Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2182

Search results for: peer relationships

2182 Topological Analyses of Unstructured Peer to Peer Systems: A Survey

Authors: Hend Alrasheed

Abstract:

Due to their different properties that have led to avoid several limitations of classic client/server systems, there has been a great interest in the development and the improvement of different peer to peer systems. Understanding the properties of complex peer to peer networks is essential for their future improvements. It was shown that the performances of peer to peer protocols are directly related to their underlying topologies. Therefore, multiple efforts have analyzed the topologies of different peer to peer systems. This study presents an overview of major findings of close experimental analyses to different topologies of three unstructured peer to peer systems: BitTorrent, Gnutella, and FreeNet.

Keywords: peer to peer networks, network topology, graph diameter, clustering coefficient, small-world property, random graph, degree distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
2181 Human Relationships in the Virtual Classrooms as Predictors of Students Academic Resilience and Performance

Authors: Eddiebal P. Layco

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The purpose of this study is to describe students' virtual classroom relationships in terms of their relationship to their peers and teachers; academic resilience; and performance. Further, the researcher wants to examine if these virtual classroom relations predict students' resilience and performance in their academics. The data were collected from 720 junior and senior high school or grade 7 to 12 students in selected state universities and colleges (SUCs) in Region III offering online or virtual classes during S.Y. 2020-2021. Results revealed that virtual classroom relationships such as teacher-student and peer relationships predict academic resilience and performance. This implies that students' academic relations with their teachers and peers have something to do with their ability to bounce back and beat the odds amidst challenges they faced in the online or virtual learning environment. These virtual relationships significantly influence also their academic performance. Adequate teacher support and positive peer relations may lead to enhanced academic resilience, which may also promote a meaningful and fulfilled life academically. Result suggests that teachers should develop their students' academic resiliency and maintain good relationships in the classroom since these results in academic success.

Keywords: virtual classroom relationships, teacher-pupil relationship, peer-relationship, academic resilience, academic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
2180 Parental Rejection and Psychological Adjustment among Adolescents: Does the Peer Rejection Mediate?

Authors: Sultan Shujja, Farah Malik

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The study examined the mediating role of peer rejection in direct relationship of parental rejection and psychological adjustment among adolescents. Researchers used self-report measures e.g., Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ), Children Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (PARQ), and Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ) to assess perception of parent-peer rejection, psychological adjustment among adolescents (14-18 years). Findings revealed that peer rejection did not mediate the parental rejection and psychological adjustment whereas parental rejection emerged as strong predictor when demographic variables were statistically controlled. On average, girls were psychologically less adjusted than that of boys. Despite of equal perception of peer rejection, girls more anxiously anticipated peer rejection than did the boys. It is suggested that peer influence on adolescents, specifically girls, should not be underestimated.

Keywords: peer relationships, parental perception, psychological adjustment, applied psychology

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
2179 The Friendship Network Stability of Preschool Children during One Pedagogical Season

Authors: Yili Wang, Jarmo Kinos, Tuire Palonen, Tarja-Riitta Hurme

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This longitudinal study aims to examine how five- and six-year-old children’s peer relationships are formed and fostered during one preschool year in a southwestern Finnish preschool. All 16 kindergarteners participated in the study (at dyad level N=240; i.e., 16 x 15 relationships among the children). The children were divided into four daily groups, based on the table order during the daily routines, and four intervention groups, based on the teachers’ pedagogical plan. During the intervention, one iPad was given to each group in order to stimulate interaction among peers and, thus, enable the children to form new peer relationships. In the data gathering, sociometric nomination techniques were used to investigate the nature (i.e., stability and mutuality) of the peer relationships. The data was collected five times during the year to see what kind of peer relationship changes occurred at the dyad level and the group level, i.e., in establishing and losing friendship ties among the children. Social network analyses were used to analyze the data. The results indicate that the children’s preference for gender segregation was strong compared to age preference and intervention. In all, the number of reciprocal friendship ties and the mutual absence of friendship ties increased towards the end of the year, whereas the number of unilateral friendship ties decreased. This indicates that children’s nominations narrow down; thus, the group structure becomes more crystalized. Instead of extending their friendship networks, children seek stable and mutual relationships with their peers in their middle childhood years. The intervention only had a slightly negative influence on children’s peer relationships.

