction solar cells. This work is a numerical simulation of the output parameters of a PIN a-Si:H solar cell under AM1.5 spectrum. These parameters are the short circuit current (Jsc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), the fill factor (FF), the conversion efficiency. The simulation was performed with SCAPS-1D software version 3.3 developed at ELIS in Belgium by Marc Burgelman et al. The obtained results are in agreement with experiment. In addition, the effect of the thickness, doping density, capture cross sections of the gap states and the band microscopic mobilities on the output parameters of the cell are also presented.

Keywords: amorphous silicon p-i-n junctions, thin film, solar cells, sensitivity

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7137 Integration of Multi Effect Desalination with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Power Cycle

Authors: Mousa Meratizaman, Sina Monadizadeh, Majid Amidpour


One of the most favorable thermal desalination methods used widely today is Multi Effect Desalination. High energy consumption in this method causes coupling it with high temperature power cycle like gas turbine. This combination leads to higher energy efficiency. One of the high temperature power systems which have cogeneration opportunities is Solid Oxide Fuel Cell / Gas Turbine. Integration of Multi Effect Desalination with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell /Gas Turbine power cycle in a range of 300-1000 kW is considered in this article. The exhausted heat of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell /Gas Turbine power cycle is used in Heat Recovery Steam Generator to produce needed motive steam for Desalination unit. Thermodynamic simulation and parametric studies of proposed system are carried out to investigate the system performance.

Keywords: solid oxide fuel cell, thermodynamic simulation, multi effect desalination, gas turbine hybrid cycle

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7136 Providing Energy Management of a Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Authors: Fatma Keskin Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Ahmet Yigit Arabul, Ali Rifat Boynuegri


On account of the concern of the fossil fuel is depleting and its negative effects on the environment, interest in alternative energy sources is increasing day by day. However, considering the importance of transportation in human life, instead of oil and its derivatives fueled vehicles with internal combustion engines, electric vehicles which are sensitive to the environment and working with electrical energy has begun to develop. In this study, simulation was carried out for providing energy management and recovering regenerative braking in fuel cell-battery hybrid electric vehicle. The main power supply of the vehicle is fuel cell on the other hand not only instantaneous power is supplied by the battery but also the energy generated due to regenerative breaking is stored in the battery. Obtained results of the simulation is analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: electric vehicles, fuel cell, battery, regenerative braking, energy management

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7135 Study on the Effect of Bolt Locking Method on the Deformation of Bipolar Plate in PEMFC

Authors: Tao Chen, ShiHua Liu, JiWei Zhang


Assembly of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) has a very important influence on its performance and efficiency. The various components of PEMFC stack are usually locked and fixed by bolts. Locking bolt will cause the deformation of the bipolar plate and the other components, which will affect directly the deformation degree of the integral parts of the PEMFC as well as the performance of PEMFC. This paper focuses on the object of three-cell stack of PEMFC. Finite element simulation is used to investigate the deformation of bipolar plate caused by quantity and layout of bolts, bolt locking pressure, and bolt locking sequence, etc. Finally, we made a conclusion that the optimal combination packaging scheme was adopted to assemble the fuel cell stack. The scheme was in use of 3.8 MPa locking pressure imposed on the fuel cell stack, type Ⅱ of four locking bolts and longitudinal locking method. The scheme was obtained by comparatively analyzing the overall displacement contour of PEMFC stack, absolute displacement curve of bipolar plate along the given three paths in the Z direction and the polarization curve of fuel cell. The research results are helpful for the fuel cell stack assembly.

Keywords: bipolar plate, deformation, finite element simulation, fuel cell, locking bolt

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
7134 Solar Cell Degradation by Electron Irradiation Effect of Irradiation Fluence

Authors: H. Mazouz, A. Belghachi, F. Hadjaj


Solar cells used in orbit are exposed to radiation environment mainly protons and high energy electrons. These particles degrade the output parameters of the solar cell. The aim of this work is to characterize the effects of electron irradiation fluence on the J (V) characteristic and output parameters of gaAs solar cell by numerical simulation. The results obtained demonstrate that the electron irradiation-induced degradation of performances of the cells concerns mainly the short circuit current.

