Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2414

Search results for: weak non-linear waves

2414 Propagation of Weak Non-Linear Waves in Non-Equilibrium Flow

Authors: J. Jena, Monica Saxena


In this paper, the propagation of weak nonlinear waves in non-equilibrium flow has been studied in detail using the perturbation method. The expansive action of receding piston undergoing infinite acceleration has been discussed. Central expansion fan, compression waves and shock fronts have been discussed and the solutions up to the first order in the characteristic plane and physical plane have been obtained.

Keywords: Characteristic wave front, weak non-linear waves, central expansion fan, compression waves

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2413 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Floating Body Motion Interacting with Focused Waves

Authors: Seul-Ki Park, Jong-Chun Park, Gyu-Mok Jeon, Dae-Kyung Ock, Seung-Gyu Jeong


Rogue waves cause frequent accidents of ships and offshore structures, which can result in severe damage to the structures. The Rogue waves, which are also known as big waves, freak waves, extreme waves, monster waves, focused waves, giant waves and abnormal waves, are unexpected and suddenly appearing, and can have a breaking force to destroy the structure even though modern structures are designed to tolerate a breaking wave. In the present study, a series of focused waves are numerically reproduced by concentrating nonlinear multi-directional waves into a target point using a commercial CFD software, Star-CCM+. A flow analysis for investigating the physical characteristics of the focused waves is performed using the Star-CCM+, while it has several difficulties to examine the inner properties of the waves in existing potential theory and experiments. Additionally, the 6-DOF (Degree of Freedom) motion of a floating body interacting with the focused waves are simulated, and the dynamic response of the body are discussed.

Keywords: multidirectional waves, focused waves, rogue waves, wave-structure interaction, numerical wave tank, computational fluid dynamics

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2412 Stress Solitary Waves Generated by a Second-Order Polynomial Constitutive Equation

Authors: Tsun-Hui Huang, Shyue-Cheng Yang, Chiou-Fen Shieha


In this paper, a nonlinear constitutive law and a curve fitting, two relationships between the stress-strain and the shear stress-strain for sandstone material were used to obtain a second-order polynomial constitutive equation. Based on the established polynomial constitutive equations and Newton’s second law, a mathematical model of the non-homogeneous nonlinear wave equation under an external pressure was derived. The external pressure can be assumed as an impulse function to simulate a real earthquake source. A displacement response under nonlinear two-dimensional wave equation was determined by a numerical method and computer-aided software. The results show that a suit pressure in the sandstone generates the phenomenon of stress solitary waves.

Keywords: polynomial constitutive equation, solitary, stress solitary waves, nonlinear constitutive law

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2411 Investigating Viscous Surface Wave Propagation Modes in a Finite Depth Fluid

Authors: Arash Ghahraman, Gyula Bene


The object of this study is to investigate the effect of viscosity on the propagation of free-surface waves in an incompressible viscous fluid layer of arbitrary depth. While we provide a more detailed study of properties of linear surface waves, the description of fully nonlinear waves in terms of KdV-like (Korteweg-de Vries) equations is discussed. In the linear case, we find that in shallow enough fluids, no surface waves can propagate. Even in any thicker fluid layers, propagation of very short and very long waves is forbidden. When wave propagation is possible, only a single propagating mode exists for any given horizontal wave number. The numerical results show that there can be two types of non-propagating modes. One type is always present, and there exist still infinitely many of such modes at the same parameters. In contrast, there can be zero, one or two modes belonging to the other type. Another significant feature is that KdV-like equations. They describe propagating nonlinear viscous surface waves. Since viscosity gives rise to a new wavenumber that cannot be small at the same time as the original one, these equations may not exist. Nonetheless, we propose a reasonable nonlinear description in terms of 1+1 variate functions that make possible successive approximations.

