Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Vedic

15 Analytical Comparison of Conventional Algorithms with Vedic Algorithm for Digital Multiplier

Authors: Akhilesh G. Naik, Dipankar Pal

Abstract:

In today’s scenario, the complexity of digital signal processing (DSP) applications and various microcontroller architectures have been increasing to such an extent that the traditional approaches to multiplier design in most processors are becoming outdated for being comparatively slow. Modern processing applications require suitable pipelined approaches, and therefore, algorithms that are friendlier with pipelined architectures. Traditional algorithms like Wallace Tree, Radix-4 Booth, Radix-8 Booth, Dadda architectures have been proven to be comparatively slow for pipelined architectures. These architectures, therefore, need to be optimized or combined with other architectures amongst them to enhance its performances and to be made suitable for pipelined hardware/architectures. Recently, Vedic algorithm mathematically has proven to be efficient by appearing to be less complex and with fewer steps for its output establishment and have assumed renewed importance. This paper describes and shows how the Vedic algorithm can be better suited for pipelined architectures and also can be combined with traditional architectures and algorithms for enhancing its ability even further. In this paper, we also established that for complex applications on DSP and other microcontroller architectures, using Vedic approach for multiplication proves to be the best available and efficient option.

Keywords: Wallace Tree, Radix-4 Booth, Radix-8 Booth, Dadda, Vedic, Single-Stage Karatsuba (SSK), Looped Karatsuba (LK)

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14 Study of Indian and Southeast Asian Literature to Trace Evolution of Hanuman

Authors: Subramanian Chidambaran

Abstract:

Right from the Vedic period, we have instances of human heroes being deified and later even assimilated into other deities. Many scholars opine Indra to be one such Vedic deity who rose from a ‘human leader’ to the position of Devata. We also see the assimilation of the Vedic deity Rudra into Śiva in post-Vedic period. Thus the current deities and Gods we worship in the polytheistic Hindu system have been a result of many such deifications and assimilations. Hanumān is one such contemporary character in Indian culture that changed from a valiant hero of the Rāmāyaṇa to a prominent deity in present days. There are also many arguments on whether Hanumān was truly a monkey or a human as the term ‘vānara’ could be interpreted as ‘vā narah’ i.e. ‘or a human’. Despite the popularity of this deity, there is very little academic research done on the genesis and evolution of him. There are many questions that arise - Does Hanumān find any mention (in any form) in literature or archaeological evidence prior to Vālmῑki Rāmāyaṇa? What is the character of Hanumān in the Vālmῑki Rāmāyaṇa? How has this evolved in later Indian literature and where do we see the deification process beginning? What’s the character of Hanumān in literature beyond Indian shores such as Southeast Asian literature and how does it compare with those in Indian literature? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions and trace the evolution of the character Hanumān right from the Vālmῑki Rāmāyaṇa to other Indian literature as well as Southeast Asian literature.

Keywords: Hanumān, Indian, Rāmāyaṇa, Southeast Asia

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13 Understanding the Architecture of Hindu Temples: A Philosophical Interpretation

Authors: A. Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

Vedic philosophy is one of the oldest existing philosophies of the world. Started around 6500 BC, in Western Indian subcontinent, the Indus valley Civilizations developed a theology which, gradually developed into a well-established philosophy of beliefs, popularly known as ‘Hindu religion’. In Vedic theology, the abstract concept of God was formulated mostly by close observation of the dynamicity and the recurrence of natural and universal phenomena. Through the ages, the philosophy of this theology went through various discursions, debates, and questionings and the abstract concept of God was, in time, formalized into more representational forms by the means of various signs and symbols. Often, these symbols were used in more subtle ways in the construction of “sacred” sculptures and structures. Apparently, two different philosophies were developed from the Vedic philosophy and these two philosophies are mostly seen in the northern part and southern part of the Indian subcontinent. This paper tries to summarize the complex philosophical treaties of Hinduism of northern and southern India and seeks to understand the meanings of the various signs and symbolisms that were incorporated in the architecture of Hindu temples, including the names given to various parts of the temples. The Hindu temples are not only places of worship or ‘houses of Gods’ like the Greek and Roman temples but are also structures that symbolize the dynamicity and also spiritual upliftment of human beings.

