Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: clutch

15 Effect of Sedimentation on Torque Transmission in the Larger Radius Magnetorheological Clutch

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Chiranjit Sarkar

Abstract:

Sedimentation of magnetorheological (MR) fluid affects its working. MR fluid is a smart fluid that has unique qualities such as quick responsiveness and easy controllability. It is used in the MR damper, MR brake, and MR clutch. In this work effect of sedimentation on torque transmission in the shear mode operated MR clutch is investigated. A test rig is developed to test the impact of sedimentation on torque transmission in the MR clutch. Torque transmission capability of MR clutch has been measured under two conditions to confirm the result of sedimentation. The first experiment is done just after filling and the other after one week. It has been observed that transmission torque is decreased after sedimentation. Hence sedimentation affects the working of the MR clutch.

Keywords: clutch, magnetorheological fluid, sedimentation, torque

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
14 Online Estimation of Clutch Drag Torque in Wet Dual Clutch Transmission Based on Recursive Least Squares

Authors: Hongkui Li, Tongli Lu , Jianwu Zhang

Abstract:

This paper focuses on developing an estimation method of clutch drag torque in wet DCT. The modelling of clutch drag torque is investigated. As the main factor affecting the clutch drag torque, dynamic viscosity of oil is discussed. The paper proposes an estimation method of clutch drag torque based on recursive least squares by utilizing the dynamic equations of gear shifting synchronization process. The results demonstrate that the estimation method has good accuracy and efficiency.

Keywords: clutch drag torque, wet DCT, dynamic viscosity, recursive least squares

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
13 Dynamic Analysis and Clutch Adaptive Prefill in Dual Clutch Transmission

Authors: Bin Zhou, Tongli Lu, Jianwu Zhang, Hongtao Hao

Abstract:

Dual clutch transmissions (DCT) offer a high comfort performance in terms of the gearshift. Hydraulic multi-disk clutches are the key components of DCT, its engagement determines the shifting comfort. The prefill of the clutches requests an initial engagement which the clutches just contact against each other but not transmit substantial torque from the engine, this initial clutch engagement point is called the touch point. Open-loop control is typically implemented for the clutch prefill, a lot of uncertainties, such as oil temperature and clutch wear, significantly affects the prefill, probably resulting in an inappropriate touch point. Underfill causes the engine flaring in gearshift while overfill arises clutch tying up, both deteriorating the shifting comfort of DCT. Therefore, it is important to enable an adaptive capacity for the clutch prefills regarding the uncertainties. In this paper, a dynamic model of the hydraulic actuator system is presented, including the variable force solenoid and clutch piston, and validated by a test. Subsequently, the open-loop clutch prefill is simulated based on the proposed model. Two control parameters of the prefill, fast fill time and stable fill pressure is analyzed with regard to the impact on the prefill. The former has great effects on the pressure transients, the latter directly influences the touch point. Finally, an adaptive method is proposed for the clutch prefill during gear shifting, in which clutch fill control parameters are adjusted adaptively and continually. The adaptive strategy is changing the stable fill pressure according to the current clutch slip during a gearshift, improving the next prefill process. The stable fill pressure is increased by means of the clutch slip while underfill and decreased with a constant value for overfill. The entire strategy is designed in the Simulink/Stateflow, and implemented in the transmission control unit with optimization. Road vehicle test results have shown the strategy realized its adaptive capability and proven it improves the shifting comfort.

Keywords: clutch prefill, clutch slip, dual clutch transmission, touch point, variable force solenoid

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
12 Numerical and Simulation Analysis of Composite Friction Materials Using Single Plate Clutch Pad in Agricultural Tractors

Authors: Ravindra Raju, Vidhu Kampurath

Abstract:

For smooth transition of the power from the engine to the transmission system, a clutch is used. In agricultural tractors, friction clutches are widely used in power transmission applications. To transmit the maximum torque in friction clutches, selection of materials is one of the important tasks. The present used material for friction disc is Asbestos, Ceramic etc. In this study, analysis is performed using composites materials. The composite materials are considered due to their high strength to weight ratio. Composite materials like kevlar49, kevlar 29U were used in the study. The paper presents a systematic approach to optimize the structural and thermal characteristics of the clutch friction pad. A single plate clutch is modeled using Creo 2.0 software and analyzed using ANSYS. Thermal analysis considers the reduction of heat generated between the friction surfaces and reducing the temperature rise during the steady state period. Structural analysis is done to minimize the stresses developed as a result of the loading contact between friction surfaces. Also, modal analysis is done to optimize the natural frequency of the friction plate to avoid being in resonance with the engine frequency range. The analysis carried out on ANSYS workbench to get the foremost appropriate friction material for clutch. From the analyzed results stress, strain / total deformation values and natural frequency of the materials were compared for all the composite materials and the best one was taken out. For the study purpose, specifications of the clutch are obtained from the MF1035 (47KW) Tractor model.