Keywords: free surface wave, water waves, KdV equation, viscosity

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2410 The Effects of Electron Trapping by Electron-Ecoustic Waves Excited with Electron Beam

Authors: Abid Ali Abid


One-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) electrostatic simulations are carried out to investigate the electrostatic waves, whose constituents are hot, cold and beam electrons in the background of motionless positive ions. In fact, the electrostatic modes excited are electron acoustic waves, beam driven waves as well as Langmuir waves. It is assessed that the relevant plasma parameters, for example, hot electron temperature, beam electron drift speed, and the electron beam density significantly modify the electrostatics wave's profiles. In the nonlinear stage, the wave-particle interaction becomes more evident and the waves have obtained its saturation level. Consequently, electrons become trapped in the waves and trapping vortices are clearly formed. Because of this trapping vortices and mixing of the electrons in phase space, finally, lead to electrons thermalization. It is observed that for the high-density value of the beam-electron, the solitary waves having a bipolar form of the electric field. These solitons are the nonlinear Brenstein-Greene and Kruskal wave mode that attributes the trapping of electrons potential well of phase-space hole. These examinations revealed that electrostatic waves have been exited in beam-plasma model and producing waves having broad-frequency ranges, which may clarify the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) spectrum studied in the auroral zone.

Keywords: electron acoustic waves, trapping of cold electron, Langmuir waves, particle-in cell simulation

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2409 X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction 'Third Order Nonlinear Renninger Effect'

Authors: Minas Balyan


Nowadays X-ray nonlinear diffraction and nonlinear effects are investigated due to the presence of the third generation synchrotron sources and XFELs. X-ray third order nonlinear dynamical diffraction is considered as well. Using the nonlinear model of the usual visible light optics the third-order nonlinear Takagi’s equations for monochromatic waves and the third-order nonlinear time-dependent dynamical diffraction equations for X-ray pulses are obtained by the author in previous papers. The obtained equations show, that even if the Fourier-coefficients of the linear and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities are zero (forbidden reflection), the dynamical diffraction in the nonlinear case is related to the presence in the nonlinear equations the terms proportional to the zero order and the second order nonzero Fourier coefficients of the third order nonlinear susceptibility. Thus, in the third order nonlinear Bragg diffraction case a nonlinear analogue of the well-known Renninger effect takes place. In this work, the 'third order nonlinear Renninger effect' is considered theoretically.

Keywords: Bragg diffraction, nonlinear Takagi’s equations, nonlinear Renninger effect, third order nonlinearity

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2408 Nonlinear Internal Waves in Rotating Ocean

Authors: L. A. Ostrovsky, Yu. A. Stepanyants


Effect of Earth rotation on nonlinear waves is a practically important and theoretically challenging problem of fluid mechanics and geophysics. Whereas the large-scale, geostrophic processes such as Rossby waves are a classical object of oceanic and atmospheric physics, rotation effects on mesoscale waves are not well studied. In particular, the Coriolis force can radically modify the behavior of nonlinear internal gravity waves in the ocean having spatial scales of 1-10 kilometers and time durations of few hours. In the last decade, such a non-trivial behavior was observed more than once. Similar effects are possible for magnetic sound in the ionosphere. Here we outline the main physical peculiarities in the behavior of nonlinear internal waves due to the rotation effect and present some results of our recent studies. The consideration is based on the fourth-order equation derived by one of the authors as a rotation-modified Korteweg–de Vries (rKdV) equation which includes two types of dispersion: one is responsible for the finiteness of depth as in the classical KdV equation; another is due to the Coriolis effect. This equation is, in general, non-integrable; moreover, under the conditions typical of oceanic waves (positive dispersion parameter), it does not allow solitary solutions at all. In the opposite case (negative dispersion) which is possible for, e.g., magnetic sound, solitary solutions do exist and can form complex bound states (multisoliton). Another non-trivial properties of nonlinear internal waves with rotation include, to name a few, the ‘terminal’ damping of the initial KdV soliton disappearing in a finite time due to radiation losses caused by Earth’s rotation, and eventual transformation of a KdV soliton into a wave packet (an envelope soliton). The new results to be discussed refer to the interaction of a soliton with a long background wave. It is shown, in particular, that in this case internal solitons can exist since the radiation losses are compensated by energy pumping from the background wave. Finally, the relevant oceanic observations of rotation effect on internal waves are briefly described.

Keywords: Earth rotation, internal waves, nonlinear waves, solitons

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2407 The Soliton Solution of the Quadratic-Cubic Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

Authors: Sarun Phibanchon, Yuttakarn Rattanachai


The quadratic-cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation can be explained the weakly ion-acoustic waves in magnetized plasma with a slightly non-Maxwellian electron distribution by using the Madelung's fluid picture. However, the soliton solution to the quadratic-cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is determined by using the direct integration. By the characteristics of a soliton, the solution can be claimed that it's a soliton by considering its time evolution and their collisions between two solutions. These results are shown by applying the spectral method.