Keywords: intervention study, peer relationship, preschool education, social network analysis, sociometric ratings

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
2178 Drama Education: Towards Building Multicultural Adolescent Peer Relationships

Authors: Tahnee West

Abstract:

Drama education is increasingly understood as a useful tool in promoting positive social change and cultural awareness. The effects of both positive and negative peer relationships are also a researched facet of education systems. Despite this, very little research has been conducted in the intersection of these two areas, even given current, significant public interest surrounding multicultural relationships. This research addresses a problem faced by educators and students: facilitating meaningful multicultural relationships. The research explores the following question in an Australian context: in what ways does Drama education affect peer relationships between culturally diverse students? In doing so, the study explores the various challenges and experiences of a multicultural group of adolescents, in terms of forming and maintaining effective intercultural friendships, while participating in a series of drama workshops. The project presents a starting point for providing educators with strategies for inclusivity and relationship development amongst diverse student populations. Findings show that Drama education can positively affect culturally diverse young people’s peer relationships; interactions between participants and data collected in focus groups throughout the eight-week Drama program show a steady improvement in sense of trust, support, tolerance, empathy, familiarity with other participants, and enjoyment. Data also points to a positive correlation between the Drama activities and improved conflict resolution and communication skills, as well as an improved understanding of the other participants’ cultures. Diversities and commonalities within the group were explored, with similarities encouraging social cohesion, and decreasing cultural ‘cliques’.

Keywords: cultural diversity, drama education, friendship, multicultural, peer relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
2177 Implementation of Distributed Randomized Algorithms for Resilient Peer-to-Peer Networks

Authors: Richard Tanaka, Ying Zhu

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This paper studies a few randomized algorithms in application-layer peer-to-peer networks. The significant gain in scalability and resilience that peer-to-peer networks provide has made them widely used and adopted in many real-world distributed systems and applications. The unique properties of peer-to-peer networks make them particularly suitable for randomized algorithms such as random walks and gossip algorithms. Instead of simulations of peer-to-peer networks, we leverage the Docker virtual container technology to develop implementations of the peer-to-peer networks and these distributed randomized algorithms running on top of them. We can thus analyze their behaviour and performance in realistic settings. We further consider the problem of identifying high-risk bottleneck links in the network with the objective of improving the resilience and reliability of peer-to-peer networks. We propose a randomized algorithm to solve this problem and evaluate its performance by simulations.

Keywords: distributed randomized algorithms, peer-to-peer networks, virtual container technology, resilient networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
2176 An Exploratory Study of Reliability of Ranking vs. Rating in Peer Assessment

Authors: Yang Song, Yifan Guo, Edward F. Gehringer

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Fifty years of research has found great potential for peer assessment as a pedagogical approach. With peer assessment, not only do students receive more copious assessments; they also learn to become assessors. In recent decades, more educational peer assessments have been facilitated by online systems. Those online systems are designed differently to suit different class settings and student groups, but they basically fall into two categories: rating-based and ranking-based. The rating-based systems ask assessors to rate the artifacts one by one following some review rubrics. The ranking-based systems allow assessors to review a set of artifacts and give a rank for each of them. Though there are different systems and a large number of users of each category, there is no comprehensive comparison on which design leads to higher reliability. In this paper, we designed algorithms to evaluate assessors' reliabilities based on their rating/ranking against the global ranks of the artifacts they have reviewed. These algorithms are suitable for data from both rating-based and ranking-based peer assessment systems. The experiments were done based on more than 15,000 peer assessments from multiple peer assessment systems. We found that the assessors in ranking-based peer assessments are at least 10% more reliable than the assessors in rating-based peer assessments. Further analysis also demonstrated that the assessors in ranking-based assessments tend to assess the more differentiable artifacts correctly, but there is no such pattern for rating-based assessors.

Keywords: peer assessment, peer rating, peer ranking, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
2175 The Effect of Peer Pressure and Leisure Boredom on Substance Use Among Adolescents in Low-Income Communities in Capetown

Authors: Gaironeesa Hendricks, Shazly Savahl, Maria Florence

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The aim of the study is to determine whether peer pressure and leisure boredom influence substance use among adolescents in low-income communities in Cape Town. Non-probability sampling was used to select 296 adolescents between the ages of 16–18 from schools located in two low-income communities. The measurement tools included the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, the Resistance to Peer Influence and Leisure Boredom Scales. Multiple regression revealed that the combined influence of peer pressure and leisure boredom predicted substance use, while peer pressure emerged as a stronger predictor than leisure boredom on substance use among adolescents.

