Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6546

Search results for: human dignity

6546 Human Dignity as a Source and Limitation of Personal Autonomy

Authors: Jan Podkowik

Abstract:

The article discusses issues of mutual relationships of human dignity and personal autonomy. According to constitutions of many countries and international human rights law, human dignity is a fundamental and inviolable value. It is the source of all freedoms and rights, including personal autonomy. Human dignity, as an inherent, inalienable and non-gradable value comprising an attribute of all people, justifies freedom of action according to one's will and following one's vision of good life. On the other hand, human dignity imposes immanent restrictions to personal autonomy regarding decisions on commercialization of the one’s body, etc. It points to the paradox of dignity – the source of freedom and conditions (basic) of its limitations. The paper shows the theoretical concept of human dignity as an objective value among legal systems, determining the boundaries of legal protection of personal autonomy. It is not, therefore, the relevant perception of human dignity and freedom as opposite values. Reference point has been made the normative provisions of the Polish Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms as well as judgments of constitutional courts.

Keywords: autonomy, constitution, human dignity, human rights

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6545 Perceptions and Experiences of Iranian Students of Human Dignity in Canada: A Phenomenological Comparative Study

Authors: Erfaneh Razavipour Naghani, Masoud Kianpour

Abstract:

Human dignity is a subjective concept indicating an inner feeling of worth which depends on one’s perceptions and life experiences. Yet the notion is also very much under the influence of societal and cultural factors. Scholars have identified human dignity as a context-based concept that lies at the intersection of culture, gender, religion, and individual characteristics. Migration may constitute an individual or collective strategy for people seeking to situations that bolster rather than undermine their human dignity. Through the use of a phenomenological method, this study will explore how Iranian students in Canada perceive human dignity through such values and characteristics as honor, respect, self-determination, self-worth, autonomy, freedom, love, and equality in Canada as compared to their perceptions of the same in Iran. In-depth interviewing will be used to collect data from Iranian students who have lived in Canada for at least two years. The aim is to discover which essential themes constitute participants’ understanding of human dignity and how this understanding compares to their pre-Canadian experience in Iran. We will use criterion sampling as our sampling method. This study will clarify how being exposed to a different culture can affect perceptions of human dignity among university students.

Keywords: Canada, human dignity, Iran, migration, university students

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6544 Kant’s Conception of Human Dignity and the Importance of Singularity within Commonality

Authors: Francisco Lobo

Abstract:

Kant’s household theory of human dignity as a common feature of all rational beings is the starting point of any intellectual endeavor to unravel the implications of this normative notion. Yet, it is incomplete, as it neglects considering the importance of the singularity or uniqueness of the individual. In a first, deconstructive stage, this paper describes the Kantian account of human dignity as one among many conceptions of human dignity. It reads carefully into the original wording used by Kant in German and its English translations, as well as the works of modern commentators, to identify its shortcomings. In a second, constructive stage, it then draws on the theories of Aristotle, Alexis de Tocqueville, John Stuart Mill, and Hannah Arendt to try and enhance the Kantian conception, in the sense that these authors give major importance to the singularity of the individual. The Kantian theory can be perfected by including elements from the works of these authors, while at the same time being mindful of the dangers entailed in focusing too much on singularity. The conclusion of this paper is that the Kantian conception of human dignity can be enhanced if it acknowledges that not only morality has dignity, but also the irreplaceable human individual to the extent that she is a narrative, original creature with the potential to act morally.

Keywords: commonality, dignity, Kant, singularity

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6543 Literature as a Tool for Sustenance of Human Dignity in the 21st Century

Authors: Arubi Thompson Abari

Abstract:

Globally, a writer is absolutely necessary to the society, for he mirrors and projects the society, grumbles and protects against the ills that hinders its development. A writer is committed to the language, social-cultural, political and economic factors that determine the sustenance of human dignity in the society. In this 21st century. The literary artist holds literature as a tool for the restoration and sustenance of human dignity. In Nigeria, literature is politically committed because colonialism gives birth to the modern Nigerian literature. Literature thus was regarded as one of the greatest weapons against colonialism in Nigeria. Nigerian literature is aimed at the restoration and sustenance of the dignity of Nigerians in the 21st century. A literary writer is a member of the society and his sensibility is conditioned by the socio-political situations around him. A writer cannot be excused from the task of regeneration and restoration of his past lost glorious days that must be done. This academic paper therefore showcases the efficacy of literature in bringing about the sustenance of human dignity in the 21st century. Consequently, the paper in its introduction clarifies some vital concepts. It discusses the forms of literature, portrays the ability and capability of literature as a tool for the sustenance of human dignity globally, and makes useful recommendations for the growth of knowledge in the 21st century and beyond.

Keywords: literature, sustenance, human dignity, 21st century

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6542 Eating Constitutes Human Dignity: A Metaphysical Anthropology Perspective

Authors: Sri Poedjiastoeti

Abstract:

One of the traits of living beings is eating. As the living beings, people must provide their life by taking material. They must assimilate for themselves with substances. They grow and develop themselves by changing what they eat and digest into their own substance. This happened in the so-called eating. This article aims to analyze distinction between human beings and other infrahumans when facing and eating food. It uses the analytical description with metaphysical anthropology approach. As a result, to give the expression that eating is not simply to put food in mouth, chew and swallow it. Eating constitutes a sacred ceremonial if it is done in accordance with human dignity. They face food with distance and moderation as well as civilize or make their behaviour better for it. Accordingly, they are being to be human.

