Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1286

Search results for: conflicts in thinking

1286 Heterogeneity of Thinking: Religious Beliefs and Logical Concepts

Authors: Alisa Rekunova

Abstract:

According to the theory of word meaning structure developed by Lev Vygotsky (and later modified by Aaro Toomela), there are several levels of thought: sensory-based concepts, situation concepts, logical concepts, and structural-systemic concepts. There are differences between people who have relatively easy access to logical thought compared to those who mostly tend to think in everyday concepts. Religious beliefs are connected with unprovable concepts (Christian Jesus’s ascension or Pagan energy) that cannot be non-controversially related to scientific concepts. However, many scientists in the research are believers of some kinds. Religious views can be different: there are believers, non-believers (atheists), and undecided (we can call them agnostics). Some of the respondents say that scientific or professional and religious spheres do not overlap. Therefore, we can assume they do not see any conflict. Some of them, on the contrary, hesitate to answer and we can conclude they see the conflicts, but they do not want (or do not believe they are able to) to solve it. Finally, the third category of respondents says that religious beliefs and scientific concepts cannot coexist in the human mind. It can be expected that the third category of respondents should have higher education (or even work in the scientific field) but many scientists in the research answer that religious and scientific spheres do not overlap. Therefore, there are other things besides the level of education that is connected with resolving conflicts.

Keywords: conflicts in thinking, cultural-historical psychology, heterogeneity of thinking, religious thinking

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1285 Prospect for Peace: Criticism to Over-Focusing on Religion in Conflicts

Authors: Leyi Wang

Abstract:

The effect of religion on conflicts is usually over-focused. Religion is not the root cause of conflicts. There are always social, political or economic factors pushing the acceleration of conflicts. Meanwhile, the charisma of religion on calling for adherents is often utilized by political leaders as a tool of providing legitimacy to the initiating of violence and mobilizing the public during conflicts. What people identify from the connections between religion and conflicts is fake. There are some strategies used by politicians to upgrade the conflicts into violence. Consequently, there are some assumptions of which try to limit the religion’s effects on accelerating conflicts. This essay aims to discuss the roles of religion in international relations and argues that the religion difference is not the real source of conflicts in the globe, by reviewing the relevant literature for understanding the research background and gap of this topic. Also, this essay will suggest some implementations on dealing with the regional conflicts.

Keywords: religion, conflicts, criticism, international relations

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1284 Offering a Model for Selecting the Most Suitable Type of Thinking for Managers

Authors: H. Emari, Z. Emari

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to design an applied framework for strategic thinking which can be applied in all managerial levels and all types of organizational environments. No special applied frame has been presented for this thinking. This paper presents a theoretical framework for the thinking type of a manager by making a historical research and studying the scientific documents about thinking of a strategist. In the new theoretical framework it has been tried to suggest the best type of thinking for a strategist after analyzing the environment of his decisions. So, in this framework, the traditional viewpoint about strategic thinking, which has considered it as a special type of right-brain thinking against other types of right-brain thinking and suggested it for a strategist, was put aside and suggests that the strategist should use a suitable type of thinking under different conditions.

Keywords: strategic thinking, systemic thinking, lateral thinking, intuitive thinking, hybrid thinking

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1283 TRIZ-Based Conflicts-Solving Applications in New Product Development (NPD) Process and Knowledge Management (KM) System

Authors: Chi-Hao Yeh

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to show how to apply TRIZ to resolve conflicts in management area, which can be readily applied in new product development (NPD) process and Knowledge Management (KM) system in desinging and manfacturing stages. TRIZ has been well-known as a creative and innovative thinking theory in solving engineering and technology contradictions in the last two decades. However, few studies and practical usage were proposed in management area. Conflicts occurring including schedule, budget, and risk plannings at smart phone R&D process are discussed to demonstrate the ideas guided by 39 TRIZ management parameters, 40 TRIZ innovative principles, and contradiction matrix. The results show that TRIZ is able to provide direct, quick and effective alternatives to resolve the management conflicts. In this manner, huge effort and cost can be actually saved and practical experince can be stored in KM system. In this paper, an innovative 3C consuming product such as smart-phone is utilized as a case study to describe the proposed TRIZ-based conflicts-solving approaches in NPD process and Knowledge Management (KM) system.

Keywords: TRIZ, conflicts-solving in managment area, new product development (NPD), knowledge management (KM), smart-phone

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1282 Architecture of a Preliminary Course on Computational Thinking

Authors: Mintu Philip, Renumol V. G.