Keywords: substance use, peer pressure, leisure boredom, adolescents, multiple regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
2174 The Effect of Interpersonal Relationships on Eating Patterns and Physical Activity among Asian-American and European-American Adolescents

Authors: Jamil Lane, Jason Freeman

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Background: The role of interpersonal relationships is vital predictors of adolescents’ eating habits, exercise activity, and health problems including obesity. The effect of interpersonal relationships (i.e. family, friends, and intimate partners) on individual health behaviors and development have gained considerable attention during the past 10 years. Teenagers eating habits and exercise activities are established through a dynamic course involving internal and external factors such as food preferences, body weight perception, and parental and peer influence. When conceptualizing one’s interpersonal relationships, it is important to understand that how one relates to others is shaped by their culture. East-Asian culture has been characterized as collectivistic, which describes the significant role intergroup relationships play in their construction of the self. Cultures found in North America, on the other hand, can be characterized as individualistic, meaning that these cultures encourage individuals to prioritize their interest over the needs and want of their compatriots. Individuals from collectivistic cultures typically have stronger boundaries between in-group and out-group membership, whereas those from individualistic cultures see themselves as distinct and separate from strangers as well as family or friends. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of collectivism and individualism on interpersonal relationships that shapes eating patterns and physical activity among Asian-American and European-American adolescents. Design/Methods: Analyses were based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States who were surveyed from 1994 through 2008. This data will be used to examine interpersonal relationship factors that shape dietary intake and physical activity patterns within the Asian-American and European-American population in the United States. Factors relating to relationship strength, eating, and exercise behaviors were reported by participants in this first wave of data collection (1995). We plan to analyze our data using intragroup comparisons among those who identified as 'Asian-American' (n = 270) and 'White or European American' (n = 4,294) among the domains of positivity of peer influence and level of physical activity / healthy eating. Further, intergroup comparisons of these relationships will be made to extricate how the role positive peer influence in maintaining healthy eating and exercise habits differs with cultural variation. Results: We hypothesize that East-Asian participants with a higher degree of positivity in their peer and family relationships will experience a significantly greater rise in healthy eating and exercise behaviors than European-American participants with similar degrees of relationship positivity.

Keywords: interpersonal relationships, eating patterns, physical activity, adolescent health

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
2173 Intrusion Detection System Based on Peer to Peer

Authors: Alireza Pour Ebrahimi, Vahid Abasi

Abstract:

Recently by the extension of internet usage, Research on the intrusion detection system takes a significant importance. Many of improvement systems prevent internal and external network attacks by providing security through firewalls and antivirus. In recently years, intrusion detection systems gradually turn from host-based systems and depend on O.S to the distributed systems which are running on multiple O.S. In this work, by considering the diversity of computer networks whit respect to structure, architecture, resource, services, users and also security goals requirement a fully distributed collaborative intrusion detection system based on peer to peer architecture is suggested. in this platform each partner device (matched device) considered as a peer-to-peer network. All transmitted information to network are visible only for device that use security scanning of a source. Experimental results show that the distributed architecture is significantly upgradeable in respect to centralized approach.

Keywords: network, intrusion detection system, peer to peer, internal and external network

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
2172 Peer-Review as a Means to Improve Students' Translation Skills

Authors: Bahia Braktia, Ahlem Ghamri

Abstract:

Years ago, faculties and administrators realized that students entering college were not prepared for the academic sphere; however, as a type of collaborative learning, peer-review gave students a social context in which they could learn more efficiently. Peer-review has proven its effectiveness in higher education. Numerous studies have been conducted on peer review and its effects on the quality of students’ writing, and several publications recommended peer-review as part of the feedback process. Student writers showed a tendency towards making significant meaning-level revisions and surface-level revisions. Last but not least, studies reported that peer-review helps students develop their self-assessment skills as well as critical thinking. The use of peer-review has become well known and widely adopted to the L2 classroom environment. However, little is known about peer review on translation students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the students' perspective on peer-review, and whether this method affected the quality of their translation. A mixed method design was adopted. Students were requested to translate two texts from Arabic into English, and they gave and received structured feedback to their classmates' translations. A survey was administered, followed by semi-structured interviews, to examine the students' attitudes toward peer-review. The results of the study showed that peer-review was considered a good proofreading method for most students. The students also showed a positive attitude toward it, and they reported that they benefited from the interaction with their peers. The findings implied that the inclusion of peer-review can be an effective pedagogical practice for teaching translation and writing to foreign language learners.