Keywords: gaAs solar cell, MeV electron irradiation, irradiation fluence, short circuit

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7133 Power and Efficiency of Photovoltaic Module: Effect of Cell Temperature

Authors: R. Nasrin, M. Ferdows


Among the renewable energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) is a high potential, effective, and sustainable system. Irradiation intensity from 200 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 has been considered to observe the performance of PV module. Generally, this module converts only about 15% - 20% of incident irradiation into electrical energy and the rest part is converted into heat energy. Finite element method has been used to solve the problem numerically. Simulation has been performed by considering the ambient temperature 30°C. Higher irradiation increase solar cell temperature and electrical power. The electrical efficiency of PV module decreases with the variation of solar radiation. The efficiency of PV module can be increased if cell temperature is reduced. Thus the effect of irradiation is significant to enhance the efficiency of PV module if the solar cell temperature is kept at a certain level.

Keywords: PV module, solar radiation, efficiency, cell temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
7132 Parametric Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Abir Yahya, Hacen Dhahri, Khalifa Slimi


The present paper deals with a numerical simulation of temperature field inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components. The temperature distribution is investigated using a co-flow planar SOFC comprising the air and fuel channel and two-ceramic electrodes, anode and cathode, separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for the numerical simulation of the physical problem. The effects of inlet temperature, anode thermal conductivity and current density on temperature distribution are discussed. It was found that temperature distribution is very sensitive to the inlet temperature and the current density.

Keywords: heat sources, Lattice Boltzmann method, solid oxide fuel cell, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
7131 Numerical Study on Response of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFCs) with Defects under Different Load Conditions

Authors: Muhammad Faizan Chinannai, Jaeseung Lee, Mohamed Hassan Gundu, Hyunchul Ju


Fuel cell is known to be an effective renewable energy resource which is commercializing in the present era. It is really important to know about the improvement in performance even when the system faces some defects. This study was carried out to analyze the performance of the Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFCs) under different operating conditions such as current density, relative humidity and Pt loadings considering defects with load changes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the response of the fuel cell system with defects in Balance of Plants (BOPs) and catalyst layer (CL) degradation by maintaining the coolant flow rate as such to preserve the cell temperature at the required level. Multi-Scale Simulation of 3D two-phase PEFC model with coolant was carried out under different load conditions. For detailed analysis and performance comparison, extensive contours of temperature, current density, water content, and relative humidity are provided. The simulation results of the different cases are compared with the reference data. Hence the response of the fuel cell stack with defects in BOP and CL degradations can be analyzed by the temperature difference between the coolant outlet and membrane electrode assembly. The results showed that the Failure of the humidifier increases High-Frequency Resistance (HFR), air flow defects and CL degradation results in the non-uniformity of current density distribution and high cathode activation overpotential, respectively.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, fuel cell modeling, performance analysis, BOP components, current density distribution, degradation

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7130 Cell Patterns and Tissue Metamorphoses Based on Cell Surface Mechanism

Authors: Reyhane Hamed Kamran


Early stage morphogenesis requires the execution of complex systems that direct the nearby conduct of gatherings of cells. The organization of such instruments has been, for the most part, deciphered through the recognizable proof of moderated groups of flagging pathways that spatially and transiently control cell conduct. In any case, how this data is handled to control cell shape and cell elements is an open territory of examination. The structure that rises up out of differing controls, for example, cell science, material science, and formative science, focuses to bond and cortical actin arranges as controllers of cell surface mechanics. In this specific circumstance, a scope of formative marvels can be clarified by the guideline of cell surface pressure.

Keywords: cell, tissue damage, morphogenesis, cell conduct

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7129 Low Power CNFET SRAM Design

Authors: Pejman Hosseiniun, Rose Shayeghi, Iman Rahbari, Mohamad Reza Kalhor


CNFET has emerged as an alternative material to silicon for high performance, high stability and low power SRAM design in recent years. SRAM functions as cache memory in computers and many portable devices. In this paper, a new SRAM cell design based on CNFET technology is proposed. The proposed SRAM cell design for CNFET is compared with SRAM cell designs implemented with the conventional CMOS and FinFET in terms of speed, power consumption, stability, and leakage current. The HSPICE simulation and analysis show that the dynamic power consumption of the proposed 8T CNFET SRAM cell’s is reduced about 48% and the SNM is widened up to 56% compared to the conventional CMOS SRAM structure at the expense of 2% leakage power and 3% write delay increase.

