Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11400

Search results for: current harmonics and reactive power compensation

11400 A Three Phase Shunt Active Power Filter for Currents Harmonics Elimination and Reactive Power Compensation

Authors: Amar Omeiri

Abstract:

This paper presents a three-phase shunt active power filter for current harmonics suppression and reactive power compensation using the supply current as reference. The proposed APF has a simple control circuit; it consists of detecting the supply current instead of the load current. The advantages of this APF are simplicity of control circuits and low implementation cost. The simulation results show that the proposed APF can compensate the reactive power and suppress current harmonics with two types of non-linear loads.

Keywords: active power filter, current harmonics and reactive power compensation, PWM inverter, Total Harmonic Distortion, power quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
11399 Design of Active Power Filters for Harmonics on Power System and Reducing Harmonic Currents

Authors: Düzgün Akmaz, Hüseyin Erişti

Abstract:

In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active power filters which provide the compensation. These methods efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have been compared for each two methods.

Keywords: parallel active power filters, harmonic compensation, power quality, harmonics

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
11398 Self-Tuning-Filter and Fuzzy Logic Control for Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: Kaddari Faiza, Mazari Benyounes, Mihoub Youcef, Safa Ahmed

Abstract:

Active filtering of electric power has now become a mature technology for reactive power and harmonic compensation caused by the proliferation of power electronics devices used for industrial, commercial and residential purposes. The aim of this study is to enhance the power quality by improving the performances of shunt active power filter in harmonic mitigation to obtain sinusoidal source currents with very weak ripples. A power circuit configuration and control scheme for shunt active power filter are described with an improved method for harmonics compensation using self-tuning-filter for harmonics identification and fuzzy logic control to generate reference current. Simulation results (using MATLAB/SIMULINK) illustrates the compensation characteristics of the proposed control strategy. Analysis of these results proves the feasibility and effectiveness of this method to improve the power quality and also show the performances of fuzzy logic control which provides flexibility, high precision and fast response. The total harmonic distortion (THD %) for the simulations found to be within the recommended imposed IEEE 519-1992 harmonic standard.

Keywords: Active Powers Filter (APF), Self-Tuning-Filter (STF), fuzzy logic control, hysteresis-band control

Procedia PDF Downloads 543
11397 Performance Analysis of Shunt Active Power Filter for Various Reference Current Generation Techniques

Authors: Vishal V. Choudhari, Gaurao A. Dongre, S. P. Diwan

Abstract:

A number of reference current generation have been developed for analysis of shunt active power filter to mitigate the load compensation. Depending upon the type of load the technique has to be chosen. In this paper, six reference current generation techniques viz. instantaneous reactive power theory(IRP), Synchronous reference frame theory(SRF), Perfect harmonic cancellation(PHC), Unity power factor method(UPF), Self-tuning filter method(STF), Predictive filtering method(PFM) are compared for different operating conditions. The harmonics are introduced because of non-linear loads in the system. These harmonics are eliminated using above techniques. The results and performance of system simulated on MATLAB/Simulink platform. The system is experimentally implemented using DS1104 card of dSPACE system.

Keywords: SAPF, power quality, THD, IRP, SRF, dSPACE module DS1104

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
11396 Simulink Library for Reference Current Generation in Active DC Traction Substations

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the reference current calculation in the compensation mode of the active DC traction substations. The so-called p-q theory of the instantaneous reactive power is used as theoretical foundation. The compensation goal of total compensation is taken into consideration for the operation under both sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal voltage conditions, through the two objectives of unity power factor and perfect harmonic cancelation. Four blocks of reference current generation implement the conceived algorithms and they are included in a specific Simulink library, which is useful in a DSP dSPACE-based platform working under Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results validate the correctness of the implementation and fulfillment of the compensation tasks.

Keywords: active power filter, DC traction, p-q theory, Simulink library

Procedia PDF Downloads 546
11395 Variable Shunt Reactors for Reactive Power Compensation of HV Subsea Cables

Authors: Saeed A. AlGhamdi, Nabil Habli, Vinoj Somasanran

Abstract:

This paper presents an application of 230 kV Variable Shunt Reactors (VSR) used to compensate reactive power of dual 90 KM subsea cables. VSR integrates an on-load tap changer (OLTC) that adjusts reactive power compensation to maintain acceptable bus voltages under variable load profile and network configuration. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) or a power management system (PMS) that allows VSR rating to be changed in discrete steps typically controls the OLTC. Typical regulation range start as minimum as 20% up to 100% and are available for systems up to 550kV. The regulation speed is normally in the order of seconds per step and approximately a minute from maximum to minimum rating. VSR can be bus or line connected depending on line/cable length and compensation requirements. The flexible reactive compensation ranges achieved by recent VSR technologies have enabled newer facilities design to deploy line connected VSR through either disconnect switches, which saves space and cost, or through circuit breakers. Lines with VSR are typically energized with lower taps (reduced reactive compensation) to minimize or remove the presence of delayed zero crossing.