Keywords: language teaching, feedback, peer-review, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
2171 A Comparative Study of Self, Peer and Teacher Assessment Based on an English Writing Checklist

Authors: Xiaoting Shi, Xiaomei Ma

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In higher education, students' self-assessment and peer assessment of compositions in writing classes can effectively improve their ability of evaluative judgment. However, students' self-assessment and peer assessment are not advocated by most teachers because of the significant difference in scoring compared with teacher assessment. This study used a multi-faceted Rasch model to explore whether an English writing checklist containing 30 descriptors can effectively improve rating consistency among self-assessment, peer assessment and teacher assessment. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was adopted to survey students’ and teachers’ attitudes toward self-assessment and peer assessment using the writing checklist. Results of the multi-faceted Rasch model analysis show that the writing checklist can effectively distinguish the students’ writing ability (separate coefficient = 2.05, separate reliability = 0.81, chi-square value (df = 32) = 123.4). Moreover, the results revealed that the checklist could improve rating consistency among self-assessment, peer assessment and teacher assessment. (separate coefficient = 1.71, separate reliability = 0.75, chi-square value (df=4) = 20.8). The results of the questionnaire showed that more than 85% of students and all teachers believed that the checklist had a good advantage in self-assessment and peer assessment, and they were willing to use the checklist to conduct self-assessment and peer assessment in class in the future.

Keywords: english writing, self-assessment, peer assessment, writing checklist

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
2170 An Ethnographic Study on Peer Support Work-Ers in a Peer Driven Non Governmental Organization: The Colorado Mental Wellness Network

Authors: Shawna M. Margesson

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This research study seeks to explore the lived experience of peer support workers (PSWs) in a peer-led non-governmental organization in Denver, Colorado, USA. The Colorado Mental Wellness Network offers supportive wellness recovery services such as wellness recovery action plans (WRAP), advocacy trainings for anti-stigma campaigns, and PSWs to work with and for consumers in the community. This study suggests that a peer-run environment is a unique community setting for PSWs to work given all employees are living in mental wellness recovery. Little has been documented about PSWs' personal accounts of working within a recovery-oriented organization and their first-person accounts to working with consumers. The importance of this study is to provide an ethnographic account of both subjects; the lived experiences of PSWs of both organizational and consumer-driven recovery. This study seeks to add to the literature and the social work profession the personal accounts of PSWs as they provide services to others like themselves. It also will provide an additional lens to view the peer-driven movement in mental health and wellness recovery.

Keywords: peer to peer movement, mental health, ethnography, peer support workers

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2169 Peer-To-Peer Lending and Macroeconomics: Searching for a Link

Authors: Asror Nigmonov Asqar Ogli, Sitora Inoyatova Amonovna

Abstract:

It has been a decade when the crowdfunding and P2P lending opportunities were created. Today, the market of these modern alternative investments is becoming increasingly complex to navigate. There are overwhelming amount of peer-to-peer lending platforms both in developed and emerging economies. This study looks into this market via the cross country empirical study. In this respect, it tests the effect of various macroeconomic factors on P2P loan lending. Based on the existing literature that largely lacks empirical investigations, it builds regression model that aims to explore the relationship between economy and P2P lending. Though the author found it extremely difficult to compare the findings with earlier studies, this paper had identified certain tendencies in the data and had certain policy implications. However, the paper could not find any significant effect of economic variables on P2P lending. The paper can be considered as a starting point in empirical investigation of P2P lending and highlights room further research based on limitations of the study.

Keywords: peer-to-peer lending, crowdfunding, marketplace lending, alternative finance, fintech

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
2168 A Hybrid P2P Storage Scheme Based on Erasure Coding and Replication

Authors: Usman Mahmood, Khawaja M. U. Suleman

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A peer-to-peer storage system has challenges like; peer availability, data protection, churn rate. To address these challenges different redundancy, replacement and repair schemes are used. This paper presents a hybrid scheme of redundancy using replication and erasure coding. We calculate and compare the storage, access, and maintenance costs of our proposed scheme with existing redundancy schemes. For realistic behaviour of peers a trace of live peer-to-peer system is used. The effect of different replication, and repair schemes are also shown. The proposed hybrid scheme performs better than existing double coding hybrid scheme in all metrics and have an improved maintenance cost than hierarchical codes.