Keywords: SRAM cell, CNFET, low power, HSPICE

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7128 Numerical Simulation of Multijunction GaAs/CIGS Solar Cell by AMPS-1D

Authors: Hassane Ben Slimane, Benmoussa Dennai, Abderrahman Hemmani, Abderrachid Helmaoui


During the past few years a great variety of multi-junction solar cells has been developed with the aim of a further increase in efficiency beyond the limits of single junction devices. This paper analyzes the GaAs/CIGS based tandem solar cell performance by AMPS-1D numerical modeling. Various factors which affect the solar cell’s performance are investigated, carefully referring to practical cells, to obtain the optimum parameters for the GaAs and CIGS top and bottom solar cells. Among the factors studied are thickness and band gap energy of dual junction cells.

Keywords: multijunction solar cell, GaAs, CIGS, AMPS-1D

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7127 Cooperative Diversity Scheme Based on MIMO-OFDM in Small Cell Network

Authors: Dong-Hyun Ha, Young-Min Ko, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In Heterogeneous network (HetNet) can provide high quality of a service in a wireless communication system by composition of small cell networks. The composition of small cell networks improves cell coverage and capacity to the mobile users.Recently, various techniques using small cell networks have been researched in the wireless communication system. In this paper, the cooperative scheme obtaining high reliability is proposed in the small cell networks. The proposed scheme suggests a cooperative small cell system and the new signal transmission technique in the proposed system model. The new signal transmission technique applies a cyclic delay diversity (CDD) scheme based on the multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system to obtain improved performance. The improved performance of the proposed scheme is confirmed by the simulation results.

Keywords: adaptive transmission, cooperative communication, diversity gain, OFDM

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7126 Study of Pressure and Air Mass Flow Effect on Output Power of PEM Fuel Cell Powertrains in Vehicles and Airplanes- A Simulation-based Approach

Authors: Mahdiye Khorasani, Arjun Vijay, Ali Mashayekh, Christian Trapp


The performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is highly dependent on the pressure and mass flow of media (Hydrogen and air) throughout the cells and the stack. Higher pressure, on the one hand, results in higher output power of the stack but, on the other hand, increases the electrical power demand of the compressor. In this work, a simulation model of a PEMFC system for vehicle and airplane applications is developed. With this new model, the effect of different pressures and air mass flow rates are investigated to discover the optimum operating point in a PEMFC system, and innovative operation strategies are implemented to optimize reactants flow while minimizing electrical power demand of the compressor for optimum performance. Additionally, a fuel cell system test bench is set up, which contains not only all the auxiliary components for conditioning the gases, reactants, and flows but also a dynamic titling table for testing different orientations of the stack to simulate the flight conditions during take-off and landing and off-road-vehicle scenarios. The results of simulation will be tested and validated on the test bench for future works.

Keywords: air mass flow effect, optimization of operation, pressure effect, PEMFC system, PEMFC system simulation

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7125 Global Analysis of HIV Virus Models with Cell-to-Cell

Authors: Hossein Pourbashash


Recent experimental studies have shown that HIV can be transmitted directly from cell to cell when structures called virological synapses form during interactions between T cells. In this article, we describe a new within-host model of HIV infection that incorporates two mechanisms: infection by free virions and the direct cell-to-cell transmission. We conduct the local and global stability analysis of the model. We show that if the basic reproduction number R0 1, the virus is cleared and the disease dies out; if R0 > 1, the virus persists in the host. We also prove that the unique positive equilibrium attracts all positive solutions under additional assumptions on the parameters.