Keywords: Hindu, philosophy, temple, Vedic

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12 Existence of God: Belief, Analysis and a Scientific Explanation of Resemblance with Cosmic Theory

Authors: Aarti Muley

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An ancient Vedic philosophy defines the three basic gods i.e Bramha, Vishnu and Shiva. Bramha is known as a supreme god and responsible for creating a universe. Vedic scriptures have not given the direct description of Lord Bramha but with the name Hiranyagarbha Rig Veda describes Bramha. Vedas, Bhagwat Gita, Mahabharata describes Bramha and modern science has found that many theories and principle is directly related with the life of Lord Bramha but there is no direct explanation and evidence regarding a planet Bramhaloka or also called as Satyaloka. Neither the ancient scriptures nor the Indian astrology which is based on the motion of the planet have given any evidence to the planet Bramhaloka directly. In this paper, the efforts have been made to study who is god Bramha and the planet Bramhaloka from Vedic scriptures and using the theories of modern science it has been found that it has strong resemblance with the star Sun. To the best of author’s knowledge, this is the first report which gives the explanation that the lord Bramha’s planet Bramhaloka and the Sun is one and the same.

Keywords: God Bramha, ancient scriptures, cosmic theory, scientific explanation

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11 Mental Balance, Emotional Balance, and Stress Management: The Role of Ancient Vedic Philosophy from India

Authors: Emily Schulz

Abstract:

The ancient Vedic culture from India had traditions that supported all aspects of health, including psychological health, and are relevant in the current era. These traditions have been compiled by Professor Dr. Purna, a rare Himalayan Master, into the Purna Health Management System (PHMS). The PHMS is a unique, holistic, and integrated approach to health management. It is comprised of four key factors: Health, Fitness, and Nutrition (HF&N), Life Balance (Stress Management) (LB-SM), Spiritual Growth and Development (SG&D); and Living in Harmony with the Natural Environment (LHWNE). The purpose of the PHMS is to give people the tools to take responsibility for managing their own holistic health and wellbeing. A study using a cross-sectional mixed-methods anonymous online survey was conducted during 2017-2018. Adult students of Professor Dr. Purna were invited to participate through announcements made at various events He held throughout the globe. Follow-up emails were sent with consenting language for interested parties and provided them with a link to the survey. Participation in the study was completely voluntary and no incentives were given to respond to the survey. The overall aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of implementation of the PHMS on practitioners' emotional balance. However, given the holistic nature of the PHMS, survey questions also inquired about participants’ physical health, stress level, ability to manage stress, and wellbeing using Likert scales. The survey also included some open-ended questions to gain an understanding of the participants’ experiences with the PHMS relative to their emotional balance. In total, 52 people out of 253 potential respondents participated in the study. Data were analyzed using nonparametric Spearman’s Rho correlation coefficient (rs) since the data were not on a normal distribution. Statistical significance was set at p < .05. Results of the study suggested that there are moderate to strong statistically significant relationships (p < .001) between participants' frequent implementation of each of the four key factors of the PHMS and self-reported mental/emotional health (HF&N rs = 0.42; LB-SM rs = 0.54; SG&D rs = 0.49; LHWNE rs = 0.45) Results also demonstrated statistically significant relationships (p < .001) between participants' frequent implementation of each of the four key factors of the PHMS and their self-reported ability to manage stress (HF&N rs = 0.44; LB-SM rs = 0.55; SG&D rs = 0.39; LHWNE rs = 0.55). Additionally, those who reported experiencing better physical health also reported better mental/emotional health (rs = 0.49, p < .001) and better ability to manage stress (rs = 0.46, p < .001). The findings of this study suggest that wisdom from the ancient Vedic culture may be useful for those working in the field of psychology and related fields who would like to assist clients in calming their mind and emotions and managing their stress levels.