Keywords: erasure coding, P2P, redundancy, replication

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
2167 Association Between Friendship Quality and Subjective Wellbeing Among Adolescents: A Systematic Review

Authors: Abdullah Alsarrani, Leandro Garcia, Ruth Hunter, Laura Dunne

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Social integration with friends has an important role in shaping adolescents’ behavior and determining their well-being. Friendship features such as companionship, trust, closeness, intimacy, and conflicts all form the concept of friendship quality. The quality of friendship relationships can either enhance or impede mental development during adolescence. Therefore, this systematic review was conducted to understand the association between friendship quality and adolescents’ mental wellbeing. The evidence was synthesized from a search of five databases (Medline, Embase, ProQuest, Scopus, and PsycINFO). Thirty-two articles out of 18801 records were included in the review. The relationship between friendship quality and depression has been investigated extensively in the literature and negative (beneficial) associations were found in twelve studies out of sixteen. Poor peer relationship was linked to loneliness in eight studies out of nine. All five studies on life satisfaction and quality of peer connection found a positive association. In five studies, optimal peer relationship was found to be associated with happiness. A positive association between friendship quality and self-esteem in four out of five applicable studies. Friendship quality was found to be correlated with subjective well-being in all of three included studies focused on this area. The review demonstrates the paramount value of promoting healthy friendship to adolescents’ subjective well-being constructs. Interventions that aim to promote subjective wellbeing among adolescents should consider the development and maintenance of healthy friendships.

Keywords: adolescents, friendship quality, peer, wellbeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
2166 Optimal Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling Mission Planning with Complex Constraints

Authors: Jing Yu, Hongyang Liu, Dong Hao

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On-Orbit Refueling is of great significance in extending space crafts' lifetime. The problem of minimum-fuel, time-fixed, Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning is addressed here with the particular aim of assigning fuel-insufficient satellites to the fuel-sufficient satellites and optimizing each rendezvous trajectory. Constraints including perturbation, communication link, sun illumination, hold points for different rendezvous phases, and sensor switching are considered. A planning model has established as well as a two-level solution method. The upper level deals with target assignment based on fuel equilibrium criterion, while the lower level solves constrained trajectory optimization using special maneuver strategies. Simulations show that the developed method could effectively resolve the Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning problem and deal with complex constraints.

Keywords: mission planning, orbital rendezvous, on-orbit refueling, space mission

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
2165 Teaching Young Learners How to Work Together: Pedagogical Ideas for Language Teachers

Authors: Tomas Kos

Abstract:

An increasing body of research has explored patterns of interaction and peer support among young learners. Although some studies suggest that young learners can collaborate and support each other, other studies indicate that young learners may lack the ability to work together and support one another when interacting on classroom tasks. Moreover, despite the claims that peer collaboration is conducive to learning, studies have not paid enough attention to the “how” to enhance peer collaboration on classroom tasks. To fill this gap, this “how-to” article proposes that teaching young learners how to work together is a powerful pedagogical tool that can greatly improve collaborative behavior and a sense of mutuality among young learners. This article will pay particular attention to primary schools and the context of English as a foreign language. It will first review literature related to patterns of interaction and peer support conducted in the cognitive and sociocultural framework. It will then address what it actually means to collaborate. At the heart of the article, it will discuss some practical pedagogical ideas for language teachers, which entail teaching collaborative principles and strategies that will help their students to support each other and engage in communication with each other.

Keywords: young learners, peer collaboration, peer interaction, peer support, patterns of interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
2164 Effectiveness of a Peer-Mediated Intervention on Writing Skills in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Inclusive Classroom

Authors: Siddiq Ahmed

Abstract:

The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a Peer-Mediated Intervention (PMI) on writing skills for a student with autism spectrum disorders in inclusive classrooms. The participants in this study were two students, one as a tutor and another as a tutee who was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The target participant struggled with writing skills and was paired with a student with high academic outcomes. The Tutor had a readiness to act as a tutor for his peer and was trained on how to assist his peer and how to identify and guide his peer’s writing mistakes. Multiple baseline design across behaviors was implemented to monitor the student’s progress in writing skills. The results of the present study showed that PMI yielded significant improvements in academic achievements for the target student. This study suggests that further studies should replicate the current study with an intensive focus on other academic skills such as reading comprehension, writing social stories, and math.