Keywords: ANSYS, clutch, composite materials, creo

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
11 Creeping Control Strategy for Direct Shift Gearbox Based on the Investigation of Temperature Variation of the Wet Clutch

Authors: Biao Ma, Jikai Liu, Man Chen, Jianpeng Wu, Liyong Wang, Changsong Zheng

Abstract:

Proposing an appropriate control strategy is an effective and practical way to address the overheat problems of the wet multi-plate clutch in Direct Shift Gearbox under the long-time creeping condition. To do so, the temperature variation of the wet multi-plate clutch is investigated firstly by establishing a thermal resistance model for the gearbox cooling system. To calculate the generated heat flux and predict the clutch temperature precisely, the friction torque model is optimized by introducing an improved friction coefficient, which is related to the pressure, the relative speed and the temperature. After that, the heat transfer model and the reasonable friction torque model are employed by the vehicle powertrain model to construct a comprehensive co-simulation model for the Direct Shift Gearbox (DSG) vehicle. A creeping control strategy is then proposed and, to evaluate the vehicle performance, the safety temperature (250 ℃) is particularly adopted as an important metric. During the creeping process, the temperature of two clutches is always under the safety value (250 ℃), which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in avoiding the thermal failures of clutches.

Keywords: creeping control strategy, direct shift gearbox, temperature variation, wet clutch

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
10 Static and Dynamical Analysis on Clutch Discs on Different Material and Geometries

Authors: Jairo Aparecido Martins, Estaner Claro Romão

Abstract:

This paper presents the static and cyclic stresses in combination with fatigue analysis resultant of loads applied on the friction discs usually utilized on industrial clutches. The material chosen to simulate the friction discs under load is aluminum. The numerical simulation was done by software COMSOLTM Multiphysics. The results obtained for static loads showed enough stiffness for both geometries and the material utilized. On the other hand, in the fatigue standpoint, failure is clearly verified, what demonstrates the importance of both approaches, mainly dynamical analysis. The results and the conclusion are based on the stresses on disc, counted stress cycles, and fatigue usage factor.

Keywords: aluminum, industrial clutch, static and dynamic loading, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
9 Breeding Performance and Egg Quality of Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus Gallus L.) Mated with Native Hens (Gallus galus domesticus) in Selected Areas of Leyte under Confinement System

Authors: Francisco F. Buctot Jr.

Abstract:

This study was conducted to assess the breeding performance and egg quality traits of Red Jungle Fowls in selected areas of Leyte mated to Native hens under confinement system. A total of six Red Jungle Fowl roosters, two native roosters and 16 native hens were randomly assigned to four treatments with eight replications; each composed of one rooster and two hens randomly laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design set up. Result on egg weight showed highly significant difference at p<0.01 and revealed heaviest weight (39.0 g) and lightest weight (35.75 g) on Native x Native and Baybay RJF x Native, respectively. While comparable number of eggs per clutch, fertility and hatchability rates, yolk and albumen weights, shell weight, egg length and width, egg shape index and yolk color score were obtained.

Keywords: egg clutch, egg shape index, native chicken, hatchability rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
8 Infrared Detection Device for Accurate Scanning 3D Objects

Authors: Evgeny A. Rybakov, Dmitry P. Starikov

Abstract:

This article contains information about creating special unit for scanning 3D objects different nature, different materials, for example plastic, plaster, cardboard, wood, metal and etc. The main part of the unit is infrared transducer, which is sends the wave to the object and receive back wave for calculating distance. After that, microcontroller send to PC data, and computer program create model for printing from the plastic, gypsum, brass, etc.

Keywords: clutch, infrared, microcontroller, plastic, shaft, stage

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
7 Design and Fabrication of Electricity Generating Speed Breaker

Authors: Haider Aamir, Muhammad Ali Khalid

Abstract:

Electricity harvesting speed bump (EHSB) is speed breaker of conventional shape, but the difference is that it is not fixed, rather it moves up and down, and electricity can be generated from its vibrating motion. This speed bump consists of an upper cover which will move up and down, a shaft mechanism which will be used to drive the generator and a rack and pinion mechanism which will connect the cover and shaft. There is a spring mechanism to return the cover to its initial state when a vehicle has passed over the bump. Produced energy in the past was up to 80 Watts. For this purpose, a clutch mechanism is used so that both the up-down movements of the cover can be used to drive the generator. Mechanical Motion Rectifier (MMR) mechanism ensures the conversion of both the linear motions into rotational motion which is used to drive the generator.