Keywords: soliton, ion-acoustic waves, plasma, spectral method

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2406 Nonlinear Propagation of Acoustic Soliton Waves in Dense Quantum Electron-Positron Magnetoplasma

Authors: A. Abdikian


Propagation of nonlinear acoustic wave in dense electron-positron (e-p) plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field and stationary ions (to neutralize the plasma background) is studied. By means of the quantum hydrodynamics model and applying the reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the compressive structure of electrostatic solitary wave and periodic travelling waves is found. The numerical results show how the ion density ratio, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the direction cosines of the wave vector affect the nonlinear electrostatic travelling waves. The obtained results may be useful to better understand the obliquely nonlinear electrostatic travelling wave of small amplitude localized structures in dense magnetized quantum e-p plasmas and may be applicable to study the particle and energy transport mechanism in compact stars such as the interior of massive white dwarfs etc.

Keywords: bifurcation theory, phase portrait, magnetized electron-positron plasma, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

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2405 The Kinks, the Solitons, and the Shocks in Series Connected Discrete Josephson Transmission Lines

Authors: Eugene Kogan


We analytically study the localized running waves in the discrete Josephson transmission lines (JTL), constructed from Josephson junctions (JJ) and capacitors. The quasi-continuum approximation reduces the calculation of the running wave properties to the problem of equilibrium of an elastic rod in the potential field. Making additional approximations, we reduce the problem to the motion of the fictitious Newtonian particle in the potential well. We show that there exist running waves in the form of supersonic kinks and solitons and calculate their velocities and profiles. We show that the nonstationary smooth waves, which are small perturbations on the homogeneous non-zero background, are described by Korteweg-de Vries equation, and those on zero background -by the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. We also study the effect of dissipation on the running waves in JTL and find that in the presence of the resistors, shunting the JJ and/or in series with the ground capacitors, the only possible stationary running waves are the shock waves, whose profiles are also found.

Keywords: Josephson transmission line, shocks, solitary waves, nonlinear waves

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2404 Numerical Study of Nonlinear Guided Waves in Composite Laminates with Delaminations

Authors: Reza Soleimanpour, Ching Tai Ng


Fibre-composites are widely used in various structures due to their attractive properties such as higher stiffness to mass ratio and better corrosion resistance compared to metallic materials. However, one serious weakness of this composite material is delamination, which is a subsurface separation of laminae. A low level of this barely visible damage can cause a significant reduction in residual compressive strength. In the last decade, the application of guided waves for damage detection has been a topic of significant interest for many researches. Among all guided wave techniques, nonlinear guided wave has shown outstanding sensitivity and capability for detecting different types of damages, e.g. cracks and delaminations. So far, most of researches on applications of nonlinear guided wave have been dedicated to isotropic material, such as aluminium and steel, while only a few works have been done on applications of nonlinear characteristics of guided waves in anisotropic materials. This study investigates the nonlinear interactions of the fundamental antisymmetric lamb wave (A0) with delamination in composite laminates using three-dimensional (3D) explicit finite element (FE) simulations. The nonlinearity considered in this study arises from interactions of two interfaces of sub-laminates at the delamination region, which generates contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN). The aim of this research is to investigate the phenomena of CAN in composite laminated beams by a series of numerical case studies. In this study interaction of fundamental antisymmetric lamb wave with delamination of different sizes are studied in detail. The results show that the A0 lamb wave interacts with the delaminations generating CAN in the form of higher harmonics, which is a good indicator for determining the existence of delaminations in composite laminates.

Keywords: contact acoustic nonlinearity, delamination, fibre reinforced composite beam, finite element, nonlinear guided waves

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2403 Comparative Study of Soliton Collisions in Uniform and Nonuniform Magnetized Plasma

Authors: Renu Tomar, Hitendra K. Malik, Raj P. Dahiya


Similar to the sound waves in air, plasmas support the propagation of ion waves, which evolve into the solitary structures when the effect of non linearity and dispersion are balanced. The ion acoustic solitary waves have been investigated in details in homogeneous plasmas, inhomogeneous plasmas, and magnetized plasmas. The ion acoustic solitary waves are also found to reflect from a density gradient or boundary present in the plasma after propagating. Another interesting feature of the solitary waves is their collision. In the present work, we carry out analytical calculations for the head-on collision of solitary waves in a magnetized plasma which has dust grains in addition to the ions and electrons. For this, we employ Poincar´e-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method. To lowest nonlinear order, the problem of colliding solitary waves leads to KdV (modified KdV) equations and also yields the phase shifts that occur in the interaction. These calculations are accomplished for the uniform and nonuniform plasmas, and the results on the soliton properties are discussed in detail.