Keywords: peer tutoring, writing skills, autism, inclusion

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2163 Integrating Blogging into Peer Assessment on College Students’ English Writing

Authors: Su-Lien Liao

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Most of college students in Taiwan do not have sufficient English proficiency to express themselves in written English. Teachers spent a lot of time correcting students’ English writing, but the results are not satisfactory. This study aims to use blogs as a teaching and learning tool in written English. Before applying peer assessment, students should be trained to be good reviewers. The teacher starts the course by posting the error analysis of students’ first English composition on blogs as the comment models for students. Then the students will go through the process of drafting, composing, peer response and last revision on blogs. Evaluation Questionnaires and interviews will be conducted at the end of the course to see the impact and students’ perception for the course.

Keywords: blog, peer assessment, English writing, error analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
2162 A Comparative Study of Substance Abusers and Non-Abusers on Peer Pressure, Tendency to Risk Taking Behavior and Anxiety

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen Khan, Uzma Azam, Kainat Umar, Jazba Amber Satti, Aiman Shehzadi, Nimo Omer

Abstract:

This study aimed to examine the comparison between substance abusers and non-abusers on anxiety, peer pressure, and risk-taking behavior among young adults. The sample consisted of 138 individuals including 64 female and 71 males, age range from 17-35 years, drawn from non-clinical population through convenient sampling. Questionnaire technique was used for the information assortment and the scales were susceptibility to peer pressure (Dieman, Pamella, Shope & Butchart, 1987), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Zung, 1971), and risk-taking questionnaire (Gullone, Moore, Moss & Boyd, 2000) having alpha reliability of .54, .88, and .80 respectively. Results showed that anxiety negatively correlates with the risk-taking behavior. High level of anxiety stops an individual to involve himself in risk taking activities. Peer pressure have positive correlation with risk-taking behavior. Females are more susceptible to peer pressure irrespective of being abusers or non-abusers as compared to male abusers and non-abusers. Substance abusers have less anxiety as compared to non-abusers but are more susceptible to peer pressure and risk-taking behaviors.

Keywords: substance, substance abuse, anxiety, peer pressure, risk-taking behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
2161 An Experimental Study of Online Peer-to-Peer Language Learning

Authors: Abrar Al-Hasan

Abstract:

Web 2.0 has significantly increased the amount of information available to users not only about firms and their offerings, but also about the activities of other individuals in their networks and markets. It is widely acknowledged that this increased availability of ‘social’ information, particularly about other individuals, is likely to influence a user’s behavior and choices. However, there are very few systematic studies of how such increased information transparency on the behavior of other users in a focal users’ network influences a focal users’ behavior in the emerging marketplace of online language learning. This study seeks to examine the value and impact of ‘social activities’ – wherein, a user sees and interacts with the learning activities of her peers – on her language learning efficiency. An online experiment in a peer-to-peer language marketplace was conducted to compare the learning efficiency of users with ‘social’ information versus users with no ‘social’ information. The results of this study highlight the impact and importance of ‘social’ information within the language learning context. The study concludes by exploring how these insights may inspire new developments in online education.

Keywords: e-Learning, language learning marketplace, peer-to-peer, social network

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
2160 Correlates of Peer Influence and Resistance to HIV/AIDS Counselling and Testing among Students in Tertiary Institutions in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: A. S. Haruna, M. U. Tambawal, A. A. Salawu

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The psychological impact of peer influence on its individual group members, can make them resist HIV/AIDS counselling and testing. This study investigated the correlate of peer influence and resistance to HIV/AIDS counselling and testing among students in tertiary institutions in Kano state, Nigeria. To achieve this, three null hypotheses were postulated and tested. Cross-Sectional Survey Design was employed in which 1512 sample was selected from a student population of 104,841.Simple Random Sampling was used in the selection. A self-developed 20-item scale called Peer Influence and Psychological Resistance Inventory (PIPRI) was used for data collection. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMCC) via test-retest method was applied to estimate a reliability coefficient of 0.86 for the scale. Data obtained was analyzed using t-test and PPMCC at 0.05 level of confidence. Results reveal 26.3% (397) of the respondents being influenced by their peer group, while 39.8% showed resistance. Also, the t-tests and PPMCC statistics were greater than their respective critical values. This shows that there was a significant gender difference in peer influence and a difference between peer influence and resistance to HIV/AIDS counselling and testing. However, a positive relationship between peer influence and resistance to HIV/AIDS counselling and testing was shown. A major recommendation offered suggests the use of reinforcement and social support for positive attitudes and maintenance of safe behaviour among students who patronize HIV/AIDS counselling.