Abstract:

An introductory programming course is a major challenge faced in Computing Education. Many of the introductory programming courses fail because student concentrate mainly on writing programs using a programming language rather than involving in problem solving. Computational thinking is a general approach to solve problems. This paper proposes a new preliminary course that aims to develop computational thinking skills in students, which may help them to become good programmers. The proposed course is designed based on the four basic components of computational thinking - abstract thinking, logical thinking, modeling thinking and constructive thinking. In this course, students are engaged in hands-on problem solving activities using a new problem solving model proposed in this paper.

Keywords: computational thinking, computing education, abstraction, constructive thinking, modelling thinking

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1281 The Result of Personality and Mechanism Defiance on Marital Conflict

Authors: Hajar Mohafezatkareabadi

Abstract:

The present study was conducted with the aim of determining the mediating variable of defense mechanisms in the relationship between personality traits and marital conflicts. The research method was a correlation. This survey was done by analytical and questionnaire method and sampling method in Minded Organic Center and Clinic during 2 years. The data were collected by Andrews et al.'s (1993) defense style questionnaires, Sanai and Brati's (2010) marital conflicts, and Costa and McCree's (1992) personality traits and analyzed with Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. The research findings showed that there is a significant relationship between personality traits and marital conflicts, and defense mechanisms play a mediating role in the relationship between personality traits and marital conflicts (p > 0.05). Personality traits predict marital conflicts through developed, neurotic, and underdeveloped defense mechanisms. Conclusion: The mediating role of defense mechanisms in the relationship between personality traits and marital conflicts is minor. Defense mechanisms reduce the impact of personality traits on marital conflicts, but this effect is not complete; that is, the relationship between personality traits and marital conflicts remains significant. Therefore, in order to reduce marital conflicts, in addition to personality traits, it is necessary to provide the basis for the use of developed defense mechanisms.

Keywords: marital conflicts, personality traits, defense mechanisms, mediating variable

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1280 Growing Acts of Terrorism in Local Conflicts: A Dire Need for International Attention

Authors: Yusuf Abubakar Mamud

Abstract:

Highlighting the imperatives of local conflicts considering the dangerous dimensions of terrorism they are assuming in Africa has not attracted serious academic and political attention. The discourse about conflict in Africa was discussed within five identified conflict zones in the continent. The threats from these local conflicts are diverse and complex and the acts of terrorism in these local conflicts are driven by certain attitudes and behaviours linked to the African leadership. The paper examined and noted that the current conflict resolution model of the African Union (AU) was robust with requisite institutions to address the trends in local conflicts. However, it was observed that the AU peace and security framework lacked the requisite structural and technical capabilities to proactively address the drivers of local conflicts in Africa. It was found that the persistence of local conflicts in the African region may deny her the opportunities of achievement of the targets envisioned in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Consequently, the paper called on the international community to support Africa through provision of capacity. It urged the African leaders themselves to develop the political will to ensure that all issues concerning peace and security in the continent were guided by the provisions of the AU Constitutive Act. The need to strengthen the APRM in the light of the current trends in local conflicts was also highlighted.

Keywords: conflicts, local conflicts, terrorism, sustainable development

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1279 Conflicts and Their Resolutions through Peace-Building: A Roadmap to Africa's Development

Authors: Samuel Omachi

Abstract:

Since the creation of man, conflicts have remained a part and parcel of the society in spite of all measures adopted to keep them away. Conflicts are globally recognized as impediments of sustainable development and therefore regarded as undesirable, yet they are inevitable. However, some political leaders are better managers of conflicts than others. Those that manage conflicts poorly are backward and far from achieving economic development while efficient managers excel. The states in Africa fall into the category of poor managers of conflicts. Consequently, African continent has gained the notoriety of being the most crisis-ridden and poverty-stricken continent in the world in spite of her enormous resource endowment status. This problematic provided the compelling need for the discourse in the present study. Using the documentary analytical method, the paper x-rays the sources of conflicts, their effects and resolutions through peace education to allow room for economic development. The study concluded that African leaders needed to imbibe the culture of good governance with a key plank of peace building as a sine-qua-non for breaking the jinx that has tied the continent down to enable her catch up with her contemporaries in other parts of the competitive world.

Keywords: conflicts, resolutions, peace-building, development

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1278 Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class

Authors: Hevriani Sevrika Mayuasti

Abstract:

This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension.