Keywords: inhomogeneous magnetized plasma, dust charging, soliton collisions, magnetized plasma

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2402 On the Strong Solutions of the Nonlinear Viscous Rotating Stratified Fluid

Authors: A. Giniatoulline


A nonlinear model of the mathematical fluid dynamics which describes the motion of an incompressible viscous rotating fluid in a homogeneous gravitational field is considered. The model is a generalization of the known Navier-Stokes system with the addition of the Coriolis parameter and the equations for changeable density. An explicit algorithm for the solution is constructed, and the proof of the existence and uniqueness theorems for the strong solution of the nonlinear problem is given. For the linear case, the localization and the structure of the spectrum of inner waves are also investigated.

Keywords: Galerkin method, Navier-Stokes equations, nonlinear partial differential equations, Sobolev spaces, stratified fluid

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2401 Stationary Energy Partition between Waves in a Carbyne Chain

Authors: Svetlana Nikitenkova, Dmitry Kovriguine


Stationary energy partition between waves in a one dimensional carbyne chain at ambient temperatures is investigated. The study is carried out by standard asymptotic methods of nonlinear dynamics in the framework of classical mechanics, based on a simple mathematical model, taking into account central and noncentral interactions between carbon atoms. Within the first-order nonlinear approximation analysis, triple-mode resonant ensembles of quasi-harmonic waves are revealed. Any resonant triad consists of a single primary high-frequency longitudinal mode and a pair of secondary low-frequency transverse modes of oscillations. In general, the motion of the carbyne chain is described by a superposition of resonant triads of various spectral scales. It is found that the stationary energy distribution is obeyed to the classical Rayleigh–Jeans law, at the expense of the proportional amplitude dispersion, except a shift in the frequency band, upwards the spectrum.

Keywords: resonant triplet, Rayleigh–Jeans law, amplitude dispersion, carbyne

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2400 X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction Rocking Curves in Case of Third Order Nonlinear Renninger Effect

Authors: Minas Balyan


In the third-order nonlinear Takagi’s equations for monochromatic waves and in the third-order nonlinear time-dependent dynamical diffraction equations for X-ray pulses for forbidden reflections the Fourier-coefficients of the linear and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities are zero. The dynamical diffraction in the nonlinear case is related to the presence in the nonlinear equations the terms proportional to the zero order and the second order nonzero Fourier coefficients of the third order nonlinear susceptibility. Thus in the third order nonlinear Bragg diffraction case a nonlinear analogue of the well known Renninger effect takes place. In this work, the ‘third order nonlinear Renninger effect’ is considered theoretically and numerically. If the reflection exactly is forbidden the diffracted wave’s amplitude is zero both in Laue and Bragg cases since the boundary conditions and dynamical diffraction equations are compatible with zero solution. But in real crystals due to some percent of dislocations and other localized defects, the atoms are displaced with respect to their equilibrium positions. Thus in real crystals susceptibilities of forbidden reflection are by some order small than for usual not forbidden reflections but are not exactly equal to zero. The numerical calculations for susceptibilities two order less than for not forbidden reflection show that in Bragg geometry case the nonlinear reflection curve’s behavior is the same as for not forbidden reflection, but for forbidden reflection the rocking curves’ width, center and boundaries are two order sensitive on the input intensity value. This gives an opportunity to investigate third order nonlinear X-ray dynamical diffraction for not intense beams – 0.001 in the units of critical intensity.