Keywords: electricity harvesting, generator, rack and pinion, stainless steel shaft

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
6 Checking Planetary Clutch on the Romania Tractor Using Mathematical Equations

Authors: Mohammad Vahedi Torshizi

Abstract:

In this investigation, at first, bending stress, contact stress, Safety factor of bending and Safety factor of contact between sun gear and planet gear tooth was determined using mathematical equations. Also, The amount of Sun Revolution in, Speed carrier, power Transmitted of the sun, sun torque, sun peripheral speed, Enter the tangential force gears, was calculated using mathematical equations. According to the obtained results, maximum of bending stress and contact stress occurred in three plantary and low status of four plantary. Also, maximum of Speed carrier, sun peripheral speed, Safety factor of bending and Safety factor of contact obtained in four plantary and maximum of power Transmitted of the sun, Enter the tangential force gears, bending stress and contact stress was in three pantry and factors And other factors were equal in the two planets.

Keywords: bending stress, contact stress, plantary, mathematical equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
5 Breeding Biology of the House Crow Corvus splendens at Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Awais

Abstract:

Study on the nesting biology of the House Crow Corvus splendens was conducted at Hazara University, Garden Campus (125 acres), Mansehra during the 2013 breeding season (June to September). Details about nest locations, tree characteristics, nest and egg characteristics were recorded. Mean nest density of House Crow was 2.4 nests/ acre. Mean tree and nest height were 14.8±6.30 and 11.8±5.42m. Mean tree canopy spread 9.5±2.48m. Mean maximum and minimum nest diameters were 42.3±2.08 and 39.0±1.73cm respectively while maximum and minimum diameters of nest cup were 15.6±1.52 and 13.3±1.15cm respectively. Nest depth and nest cup depth were measured 19.3±2.08 and 8.3±1.15cm respectively. Mean nest weight was 1.4±0.24 kg. Mean clutch size was 4.0 (ranged 1–6). Mean egg length was 38.6±0.69mm, breadth 26.0±0.69mm, egg volume 13.3±0.83cm3 and egg shape index 1.42±0.83. Mean egg weight was 12.3±0.70g. Egg and nest success was calculated 55.1% and 69.0%. Hatchlings and fledglings produced per nest were 2.20 and 1.44 respectively. Main reasons for reproductive failures were unhatched eggs, poor nest construction, bad weather conditions and observer’s disturbance.

Keywords: breeding, Corvus splendens, fledglings, Hazara university, house crow, Mansehra, populus orientalis

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
4 An Investigation on Hybrid Composite Drive Shaft for Automotive Industry

Authors: Gizem Arslan Özgen, Kutay Yücetürk, Metin Tanoğlu, Engin Aktaş

Abstract:

Power transmitted from the engine to the final drive where useful work is applied through a system consisting of a gearbox, clutch, drive shaft and a differential in the rear-wheel-drive automobiles. It is well-known that the steel drive shaft is usually manufactured in two pieces to increase the fundamental bending natural frequency to ensure safe operation conditions. In this work, hybrid one-piece propeller shafts composed of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composites have been designed for a rear wheel drive automobile satisfying three design specifications, such as static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling and the fundamental natural bending frequency. Hybridization of carbon and glass fibers is being studied to optimize the cost/performance requirements. Composites shaft materials with various fiber orientation angles and stacking sequences are being fabricated and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA).

Keywords: composite propeller shaft, hybridization, epoxy matrix, static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling strength, fundamental natural bending frequency.

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
3 Estimation of Exhaust and Non-Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions’ Share from On-Road Vehicles in Addis Ababa City

Authors: Solomon Neway Jida, Jean-Francois Hetet, Pascal Chesse

Abstract:

Vehicular emission is the key source of air pollution in the urban environment. This includes both fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matters (PM10). However, particulate matter emissions from road traffic comprise emissions from exhaust tailpipe and emissions due to wear and tear of the vehicle part such as brake, tire and clutch and re-suspension of dust (non-exhaust emission). This study estimates the share of the two sources of pollutant particle emissions from on-roadside vehicles in the Addis Ababa municipality, Ethiopia. To calculate its share, two methods were applied; the exhaust-tailpipe emissions were calculated using the Europeans emission inventory Tier II method and Tier I for the non-exhaust emissions (like vehicle tire wear, brake, and road surface wear). The results show that of the total traffic-related particulate emissions in the city, 63% emitted from vehicle exhaust and the remaining 37% from non-exhaust sources. The annual roads transport exhaust emission shares around 2394 tons of particles from all vehicle categories. However, from the total yearly non-exhaust particulate matter emissions’ contribution, tire and brake wear shared around 65% and 35% emanated by road-surface wear. Furthermore, vehicle tire and brake wear were responsible for annual 584.8 tons of coarse particles (PM10) and 314.4 tons of fine particle matter (PM2.5) emissions in the city whereas surface wear emissions were responsible for around 313.7 tons of PM10 and 169.9 tons of PM2.5 pollutant emissions in the city. This suggests that non-exhaust sources might be as significant as exhaust sources and have a considerable contribution to the impact on air quality.