Keywords: critical thinking, blooms’ critical thinking, questioning, strategy

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1277 Promoting Critical Thinking in a Robotics Class

Authors: Ian D. Walker

Abstract:

This paper describes the creation and teaching of an undergraduate course aimed at promoting critical thinking among the students in the course. The class, Robots in Business and Society, taught at Clemson University, is open to all undergraduate students of any discipline. It is taught as part of Clemson’s online class program and is structured to promote critical thinking via a series of interactive discussion boards and assignments. Critical thinking is measured via pre- and post-testing using a benchmark standardized test. The paper will detail the class organization, and describe and discuss the results and lessons learned with respect to improvement of student critical thinking from three offerings of the class.

Keywords: critical thinking, pedagogy, robotics, undergraduate teaching

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1276 The Influence of 3D Printing Course on Middle School Students' Spatial Thinking Ability

Authors: Wang Xingjuan, Qian Dongming

Abstract:

As a common thinking ability, spatial thinking ability plays an increasingly important role in the information age. The key to cultivating students' spatial thinking ability is to cultivate students' ability to process and transform graphics. The 3D printing course enables students to constantly touch the rotation and movement of objects during the modeling process and to understand spatial graphics from different views. To this end, this article combines the classic PSVT: R test to explore the impact of 3D printing courses on the spatial thinking ability of middle school students. The results of the study found that: (1) Through the study of the 3D printing course, the students' spatial ability test scores have been significantly improved, which indirectly reflects the improvement of the spatial thinking ability level. (2) The student's spatial thinking ability test results are influenced by the parent's occupation.

Keywords: 3D printing, middle school students, spatial thinking ability, influence

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1275 Visual Thinking Routines: A Mixed Methods Approach Applied to Student Teachers at the American University in Dubai

Authors: Alain Gholam

Abstract:

Visual thinking routines are principles based on several theories, approaches, and strategies. Such routines promote thinking skills, call for collaboration and sharing of ideas, and above all, make thinking and learning visible. Visual thinking routines were implemented in the teaching methodology graduate course at the American University in Dubai. The study used mixed methods. It was guided by the following two research questions: 1). To what extent do visual thinking inspire learning in the classroom, and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking? 2). How do visual thinking routines inspire learning in the classroom and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking? Eight student teachers enrolled in the teaching methodology course at the American University in Dubai (Spring 2017) participated in the following study. First, they completed a survey that measured to what degree they believed visual thinking routines inspired learning in the classroom and made time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking. In order to build on the results from the quantitative phase, the student teachers were next involved in a qualitative data collection phase, where they had to answer the question: How do visual thinking routines inspire learning in the classroom and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking? Results revealed that the implementation of visual thinking routines in the classroom strongly inspire learning in the classroom and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking. In addition, student teachers explained how visual thinking routines allow for organization, variety, thinking, and documentation. As with all original, new, and unique resources, visual thinking routines are not free of challenges. To make the most of this useful and valued resource, educators, need to comprehend, model and spread an awareness of the effective ways of using such routines in the classroom. It is crucial that such routines become part of the curriculum to allow for and document students’ questions, contributions, and thinking.

Keywords: classroom display, student engagement, thinking classroom, visual thinking routines

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1274 Unfolding Simulations with the Use of Socratic Questioning Increases Critical Thinking in Nursing Students

Authors: Martha Hough RN

Abstract:

Background: New nursing graduates lack the critical thinking skills required to provide safe nursing care. Critical thinking is essential in providing safe, competent, and skillful nursing interventions. Educational institutions must provide a curriculum that improves nursing students' critical thinking abilities. In addition, the recent pandemic resulted in nursing students who previously received in-person clinical but now most clinical has been converted to remote learning, increasing the use of simulations. Unfolding medium and high-fidelity simulations and Socratic questioning are used in many simulations debriefing sessions. Methodology: Google Scholar was researched with the keywords: critical thinking of nursing students with unfolding simulation, which resulted in 22,000 articles; three were used. A second search was implemented with critical thinking of nursing students Socratic questioning, which resulted in two articles being used. Conclusion: Unfolding simulations increase nursing students' critical thinking, especially during the briefing (pre-briefing and debriefing) phases, where most learning occurs. In addition, the use of Socratic questions during the briefing phases motivates other questions, helps the student analyze and critique their thinking, and assists educators in probing students' thinking, which further increases critical thinking.