Keywords: balanced emotions, balanced mind, stress management, Vedic philosophy

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10 Sri Aurobindo's Views on Heraclitus' Philosophy: A Synthesis

Authors: Kamaladevi Kunkolienker

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This paper appreciates the stimulating and thought-provoking synthesis of Heraclitus’ philosophy offered by Sri Aurobindo. The deep philosophical insights of Heraclitus expressed in aphoristic and cryptic form inspired him and supported his system of Integral Yoga. An attempt is made to reconstruct and synthesize Eastern and Western philosophical insights through hermeneutical treatment of many concepts. Aurobindo points out the sameness and kinship between Heraclitus’ thought and concepts from Vedic and upanishadic texts with illustrations and thus undertakes the task of synthesizing them. This fruitful synthesis also brings out the scientific perspective of Heraclitus’ thought and showcases it as a rare flowering of philosophy. It also enables the thinkers to reflect, reinterpret and synthesize such philosophies to bring out their significance in post-modern philosophy and science.

Keywords: all, change, fire, one

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9 Antioxidants: Some Medicinal Plants in Indian System of Medicine Work as Anti-cervical Cancer

Authors: Kamini Kaushal

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Medicinal plants of Ayurveda are effective in the treatment of cervical cancer. The aim of this paper is to assess anti cancerous activities of these medicinal plants against cancer. Most of the medicinal plants in Ayurveda are using to treat cervical cancer as name of disease as treatment of YONI VYAPADA. The selected plants has been studied scientifically in India and evidence based written since Vedic era. The compilation results showed potential anti cervical cancer activity of the tested plants. There plants are remaining under the dark due to lack of awareness, lack of popularity and barrier of language. Now this is the time to eye opener regarding the classical text and clinical evidences, so that we can give the hope to world's affected women from this disease. World is waiting for such type of remedy which is having zero side effects, low cost and effective.

Keywords: anti cancerous, cervical cancer, ayurveda, medicinal plants, scientific study, classical text

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8 Fighting for Equality in Early Buddhism

Authors: Kenneth Lee

Abstract:

During Buddha’s time in the 5th century BCE, the Indian society was organized by a social stratification system called “the caste system” (Skt. varna), which still exists today. The origination of the caste system can be traced back to 1500 BCE within the ancient Vedic texts of the Aryans, the Indo-European nomadic people who migrated and settled in the Indus Valley region. However, the four-tiered hierarchical nature of the caste system created inequality, privilege, and discrimination based on hereditary transmission. After renouncing his royal status as a prince, Siddhartha Gautama spent six years in the forest, practiced austerities, mastered meditation, and eventually realized enlightenment. Thereupon, now referred to as “Shakyamuni Buddha” or “sage from the tribe of Shakya who has become awake,” the Buddha founded the Sangha, a community of monks, nuns, and lay followers, where everyone was equal and treated equally. After providing a brief overview of Buddha’s time, this talk will examine Buddha’s Dharma or teachings on equality and his creation of the Sangha as “society within a society, which had a dissolving effect on society.

Keywords: equality, women, buddhism, discrimination

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7 Study of Sustainability Practices Ingrained in Indian Culture

Authors: Shraddha Mahore Manjrekar

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Culture has been an integral part of the civilizations in the world. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Author has observed and thought about the relation of Indian traditional cultural beliefs and their relation to the sustainable environment. There are some unwritten norms regarding the use of resources and the environment in Indian continent, that have been commonly accepted by the people for building houses and settlements since the Vedic period . The research has been done on the chanting and prayers done in a number of houses and temples in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. After doing some research, it was also found that resource assessment had also been done for the entire country, and an idea of conservation of these resources was imbibed in the common people by means of some traditions, customs and beliefs. The sensitization and gratefulness about natural resources have been observed in the major beliefs and customs. This paper describes few of such beliefs and customs that are directly linked with the built environment and landscape.

