Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11657

Search results for: power systems compensation

11657 Design of Active Power Filters for Harmonics on Power System and Reducing Harmonic Currents

Authors: Düzgün Akmaz, Hüseyin Erişti

Abstract:

In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active power filters which provide the compensation. These methods efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have been compared for each two methods.

Keywords: parallel active power filters, harmonic compensation, power quality, harmonics

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11656 Stable Tending Control of Complex Power Systems: An Example of Localized Design of Power System Stabilizers

Authors: Wenjuan Du

Abstract:

The phase compensation method was proposed based on the concept of the damping torque analysis (DTA). It is a method for the design of a PSS (power system stabilizer) to suppress local-mode power oscillations in a single-machine infinite-bus power system. This paper presents the application of the phase compensation method for the design of a PSS in a multi-machine power system. The application is achieved by examining the direct damping contribution of the stabilizer to the power oscillations. By using linearized equal area criterion, a theoretical proof to the application for the PSS design is presented. Hence PSS design in the paper is an example of stable tending control by localized method.

Keywords: phase compensation method, power system small-signal stability, power system stabilizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 563
11655 The Impact of Board of Directors on CEO Compensation: Evidence from the UK

Authors: Saleh Alagla, Murya Habbash

Abstract:

The paper investigates whether the board of directors plays a monitoring role or not in CEO compensation for the UK firms during the eve of the recent financial crisis, 2004-2008. The use of heteroscedastic and autocorrelated error consistent estimation of the panel data shows, surprisingly, that four board characteristics variables are found to play a significant role in increasing the level of CEO compensation. This insightful result would suggest evidence of the managerial power theory in general and the cronyism hypothesis in particular. Moreover, the interesting evidence supporting managerial power perspective is that CEO-Chair duality reduces long-term compensation while increasing short-term compensation, thus suggesting that CEOs are risk averse who prefer short-term compensation to long-term compensation. Finally, consistent with the agency perspective board size is found to increase all compensation variables as expected.

Keywords: corporate governance, CEO compensation, board of directors, internal governance mechanisms, agency theory, managerial power theory, cronyism hypothesis

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11654 A Three Phase Shunt Active Power Filter for Currents Harmonics Elimination and Reactive Power Compensation

Authors: Amar Omeiri

Abstract:

This paper presents a three-phase shunt active power filter for current harmonics suppression and reactive power compensation using the supply current as reference. The proposed APF has a simple control circuit; it consists of detecting the supply current instead of the load current. The advantages of this APF are simplicity of control circuits and low implementation cost. The simulation results show that the proposed APF can compensate the reactive power and suppress current harmonics with two types of non-linear loads.

Keywords: active power filter, current harmonics and reactive power compensation, PWM inverter, Total Harmonic Distortion, power quality

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11653 Variable Shunt Reactors for Reactive Power Compensation of HV Subsea Cables

Authors: Saeed A. AlGhamdi, Nabil Habli, Vinoj Somasanran

Abstract:

This paper presents an application of 230 kV Variable Shunt Reactors (VSR) used to compensate reactive power of dual 90 KM subsea cables. VSR integrates an on-load tap changer (OLTC) that adjusts reactive power compensation to maintain acceptable bus voltages under variable load profile and network configuration. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) or a power management system (PMS) that allows VSR rating to be changed in discrete steps typically controls the OLTC. Typical regulation range start as minimum as 20% up to 100% and are available for systems up to 550kV. The regulation speed is normally in the order of seconds per step and approximately a minute from maximum to minimum rating. VSR can be bus or line connected depending on line/cable length and compensation requirements. The flexible reactive compensation ranges achieved by recent VSR technologies have enabled newer facilities design to deploy line connected VSR through either disconnect switches, which saves space and cost, or through circuit breakers. Lines with VSR are typically energized with lower taps (reduced reactive compensation) to minimize or remove the presence of delayed zero crossing.