Keywords: briefing, critical thinking, Socratic thinking, unfolding simulations

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1273 An Empirical Study of the Effect of Robot Programming Education on the Computational Thinking of Young Children: The Role of Flowcharts

Authors: Wei Sun, Yan Dong

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in introducing computational thinking at an early age. Computational thinking, like mathematical thinking, engineering thinking, and scientific thinking, is a kind of analytical thinking. Learning computational thinking skills is not only to improve technological literacy, but also allows learners to equip with practicable skills such as problem-solving skills. As people realize the importance of computational thinking, the field of educational technology faces a problem: how to choose appropriate tools and activities to help students develop computational thinking skills. Robots are gradually becoming a popular teaching tool, as robots provide a tangible way for young children to access to technology, and controlling a robot through programming offers them opportunities to engage in developing computational thinking. This study explores whether the introduction of flowcharts into the robotics programming courses can help children convert natural language into a programming language more easily, and then to better cultivate their computational thinking skills. An experimental study was adopted with a sample of children ages six to seven (N = 16) participated, and a one-meter-tall humanoid robot was used as the teaching tool. Results show that children can master basic programming concepts through robotic courses. Children's computational thinking has been significantly improved. Besides, results suggest that flowcharts do have an impact on young children’s computational thinking skills development, but it only has a significant effect on the "sequencing" and "correspondence" skills. Overall, the study demonstrates that the humanoid robot and flowcharts have qualities that foster young children to learn programming and develop computational thinking skills.

Keywords: robotics, computational thinking, programming, young children, flow chart

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1272 The Investigation on Pre-Service Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions in Terms of Several Variables

Authors: Cüneyit Akar, Mustafa Başaran, Ufuk Uluçınar

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to examine the critical thinking dispositions of pre-service teachers in terms of several variables. In the line of this aim, we have investigated what their levels of critical thinking dispositions and whether there is any significant different in their critical thinking dispositions. Also, we have examined the relations between their critical thinking dispositions and their parents’ education statues, the number of their siblings, family income levels, and their religiosity level. 202 pre-service teachers who are studying at different departments at faculty of education at Uşak University participated in this research. In study, critical thinking dispositions scale by one of researchers was utilized and its validity and reliability was performed. The findings indicate that the level of their critical thinking dispositions was found to be .376 (arithmetic mean). On the other hand, we found that there is no significant difference in terms of their gender and the department at which they are studying. Furthermore, although there aren’t significant relationships between critical thinking dispositions and their mother education statues, their income levels, their religiosity levels and the number of their siblings; there is any significant positively at low level the relation between thinking dispositions and father educational statues. The findings obtained will be discussed together with literature and other research’ results.

Keywords: preservice teachers, critical thinking dispositions, pedagogy, education

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1271 Discursively Examination of 8th Grade Students’ Geometric Thinking Levels

Authors: Ferdağ Çulhan, Emine Gaye Çontay

Abstract:

Geometric thinking levels created by Van Hiele are used to determine students' progress in geometric thinking. Many studies have been conducted on geometric thinking levels and they have taken their place in teaching curricula over time. It is thought that geometric thinking levels, which have become so important in teaching, can be examined in depth. In order to make an in-depth analysis, it was decided that the most appropriate management was discourse analysis. In this study, the focus is on examining the geometric thinking levels of 8th grade students from a discursive point of view. Sfard (2008)'s "Commognitive" theory will be used to conduct discursive analysis. The "Global Van Hiele Questionnaire" created by Patkin (2014) and translated into Turkish for this research will be used in the research. The "Global Van Hiele Questionnaire" contains questions from the sub-learning domain of triangles and quadrilaterals, circles and geometric objects. It has a wider scope than many "Van Hiele Questionnaires". “Global Van Hiele Questionnaire” will be applied to 8th grade students. Then, the geometric thinking levels of the students will be determined and interviews will be held with two students from each of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd levels. The interviews will be recorded and the students' discourses will be examined. By evaluating the relations between the students' geometric thinking levels and their discourses, it will be examined how much their discourse reflects their level of thinking. In this way, it is thought that students' geometric thinking processes can be better understood.

Keywords: mathematical discourses, commognitive framework, geometric thinking levels, van hiele

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1270 Africa as Endemically a War Continent: Explaining the Changing Pattern of Armed Conflicts in Africa

Authors: Kenneth Azaigba

Abstract:

The history of post-colonial African States has been dubbed a history of endemic warfare in existing literature. Indeed, Africa political environment is characterized by a multiplicity of threats to peace and security. Africa's leading drivers of conflict include abundant (especially mineral) resources, personal rule and attendant political authoritarianism, manipulation of identity politics across ethnicity, marginalization of communities, as well as electoral mal-practices resulting in contested legitimacy and resultant violence. However, the character of armed conflicts in Africa is changing. This paper attempts to reconstruct the trajectory of armed conflicts in Africa and explain the changing pattern of armed conflict. The paper contends that large scale political violence in Africa is on the decline rendering the endemic thesis an inappropriate paradigm in explaining political conflicts in Africa. The paper also posits that though small scale conflicts are springing up and exhibiting trans-border dimensions, these patterns of armed conflicts are not peculiar to Africa but emerging waves of global conflicts. The paper explains that the shift in the scale of warfare in Africa is a function of a multiplicity of post-cold war global contradictions. Inclusive governance, social justice and economic security are articulated as workable panaceas for mitigating warfare in Africa.