Keywords: human beings, behaviour, eating, dignity

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6541 Questioning Eugenics and the Dignity of the Human Person in the Age of Science Technology

Authors: Ephraim Ibekwe

Abstract:

The field of biomedical science has offered modern man more options to choose from than ever before about what their future children will be or look like. Today, embryo selection techniques, for instance, has availed most people the power to choose the sex of their child, to avoid the birth of a child with a disability, or even to choose deliberately to create a disabled child. With new biotechnological tools emerging daily, many people deem parents personally and socially responsible for the results of their choosing to bear children, i.e. all tests should be done, and parents are responsible for only “keeping” healthy children. Some fear parents may soon be left to their own devices if they have children who require extra time and social spending. As with other discoveries in the area of genetic engineering, such possibilities raise important ethical issues – questions about which of these choices are morally permissible or morally wrong. Hence, the preoccupation of this article is to understand the extent to which the questions that Eugenics posits on the human person can be answered with keen clarity. With an analytical posture, this article, while not deriding the impact of biotechnology and the medical sciences, argues for Human dignity in its strictest consideration.

Keywords: dignity, eugenics, human person, technology and biomedical science

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6540 The Effects of a Nursing Dignity Care Program on Patients’ Dignity in Care

Authors: Yea-Pyng Lin

Abstract:

Dignity is a core element of nursing care. Maintaining the dignity of patients is an important issue because the health and recovery of patients can be adversely affected by a lack of dignity in their care. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a nursing dignity care program upon patients’ dignity in care. A quasi-experimental research design was implemented. Nurses were recruited by purposive sampling, and their patients were recruited by simple random sampling. Nurses in the experimental group received the nursing educational program on dignity care, while nurses in the control group received in-service education as usual. Data were collected via two instruments: the dignity in care scale for nurses and the dignity in care scale to patients, both of which were developed by the researcher. Both questionnaires consisted of three domains: agreement, importance, and frequencies of providing dignity care. A total of 178 nurses in the experimental group and 193 nurses in the control group completed the pretest and the follow-up evaluations at the first month, the third month, and the sixth month. The number of patients who were cared for by the nurses in the experimental group was 94 in the pretest. The number of patients in the post-test at the first, third, and sixth months were 91, 85, and 77, respectively. In the control group, 88 patients completed the II pretest, and 80 filled out the post-test at the first month, 77 at the third, and 74 at the sixth month. The major findings revealed the scores of agreement domain among nurses in the experimental group were found significantly different from those who in the control group at each point of time. The scores of importance domain between these two groups also displayed significant differences at pretest and the first month of post-test. Moreover, the frequencies of proving dignity care to patients were significant at pretest, the third month and sixth month of post-test. However, the experimental group had only significantly different from those who in the control group on the frequencies of receiving dignity care especially in the items of ‘privacy care,’ ‘communication care,’ and ‘emotional care’ for the patients. The results show that the nursing program on dignity care could increase nurses’ dignity care for patients in three domains of agreement, importance, and frequencies of providing dignity care. For patients, only the frequencies of receiving dignity care were significantly increased. Therefore, the nursing program on dignity care could be applicable for nurses’ in-service education and practice to enhance the ability of nurses to care for patient’s dignity.

Keywords: nurses, patients, dignity care, quasi-experimental, nursing education

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6539 Compilation and Statistical Analysis of an Arabic-English Legal Corpus in Sketch Engine

Authors: C. Brierley, H. El-Farahaty, A. Farhan

Abstract:

The Leeds Parallel Corpus of Arabic-English Constitutions is a parallel corpus for the Arabic legal domain. Analysis of legal language via Corpus Linguistics techniques is an important development. In legal proceedings, a corpus-based approach to disambiguating meaning is set to replace the dictionary as an interpretative tool, and legal scholarship in the States is now attuned to the potential for Text Analytics over vast quantities of text-based legal material, following the business and medical industries. This trend is reflected in Europe: the interdisciplinary research group in Computer Assisted Legal Linguistics mines big data collections of legal and non-legal texts to analyse: legal interpretations; legal discourse; the comprehensibility of legal texts; conflict resolution; and linguistic human rights. This paper focuses on ‘dignity’ as an important aspect of the overarching concept of human rights in current constitutions across the Arab world. We have compiled a parallel, Arabic-English raw text corpus (169,861 Arabic words and 205,893 English words) from reputable websites such as the World Intellectual Property Organisation and CONSTITUTE, and uploaded and queried our corpus in Sketch Engine. Our most challenging task was sentence-level alignment of Arabic-English data. This entailed manual intervention to ensure correspondence on a one-to-many basis since Arabic sentences differ from English in length and punctuation. We have searched for morphological variants of ‘dignity’ (رامة ك, karāma) in the Arabic data and inspected their English translation equivalents. The term occurs most frequently in the Sudanese constitution (10 instances), and not at all in the constitution of Palestine. Its most frequent collocate, determined via the logDice statistic in Sketch Engine, is ‘human’ as in ‘human dignity’.