Keywords: power management, reactive power, subsea cables, variable shunt reactors

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11652 Effect of Parameters for Exponential Loads on Voltage Transmission Line with Compensation

Authors: Benalia Nadia, Bensiali Nadia, Zerzouri Noura

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the effects of parameters np and nq for exponential load on the transmission line voltage profile, transferred power and transmission losses for different shunt compensation size. For different values for np and nq in which active and reactive power vary with it is terminal voltages as in exponential form, variations of the load voltage for different sizes of shunt capacitors are simulated with a simple two-bus power system using Matlab SimPowerSystems Toolbox. It is observed that the compensation level is significantly affected by the voltage sensitivities of loads.

Keywords: static load model, shunt compensation, transmission system, exponentiel load model

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
11651 Simulink Library for Reference Current Generation in Active DC Traction Substations

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the reference current calculation in the compensation mode of the active DC traction substations. The so-called p-q theory of the instantaneous reactive power is used as theoretical foundation. The compensation goal of total compensation is taken into consideration for the operation under both sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal voltage conditions, through the two objectives of unity power factor and perfect harmonic cancelation. Four blocks of reference current generation implement the conceived algorithms and they are included in a specific Simulink library, which is useful in a DSP dSPACE-based platform working under Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results validate the correctness of the implementation and fulfillment of the compensation tasks.

Keywords: active power filter, DC traction, p-q theory, Simulink library

Procedia PDF Downloads 583
11650 Effects of Compensation on Distribution System Technical Losses

Authors: B. Kekezoglu, C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan, Y. Hacialiefendioglu, G. Ucar

Abstract:

One of the significant problems of energy systems is to supply economic and efficient energy to consumers. Therefore studies has been continued to reduce technical losses in the network. In this paper, the technical losses analyzed for a portion of European side of Istanbul MV distribution network for different compensation scenarios by considering real system and load data and results are presented. Investigated system is modeled with CYME Power Engineering Software and optimal capacity placement has been proposed to minimize losses.

Keywords: distribution system, optimal capacitor placement, reactive power compensation, technical losses

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11649 Compensation of Power Quality Disturbances Using DVR

Authors: R. Rezaeipour

Abstract:

One of the key aspects of power quality improvement in power system is the mitigation of voltage sags/swells and flicker. Custom power devices have been known as the best tools for voltage disturbances mitigation as well as reactive power compensation. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) which is the most efficient and effective modern custom power device can provide the most commercial solution to solve several problems of power quality in distribution networks. This paper deals with analysis and simulation technique of DVR based on instantaneous power theory which is a quick control to detect signals. The main purpose of this work is to remove three important disturbances including voltage sags/swells and flicker. Simulation of the proposed method was carried out on two sample systems by using MATLAB software environment and the results of simulation show that the proposed method is able to provide desirable power quality in the presence of wide range of disturbances.

Keywords: DVR, power quality, voltage sags, voltage swells, flicker

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11648 Review on Application of DVR in Compensation of Voltage Harmonics in Power Systems

Authors: S. Sudhharani

Abstract:

Energy distribution networks are the main link between the energy industry and consumers and are subject to the most scrutiny and testing of any category. As a result, it is important to monitor energy levels during the distribution phase. Power distribution networks, on the other hand, remain subject to common problems, including voltage breakdown, power outages, harmonics, and capacitor switching, all of which disrupt sinusoidal waveforms and reduce the quality and power of the network. Using power appliances in the form of custom power appliances is one way to deal with energy quality issues. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), integrated with network and distribution networks, is one of these devices. At the same time, by injecting voltage into the system, it can adjust the voltage amplitude and phase in the network. In the form of injections and three-phase syncing, it is used to compensate for the difficulty of energy quality. This article examines the recent use of DVR for power compensation and provides data on the control of each DVR in distribution networks.

Keywords: dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), power quality, distribution networks, control systems(PWM)

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11647 Effects of an Economic Recession on Executive Compensation: A Panel Analysis of Listed Companies in Brazil

Authors: Joaquim Rubens Fontes-Filho, Felipe Buchbinder, Marcelo Desterro

Abstract:

The study aims to identify the effects of an economic recession on the compensation of executives of listed companies. Market-based and labor environment explanations have received particular attention, both to explain the reasons for a growth in this compensation and to indicate that they may increase agency problems rather than mitigate them. In this sense, labor forces, especially related to the market for executives, contribute to defining the terms of compensation packages and represent a significant external control mechanism to moderate agency problems, but may be of little effect if the executives are entrenched and concentrate enough power to have a say in his/her compensation. Based on a five-year data panel related to executive compensation in 250 listed companies in Brazil, we examine whether the economic recession in the last two years produced any impact in this compensation, controlling for the sector and level of governance of the company.