Keywords: Africa, conflicts, pattern, war

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1269 Dynamics of Norms and Identities Facilitate Countries to Resolve Their Conflicts: A Case Study of ASEAN

Authors: Chander Shekhar Kohli

Abstract:

In the field of international relations, countries have been experiencing distinct nature of conflicts. But, in the case of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) for a long time, the members have witnessed conflicts, small and large. These conflicts, as a result, have given catastrophic outcomes, such as killings and destroying properties. For the resolution of such conflicts, nonetheless, efforts likewise have been made, simultaneously, in terms of establishing peace and security. In this background, the ASEAN presents a significant example as before it had faced several wars, like Vietnam War, Cambodia conflicts, and so on. This research paper, therefore, strives to examine the ASEAN as a case with the help of both primary and secondary sources. It likewise will be dealt with how changing norms and identity building facilitate the ASEAN countries to deal with their conflicts both internal and external. This paper also will discuss how internal developments within countries affect conflict resolution process as each member of ASEAN is guided by its national interest. It is then argued that conflict resolution in the ASEAN is moving from its existing power-based solution to norms and identity-based solution as member countries have become more dependent on other countries. The research, therefore, is concluded by saying that the conflicts could only be resolved through building norms and common identities, which of course are recognized crucial mechanisms among the ASEAN countries with some exceptions.

Keywords: ASEAN, conflict resolution, norms and identities, peace and security

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1268 Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Taxonomy Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class

Authors: M. Mayuasti, Hevriani Sevrika, Armilia Riza

Abstract:

This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension

Keywords: critical thinking, blooms’ critical thinking questioning strategy, specific purposes class, English

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1267 Armed Groups and Intra State Conflict: A Study on the Egyptian Case

Authors: Ghzlan Mahmoud Abdel Aziz

Abstract:

This case study aims to identify the intrastate conflicts between the nation state and armed groups. Nowadays, most wars weaken states against armed groups. Thus, it is very important to negotiate with such groups in order to reinforce the law for the protection of victims. These armed groups are the cause of conflicts and they are related with many of humanitarian issues that result out of conflicts. In this age of rivalry; terrorists, insurgents, or transnational criminal parties have surfaced to the top as a reaction to these armed groups in an effort to set up a new world order. Moreover, the intra state conflicts became increasingly treacherous than the interstate conflicts, particularly when nation state systems deal with armed groups which try to influence the state. The unexpected upraising of the Arab Spring during 2011 in parts of the Middle East and North Africa formed various patterns of conflicts. The events of the Arab Spring resulted in current and long term change across the region. Significant modifications in the level, strength and period of armed conflict around the world have been made. Egypt was in the center of these events. It has fought back the armed groups under the name of terrorism and spread common disorder and violence among civilians. On this note, this study focuses on the problem of the transformation in the methods of organized violence within one state rather than between two state or more and analyzes the objectives, strategies, and internal composition of armed groups and the environments that foster them, with a focus on the Egyptian case.

Keywords: armed groups, conflicts, Egyptian armed forces, intrastate conflicts

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1266 Conflicts Identification Approach among Stakeholders in Goal-Oriented Requirements Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Suhaib

Abstract:

Requirements Analysis are the most important part of software Engineering for both system application development, and project requirements. Conflicts often arise during the requirements gathering and analysis phase. This research aims to identify conflicts during the requirements gathering phase in software development life cycle, Research, Development, and Technology converted the world into a global village. During requirements elicitation/gathering phase it’s very difficult to understand the main objective of stakeholders, after completion of requirements elicitation task final results are used for Software Requirements Specification (SRS), SRS is the highly important outcome of the requirements analysis phase. this is the foundation between the developers and stakeholders or customers, proposed methodology will be helpful to identify those conflicts in a very easy manner during the initial phase of the project.