Keywords: Arabic constitution, corpus-based legal linguistics, human rights, parallel Arabic-English legal corpora

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6538 What Defines Acceptable European Values for Georgia

Authors: Maia Kipiani, Tamari Beridze, Natalia Tchanturia, Bella Goderdzishvili, Sophio Beridze, Natia Kuparadze

Abstract:

Europe has concrete examples how small nations can survive and maintain their identity in its area. Values are eternal guides of our life and source of its perfection. European values are universal and relevant for every epoch, society or state. Values, such as personal freedom, human dignity, sovereignty of law, national or cultural identity are universal and eternal. Even superficial review of history of Georgian culture clearly shows that western values, including fundamental human rights. This paper discusses the approach and findings of choice of values in Georgia. Georgia is still quite far away from perfectly established values. Georgia has walked the hardest road till XXI century. Country survived miraculously many times. The study shows that the only way to survive is to strengthen national, traditional values and should not forget global factors. It is clear that for achievement of goals is important European education, legislative and economic reforms, peacefully and democratically develop Georgia.

Keywords: democracy, economical reforms, European values, human dignity, science, society, sovereignty of law, well-being

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6537 Analyzing a Human Rights Approach to Poverty and Development Goals in the ASEAN Region

Authors: Nithya Devi

Abstract:

Poverty, hunger and water scarcity are threats to human rights and are assaults on human dignity. The very existence of man is questioned when his basic rights are violated. Addressing this social phenomenon should be a key objective of any human rights discourse. The origins of these problems have various root causes. For Asia, colonisation was an essential factor that caused great inequalities in the distribution of wealth. In the post-colonial era, the colonised states were developing nations grappling with these issues. Today, some of the developing states have progressed to developed nations. However, others remain as economically vulnerable countries. Within states, the widening income gap poses further threat to human rights. Hence ASEAN states have prioritised socio-economic rights, particularly basic needs, in the human rights discourse in this region. To date, poverty and development goals are given primary importance. This paper seeks to show how a human rights approach has dealt with poverty and development goals in this region and evaluates its effectiveness in addressing these concerns.

Keywords: ASEAN, development, human rights, poverty

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6536 Human Security Providers in Fragile State under Asymmetric War Conditions

Authors: Luna Shamieh

Abstract:

Various players are part of the game in an asymmetric war, all making efforts to provide human security to their own adherents. Although a fragile state is not able to provide sufficient and comprehensive services, it still provides special services and security to the elite; the insurgents as well provide services and security to their associates. The humanitarian organisations, on the other hand, provide some fundamental elements of human security, but only in the regions, they are able to access when possible (if possible). The counterinsurgents (security forces of the state and intervention forces) operate within a narrow band defined by the vision of the responsibility to protect and the perspective of the resolution of the conflict through combat; hence, the possibility to provide human security is shaken at this end. This article examines how each player provides human security from the perspective of freedom from want in order to secure basic and strategic needs, freedom from fear through providing protection against all kinds of violence, and the freedom to live in dignity. It identifies a vicious cycle caused by the intervention of the different players causing a centrifugal force that may lead to disintegration of the nation under war.

Keywords: asymmetric war, counterinsurgency, fragile state, human security, insurgency

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6535 Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals of Botswana: Progressive Steps by the Botswana Court of Appeal towards Recognition and Advancement of Fundamental Human Rights of the Most Vulnerable within Society

Authors: Tashwill Esterhuizen

Abstract:

Throughout Africa, several countries continue to have laws which criminalise same-sex sexual activities, which increases the vulnerability of the LGBT community to stigma, discrimination, and persecution. These criminal provisions often form the basis upon which states deny LGBT activists the right to freely associate with other like-minded individuals and form organizations that protect their interests and advocate for the rights and aspirations of the LGBT community. Over the past year, however, there has been significant progress in the advancement of universal, fundamental rights of LGBT persons throughout Africa. In many instances, these advancements came about through the bravery of activists who have publically insisted (in environments where same-sex sexual practices are criminalised) that their rights should be respected. Where meaningful engagement with the State was fruitless, activists took their plight to the judiciary and have successfully sought to uphold the fundamental rights of LGBT persons, paving the way for a more inclusive and tolerant society. Litigation Progress: Botswana is a prime example. For several years, the State denied a group of LGBT activists their right to freely associate and form their organisation Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals of Botswana (LEGABIBO), which aimed to promote the interests of the LGBT community in Botswana. In March 2016, the Botswana Court of Appeal found that the government’s refusal to register LEGABIBO violated the activists’ right to associate freely. The Court held that the right freedom of association applies to all persons regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity. It does not matter that the views of the organisation are unpopular or unacceptable amongst the majority. In particular, the Court rejected the government of Botswana’s contention that registering LEGABIBO would disturb public peace and is contrary to public morality. Quite remarkably, the Court of Appeal recognised that while LGBT individuals are a minority group within the country, they are nonetheless persons entitled to constitutional protections of their dignity, regardless of whether they are unacceptable to others on religious or any other grounds. Furthermore, the Court held that human rights and fundamental freedoms are granted to all, including criminals or social outcasts because the denial of an individual’s humanity is the denial of their human dignity. This is crucial observation by the Court of Appeal, as once it is accepted that human rights apply to all human beings, then it becomes much easier for vulnerable groups to assert their own rights. Conclusion: The Botswana Court of Appeal decision, therefore, represents significant progress in the promotion of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons. The judgment has broader implications for many other countries which do not provide recognition of sexual minorities. It highlights the State’s duty to uphold basic rights and to ensure dignity, tolerance, and acceptance for marginalised persons.