Keywords: agency problems, executive compensation, control mechanisms, corporate governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
11646 Analysis and Design of Inductive Power Transfer Systems for Automotive Battery Charging Applications

Authors: Wahab Ali Shah, Junjia He

Abstract:

Transferring electrical power without any wiring has been a dream since late 19th century. There were some advances in this area as to know more about microwave systems. However, this subject has recently become very attractive due to their practiScal systems. There are low power applications such as charging the batteries of contactless tooth brushes or implanted devices, and higher power applications such as charging the batteries of electrical automobiles or buses. In the first group of applications operating frequencies are in microwave range while the frequency is lower in high power applications. In the latter, the concept is also called inductive power transfer. The aim of the paper is to have an overview of the inductive power transfer for electrical vehicles with a special concentration on coil design and power converter simulation for static charging. Coil design is very important for an efficient and safe power transfer. Coil design is one of the most critical tasks. Power converters are used in both side of the system. The converter on the primary side is used to generate a high frequency voltage to excite the primary coil. The purpose of the converter in the secondary is to rectify the voltage transferred from the primary to charge the battery. In this paper, an inductive power transfer system is studied. Inductive power transfer is a promising technology with several possible applications. Operation principles of these systems are explained, and components of the system are described. Finally, a single phase 2 kW system was simulated and results were presented. The work presented in this paper is just an introduction to the concept. A reformed compensation network based on traditional inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) topology is proposed to realize robust reaction to large coupling variation that is common in dynamic wireless charging application. In the future, this type compensation should be studied. Also, comparison of different compensation topologies should be done for the same power level.

Keywords: coil design, contactless charging, electrical automobiles, inductive power transfer, operating frequency

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11645 Compensation Analysis on Secondary Public Hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai

Authors: Wei Fang, Jian Jun Gu, Di Xue

Abstract:

Objective: To analyze the employee compensation status of secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in order to provide information for compensation reform of public hospitals in Shanghai and as well as in China. Methods: We surveyed all 15 secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai to collect hospital annual compensation data for their employees and to investigate their suggestions for compensation reform in public hospitals in China. We also collected related annual compensation data of employees in Shanghai and of physicians in the USA from Shanghai statistical Yearbook 2013 and from Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Results: The average annual compensation for the employees in secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in 2012 was 2.65 times of that for overall employees in Shanghai. The physician’s compensation in these public hospitals was relatively lower than that in the USA. Conclusion: The physicians’ compensation in the secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai should be increased rationally and new compensation reform in public hospitals in Shanghai should be carefully designed.

Keywords: human resource, compensation, public hospital, Shanghai

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11644 An Active Rectifier with Time-Domain Delay Compensation to Enhance the Power Conversion Efficiency

Authors: Shao-Ku Kao

Abstract:

This paper presents an active rectifier with time-domain delay compensation to enhance the efficiency. A delay calibration circuit is designed to convert delay time to voltage and adaptive control on/off delay in variable input voltage. This circuit is designed in 0.18 mm CMOS process. The input voltage range is from 2 V to 3.6 V with the output voltage from 1.8 V to 3.4 V. The efficiency can maintain more than 85% when the load from 50 Ω ~ 1500 Ω for 3.6 V input voltage. The maximum efficiency is 92.4 % at output power to be 38.6 mW for 3.6 V input voltage.

Keywords: wireless power transfer, active diode, delay compensation, time to voltage converter, PCE

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11643 Rail-To-Rail Output Op-Amp Design with Negative Miller Capacitance Compensation

Authors: Muhaned Zaidi, Ian Grout, Abu Khari bin A’ain

Abstract:

In this paper, a two-stage op-amp design is considered using both Miller and negative Miller compensation techniques. The first op-amp design uses Miller compensation around the second amplification stage, whilst the second op-amp design uses negative Miller compensation around the first stage and Miller compensation around the second amplification stage. The aims of this work were to compare the gain and phase margins obtained using the different compensation techniques and identify the ability to choose either compensation technique based on a particular set of design requirements. The two op-amp designs created are based on the same two-stage rail-to-rail output CMOS op-amp architecture where the first stage of the op-amp consists of differential input and cascode circuits, and the second stage is a class AB amplifier. The op-amps have been designed using a 0.35mm CMOS fabrication process.