Keywords: third order nonlinearity, Bragg diffraction, nonlinear Renninger effect, rocking curves

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2399 Weak Instability in Direct Integration Methods for Structural Dynamics

Authors: Shuenn-Yih Chang, Chiu-Li Huang


Three structure-dependent integration methods have been developed for solving equations of motion, which are second-order ordinary differential equations, for structural dynamics and earthquake engineering applications. Although they generally have the same numerical properties, such as explicit formulation, unconditional stability and second-order accuracy, a different performance is found in solving the free vibration response to either linear elastic or nonlinear systems with high frequency modes. The root cause of this different performance in the free vibration responses is analytically explored herein. As a result, it is verified that a weak instability is responsible for the different performance of the integration methods. In general, a weak instability will result in an inaccurate solution or even numerical instability in the free vibration responses of high frequency modes. As a result, a weak instability must be prohibited for time integration methods.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, high frequency, integration method, overshoot, weak instability

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2398 Non Linear Stability of Non Newtonian Thin Liquid Film Flowing down an Incline

Authors: Lamia Bourdache, Amar Djema


The effect of non-Newtonian property (power law index n) on traveling waves of thin layer of power law fluid flowing over an inclined plane is investigated. For this, a simplified second-order two-equation model (SM) is used. The complete model is second-order four-equation (CM). It is derived by combining the weighted residual integral method and the lubrication theory. This is due to the fact that at the beginning of the instability waves, a very small number of waves is observed. Using a suitable set of test functions, second order terms are eliminated from the calculus so that the model is still accurate to the second order approximation. Linear, spatial, and temporal stabilities are studied. For travelling waves, a particular type of wave form that is steady in a moving frame, i.e., that travels at a constant celerity without changing its shape is studied. This type of solutions which are characterized by their celerity exists under suitable conditions, when the widening due to dispersion is balanced exactly by the narrowing effect due to the nonlinearity. Changing the parameter of celerity in some range allows exploring the entire spectrum of asymptotic behavior of these traveling waves. The (SM) model is converted into a three dimensional dynamical system. The result is that the model exhibits bifurcation scenarios such as heteroclinic, homoclinic, Hopf, and period-doubling bifurcations for different values of the power law index n. The influence of the non-Newtonian parameter on the nonlinear development of these travelling waves is discussed. It is found at the end that the qualitative characters of bifurcation scenarios are insensitive to the variation of the power law index.

Keywords: inclined plane, nonlinear stability, non-Newtonian, thin film

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2397 Observations of Magnetospheric Ulf Waves in Connection to the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability at Mercury

Authors: Elisabet Liljeblad, Tomas Karlsson, Torbjorn Sundberg, Anita Kullen


The magnetospheric magnetic field data from the MESSENGER spacecraft is investigated to establish the presence of ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves in connection to 131 previously observed nonlinear Kelvin-Helmholtz waves (KHWs) at Mercury. Distinct ULF signatures are detected in 44 out of the 131 magnetospheric traversals prior to or after observing a KHW. In particular, 39 of these 44 ULF events are highly coherent at the frequency of maximum power spectral density. The waves observed at the dayside, which appears mainly at the duskside and naturally following the KHW occurrence asymmetry, are significantly different to the events behind the dawn-dusk terminator and have the following distinct wave characteristics: they oscillate clearly in the perpendicular (azimuthal) direction to the mean magnetic field with a wave normal angle more in the parallel than the perpendicular direction, increase in absolute ellipticity with distance from noon, are almost exclusively right-hand polarized, and are observed mainly for frequencies in the range 0.02-0.04 Hz. These results indicate that the dayside ULF waves are likely to shear Alfvén waves driven by KHWs at the magnetopause, which in turn manifests the importance of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in terms of mass transport throughout the Mercury magnetosphere.

Keywords: ultra-low frequency waves, kelvin-Helmholtz instability, magnetospheric processes, mercury, messenger, energy and momentum transfer in planetary environments

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2396 Linear and Nonlinear Resonance of Flat Bottom Hole in an Aluminum Plate

Authors: Biaou Jean-Baptiste Kouchoro, Anissa Meziane, Philippe Micheau, Mathieu Renier, Nicolas Quaegebeur