Keywords: acceptance, freedom of association, freedom of expression, fundamental rights and freedoms, gender identity, human rights are universal, inclusive, inherent human dignity, progress, sexual orientation, tolerance

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6534 The Human Rights of Women in Brazilian Territory: A Literature Review of the Axes of the National Human Rights Program III

Authors: Ana Luiza Casasanta Garcia, Maria Del Carmen Cortizo

Abstract:

From the classic contractualist and early declarations of modern rights, discussions on policies for the protection and promotion of human rights were highlighted in an attempt to ensure the realization of human dignity and its values, which are (re) negotiated according to the needs evidenced in each historical and contextual moment. Aiming at guaranteeing human rights to Brazilian citizens, created in 2009 and updated in 2010, the Third National Human Rights Program (PNDH III) in force highlights guidelines and recommendations to guarantee human rights, among them, to guarantee the rights of women in Brazil. Based on this document, this article aims to locate historically and culturally the understanding of human rights related to the rights of women in Brazilian territory, from the analysis of the guiding axes of women's rights of the PNDH III. In methodological terms, the qualitative approach and documentary research were used to analyze the data according to the critical discourse analysis. As a result, it has been found that the process of building and maintaining the guarantee of women's human rights needs a reformulation that also shows a social revolution. This is justified by the fact that even with the provision in the PNDH III that, in order to guarantee the rights of women, it is necessary, for example, to adapt the Penal Code to the decriminalization of abortion and the professionalization of prostitution, these points are still very controversial and are not put into practice by the State. Finally, the importance of the critique of politics and the current system of production of understandings in favor of this social transformation is emphasized.

Keywords: human rights of women, social transformation, national human rights program III, public politics

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6533 Human Resource Utilization Models for Graceful Ageing

Authors: Chuang-Chun Chiou

Abstract:

In this study, a systematic framework of graceful ageing has been used to explore the possible human resource utilization models for graceful ageing purpose. This framework is based on the Chinese culture. We call ‘Nine-old’ target. They are ageing gracefully with feeding, accomplishment, usefulness, learning, entertainment, care, protection, dignity, and termination. This study is focused on two areas: accomplishment and usefulness. We exam the current practices of initiatives and laws of promoting labor participation. That is to focus on how to increase Labor Force Participation Rate of the middle aged as well as the elderly and try to promote the elderly to achieve graceful ageing. Then we present the possible models that support graceful ageing.

Keywords: human resource utilization model, labor participation, graceful ageing, employment

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6532 Human Rights to Environment: The Constitutional and Judicial Perspective in India

Authors: Varinder Singh

Abstract:

The primitive man had not known anything like human rights. In the later centuries of human progress with the development of scientific and technological knowledge, the growth of population and the tremendous changes in the human environment, the laws of nature that maintained the Eco-balance crumbled. The race for better and comfortable life landed mankind in a vicious circle. It created environmental imbalance, unplanned and uneven development, breakdown of self-sustaining village economy, mushrooming of shanty towns and slums, widening the chasm between the rich and the poor, over-exploitation of natural resources, desertification of arable lands, pollution of different kinds, heating up of earth and depletion of ozone layer. Modem International Life has been deeply marked and transformed by current endeavors to meet the needs and fulfill the requirements of protection of human person and of the environment. Such endeavors have been encouraged by the widespread recognition that protection of human being and the environment reflects common superior values and constitutes a common concern of mankind. The parallel evolutions of human rights protection and environmental protection disclose some close affinities. There was the occurrence of process of internationalization of both human rights protection and environmental protection, the former beginning with the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the latter with the 1972 Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment.It is now well established that it is the basic human right of every individual to live in a pollution free environment with full human dignity. The judiciary has so far pronounced a number of judgments in this regard. The Supreme Court in view of various laws relating to environment protection and the constitutional provision has held that right to pollution free environment. Article-21 is the heart of the fundamental rights and has received expanded meanings from time to time.

Keywords: human rights, law, environment, polluter

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6531 A Comparative Analysis on the Impact of the Prevention and Combating of Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Bill of 2016 on the Rights to Human Dignity, Equality, and Freedom in South Africa

Authors: Tholaine Matadi

Abstract:

South Africa is a democratic country with a historical record of racially-motivated marginalisation and exclusion of the majority. During the apartheid era the country was run along pieces of legislation and policies based on racial segregation. The system held a tight clamp on interracial mixing which forced people to remain in segregated areas. For example, a citizen from the Indian community could not own property in an area allocated to white people. In this way, a great majority of people were denied basic human rights. Now, there is a supreme constitution with an entrenched justiciable Bill of Rights founded on democratic values of social justice, human dignity, equality and the advancement of human rights and freedoms. The Constitution also enshrines the values of non-racialism and non-sexism. The Constitutional Court has the power to declare unconstitutional any law or conduct considered to be inconsistent with it. Now, more than two decades down the line, despite the abolition of apartheid, there is evidence that South Africa still experiences hate crimes which violate the entrenched right of vulnerable groups not to be discriminated against on the basis of race, sexual orientation, gender, national origin, occupation, or disability. To remedy this mischief parliament has responded by drafting the Prevention and Combatting of Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Bill. The Bill has been disseminated for public comment and suggestions. It is intended to combat hate crimes and hate speech based on sheer prejudice. The other purpose of the Bill is to bring South Africa in line with international human rights instruments against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related expressions of intolerance identified in several international instruments. It is against this backdrop that this paper intends to analyse the impact of the Bill on the rights to human dignity, equality, and freedom. This study is significant because the Bill was highly contested and creates a huge debate. This study relies on a qualitative evaluative approach based on desktop and library research. The article recurs to primary and secondary sources. For comparative purpose, the paper compares South Africa with countries such as Australia, Canada, Kenya, Cuba, and United Kingdom which have criminalised hate crimes and hate speech. The finding from this study is that despite the Bill’s expressed positive intentions, this draft legislation is problematic for several reasons. The main reason is that it generates considerable controversy mostly because it is considered to infringe the right to freedom of expression. Though the author suggests that the Bill should not be rejected in its entirety, she notes the brutal psychological effect of hate crimes on their direct victims and the writer emphasises that a legislature can succeed to combat hate-crimes only if it provides for them as a separate stand-alone category of offences. In view of these findings, the study recommended that since hate speech clauses have a negative impact on freedom of expression it can be promulgated, subject to the legislature enacting the Prevention and Combatting of Hate-Crimes Bill as a stand-alone law which criminalises hate crimes.

Keywords: freedom of expression, hate crimes, hate speech, human dignity

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6530 Green Human Recourse Environment Performance, Circular Performance Environment Reputation and Economics Performance: The Moderating Role of CEO Ethical Leadership

Authors: Muhammad Umair Ahmed, Aftab Shoukat

Abstract:

Today the global economy has become one of the key strategies in dealing with environmental issues. To allow for a round economy, organizations have begun to work to improve their sustainability management. The contribution of green resource management to the transformation of the global economy has not been investigated. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of green labor management on the global economy, environmental and economic performance, and the organisation's environmental dignity. We strongly evaluate the different roles of the various processes of green personnel management (i.e., green recruitment, training, and engagement green, as well as green performance management and reward) in organizational operations. We are also investigating the leadership role of CEO Ethical. Our outcome will have a positive impact on the performance of the organization. Green Human Resource Management contributes to the evolution of a roundabout economy without the influence of different external factors such as market demand and commitment. Finally, the results of our research will provide a few aspects for future research, both academic and human.

Keywords: sustainability, green human resource management, circular economy, human capital

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6529 Trafficking of Women in Assam: The Untold Violation of Women's Human Rights

Authors: Mridula Devi

Abstract:

Trafficking of women is a slur on human dignity and a shameful act to human civilization and development. Trafficking of women is one of worst brazen abuses which violate the women’s human rights. In India, more particularly in Assam, human trafficking and infringement of human rights of individual includes mainly the women and girl child of the State. Trafficking in North East region of India, more particularly in Assam occurs in two different ways – one is the internal trafficking of women and girl child from conflict affected rural areas of Assam for domestic work and prostitution. Secondly, there is trafficking of women to other south-East Asiatic countries like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Bangkok, Myanmar (Burma) for various purposes such as drug trafficking, labor, bar girl and prostitution.Historically, trafficking in human beings is associated with slavery and bonded or forced labor. Since the period of Roman Civilization, there was the practice of traffic in persons in the form of slave trade among the nations. With the rise of new imperialism, slavery had become an integral part of the colonial system of European Countries. With time, it almost became synonymous with prostitution or commercial sexual exploitation. Finally, the United Nation adopted the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Prostitution of others, 1949 by the G.A.Res.No.-317(iv). The Convention totally denounces the traffic in persons for the purpose of prostitution. However, it is important to note that, now a days trafficking is not confined to commercial sexual exploitation of women and children alone. It has myriad forms and the number of victims has been steadily on the rise over the past few decades. In Assam, it takes place through and for marriage, sexual exploitation, begging, organ trading, militancy conflicts, drug padding and smuggling, labour, adoption, entertainment, and sports. In this paper, empirical methodology has been used. The study is based on primary and secondary sources. Data’s are collected from different books, publications, newspaper, journals etc. For empirical analysis, some random samples are collected and systematized for better result. India suffers from the ignominy of being one of the biggest hubs of women trafficking in the world. Over the years, Assam: the north east part of India has been bearing the brunt of the rapidly rising evil of trafficking of women which threaten the life, dignity and human rights of women. Though different laws are adopted at international and national level to restore trafficking, still the menace of trafficking of women in Assam is not decreased, rather it increased. This causes a serious violation of women’s human right in Assam. Human trafficking or women’s trafficking is a serious crime against society. To curb this in Assam it is required to take some effective and dedicated measure at state level as well as national and international level.