Keywords: op-amp, rail-to-rail output, Miller compensation, Negative Miller capacitance

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11642 Self-Tuning-Filter and Fuzzy Logic Control for Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: Kaddari Faiza, Mazari Benyounes, Mihoub Youcef, Safa Ahmed

Abstract:

Active filtering of electric power has now become a mature technology for reactive power and harmonic compensation caused by the proliferation of power electronics devices used for industrial, commercial and residential purposes. The aim of this study is to enhance the power quality by improving the performances of shunt active power filter in harmonic mitigation to obtain sinusoidal source currents with very weak ripples. A power circuit configuration and control scheme for shunt active power filter are described with an improved method for harmonics compensation using self-tuning-filter for harmonics identification and fuzzy logic control to generate reference current. Simulation results (using MATLAB/SIMULINK) illustrates the compensation characteristics of the proposed control strategy. Analysis of these results proves the feasibility and effectiveness of this method to improve the power quality and also show the performances of fuzzy logic control which provides flexibility, high precision and fast response. The total harmonic distortion (THD %) for the simulations found to be within the recommended imposed IEEE 519-1992 harmonic standard.

Keywords: Active Powers Filter (APF), Self-Tuning-Filter (STF), fuzzy logic control, hysteresis-band control

Procedia PDF Downloads 584
11641 Optimized Techniques for Reducing the Reactive Power Generation in Offshore Wind Farms in India

Authors: Pardhasaradhi Gudla, Imanual A.

Abstract:

The generated electrical power in offshore needs to be transmitted to grid which is located in onshore by using subsea cables. Long subsea cables produce reactive power, which should be compensated in order to limit transmission losses, to optimize the transmission capacity, and to keep the grid voltage within the safe operational limits. Installation cost of wind farm includes the structure design cost and electrical system cost. India has targeted to achieve 175GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022 including offshore wind power generation. Due to sea depth is more in India, the installation cost will be further high when compared to European countries where offshore wind energy is already generating successfully. So innovations are required to reduce the offshore wind power project cost. This paper presents the optimized techniques to reduce the installation cost of offshore wind firm with respect to electrical transmission systems. This technical paper provides the techniques for increasing the current carrying capacity of subsea cable by decreasing the reactive power generation (capacitance effect) of the subsea cable. There are many methods for reactive power compensation in wind power plants so far in execution. The main reason for the need of reactive power compensation is capacitance effect of subsea cable. So if we diminish the cable capacitance of cable then the requirement of the reactive power compensation will be reduced or optimized by avoiding the intermediate substation at midpoint of the transmission network.

Keywords: offshore wind power, optimized techniques, power system, sub sea cable

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11640 Compensation for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power in Nigeria

Authors: Kolawole Oyekan Jamiu

Abstract:

In Nigerian criminal law, a victim of an offence plays little or no role in the prosecution of an offender. The state concentrates only on imposing punishment on the offender while the victims of crime and abuse of power by security agencies are abandoned without any compensation either from the State or the offender. It has been stated that the victim of crime is the forgotten man in our criminal justice system. He sets the criminal law in motion but then goes into oblivion. Our present criminal law does not recognise the right of the victim to take part in the prosecution of the case or his right to compensation. The victim is merely a witness in a state versus case. This paper examines the meaning of the phrase ‘the victims of crime and abuse of power’. It needs to be noted that there is no definition of these two categories of victims in any statute in Nigeria. The paper also considers the United Nations General Assembly Declaration of Basic Principle of Justice for Victims and abuse of power. This declaration was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on the 25th of November 1985. The declaration contains copious provisions on compensation for the victims of crime and abuse of power. Unfortunately, the declaration is not, in itself a legally binding instrument and has been given little or no attention since the coming into effect in1985. This paper examines the role of the judiciary in ensuring that victims of crime and abuse of power in Nigeria are compensated. While some Judges found it difficult to award damages to victims of abuse of power others have given some landmark rulings and awarded substantial damages. The criminal justice ( victim’s remedies) Bill shall also be examined. The Bill comprises of 74 sections and it spelt out the procedures for compensating the victims of crime and abuse of power in Nigeria. Finally, the paper also examines the practicability of awarding damages to victims of crime whether the offender is convicted or not and in addition, the possibility of granting all equitable remedies available in civil cases to victims of crime and abuse of power so that the victims will be restored to the earlier position before the crime.