Keywords: peer group influence, HIV/AIDS counselling and testing, psychological resistance, students

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2159 Going the Distance – Building Peer Support during a Time of Crisis

Authors: Lisa Gray, Henry Kronner, Tameca Harris-Jackson, Mimi Sodhi, Ruth Gerritsen-McKane, Donette Considine

Abstract:

The MSW Peer Mentorship Program (PMP) was developed as one of several approaches to foster student success. The key purposes of the PMP are to help new graduate students transition to a graduate program, facilitate relationship building between students, grow and sustain student satisfaction, and build a strong connection to the MSW program. This pilot program also serves as an additional source of support for students during the era of the Covid-19 pandemic. Further, the long-term goals of the program are to assist in student retention. Preliminary findings suggest that both mentors and mentees enrolled in PMP find the peer mentoring relationship to have a positive impact on their graduate learning experience.

Keywords: covid-19, mentorship, peer support, student success

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
2158 Does One Size Fit All: Immigrant Youths, Bullying and Peer-Aggression

Authors: Shila Khayambashi

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For the past few decades, Western researchers studied different youth issues, such as bullying, peer-aggression, depression, self-harm, and suicide, in a formulated and standardized manner. These researchers have grounded their studies upon a series of introduced characteristics and traits, which pragmatically defined the action of the individuals involved in these activities (Olweus, 1994). The phenomena of bullying and peer-aggression have touched the lives of many immigrant youths, as well. However, in the case of these immigrant young adults, the Police investigated, and later dismissed, the victims’ involvement in drugs and gangs’ activities, instead of questioning the possibility of the peer-aggression. This paper argues that neither government officials nor school personnel has ever investigated any cyber-documentation which would clarify these youth’s untimely deaths or search for any indication of peer-aggression at school. Through my ongoing research, I will problematize the Eurocentric definition of bullying and its limitations. I question the assumed universality of these definitions’ characteristics and their lack of minority representation. This research questions explicitly the positionality of the displaced youth within the promised multiculturality of Canada. I will ask: Does one size fit all, considering the bio-psycho-socio-economic differences between the Eastern and the Western worlds? More importantly, how does the epidemy of the communicative devices, like smartphones, and communicative apps, like Twitter and Snapchats, facilitate or hinder peer-aggression for the displaced youths?

Keywords: Bullying , Immigrant youths, Peer aggression, Minority population

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
2157 Interpersonal Emotion Regulation in Adolescence: An Enhanced Critical Incident Study

Authors: Setareh Shayanfar

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Given the increasing importance of peer relationships during adolescence, the present study aimed to examine peer interactions that facilitate or hinder adolescents’ regulation of negative emotions. Using the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique, 1-hour semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 junior high school adolescents. Participants were asked to recall situations when they experienced strong negative emotions during the past school year, indicate the peer interactions that helped or hindered their emotion regulation, and identify prospective interactions with the potential to help regulate their emotions. Data analysis extracted 182 critical incidents, including 109 helping incidents, 45 hindering incidents, and 28 wish list items, which generated 10 categories nested within four overarching themes: Positive Personal Support included (a) supportive presence, (b) expressing concern, (c) empathizing, and (d) encouraging and cheering up; while Strategy Transmission included (e) sharing perspective, and (f) giving advice; Activated Support included (g) taking action, and (h) distracting; while Negative Personal Interactions included (i) withdrawing and (j) punishing. Implications for mental health and service providers, as well as recommendations for future research, are presented.

Keywords: adolescence, emotion regulation, enhanced critical incident technique, peers

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2156 A Smart Contract Project: Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading with Price Forecasting in Microgrid

Authors: Şakir Bingöl, Abdullah Emre Aydemir, Abdullah Saado, Ahmet Akıl, Elif Canbaz, Feyza Nur Bulgurcu, Gizem Uzun, Günsu Bilge Dal, Muhammedcan Pirinççi

Abstract:

Smart contracts, which can be applied in many different areas, from financial applications to the internet of things, come to the fore with their security, low cost, and self-executing features. In this paper, it is focused on peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading and the implementation of the smart contract on the Ethereum blockchain. It is assumed a microgrid consists of consumers and prosumers that can produce solar and wind energy. The proposed architecture is a system where the prosumer makes the purchase or sale request in the smart contract and the maximum price obtained through the distribution system operator (DSO) by forecasting. It is aimed to forecast the hourly maximum unit price of energy by using deep learning instead of a fixed pricing. In this way, it will make the system more reliable as there will be more dynamic and accurate pricing. For this purpose, Istanbul's energy generation, energy consumption and market clearing price data were used. The consistency of the available data and forecasting results is observed and discussed with graphs.