Keywords: Assam, human trafficking, sexual exploitation, India

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6528 Solving the Refugee Problem in the Modern State System: The Philosophical Dilemma of Sovereignty and Human Right

Authors: Xiaoman Dong

Abstract:

The refugee problem has a long history, but the scale and severity of modern refugee crises demand us to consider if the progress of political history exacerbates the refugee problem. This paper argues that although sovereignty owes its legitimacy to the protection of human rights, the modern state system complicates the refugee problem by first introducing then blurring the line between human rights and civil rights, and making national identity indispensable to basic livelihood and dignity. This paper first explains the source of the modern state system’s legitimacy by putting it in the context of social contract theories and the politics of nation-building. It then discusses how states create the concept of statelessness, which leads to more violations on human rights. Using historical records of the League of Nations High Commission for Refugees and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, this paper reveals that neither the refugee problem of the Cold-War period nor the current refugee crisis is collateral damage of war, but rather the consequence of intentional exclusionary policies produced out of political interests. Finally, it contends that if the modern state system is to sustain, it cannot prioritize the protection of civil rights of a particular group over the protection of basic human rights of all.

Keywords: burden sharing, human rights, legitimacy of state, positive externality, sovereignty

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6527 An Exploratory Research on Awareness towards Human Rights among Public Representatives of Bihar, India

Authors: Saba Farheen, Uday Shankar

Abstract:

Background- Attaining equality among all humans and eliminating all forms of discrimination against them are fundamental human rights. These rights are based on the belief that all human beings are born free with equal dignity, esteem, and honour. In India, more than 30 percent politicians are having criminal background. They are also illiterate, which obstacle them in governing the system. They do not know the basic human rights. Because of this, they cannot decide what to do for the sake of the nation. Bihar is the third largest populated state of India and is characterized by corrupt politicians and poor literacy rate. If the politicians can aware about the human rights, then they will show positive attitude towards these. Aim- The main goal of the present research was to study the subjects’ knowledge or awareness towards their human rights. It was an attempt to identify social-psychological conditions that inhibit or facilitate awareness among public representatives towards their human rights in the special context of Bihar, India. Thus the main variable awareness towards human rights has been treated as the main dependent variable. The other two variables-socio economic status and Educational status, have been treated as independent variables. Method- The subjects were 400 public representatives in the age group of 35 to 50 years. They were from High socio economic status (N=150), Middle socio economic status (N=150), and Low socio economic status (N=100). The subjects were either educated (N=200) or Uneducated (N=200). The subjects were selected randomly from the different districts of Bihar, India. “Human Rights Awareness Scale” by Dr. Iftekhar Hossain, Dr. Saba Farheen, and Dr. Uday Shankar was applied in this study. Results- Results have shown that the public representatives have very low level of awareness towards the human rights. Also, the subjects from Middle SES have highest awareness in comparison with subjects of High and Low SES. Uneducated public representatives have less awareness than the educated one about human rights. Conclusion- Conclusively, it can be stated that human rights awareness among the public representatives of India is very low, and it is being affected by their Socio economic status and literacy level.

Keywords: human rights, awareness, public representatives, bihar, India

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6526 Human Security and Human Trafficking Related Corruption

Authors: Ekin D. Horzum

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The aim of the proposal is to examine the relationship between human trafficking related corruption and human security. The proposal suggests that the human trafficking related corruption is about willingness of the states to turn a blind eye to the human trafficking cases. Therefore, it is important to approach human trafficking related corruption in terms of human security and human rights violation to find an effective way to fight against human trafficking. In this context, the purpose of this proposal is to examine the human trafficking related corruption as a safe haven in which trafficking thrives for perpetrators.

Keywords: human trafficking, human security, human rights, corruption, organized crime

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6525 The Influence of Immunity on the Behavior and Dignity of Judges

Authors: D. Avnieli

Abstract:

Immunity of judges from liability represents a departure from the principle that all are equal under the law, and that victims may be granted compensation from their offenders. The purpose of the study is to determine if judicial immunity coincides with the need to ensure the existence of highly independent and incorruptible judiciary. Judges are immune from civil and criminal liability for their judicial acts. Judicial immunity is justified by the need to maintain complete independence and discretion of the judiciary. Scholars and judges believe that absolute immunity is needed to shield judges from pressures, threats, or outside interference. It is commonly accepted, that judges should be free to perform their judicial role in accordance with their assessment of the fact and their understanding of the law, without any restrictions, influences, inducements or interferences. In most countries, immunity applies when judges act in excess of jurisdiction. In some countries, it applies even when they act maliciously or corruptly. The only exception to absolute immunity applicable in all judicial systems is when judges act without jurisdiction over the subject matter. The Israeli Supreme Court recently decided to embrace absolute immunity and strike off a lawsuit of a refugee, who was unlawfully incarcerated. The Court ruled that the plaintiff cannot sue the State or the judge for damages. The questions of malice, dignity, and public scrutiny were not discussed. This paper, based on comparative analysis of many cases, aims to determine if immunity affects the dignity and behavior of judges. It demonstrates that most judges maintain their dignity and ethical code of behavior, but sometimes do not hesitate to act consciously in excess of jurisdiction, and in rare cases even corruptly. Therefore, in order to maintain independent and incorruptible judiciary, immunity should not be applied where judges act consciously in excess of jurisdiction or with malicious incentives.