Keywords: compensation, damages, restitution, victims

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11639 Transient Enhanced LDO Voltage Regulator with Improved Feed Forward Path Compensation

Authors: A. Suresh, Sreehari Rao Patri, K. S. R. Krishnaprasad

Abstract:

An ultra low power capacitor less low-dropout voltage regulator with improved transient response using gain enhanced feed forward path compensation is presented in this paper. It is based on a cascade of a voltage amplifier and a transconductor stage in the feed forward path with regular error amplifier to form a composite gain-enhanced feed forward stage. It broadens the gain bandwidth and thus improves the transient response without substantial increase in power consumption. The proposed LDO, designed for a maximum output current of 100 mA in UMC 180 nm, requires a quiescent current of 69 µA. An undershoot of 153.79mV for a load current changes from 0mA to 100mA and an overshoot of 196.24mV for current change of 100mA to 0mA. The settling time is approximately 1.1 µs for the output voltage undershoot case. The load regulation is of 2.77 µV/mA at load current of 100mA. Reference voltage is generated by using an accurate band gap reference circuit of 0.8V.The costly features of SOC such as total chip area and power consumption is drastically reduced by the use of only a total compensation capacitance of 6pF while consuming power consumption of 0.096 mW.

Keywords: capacitor-less LDO, frequency compensation, transient response, latch, self-biased differential amplifier

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11638 The Contemporary Dynamics of Board Composition and Executive Compensation for R&D Spending

Authors: Farheen Akram

Abstract:

Research and Development (R&D) is the most crucial element of the firm’s survival in a competitive business environment. R&D is a long-term investment; therefore, executives having the power to make the investment decisions may be pessimistic when their compensation is closely linked with short-term firm performance. Thus, the current study investigates the impact of board composition and executives’ compensation (cash or short-term benefits and LTIs) on R&D spending using a sample of 85 S&P/100 firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) in 2017. SmartPLS (v.3.2.7) was used to evaluate the proposed model of current research. The empirical findings of this study indicate that board composition has a significant and positive effect on R&D spending. While, as expected, executive cash compensation has negative and Long-Term-Incentives (LTIs) has a positive impact on R&D spending. Based on current findings, the study suggested that myopic behavior of CEOs and top management towards long-term value creation investment like R&D can be controlled by using long-term compensation rewards.

Keywords: cash compensation, LTIs, board composition, R&D spending

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11637 Effect of DG Installation in Distribution System for Voltage Monitoring Scheme

Authors: S. R. A. Rahim, I. Musirin, M. M. Othman, M. H. Hussain

Abstract:

Loss minimization is a long progressing issue mainly in distribution system. Nevertheless, its effect led to temperature rise due to significant voltage drop through the distribution line. Thus, compensation scheme should be proper scheduled in the attempt to alleviate the voltage drop phenomenon. Distributed generation has been profoundly known for voltage profile improvement provided that over-compensation or under-compensation phenomena are avoided. This paper addresses the issue of voltage improvement through different type DG installation. In ensuring optimal sizing and location of the DGs, predeveloped EMEFA technique was made to be used for this purpose. Incremental loading condition subjected to the system is the concern such that it is beneficial to the power system operator.