Keywords: Indian culture, sacred groves, sustainability in built environment, sustainability practices

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6 Accessibility and Visibility through Space Syntax Analysis of the Linga Raj Temple in Odisha, India

Authors: S. Pramanik

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Since the early ages, the Hindu temples have been interpreted through various Vedic philosophies. These temples are visited by pilgrims which demonstrate the rituals and religious belief of communities, reflecting a variety of actions and behaviors. Darsana a direct seeing, is a part of the pilgrimage activity. During the process of Darsana, a devotee is prepared for entry in the temple to realize the cognizing Truth culminating in visualizing the idol of God, placed at the Garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum). For this, the pilgrim must pass through a sequential arrangement of spaces. During the process of progress, the pilgrims visualize the spaces differently from various points of views. The viewpoints create a variety of spatial patterns in the minds of pilgrims coherent to the Hindu philosophies. The space organization and its order are perceived by various techniques of spatial analysis. A temple, as examples of Kalinga stylistic variations, has been chosen for the study. This paper intends to demonstrate some visual patterns generated during the process of Darsana (visibility) and its accessibility by Point Isovist Studies and Visibility Graph Analysis from the entrance (Simha Dwara) to The Sanctum sanctorum (Garbhagriha).

Keywords: Hindu temple architecture, point isovist, space syntax analysis, visibility graph analysis

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5 ChakraMarmaKosha Meditation: A Study on Vedic Transpersonal Practice to Reduce Stress and Elevate Human State of Consciousness

Authors: Sreekanth Gopi, Christine Simmonds-Moore

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Marmas, Chakras, and Koshas, ancient terms depicting the human system, have been relatively under-researched in literature. ChakraMarmaKosha meditation is a practice in which we put our attention on seven major Chakras (energy vortices), seven major Marmas (nerve junctions), and five Koshas (five sheaths of consciousness). The study aimed to explore how Chakramarma meditation produces different stress-relieving effects and elevates their state of mind to better states of consciousness. Most of the reviewed literature lacks in-depth information regarding a combined form of Chakras, Marmas, and Koshas meditation. 11 participants (10 females & 1 male) that meditated for 3 hours/week for 2-weeks were recruited. The average age was 46, the youngest being 23 and the eldest being 59 years. Before the start of the meditation program, a self-response online questionnaire was distributed to the participants. This had 13 questions rated on the Likert scale of 1-10 using five categories. After the session, the survey was repeated to know the after-effects. After conducting thematic, three main themes (Healing & Well-being, Spiritual/Mystical experience, and Social/Interpersonal/Life Transformation) were deduced. Survey analysis provided an insight into the overall changes in terms of general improvement relating to each area of focus.

Keywords: marmas, chakras, koshas, meditation, stress, spiritual growth, chakra meditation, healing and well-being, spiritual/mystical experience, social/interpersonal/life transformation

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4 Social Justice and Castes Discrimination: Experiences of Scheduled Castes Students in India

Authors: Dhaneswar Bhoi

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In Indian History, the Dalits (Scheduled Castes) were exploited with caste, since the Vedic Age (1500 BCE). They were deprived of many rights in the society and their education was also restricted by the upper castes since the introduction of the Law of Manu (1500 BCE). The Dalits were treated as lower castes (Sudras and Ati-Sudra) in the society. Occupation of these caste groups were attached to some low profile and menial occupation. Whereas, the upper caste (Brahamins) declared themselves as the top most caste groups who chose the occupation of priests and had the supreme right to education. During those days occupation was not decided by the caliber of a person rather, it was decided by the upper caste Brahamins and kept on transferring from one generation to another generation. At this juncture of the society, the upper caste people oppressed and suppressed the lower caste people endlessly. To get rid of these social problems the emancipator and the charismatic leader (Prophet for the lower caste communities), Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar appeard in the scene of Indian unjust society. Restlessly he fought against the caste oppression, social dogmas and tyranny on the basis of caste. Finally, he succeeded to affirm statutory safeguards for the oppressed and depressed or lower caste communities. Today these communities are scheduled as Scheduled Castes to access social justice for their upliftment and development. Through the liberty, equality and fraternity, he established social justice for the first time in the Indian history with the implementation of Indian Constitution on 26th January 1950. Since then the social justice has been accessed through the Constitution and Indian Republics. However, even after sixty five years of the Indian Republic and Constitutional safeguards the Scheduled Castes (SCs) are suffering many problems in the phases of their life. Even if there are special provisions made by the state aimed to meet the challenges of the weaker sections, they are still deprived of access to it, which is true especially for the Dalits or SCs. Many of the people of these communities are still not accessing education and particularly, higher education. Those who are managing to access the education have been facing many challenges in their educational premises as well as in their social life. This paper tries to find out the problem of discrimination in educational and societal level. Secondly, this paper aims to know the relation between the discrimination and access to social justice for the SCs in the educational institution and society. It also enquires the experiences of SCs who faced discrimination in their educational and social life. This study is based on the both quantitative and qualitative methods. Both of which were interpreted through the data triangulation method in mixed methodology approach. In this paper, it is found that the SCs are struggling with injustice in their social and educational spheres. Starting from their primary level to higher education, they were discriminated in curricular, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities.