Keywords: goal oriented requirements analysis, conflicts identification model, requirements analysis, requirements engineering

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1265 Human-Tiger Conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

Authors: Abishek Poudel

Abstract:

Human-tiger conflicts are serious issues of conflicts between local people and park authority and the conflicting situation potentially play negative role in park management. The study aimed (1) To determine the trend and nature of human-tiger conflicts (2) To understand people's perception and mitigation measures towards tiger conservation. Both primary and secondary information were used to determine human- tiger conflicts in Chitwan National Park. Systematic random sampling with 5% intensity was done to collect the perception of the villagers regarding human-tiger conflicts. The study sites were selected based on frequencies of incidences of human attacks and livestock depredation viz. Rajahar and Ayodhyapuri VDCs respectively. The trend of human casualties by tiger has increased in last five year whereas the trend of livestock has decreased. Reportedly, between 2008 and 2012, tigers killed 22 people, injured 10 and killed at least 213 livestock. Conflict was less common in the park and more intense in the sub-optimal habitats of Buffer Zone. Goat was the most vulnerable livestock followed by cattle. The livestock grazing and human intrusion into tiger habitat were the causes of conflicts. Developing local stewardship and support for tiger conservation, livestock insurance, and compensation policy simplification may help reduce human-tiger conflicts.

Keywords: livestock depredation, sub optimal habitat, human-tiger, local stewardship

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1264 Beliefs about the God of the Other in Intergroup Conflict: Experimental Results from Israel and Palestine

Authors: Crystal Shackleford, Michael Pasek, Allon Vishkin, Jeremy Ginges

Abstract:

In the Middle East, conflict is often viewed as religiously motivated. In this context, an important question is how we think the religion of the other drives their behavior. If people see conflicts as religious, they may expect the belief of the other to motivate intergroup bias. Beliefs about the motivations of the other impact how we engage with them. Conflict may result if actors believe the other’s religion promotes parochialism. To examine how actors on the ground in Israel-Palestine think about the God of the other as it relates to the other’s behavior towards them, we ran two studies in winter 2019 with an online sample of Jewish Israelis and fieldwork with Palestinians in the West Bank. We asked participants to predict the behavior of an outgroup member participating in an economic game task, dividing the money between themselves and another person, who is either an ingroup or outgroup member. Our experimental manipulation asks participants to predict the behavior of the other when the other is thinking of their God. Both Israelis and Palestinians believed outgroup members would show in-group favoritism, and that group members would give more to their in-group when thinking of their God. We also found that participants thought outgroup members would give more to their own ingroup when thinking of God. In other words, Palestinians predicted that Israelis would give more to fellow Israelis when thinking of God, but also more to Palestinians. Our results suggest that religious belief is seen to promote universal moral reasoning, even in a context with over 70 years of intense conflict. More broadly, this challenges the narrative that religion necessarily motivates intractable conflict.

Keywords: conflict, psychology, religion, meta-cognition, morality

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1263 A Phenomenological-Hermeneutic Account of Design Thinking by Way of an Exposition of Four Species of Negatite: 'Not Being', 'Non-Being', 'Absence', 'Non-Existence'

Authors: Soheil Ashrafi

Abstract:

In this paper, it is attempted to chart and exposit terra incognito of the transcendental intuition of ‘non-being’, a peculiar species of négatité and a form of consciousness which underpins the phenomenal capacity for design thinking, and which serves as the ground of the ‘designing being-relation to the world’. The paper’s contention is that the transcendental intuition of the non-being indwells the agent’s being-relation to the world as a continual tension in that neither does the agent relinquish its ontological leverage and submit altogether to the world’s curbs and dictates, nor is it able to subdue satisfactorily or settle into the world once and for all. By way of phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis, it is endeavoured to argue that design thinking occurs by virtue of a phenomenal transition between the a priori ‘not-being’, the basis of ‘that-which-is’, and the transcendental intuition of non-being through which that-which-is-not-yet announces itself. Along with this, the other two species of négatité as ‘absence’ and ‘non-existence’ are clarified and contrasted with not-being and non-being, which have widely been used in the literature interchangeably as identical terms. In conclusion, it is argued that not only has design thinking in its unadulterated, originary mode historically preceded scientific thinking, but it also has served as the foundation of its emergence. In short, scientific thinking is a derivative, reformed application of design thinking; it indeed supervenes upon it.