Keywords: incorruptible judiciary, immunity, independent, judicial, judges, jurisdiction

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6524 Social Assistive Robots, Reframing the Human Robotics Interaction Benchmark of Social Success

Authors: Antonio Espingardeiro

Abstract:

It is likely that robots will cross the boundaries of industry into households over the next decades. With demographic challenges worldwide, the future ageing populations will require the introduction of assistive technologies capable of providing, care, human dignity and quality of life through the aging process. Robotics technology has a high potential for being used in the areas of social and healthcare by promoting a wide range of activities such as entertainment, companionship, supervision or cognitive and physical assistance. However, such close Human Robotics Interactions (HRIs) encompass a rich set of ethical scenarios that need to be addressed before Socially Assistive Robots (SARs) reach the global markets. Such interactions with robots may seem a worthy goal for many technical/financial reasons but inevitably require close attention to the ethical dimensions of such interactions. This article investigates the current HRI benchmark of social success. It revises it according to the ethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and justice aligned with social care ethos. An extension of such benchmark is proposed based on an empirical study of HRIs with elderly groups.

Keywords: HRI, SARs, social success, benchmark, elderly care

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6523 Social Media, Society, and Criminal Victimization: A Qualitative Study on University Students of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Tawohidul Haque

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to explore the nature, types and, causes of the involvement of criminal activities of the university students using social media namely Social Networking Sites (SNS). The evidence shows that the students have greater chance to involve such criminal activities during sharing their personal messages, photos, and even sharing their academic works. Used qualitative case studies with six students from two universities, this study provides a detail information about the processes how this media provokes the students to commit to the criminal activities such as unethical pose, naked picture, post against persona’s prestige and dignity as well as social position, phone call at midnight, personal threats, sexual offer, kidnapping attitude, and so on. This finding would be an important guideline for the media persons, policy makers, restorative justice, and human rights workers.

Keywords: social media, criminal victimization, human gathering scheme, social code of ethics

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6522 The Ra 9262 (Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) in the Literature Classroom via the Movie ‘Enough’

Authors: Jay Neil Garciso Verano, Peter Rosales Bobiles

Abstract:

This study tried to integrate RA 9262 in literature through the use of film. It identified RA 9262 provisions reflected in the students’ concepts in their oral participation and written outputs and pointed out different attitudes toward violence against women and respect to women as shaped by the film through their responses. Four Literature 121 (World Literature) classes with more or less similar characteristics participated in this study. The discussion of Paulette Kelly’s I Got Flowers Today took place during the first session while the viewing of the film Enough and discussion of the film followed to enrich and bolster students’ concepts and awareness on violence against women and to introduce RA 9262 provisions. The students’ attitudes toward violence against women and respect to women were lifted from the students’ oral and written responses. The film Enough presented eight provisions from RA 9262 reflected in students’ concepts which centered on the acts of violence against women tarnishing women’s rights and dignity. There were 25 attitudes toward violence against women and respect to women which surfaced, 11 of which are what initiate the acts, seven tell about the results from or effects of violence against women, and another seven exemplify respect to women. With the findings, it can be viewed that RA 9262 can be integrated in a literature course to awaken students’ minds on the prevalent issues on violating women’s rights and dignity. The discussion of Paulette Kelly’s I Got Flowers Today reinforced by the viewing of Enough deduced issues on the violation of women’s rights and dignity, attitudes toward violence against women, and students’ perception with regard respect to women.

Keywords: anti-violence against women, literature, film, enough, feminism

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6521 Human Quality Treatment and Organizational Growth: The Principle of Respect at Nestle Nigeria

Authors: Rose Ogbechie, Nicholas Anakwue

Abstract:

In recent times, research has centered, in the area of Business Ethics, on the issue of human quality treatment (HQT), regarding the way people are dealt with, in organizations, taking into cognizance, respect for the dignity of the human person, as well as, the rights and responsibilities of the corporate individual. As such, the principle of respect is an essential ethical principle that should govern professional relationships in the workplace. There is a prevailing myth in the Nigerian business space, that to drive business success, business leadership must coerce and drive people, oftentimes, beyond comfort to meet work expectations. This has, most times, necessitated abuses and insults on subordinates in the workplace, and instituted a rigid hierarchy of management in business relationships. Nestlé Nigeria, one of the largest foods and beverage companies in Africa, provides a contrast to this myth in their success heuristic. Over the years in Nigeria, the company has registered significant successes in the Nigerian Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Market, with stellar performances year-on-year, and a high-penetration rate of its products in the Nigerian consumer space. At the heart of the FMCG giant’s success and culture is the principle of respect—respect for stakeholders, respect for all peoples, respect for cultures, respect for the environment. Utilizing qualitative research methods, through interviews and focus group discussions with Nestlé’s stakeholders, this paper explores the ethical principle of respect, and how, through it, human quality treatment influences positively organizational growth.

Keywords: human quality treatment, respect, Nestlé Nigeria, FMCG, organizational growth

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6520 Crossing Borders: A Case Study on the Entry and Asylum of Sirius Refugees in Turkey

Authors: Stephanie M. De Oliveira

Abstract:

For a long time, migrations are characterized as a difficult problem to solve. Various phenomena throughout human history caused personnel migrations, whether by the free will of migrants or not. Nowadays, governments that seek to give these people protection and dignity, either to asylum or to build a new life in a different country, make refugee protection. At present, a large amount of people, have been crossing their country's borders by land, air or sea, becoming refugees and seeking a new life away from fear, threat or violence they suffered in their country of origin. It is known that some countries have already instituted rights and rules for refugees who wish to become citizens in the country to which they immigrated, even though this is not what happens in most cases. The article will be based on research made with UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) material as well as will analyze the interaction of the Turkish government with the European Union. Since Turkey is not part of the Union, it will be understood how the interaction was made, as well as the search for consensus, and not only humanitarian but also financial aid. The treatment of refugees and the defense of human rights within the country will also be considered.