Keywords: social justice, discrimination, caste, scheduled castes, education

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3 Defining the Vibrancy of the Temple Square: A Case of Car Street Udupi, Karnataka

Authors: Nivedhitha Venkatakrishnan

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Walking down busy temple streets in India is an experience in lifetime. Especially the temple streets are one of the most energetic places not only because of the divinity but also because of the streets itself which provides place for people to relax, meet, shop, linger, just walk around these activities create a set of experience which results in memories that lasts longer. Thinking of any temple street in India the image that comes to anyone’s mind are the elegantly sculpted Gopurams (Gateway) that depicts the craftsmanship and the history of the place, people taking a holy dip in the water, the aroma of the agarbathi’s, flowers with the divine Vedic chants and the sound of the temple bell flock of pigeons flying from the niches of the Gopuram with the sun in the backdrop. It gives a feeling of impulse energy that brings in life to these streets. Any temple street with even any one factor missing would look dead. This will be amiss in the essence in the scene of one’s experiences. These Temple Streets traditionally cater not only for religious purpose but to a wide range of activities. A vibrant street that facilitates such activities are preferred by the public any day. The research seeks to understand and find out the definition of Vibrancy in Indian Context. What is Vibrancy? What brings in the feeling of Vibrancy/Liveliness/Energy? Is it the Built structure and the city? Or is it the people? Or is it the Activity? Or is it Built structure – city – People – Activity put together brings the sense of Vibrancy to a place? How to define Vibrancy? Is it measurable? For which a case of Car Street Udupi, Karnataka is taken. The research is carried out in two stages. ‘Stage One’ makes use of ethnographic fieldwork as a basic method, complimented by structured field observations using a behavioral mapping procedure of the streets. Stage Two’ utilizes surveys that collected. This stage seeks to understand what design characteristics and furniture arrangements are associated with stationary, social and gathering activities of people by each cultural group and all groups collectively. The main conclusion from this research is that retail activities remain the main concern of people in cultural streets. Management and higher-level planning of retail activities on the streets could encourage and motivate possible Shops to enrich the trade variety of the street that provides a means for social and cultural diversity. In addition to business activities, spatial design characteristics are found to have an influence on people’s behavior and activity. The findings of this research suggest that retail and business activities, together with the design and skillful management of the public areas, could support a wider range of static and social activities among people of various ethnic backgrounds.

Keywords: activity, liveliness, temple street, vibrancy

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2 The Convention of Culture: A Comprehensive Study on Dispute Resolution Pertaining to Heritage and Related Issues