Numerous experimental and numerical studies have shown the interest of the local defects resonance (LDR) for the Non-Destructive Testing of metallic and composite plates. Indeed, guided ultrasonic waves such as Lamb waves, which are increasingly used for the inspection of these flat structures, enable the generation of local resonance phenomena by their interaction with a damaged area, allowing the detection of defects. When subjected to a large amplitude motion, a nonlinear behavior can predominate in the damaged area. This work presents a 2D Finite Element Model of the local resonance of a 12 mm long and 5 mm deep Flat Bottom Hole (FBH) in a 6 mm thick aluminum plate under the excitation induced by an incident A0 Lamb mode. The analysis of the transient response of the FBH enables the precise determination of its resonance frequencies and the associate modal deformations. Then, a linear parametric study varying the geometrical properties of the FBH highlights the sensitivity of the resonance frequency with respect to the plate thickness. It is demonstrated that the resonance effect disappears when the ratio of thicknesses between the FBH and the plate is below 0.1. Finally, the nonlinear behavior of the FBH is considered and studied introducing geometrical (taken into account the nonlinear component of the strain tensor) nonlinearities that occur at large vibration amplitudes. Experimental analysis allows observation of the resonance effects and nonlinear response of the FBH. The differences between these experimental results and the numerical results will be commented on. The results of this study are promising and allow to consider more realistic defects such as delamination in composite materials.

Keywords: guided waves, non-destructive testing, dynamic field testing, non-linear ultrasound/vibration

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2395 Electrostatic Solitary Waves in Degenerate Relativistic Quantum Plasmas

Authors: Sharmin Sultana, Reinhard Schlickeiser


A degenerate relativistic quantum plasma (DRQP) system (containing relativistically degenerate electrons, degenerate/non-degenerate light nuclei, and non-degenerate heavy nuclei) is considered to investigate the propagation characteristics of electrostatic solitary waves (in the ionic scale length) theoretically and numerically. The ion-acoustic solitons are found to be associated with the modified ion-acoustic waves (MIAWs) in which inertia (restoring force) is provided by mass density of the light or heavy nuclei (degenerate pressure of the cold electrons). A mechanical-motion analog (Sagdeev-type) pseudo-potential approach is adopted to study the properties of large amplitude solitary waves. The basic properties of the large amplitude MIAWs and their existence domain in terms of soliton speed (Mach number) are examined. On the other hand, a multi-scale perturbation approach, leading to an evolution equation for the envelope dynamics, is adopted to derive the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). The criteria for the occurrence of modulational instability (MI) of the MIAWs are analyzed via the nonlinear dispersion relation of the NLSE. The possibility for the formation of highly energetic localized modes (e.g. peregrine solitons, rogue waves, etc.) is predicted in such DRQP medium. Peregrine solitons or rogue waves with amplitudes of several times of the background are observed to form in DRQP. The basic features of these modulated waves (e.g. envelope solitons, peregrine solitons, and rogue waves), which are found to form in DRQP, and their MI criteria (on the basis of different intrinsic plasma parameters), are investigated. It is emphasized that our results should be useful in understanding the propagation characteristics of localized disturbances and the modulation dynamics of envelope solitons, and their instability criteria in astrophysical DRQP system (e.g. white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc., where matters under extreme conditions are assumed to exist) and also in ultra-high density experimental plasmas.

Keywords: degenerate plasma, envelope solitons, modified ion-acoustic waves, modulational instability, rogue waves

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2394 Duality in Multiobjective Nonlinear Programming under Generalized Second Order (F, b, φ, ρ, θ)− Univex Functions

Authors: Meraj Ali Khan, Falleh R. Al-Solamy


In the present paper, second order duality for multiobjective nonlinear programming are investigated under the second order generalized (F, b, φ, ρ, θ)− univex functions. The weak, strong and converse duality theorems are proved. Further, we also illustrated an example of (F, b, φ, ρ, θ)− univex functions. Results obtained in this paper extend some previously known results of multiobjective nonlinear programming in the literature.

Keywords: duality, multiobjective programming, univex functions, univex

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2393 Scrutiny and Solving Analytically Nonlinear Differential at Engineering Field of Fluids, Heat, Mass and Wave by New Method AGM

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Sara Akbari, Davood Domiri Ganji, Pooya Solimani, Reza Khalili