Keywords: refugees, Turkey, asylum seekers, United Nations

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6519 Emotional Artificial Intelligence and the Right to Privacy

Authors: Emine Akar

Abstract:

The majority of privacy-related regulation has traditionally focused on concepts that are perceived to be well-understood or easily describable, such as certain categories of data and personal information or images. In the past century, such regulation appeared reasonably suitable for its purposes. However, technologies such as AI, combined with ever-increasing capabilities to collect, process, and store “big data”, not only require calibration of these traditional understandings but may require re-thinking of entire categories of privacy law. In the presentation, it will be explained, against the background of various emerging technologies under the umbrella term “emotional artificial intelligence”, why modern privacy law will need to embrace human emotions as potentially private subject matter. This argument can be made on a jurisprudential level, given that human emotions can plausibly be accommodated within the various concepts that are traditionally regarded as the underlying foundation of privacy protection, such as, for example, dignity, autonomy, and liberal values. However, the practical reasons for regarding human emotions as potentially private subject matter are perhaps more important (and very likely more convincing from the perspective of regulators). In that respect, it should be regarded as alarming that, according to most projections, the usefulness of emotional data to governments and, particularly, private companies will not only lead to radically increased processing and analysing of such data but, concerningly, to an exponential growth in the collection of such data. In light of this, it is also necessity to discuss options for how regulators could address this emerging threat.

Keywords: AI, privacy law, data protection, big data

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6518 Internal Displacement in Iraq due to ISIS Occupation and Its Effects on Human Security and Coexistence

Authors: Feisal Khudher Mahmood, Abdul Samad Rahman Sultan

Abstract:

Iraq had been a diverse society with races, cultures and religions that peacefully coexistence. The phenomenon of internal displacement occurred after April 2003, because of political instability as will as the deterioration of the political and security situation as a result of United States of America occupation. Biggest internal displacement have occurred (and keep happening) since 10th of June 2014 due to rise of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and it’s occupation of one third of country territories. This crisis effected directly 3,275,000 people and reflected negatively on the social fabric of Iraq community and led to waves of sectorial violence that swept the country. Internal displaced communities are vulnerable, especially under non functional and weak government, that led to lose of essential human rights and dignity. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geospatial Techniques, two types of internal displacement have been found; voluntary and forced. Both types of displacement are highly influenced by location, race and religion. The main challenge for Iraqi government and NGOs will be after defeating ISIS. Helping the displaced to resettle within their community and to re-establish the coexistence. By spatial-statical analysis hot spots of future conflicts among displaced community have been highlighted. This will help the government to tackle future conflicts before they occur. Also, it will be the base for social conflict early warning system.

Keywords: internal displacement, Iraq, ISIS, human security, human rights, GIS, spatial-statical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
6517 The Concept of the Family and Its Principles from the Perspective of International Human Rights Instruments

Authors: Mahya Saffarinia

Abstract:

The family has existed as a natural unit of human relations from the beginning of creation and life of human society until now and has been the core of the relationship between women, men, and children. However, in the field of human relations, the definition of family, related rights and duties, principles governing the family, the impact of the family on other individual or social phenomena and various other areas have changed over time, especially in recent decades, and the subject has now become one of the important categories of studies including interdisciplinary studies. It is difficult to provide an accurate and comprehensive definition of the family, and in the context of different cultures, customs, and legal systems, different definitions of family are presented. The meaning of legal principles governing the family is the general rules of law that determine the organization of different dimensions of the family, and dozens of partial rules are inferred from it or defined in the light of these general rules. How each of these principles was formed has left its own detailed history. In international human rights standards, which have been gradually developed over the past 72 years, numerous data can be found that in some way represent a rule in the field of family law or provide an interpretation of existing international rules which also address obligations of governments in the field of family. Based on a descriptive-analytical method and by examining human rights instruments, the present study seeks to explain the effective elements in defining and the principles governing the family. This article makes it clear that international instruments do not provide a clear definition of the family and that governments are empowered to define the family in terms of the cultural context of their community. But at the same time, it has been stipulated that governments do not have the exclusive authority to provide this definition, and certain principles should be considered as essential elements. Also, 7 principles have been identified as general legal rules governing all international human rights instruments related to the family, such as the principle of voluntary family formation and the prohibition of forced marriage, and the principle of respecting human dignity for all family members. Each of these 7 principles has led to different debates, and the acceptance or non-acceptance of each of them has different consequences in the rights and duties related to the family and the relations between its members and even the family's interactions with others and society. One of the consequences of the validity of these principles in family-related human rights standards is that many of the existing legal systems of countries in some cases need to be amended and their regulations revised, and some established cultural traditions in societies that are considered inhumane in terms of these principles need to be modified and changed. Of course, this process of governing the principles derived from human rights standards over the family also has vulnerabilities and misinterpretations that should not be neglected.

Keywords: family, human rights, international instruments, principles

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