Authors: Bhargavi G. Iyer, Ojaswi Bhagat

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In recent years, there has been a lot of discussion about ethnic imbalance and diversity in the international context. Arbitration is now subject to the hegemony of a small number of people who are constantly reappointed. When a court system becomes exclusionary, the quality of adjudication suffers significantly. In such a framework, there is a misalignment between adjudicators' preconceived views and the interests of the parties, resulting in a biased view of the proceedings. The world is currently witnessing a slew of intellectual property battles around cultural appropriation. The term "cultural appropriation" refers to the industrial west's theft of indigenous culture, usually for fashion, aesthetic, or dramatic purposes. Selena Gomez exemplifies cultural appropriation by commercially using the “bindi,” which is sacred to Hinduism, as a fashion symbol. In another case, Victoria's Secret insulted indigenous peoples' genocide by stealing native Indian headdresses. In the case of yoga, a similar process can be witnessed, with Vedic philosophy being reduced to a type of physical practice. Such a viewpoint is problematic since indigenous groups have worked hard for generations to ensure the survival of their culture, and its appropriation by the western world for purely aesthetic and theatrical purposes is upsetting to those who practise such cultures. Because such conflicts involve numerous jurisdictions, they must be resolved through international arbitration. However, these conflicts are already being litigated, and the aggrieved parties, namely developing nations, do not believe it prudent to use the World Intellectual Property Organization's (WIPO) already established arbitration procedure. This practise, it is suggested in this study, is the outcome of Europe's exclusionary arbitral system, which fails to recognise the non-legal and non-commercial nature of indigenous culture issues. This research paper proposes a more comprehensive, inclusive approach that recognises the non-legal and non-commercial aspects of IP disputes involving cultural appropriation, which can only be achieved through an ethnically balanced arbitration structure. This paper also aspires to expound upon the benefits of arbitration and other means of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the context of disputes pertaining to cultural issues; positing that inclusivity is a solution to the existing discord between international practices and localised cultural points of dispute. This paper also hopes to explicate measures that will facilitate ensuring inclusion and ideal practices in the domain of arbitration law, particularly pertaining to cultural heritage and indigenous expression.

Keywords: arbitration law, cultural appropriation, dispute resolution, heritage, intellectual property

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1 Redefining Intellectual Humility in Indian Context: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Jayashree And Gajjam

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Intellectual humility (IH) is defined as a virtuous mean between intellectual arrogance and intellectual self-diffidence by the ‘Doxastic Account of IH’ studied, researched and developed by western scholars not earlier than 2015 at the University of Edinburgh. Ancient Indian philosophical texts or the Upanisads written in the Sanskrit language during the later Vedic period (circa 600-300 BCE) have long addressed the virtue of being humble in several stories and narratives. The current research paper questions and revisits these character traits in an Indian context following an experimental method. Based on the subjective reports of more than 400 Indian teenagers and adults, it argues that while a few traits of IH (such as trustworthiness, respectfulness, intelligence, politeness, etc.) are panhuman and pancultural, a few are not. Some attributes of IH (such as proper pride, open-mindedness, awareness of own strength, etc.) may be taken for arrogance by the Indian population, while other qualities of Intellectual Diffidence such as agreeableness, surrendering can be regarded as the characteristic of IH. The paper then gives the reasoning for this discrepancy that can be traced back to the ancient Indian (Upaniṣadic) teachings that are still prevalent in many Indian families and still anchor their views on IH. The name Upanisad itself means ‘sitting down near’ (to the Guru to gain the Supreme knowledge of the Self and the Universe and setting to rest ignorance) which is equivalent to the three traits among the BIG SEVEN characterized as IH by the western scholars viz. ‘being a good listener’, ‘curious to learn’, and ‘respect to other’s opinion’. The story of Satyakama Jabala (Chandogya Upanisad 4.4-8) who seeks the truth for several years even from the bull, the fire, the swan and waterfowl, suggests nothing but the ‘need for cognition’ or ‘desire for knowledge’. Nachiketa (Katha Upanisad), a boy with a pure mind and heart, follows his father’s words and offers himself to Yama (the God of Death) where after waiting for Yama for three days and nights, he seeks the knowledge of the mysteries of life and death. Although the main aim of these Upaniṣadic stories is to give the knowledge of life and death, the Supreme reality which can be identical with traits such as ‘curious to learn’, one cannot deny that they have a lot more to offer than mere information about true knowledge e.g., ‘politeness’, ‘good listener’, ‘awareness of own limitations’, etc. The possible future scope of this research includes (1) finding other socio-cultural factors that affect the ideas on IH such as age, gender, caste, type of education, highest qualification, place of residence and source of income, etc. which may be predominant in current Indian society despite our great teachings of the Upaniṣads, and (2) to devise different measures to impart IH in Indian children, teenagers, and younger adults for the harmonious future. The current experimental research can be considered as the first step towards these goals.

Keywords: ethics and virtue epistemology, Indian philosophy, intellectual humility, upaniṣadic texts in ancient India

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