As all experts know most of engineering system behavior in practical are nonlinear process (especially heat, fluid and mass, etc.) and analytical solving (no numeric) these problems are difficult, complex and sometimes impossible like (fluids and gas wave, these problems can't solve with numeric method, because of no have boundary condition) accordingly in this symposium we are going to exposure a innovative approach which we have named it Akbari-Ganji's Method or AGM in engineering, that can solve sets of coupled nonlinear differential equations (ODE, PDE) with high accuracy and simple solution and so this issue will be emerged after comparing the achieved solutions by Numerical method (Runge-Kutte 4th) and so compare to other methods such as HPM, ADM,… and exact solutions. Eventually, AGM method will be proved that could be created huge evolution for researchers, professors and students (engineering and basic science) in whole over the world, because of AGM coding system, so by using this software we can analytically solve all complicated linear and nonlinear differential equations, with help of that there is no difficulty for solving nonlinear differential equations(ODE and PDE). In this paper, we investigate and solve 4 types of the nonlinear differential equation with AGM method : 1-Heat and fluid, 2-Unsteady state of nonlinear partial differential, 3-Coupled nonlinear partial differential in wave equation, and 4-Nonlinear integro-differential equation.

Keywords: new method AGM, sets of coupled nonlinear equations at engineering field, waves equations, integro-differential, fluid and thermal

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2392 Nonlinear Modelling of Sloshing Waves and Solitary Waves in Shallow Basins

Authors: Mohammad R. Jalali, Mohammad M. Jalali


The earliest theories of sloshing waves and solitary waves based on potential theory idealisations and irrotational flow have been extended to be applicable to more realistic domains. To this end, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are widely used. Three-dimensional CFD methods such as Navier-Stokes solvers with volume of fluid treatment of the free surface and Navier-Stokes solvers with mappings of the free surface inherently impose high computational expense; therefore, considerable effort has gone into developing depth-averaged approaches. Examples of such approaches include Green–Naghdi (GN) equations. In Cartesian system, GN velocity profile depends on horizontal directions, x-direction and y-direction. The effect of vertical direction (z-direction) is also taken into consideration by applying weighting function in approximation. GN theory considers the effect of vertical acceleration and the consequent non-hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, in GN theory, the flow is rotational. The present study illustrates the application of GN equations to propagation of sloshing waves and solitary waves. For this purpose, GN equations solver is verified for the benchmark tests of Gaussian hump sloshing and solitary wave propagation in shallow basins. Analysis of the free surface sloshing of even harmonic components of an initial Gaussian hump demonstrates that the GN model gives predictions in satisfactory agreement with the linear analytical solutions. Discrepancies between the GN predictions and the linear analytical solutions arise from the effect of wave nonlinearities arising from the wave amplitude itself and wave-wave interactions. Numerically predicted solitary wave propagation indicates that the GN model produces simulations in good agreement with the analytical solution of the linearised wave theory. Comparison between the GN model numerical prediction and the result from perturbation analysis confirms that nonlinear interaction between solitary wave and a solid wall is satisfactorilly modelled. Moreover, solitary wave propagation at an angle to the x-axis and the interaction of solitary waves with each other are conducted to validate the developed model.

Keywords: Green–Naghdi equations, nonlinearity, numerical prediction, sloshing waves, solitary waves

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2391 Nonlinear Waves in Two-Layer Systems with Heat Release/Consumption at the Interface

Authors: Ilya Simanovskii


Nonlinear convective flows developed under the joint action of buoyant and thermo-capillary effects in a two-layer system with periodic boundary conditions on the lateral walls have been investigated. The influence of an interfacial heat release on oscillatory regimes has been studied. The computational regions with different lengths have been considered. It is shown that the development of oscillatory instability can lead to the appearance of different no steady flows.

Keywords: interface, instabilities, two-layer systems, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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2390 A Simple Recursive Framework to Generate Gray Codes for Weak Orders in Constant Amortized Time

Authors: Marsden Jacques, Dennis Wong


A weak order is a way to rank n objects where ties are allowed. In this talk, we present a recursive framework to generate Gray codes for weak orders. We then describe a simple algorithm based on the framework that generates 2-Gray codes for weak orders in constant amortized time per string. This framework can easily be modified to generate other Gray codes for weak orders. We provide an example on using the framework to generate the first Shift Gray code for weak orders, also in constant amortized time, where consecutive strings differ by a shift or a symbol change.