Keywords: distributed generation, EMEFA, power loss, voltage profile

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11636 Optimum Tuning Capacitors for Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles Considering Variation in Coil Distances

Authors: Muhammad Abdullah Arafat, Nahrin Nowrose

Abstract:

Wireless charging of electric vehicles is becoming more and more attractive as large amount of power can now be transferred to a reasonable distance using magnetic resonance coupling method. However, proper tuning of the compensation network is required to achieve maximum power transmission. Due to the variation of coil distance from the nominal value as a result of change in tire condition, change in weight or uneven road condition, the tuning of the compensation network has become challenging. In this paper, a tuning method has been described to determine the optimum values of the compensation network in order to maximize the average output power. The simulation results show that 5.2 percent increase in average output power is obtained for 10 percent variation in coupling coefficient using the optimum values without the need of additional space and electro-mechanical components. The proposed method is applicable to both static and dynamic charging of electric vehicles.

Keywords: coupling coefficient, electric vehicles, magnetic resonance coupling, tuning capacitor, wireless power transfer

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11635 Aligning Organizational Culture and Compensation Strategies

Authors: Giuseppe Maria Russo, Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Antônio Linhares, André Moreira Santos

Abstract:

Alignment between management strategies, policies and practices with organizational cultures holds great potential to meet the challenges of retaining professionals and maintaining their commitment. In this article, authors consider that when it is aligned with company strategy, compensation acts as an incentive for developing common visions within the organizational culture. This article verified the correlation between types of culture and compensation’s strategic components and provided inputs for the definition of strategies aligned with cultural typologies. We conclude that the impact of compensation variables varies according to the type of organizational culture. This result reinforces the theory that different cultures define different organizational strategies. Thus, compensation strategies may explain types of organizational culture.

Keywords: compensation, Handy’s cultural typology, organizational culture, rewards

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11634 Impact of Series Reactive Compensation on Increasing a Distribution Network Distributed Generation Hosting Capacity

Authors: Moataz Ammar, Ahdab Elmorshedy

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The distributed generation hosting capacity of a distribution network is typically limited at a given connection point by the upper voltage limit that can be violated due to the injection of active power into the distribution network. The upper voltage limit violation concern becomes more important as the network equivalent resistance increases with respect to its equivalent reactance. This paper investigates the impact of modifying the distribution network equivalent reactance at the point of connection such that the upper voltage limit is violated at a higher distributed generation penetration, than it would without the addition of series reactive compensation. The results show that series reactive compensation proves efficient in certain situations (based on the ratio of equivalent network reactance to equivalent network resistance at the point of connection). As opposed to the conventional case of capacitive compensation of a distribution network to reduce voltage drop, inductive compensation is seen to be more appropriate for alleviation of distributed-generation-induced voltage rise.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution networks, series compensation, voltage rise

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11633 Critical and Strategic Issues in Compensation, Staffing and Personnel Management in Nigeria

Authors: Shonuga Olajumoke Adedoyinsola

Abstract:

Staffing and Compensation are at the core of any employment exchange, and they serve as the defining characteristics of any employment relationship. Most organizations understand the benefits that a longer term approach to staff planning can bring and the answer to this problem lies not in trying to implement the traditional approach more effectively, but in implementing a completely different kind of process for strategic staffing. The study focuses on critical points of compensation, staffing and personnel management. The fundamentals of these programs include the elements of vision, potential, communication and motivation. The aim of the paper is to identify the most important attributes of compensation and incentives, staffing and personnel management. Research method is the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature, logical, comparative and graphic representation. On the basis of analysis, the author presents the models of these systems for positive employee attitudes and behaviors.

Keywords: compensation, employees, incentives, staffing, personnel management

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11632 Employee Inventor Compensation: A New Quest for Comparative Law

Authors: Andrea Borroni

Abstract:

The evolution of technology, the global scale of economy, and the new short-term employment contracts make a very peculiar set of disposition of raising interest for the legal interpreter: the employee inventor compensation. Around the globe, this issue is differently regulated according to the legal systems; therefore, it is extremely fragmented. Of course, employers with transnational businesses should face this issue from a comparative perspective. Different legal regimes are available worldwide awarding, as a consequence, diverse compensation to the inventor and according to their own methodology. Given these premises, the recourse to comparative law methodology (legal formants, diachronic and synchronic methodology, common core approach) is the best equipped to face all these different national approaches in order to achieve a tidy systematic. This research, so, elaborates a map of the specific criteria to grant the compensation for the inventor and to show the criteria to calculate them. This finding has been the first step to find out a common core of the discipline given by the common features present in the different legal systems.