Keywords: HIV virus model, cell-to-cell transmission, global stability, Lyapunov function, second compound matrices

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7124 Comparison between the Efficiency of Heterojunction Thin Film InGaP\GaAs\Ge and InGaP\GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: F. Djaafar, B. Hadri, G. Bachir


This paper presents the design parameters for a thin film 3J InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 32.11% using Tcad Silvaco. Design parameters include the doping concentration, molar fraction, layers’ thickness and tunnel junction characteristics. An initial dual junction InGaP/GaAs model of a previous published heterojunction cell was simulated in Tcad Silvaco to accurately predict solar cell performance. To improve the solar cell’s performance, we have fixed meshing, material properties, models and numerical methods. However, thickness and layer doping concentration were taken as variables. We, first simulate the InGaP\GaAs dual junction cell by changing the doping concentrations and thicknesses which showed an increase in efficiency. Next, a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell was modeled by adding a Ge layer to the previous dual junction InGaP/GaAs model with an InGaP /GaAs tunnel junction.

Keywords: heterojunction, modeling, simulation, thin film, Tcad Silvaco

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7123 Single-Cell Visualization with Minimum Volume Embedding

Authors: Zhenqiu Liu


Visualizing the heterogeneity within cell-populations for single-cell RNA-seq data is crucial for studying the functional diversity of a cell. However, because of the high level of noises, outlier, and dropouts, it is very challenging to measure the cell-to-cell similarity (distance), visualize and cluster the data in a low-dimension. Minimum volume embedding (MVE) projects the data into a lower-dimensional space and is a promising tool for data visualization. However, it is computationally inefficient to solve a semi-definite programming (SDP) when the sample size is large. Therefore, it is not applicable to single-cell RNA-seq data with thousands of samples. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm with an accelerated proximal gradient method and visualize the single-cell RNA-seq data efficiently. We demonstrate that the proposed approach separates known subpopulations more accurately in single-cell data sets than other existing dimension reduction methods.

Keywords: single-cell RNA-seq, minimum volume embedding, visualization, accelerated proximal gradient method

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7122 Optimal Design of InGaP/GaAs Heterojonction Solar Cell

Authors: Djaafar F., Hadri B., Bachir G.


We studied mainly the influence of temperature, thickness, molar fraction and the doping of the various layers (emitter, base, BSF and window) on the performances of a photovoltaic solar cell. In a first stage, we optimized the performances of the InGaP/GaAs dual-junction solar cell while varying its operation temperature from 275°K to 375 °K with an increment of 25°C using a virtual wafer fabrication TCAD Silvaco. The optimization at 300°K led to the following result Icc =14.22 mA/cm2, Voc =2.42V, FF =91.32 %, η = 22.76 % which is close with those found in the literature. In a second stage ,we have varied the molar fraction of different layers as well their thickness and the doping of both emitters and bases and we have registered the result of each variation until obtaining an optimal efficiency of the proposed solar cell at 300°K which was of Icc=14.35mA/cm2,Voc=2.47V,FF=91.34,and η =23.33% for In(1-x)Ga(x)P molar fraction( x=0.5).The elimination of a layer BSF on the back face of our cell, enabled us to make a remarkable improvement of the short-circuit current (Icc=14.70 mA/cm2) and a decrease in open circuit voltage Voc and output η which reached 1.46V and 11.97% respectively. Therefore, we could determine the critical parameters of the cell and optimize its various technological parameters to obtain the best performance for a dual junction solar cell. This work opens the way with new prospects in the field of the photovoltaic one. Such structures will thus simplify the manufacturing processes of the cells; will thus reduce the costs while producing high outputs of photovoltaic conversion.

Keywords: modeling, simulation, multijunction, optimization, silvaco ATLAS

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7121 Simulation of Carbon Nanotubes/GaAs Hybrid PV Using AMPS-1D

Authors: Nima E. Gorji


The performance and characteristics of a hybrid heterojunction single-walled carbon nanotube and GaAs solar cell is modelled and numerically simulated using AMPS-1D device simulation tool. The device physics and performance parameters with different junction parameters are analysed. The results suggest that the open-circuit voltage changes very slightly by changing the work function, acceptor and donor density while the other electrical parameters reach to an optimum value. Increasing the concentration of a discrete defect density in the absorber layer decreases the electrical parameters. The current-voltage characteristics, quantum efficiency, band gap and thickness variation of the photovoltaic response will be quantitatively considered.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, GaAs, hybrid solar cell, AMPS-1D modelling

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