Keywords: energy trading smart contract, deep learning, microgrid, forecasting, Ethereum, peer to peer

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2155 Fund Seekers’ Deception in Peer-to-Peer Lending in Times of COVID

Authors: Olivier Mesly

Abstract:

This article examines the likelihood of deception on the part of borrowers wishing to obtain credit from institutional or private lenders. In our first study, we identify five explanatory variables that account for nearly forty percent of the propensity to act deceitfully: a poor credit history, debt, risky behavior, and to a much lesser degree, irrational behavior and disconnection from the bundle of needs, goals, and preferences. For the second study, we remodeled the initial questionnaire to adapt it to the needs of institutional bankers and borrowers, especially those that engage in money on-line peer-to-peer lending, a growing business fueled by the COVID pandemic. We find that the three key psychological variables that help to indirectly predict the likelihood of deceitful behaviors and possible default on loan reimbursement, i.e., risky behaviors, ir-rationality, and dis-connection, interact with each other to form a loop. This study presents two benefits: first, we provide evidence that it is to some degree possible to tighten control over lending practices. Second, we offer a pragmatic tool: a questionnaire, that lenders can use or adapt to gauge potential borrowers’ deceit, notably by combining their results with standard hard-data measures of risk.

Keywords: bundle of needs, default, debt, deception, risk, peer-to-peer lending

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2154 Investigation of Chord Protocol in Peer to Peer Wireless Mesh Network with Mobility

Authors: P. Prasanna Murali Krishna, M. V. Subramanyam, K. Satya Prasad

Abstract:

File sharing in networks are generally achieved using Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications. Structured P2P approaches are widely used in adhoc networks due to its distributed and scalability features. Efficient mechanisms are required to handle the huge amount of data distributed to all peers. The intrinsic characteristics of P2P system makes for easier content distribution when compared to client-server architecture. All the nodes in a P2P network act as both client and server, thus, distributing data takes lesser time when compared to the client-server method. CHORD protocol is a resource routing based where nodes and data items are structured into a 1- dimensional ring. The structured lookup algorithm of Chord is advantageous for distributed P2P networking applications. Though, structured approach improves lookup performance in a high bandwidth wired network it could contribute to unnecessary overhead in overlay networks leading to degradation of network performance. In this paper, the performance of existing CHORD protocol on Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) when nodes are static and dynamic is investigated.

Keywords: wireless mesh network (WMN), structured P2P networks, peer to peer resource sharing, CHORD Protocol, DHT

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2153 Teacher-Scaffolding vs. Peer-Scaffolding in Task-Based ILP Instruction: Effects on EFL Learners’ Metapragmatic Awareness

Authors: Amir Zand-Moghadam, Mahnaz Alizadeh

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of teacher-scaffolding versus peer-scaffolding on EFL learners’ metapragmatic awareness in the paradigm of task-based language teaching (TBLT). To this end, a number of dialogic information-gap tasks requiring two-way interactant relationship were designed for the five speech acts of request, refusal, apology, suggestion, and compliment following Ellis’s (2003) model. Then, 48 intermediate EFL learners were randomly selected, homogenized, and assigned to two groups: 26 participants in the teacher-scaffolding group (Group One) and 22 in the peer-scaffolding group (Group Two). While going through the three phases of pre-task, while-task, and post-task, the participants in the first group completed the designed tasks by the teacher’s interaction, scaffolding, and feedback. On the other hand, the participants in the second group were required to complete the tasks in expert-novice pairs through peer scaffolding in all the three phases of a task-based syllabus. The findings revealed that the participants in the teacher-scaffolding group developed their L2 metapragmatic awareness more than the peer-scaffolding group. Thus, it can be concluded that teacher-scaffolding is more effective than peer scaffolding in developing metapragmatic awareness among EFL learners. It can also be claimed that the use of tasks can be more influential when they are accompanied by teacher-scaffolding. The findings of the present study have implications for language teachers and researchers.

Keywords: ILP, metapragmatic awareness, scaffolding, task-based instruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 486