Keywords: comparative law, employee invention, intellectual property, legal transplant

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11631 Power Quality Improvement Using UPQC Integrated with Distributed Generation Network

Authors: B. Gopal, Pannala Krishna Murthy, G. N. Sreenivas

Abstract:

The increasing demand of electric power is giving an emphasis on the need for the maximum utilization of renewable energy sources. On the other hand maintaining power quality to satisfaction of utility is an essential requirement. In this paper the design aspects of a Unified Power Quality Conditioner integrated with photovoltaic system in a distributed generation is presented. The proposed system consist of series inverter, shunt inverter are connected back to back on the dc side and share a common dc-link capacitor with Distributed Generation through a boost converter. The primary task of UPQC is to minimize grid voltage and load current disturbances along with reactive and harmonic power compensation. In addition to primary tasks of UPQC, other functionalities such as compensation of voltage interruption and active power transfer to the load and grid in both islanding and interconnected mode have been addressed. The simulation model is design in MATLAB/ Simulation environment and the results are in good agreement with the published work.

Keywords: distributed generation (DG), interconnected mode, islanding mode, maximum power point tracking (mppt), power quality (PQ), unified power quality conditioner (UPQC), photovoltaic array (PV)

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11630 Relative Composition of Executive Compensation Packages, Corporate Governance and Financial Reporting Quality

Authors: Philemon Rakoto

Abstract:

Most executive compensation packages consist of four major components: base fixed salary, annual and long-term non-equity incentive plans, share-based and option-based awards and pension value. According to agency theory, the relative composition of executive compensation packages is one of the mechanisms that firms use to align the interests of executives and shareholders in order to mitigate agency costs. This paper tests the effect of the relative composition of executive compensation packages on financial reporting quality. Financial reporting quality is measured by the value relevance of accounting earnings. Corporate governance is a moderating variable in the model. Using data from Canadian firms composing S&P/TSX index of the year 2013 and governance scores based on Board Games, the analysis shows that, only for firms with good governance, there is an optimal level of the proportion of executive equity-based compensation in relation to total compensation that enhances the quality of financial reporting.

Keywords: Canada, corporate governance, executive compensation packages, financial reporting quality

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11629 Directors’ Compensation: Analyzing the Multilevel Factors That Exert the Greatest Influence

Authors: Isabel Acero, Nuria Alcalde

Abstract:

The economic crisis and notorious corporate scandals have caused social indignation and sparked the debate concerning the underlying rationality of the compensation that directors receive. In this context, this study examines the determinants of the remuneration of directors in listed Spanish companies using individualized data. A multilevel methodology appropriate for this type of data has been used that allows us to differentiate between inter-company variations and intra-company variations. The results show that company size is the variable (at the company level) that exerts the greatest influence on the level of director´s compensation. One surprising finding is that the presence of independent directors on the board has a positive influence on remuneration. At the individual level, tenure and experience have a significant influence on the level of compensation, while the director´s level of education does not appear to have an effect on it.

Keywords: board of directors, compensation, experience, multilevel, tenure

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11628 Compensation Mechanism Applied to Eco-Tourism Development in China

Authors: Min Wei

Abstract:

With the rapid development eco-tourism resources exploitation, the conflict between economy development and ecological environment is increasingly prominent. The environmental protection laws, however, are lack of necessary legal support to use market mechanism and economic means to carry out ecological compensation and promote the environmental protection. In order to protect the sustainable utilization of eco-tourism resources and the benign development of the interests of various stakeholders, protection of ecological compensation balance should be put on schedule. The main role of institutional guarantee in eco-tourism resources' value compensation mechanism is to solve the question 'how to guarantee compensation'. The evaluation of the game model in this paper reveals that interest balance of stakeholders is an important cornerstone to obtain the sustainable development. The findings result in constructing a sustainable development pattern of eco- tourism industry based on tripartite game equilibrium among government, tourism enterprises and tourists. It is important that the social, economic and ecological environment should be harmonious development during the pursuit of eco-tourism growth.

Keywords: environmental protection, ecological compensation, eco-tourism, market mechanism

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