Keywords: design thinking, designing being-relation to the world, négatité, not-being, non-being

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1262 The Development of the Coherence of Moral Thinking

Authors: Hui-Tzu Lin, Wen-Ying Lin, Jenn-Wu Wang

Abstract:

The purpose of present research is to investigate whether the global coherence of moral thinking is increased by age. The author utilized two kinds of moral situations to evaluate the subjects’ responses to two contradictive arguments concerning behavior of stealing, cheating in an exam, each with two stories. The two stories will be focused on the main lead and provided two contradictory moral evaluations. Participants were 596 primary schoolchildren in Taiwan. The three age groups were 201 in grade two, 183 in grade three, and 212 in grade six. The result showed that sixth graders’ moral judgment is more coherent than third graders’. The coherence of moral thinking is increased by age which support the implication by Piaget and Kohlberg’s theoretical hypothesis. This indicates that people higher ability to detect contradiction may be involved in the development of the coherence of moral thinking.

Keywords: moral thinking, coherence, local coherence, contradiction, global coherence, cognitive development

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1261 Conflicts of Interest in the Private Sector and the Significance of the Public Interest Test

Authors: Opemiposi Adegbulu

Abstract:

Conflicts of interest is an elusive, diverse and engaging subject, a cross-cutting problem of governance; all levels of governance, ranging from local to global, public to corporate or financial sectors. In all these areas, its mismanagement could lead to the distortion of decision-making processes, corrosion of trust and the weakening of administration. According to Professor Peters, an expert in the area, conflict of interest, a problem at the root of many scandals has “become a pervasive ethical concern in our professional, organisational, and political life”. Conflicts of interest corrode trust, and like in the public sector, trust is mandatory for the market, consumers/clients, shareholders and other stakeholders in the private sector. However, conflicts of interest in the private sector are distinct and must be treated in like manner when regulatory efforts are made to address them. The research looks at identifying conflicts of interest in the private sector and differentiating them from those in the public sector. The public interest is submitted as a criterion which allows for such differentiation. This is significant because it would for the use of tailor-made or sector-specific approaches to addressing this complex issue. This is conducted through extensive review of literature and theories on the definition of conflicts of interest. This study will employ theoretical, doctrinal and comparative methods. The nature of conflicts of interest in the private sector will be explored, through an analysis of the public sector where the notion of conflicts of interest appears more clearly identified, reasons, why they are of business ethics concern, will be advanced, and then, once again, looking at public sector solutions and other solutions, the study will identify ways of mitigating and managing conflicts in the private sector. An exploration of public sector conflicts of interest and solutions will be carried out because the typologies of conflicts of interest in both sectors appear very similar at the core and thus, lessons can be learnt with regards to the management of these issues in the private sector. Conflicts of interest corrode trust, and like in the public sector, trust is mandatory for the market, consumers/clients, shareholders and other stakeholders in the private sector. This research will then focus on some specific challenges to understanding and identifying conflicts of interest in the private sector; origin, diverging theories, the psychological barrier to the definition, similarities with public sector conflicts of interest due to the notions of corrosion of trust, ‘being in a particular kind of situation,’ etc. The notion of public interest will be submitted as a key element at the heart of the distinction between public sector and private sector conflicts of interests. It will then be proposed that the appreciation of the notion of conflicts of interest differ according to sector, country to country, based on the public interest test, using the United Kingdom (UK), the United States of America (US), France and the Philippines as illustrations.

Keywords: conflicts of interest, corporate governance, global governance, public interest

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1260 On the Paradigm Shift of the Overall Urban Design in China

Authors: Gaoyuan Wang, Tian Chen, Junnan Liu

Abstract:

Facing a period of major change that’s rarely seen in a century, China formulates the 14th Five-Year Plan and places emphasis on promoting high-quality development. In this context, the overall urban design has become a crucial and systematic tool for high-quality urban development. However, there are bottlenecks in the nature definition, content scope and transmission mechanisms of the current overall urban design in China. The paper interprets the emerging demands of the 14th Five-Year Plan on urban design in terms of new value-quality priority, new dynamic-space performance, new target-region coordination and new path-refined governance. Based on the new trend and appeal, the multi-dimensional thinking integrated with the major tasks of urban design are proposed accordingly, which is the biomass thinking in ecological, production and living element, the strategic thinking in spatial structure, the systematic thinking in the cityscape, the low-carbon thinking in urban form, the governance thinking in public space, the user thinking in design implementation. The paper explores the possibility of transforming the value thinking and technical system of urban design in China and provides a breakthrough path for the urban planning and design industry to better respond to the propositions of the country’s 14th Five-Year Plan.