Keywords: weak order, Cayley permutation, Gray code, shift Gray code

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2389 Heating of Cold Ions by Emic Waves Using MMS Observations

Authors: Abid Ali Abid, Quanming Lu, Xing L. Gao, B. M. Alotaibi, S. Ali, M. N. S. Qureshi, Y. Al-Hadeethi, Shui Wang


The EMIC waves whose frequency ranges from 0.001 Hz to 5 Hz in the Earth’s magnetosphere and have received considerable attention for energy transport across the magnetosphere. Since these waves act as a mechanism for the loss of energetic electrons from the Van Allen radiation belts to the atmosphere, therefore, it is necessary to understand how and where they can be produced, as well as the direction of waves along the magnetic field lines. In this letter, the excitation of the EMIC waves is studied by taking into account the hot proton temperature anisotropy having energy ranging from 7 KeV to 26 KeV with a minimum resonant energy of 6.9KeV. However, the opposite effect can be observed for the hot protons for energy less than the minimum resonant energy. It is revealed that as long as the intensity of the EMIC waves increases, the number density and temperature anisotropy of the protons also increase within the energy range from 1eV to 100 eV.

Keywords: EMIC waves, temperature anisotropy of hot protons, energization of the cold proton, magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) satellite observations

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2388 The Formation of Mutual Understanding in Conversation: An Embodied Approach

Authors: Haruo Okabayashi


The mutual understanding in conversation is very important for human relations. This study investigates the mental function of the formation of mutual understanding between two people in conversation using the embodied approach. Forty people participated in this study. They are divided into pairs randomly. Four conversation situations between two (make/listen to fun or pleasant talk, make/listen to regrettable talk) are set for four minutes each, and the finger plethysmogram (200 Hz) of each participant is measured. As a result, the attractors of the participants who reported “I did not understand my partner” show the collapsed shape, which means the fluctuation of their rhythm is too small to match their partner’s rhythm, and their cross correlation is low. The autonomic balance of both persons tends to resonate during conversation, and both LLEs tend to resonate, too. In human history, in order for human beings as weak mammals to live, they may have been with others; that is, they have brought about resonating characteristics, which is called self-organization. However, the resonant feature sometimes collapses, depending on the lifestyle that the person was formed by himself after birth. It is difficult for people who do not have a lifestyle of mutual gaze to resonate their biological signal waves with others’. These people have features such as anxiety, fatigue, and confusion tendency. Mutual understanding is thought to be formed as a result of cooperation between the features of self-organization of the persons who are talking and the lifestyle indicated by mutual gaze. Such an entanglement phenomenon is called a nonlinear relation. By this research, it is found that the formation of mutual understanding is expressed by the rhythm of a biological signal showing a nonlinear relationship.

Keywords: embodied approach, finger plethysmogram, mutual understanding, nonlinear phenomenon

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2387 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang


Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: characteristic equation, interface waves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structure

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2386 Rings Characterized by Classes of Rad-plus-Supplemented Modules

Authors: Manoj Kumar Patel


In this paper, we introduce and give various properties of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented and cofinitely weak* Rad-plus-supplemented modules over some special kinds of rings, in particular, artinian serial ring and semiperfect ring. Also prove that ring R is artinian serial if and only if every right and left R-module is weak* Rad-plus-supplemented. We provide the counter example which proves that weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module is the generalization of plus-supplemented and Rad-plus-supplemented modules. Furthermore, as an application of above finding results of this research article, our main focus is to characterized the semisimple ring, artinian principal ideal ring, semilocal ring, semiperfect ring, perfect ring, commutative noetherian ring and Dedekind domain in terms of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module.

Keywords: cofinitely weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module , Dedekind domain, Rad-plus-supplemented module, semiperfect ring

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2385 Plastic Pipe Defect Detection Using Nonlinear Acoustic Modulation

Authors: Gigih Priyandoko, Mohd Fairusham Ghazali, Tan Siew Fun


This paper discusses about the defect detection of plastic pipe by using nonlinear acoustic wave modulation method. It is a sensitive method for damage detection and it is based on the propagation of high frequency acoustic waves in plastic pipe with low frequency excitation. The plastic pipe is excited simultaneously with a slow amplitude modulated vibration pumping wave and a constant amplitude probing wave. The frequency of both the excitation signals coincides with the resonances of the plastic pipe. A PVP pipe is used as the specimen as it is commonly used for the conveyance of liquid in many fields. The results obtained are being observed and the difference between uncracked specimen and cracked specimen can be distinguished clearly.

Keywords: plastic pipe, defect detection, nonlinear acoustic modulation, excitation

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