Keywords: Addis Ababa, automotive emission, emission estimation, particulate matters

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
2 The Study of Ecological Seabirds in Algeria

Authors: A. Baaloudj, F. Samraoui, B. Samraoui

Abstract:

We have been studied the reproductive ecology and dispersal of Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis for three years 2009-2011. The study of the breeding ecology of the species was undertaken at the Srigina Island (Skikda). The mean clutch size was 2.64±0.62, 2.49±0.72 and 2.37±0.77eggsin the three study years 2009-2011 respectively. Hatching success was similar for the first two years of study (53% in 2009and 54% in 2010) but significantly lower in the third year (27% in 2011). The same trend was found for the fledging success, it was 33% and 32% in 2009and 2010respectivelyandonly 14% in 2011. Cannibalism and predation by cats were the two likely causes of low reproductive success in the third year. Regarding the species dispersal, we started a banding program of the yellow-legged gulls Larus michahellis michahellis in 2009, the first scheme of its kind in North Africa. Banding of chicks was initiated at Skikda and extended, a year later, to four other colonies located along the Algerian coast. Preliminary analysis of ringed yellow-legged gulls from Algerian colonies indicates that juveniles dispersed in a north-westerly direction to the Balearic Sea, the Bay of Biscay, the Alboran Sea and the western Atlantic coast from the Bay of Cadiz to the Galician shores. Preliminary data suggested two distinct routes: gulls from the eastern North African colonies moved N/NW to eastern Spain and overland to the Bay of Biscay, a pattern of dispersal previously reported for birds from Spanish and French western Mediterranean colonies. Juveniles from western colonies seemed also to move N/NW to the Alboran Sea and the Bay of Cadiz. In Spain, where most of the dispersal took place, data suggested that Algerian gulls occupied coastal areas which are used as aestivating refuges before returning to North Africa in late autumn and winter.

Keywords: breeding ecology, population dynamic, dispersal, yellow-legged gull larus michahellis, sea bird, banding scheme, Srigina, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
1 Conservation of Sea Turtle in Cox’s Bazar- Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) of Bangladesh

Authors: Pronob Kumar Mozumder M. Nazrul Islam, M. Abdur Rob Mollah

Abstract:

This study was conducted in Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island Ecologically Critical Areas during the period of October, 2011 to June, 2013. Six species of marine turtle are found in the Indian Ocean. Among them, olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) listed as endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Marine turtle populations in the Indian Ocean have been depleted through long-term exploitation of eggs and adults, incidental capture (fisheries bycatch) and many other sources of mortality. The specific objective of the study was to conserve the sea turtles specially the olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) with a view to contribute towards protection of the turtle species from extinction and to facilitate hatching of eggs through providing protection to turtle eggs or nest through ex-situ conservation efforts. In order to achieve the desired outputs and success, a total of five turtle hatcheries were established at Pechardwip, Khurermukh, Hazompara, Bodormokam, and Sonadia Eastpara sites. In total, 31,853 eggs were collected from 260 nests and were transferred to five hatcheries. The number of eggs/nest varied from 38 to 190 with an average clutch size of 122 eggs/ nest. Hatching of eggs took place during January to June with a peak in April. Sea turtle eggs were incubated by metabolic heat and the heat of the sun. The incubation period of turtle eggs in Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island ECAs extended from 54 to 75 days depending on the month with an average of 66 days. During study period the temperature in the ECAs varied between 10.5-34.5°C. A total of 27,937 hatchlings of turtle were produced from the five hatcheries and all the hatchlings produced were released into the sea. Hatching rates varied from 74-98 % depending on the location and months with an average of 88 %. Sea turtles spend the majority of their lives in the sea, only emerging on beaches to nest. Despite the intense conservation efforts on the beaches, some populations have still declined to the edge of extinction. So proper conservation and awareness measure should be taken for prevention of turtle extinction.

Keywords: conservation of sea turtle, Bangladesh, ecologically critical area, ECA, Lepidochelys olivacea

Procedia PDF Downloads 383