Keywords: China’s 14th five-year plan, overall urban design, urban design thinking, transformation of urban design

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1259 Cost Implications of Natural Resources Conflicts on Livelihoods of Farmers and Pastoralists in the North East Arid Zone of Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Ahmed Jajere

Abstract:

Resource use conflicts capable of undermining of pastoralists’ livelihoods are on the increase in the North East Arid Zone of Nigeria. In order to expose socio - economic effects of conflicts and benefits of peace, this study assessed cost implications of farmers/pastoralists conflicts over natural resources. Interviews were conducted with 94 farmers, 90 agro-pastoralists and 91 pastoralists’ household heads. The farmers and agro-pastoralists were systematically sampled while pastoralists were located using snowballing. Both farmers and pastoralists suffered losses in the form of injuries to, and even death of household members, and loss of shelter. Farmers sustained losses of facilities and farm produce while pastoralists suffered loss and seizure of livestock, arrest of household members and forced migrations. The material losses in monetary terms amounted to 14,242,200.00 nairas for farmers, a figure higher than the 10,915,500.00 nairas incurred by pastoralists.

Keywords: cost, conflicts, farmers, pastoralists

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1258 Critical Thinking Index of College Students

Authors: Helen Frialde-Dupale

Abstract:

Critical thinking Index (CTI) of 150 third year college students from five State Colleges and Universities (SUCs) in Region I were determined. Only students with Grade Point Average (GPA) of at least 2.0 from four general classification of degree courses, namely: Education, Arts and Sciences, Engineering and Agriculture were included. Specific problem No.1 dealt with the profile variables, namely: age, sex, degree course, monthly family income, number of siblings, high school graduated from, grade point average, personality type, highest educational attainment of parents, and occupation of parents. Problem No. 2 determined the critical thinking index among the respondents. Problem No. 3 investigated whether or not there are significant differences in the critical thinking index among the respondents across the profile variables. While problem No.4 determined whether or not there are significant relationship between the critical thinking index and selected profile variables, namely: age, monthly family income, number of siblings, and grade point average of the respondents. Finally, on problem No. 5, the critical thinking instrument which obtained the lowest rates, were used as basis for outlining an intervention program for enhancing critical thinking index (CTI) of students. The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance: there are no significant differences in the critical thinking index of the third college students across the profile variables; there are no significant relationships between the critical thinking index of the respondents and selected variables, namely: age, monthly family income, number of siblings, and grade point average.

Keywords: attitude as critical thinker, critical thinking applied, critical thinking index, self-perception as critical thinker

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1257 The Study of the Correlation of Future-Oriented Thinking and Retirement Planning: The Analysis of Two Professions

Authors: Ya-Hui Lee, Ching-Yi Lu, Chien Hung, Hsieh

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the difference between state-owned-enterprise employees and the civil servants regarding their future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. The researchers investigated 687 middle age and older adults (345 state-owned-enterprise employees and 342 civil servants) through survey research, to understand the relevance between and the prediction of their future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. The findings of this study are: 1.There are significant differences between these two professions regarding future-oriented thinking but not retirement planning. The results of the future-oriented thinking of civil servants are overall higher than that of the state-owned-enterprise employees. 2. There are significant differences both in the aspects of future-oriented thinking and retirement planning among civil servants of different ages. The future-oriented thinking and retirement planning of ages 55 and above are more significant than those of ages 45 or under. For the state-owned-enterprise employees, however, there is no significance found in their future-oriented thinking, but in their retirement planning. Moreover, retirement planning is higher at ages 55 or above than at other ages. 3. With regard to education, there is no correlation to future-oriented thinking or retirement planning for civil servants. For state-owned-enterprise employees, however, their levels of education directly affect their future-oriented thinking. Those with a master degree or above have greater future-oriented thinking than those with other educational degrees. As for retirement planning, there is no correlation. 4. Self-assessment of economic status significantly affects the future-oriented thinking and retirement planning of both civil servants and state-owned-enterprise employees. Those who assess themselves more affluently are more inclined to future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. 5. For civil servants, there are significant differences between their monthly income and retirement planning, but none with future-oriented thinking. As for state-owned-enterprise employees, there are significant differences between their monthly income and retirement planning as well as future-oriented thinking. State-owned-enterprise employees who have significantly higher monthly incomes (1,960 euros and above) have more significant future-oriented thinking and retirement planning than those with lower monthly incomes (1,469 euros and below). 6. The middle age and older adults of both professions have positive correlations with future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. Through stepwise multiple regression analysis, the results indicate that future-oriented thinking and retirement planning have positive predictions. The authors then present the findings of this study for state-owned-enterprises, public authorities, and older adult educational program designs in Taiwan as references.

Keywords: state-owned-enterprise employees, civil servants, future-oriented thinking, retirement planning

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