Keywords: power management, reactive power, subsea cables, variable shunt reactors

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
11394 Optimized Techniques for Reducing the Reactive Power Generation in Offshore Wind Farms in India

Authors: Pardhasaradhi Gudla, Imanual A.

Abstract:

The generated electrical power in offshore needs to be transmitted to grid which is located in onshore by using subsea cables. Long subsea cables produce reactive power, which should be compensated in order to limit transmission losses, to optimize the transmission capacity, and to keep the grid voltage within the safe operational limits. Installation cost of wind farm includes the structure design cost and electrical system cost. India has targeted to achieve 175GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022 including offshore wind power generation. Due to sea depth is more in India, the installation cost will be further high when compared to European countries where offshore wind energy is already generating successfully. So innovations are required to reduce the offshore wind power project cost. This paper presents the optimized techniques to reduce the installation cost of offshore wind firm with respect to electrical transmission systems. This technical paper provides the techniques for increasing the current carrying capacity of subsea cable by decreasing the reactive power generation (capacitance effect) of the subsea cable. There are many methods for reactive power compensation in wind power plants so far in execution. The main reason for the need of reactive power compensation is capacitance effect of subsea cable. So if we diminish the cable capacitance of cable then the requirement of the reactive power compensation will be reduced or optimized by avoiding the intermediate substation at midpoint of the transmission network.

Keywords: offshore wind power, optimized techniques, power system, sub sea cable

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
11393 Validation of Solar PV Inverter Harmonics Behaviour at Different Power Levels in a Test Network

Authors: Wilfred Fritz

Abstract:

Grid connected solar PV inverters need to be compliant to standard regulations regarding unwanted harmonic generation. This paper gives an introduction to harmonics, solar PV inverter voltage regulation and balancing through compensation and investigates the behaviour of harmonic generation at different power levels. Practical measurements of harmonics and power levels with a power quality data logger were made, on a test network at a university in Germany. The test setup and test results are discussed. The major finding was that between the morning and afternoon load peak windows when the PV inverters operate under low solar insolation and low power levels, more unwanted harmonics are generated. This has a huge impact on the power quality of the grid as well as capital and maintenance costs. The design of a single-tuned harmonic filter towards harmonic mitigation is presented.

Keywords: harmonics, power quality, pulse width modulation, total harmonic distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
11392 Power Quality Audit Using Fluke Analyzer

Authors: N. Ravikumar, S. Krishnan, B. Yokeshkumar

Abstract:

In present days, the power quality issues are increases due to non-linear loads like fridge, AC, washing machines, induction motor, etc. This power quality issues will affects the output voltages, output current, and output power of the total performance of the generator. This paper explains how to test the generator using the Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser. This Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser is used to measure the voltage, current, power, energy, total harmonic distortion (THD), current harmonics, voltage harmonics, power factor, and frequency. The Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser have several advantages. They are i) it will records output in analog and digital format. ii) the fluke analyzer will records at every 0.25 sec. iii) it will also measure all the electrical parameter at a time.

Keywords: THD, harmonics, power quality, TNEB, Fluke 435

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
11391 Dynamic Voltage Restorer Control Strategies: An Overview

Authors: Arvind Dhingra, Ashwani Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

Power quality is an important parameter for today’s consumers. Various custom power devices are in use to give a proper supply of power quality. Dynamic Voltage Restorer is one such custom power device. DVR is a static VAR device which is used for series compensation. It is a power electronic device that is used to inject a voltage in series and in synchronism to compensate for the sag in voltage. Inductive Loads are a major source of power quality distortion. The induction furnace is one such typical load. A typical induction furnace is used for melting the scrap or iron. At the time of starting the melting process, the power quality is distorted to a large extent especially with the induction of harmonics. DVR is one such approach to mitigate these harmonics. This paper is an attempt to overview the various control strategies being followed for control of power quality by using DVR. An overview of control of harmonics using DVR is also presented.

Keywords: DVR, power quality, harmonics, harmonic mitigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
11390 Artificial Neural Networks Controller for Active Power Filter Connected to a Photovoltaic Array

Authors: Rachid Dehini, Brahim Berbaoui

Abstract:

The main objectives of shunt active power filter (SAPF) is to preserve the power system from unwanted harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads, as well as to compensate the reactive power. The aim of this paper is to present a (PAPF) supplied by the Photovoltaic cells ,in such a way that the (PAPF) feeds the linear and nonlinear loads by harmonics currents and the excess of the energy is injected into the power system. In order to improve the performances of conventional (PAPF) This paper also proposes artificial neural networks (ANN) for harmonics identification and DC link voltage control. The simulation study results of the new (SAPF) identification technique are found quite satisfactory by assuring good filtering characteristics and high system stability.

Keywords: SAPF, harmonics current, photovoltaic cells, MPPT, artificial neural networks (ANN)

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
11389 Single Tuned Shunt Passive Filter Based Current Harmonic Elimination of Three Phase AC-DC Converters

Authors: Mansoor Soomro

Abstract:

The evolution of power electronic equipment has been pivotal in making industrial processes productive, efficient and safe. Despite its attractive features, it has been due to nonlinear loads which make it vulnerable to power quality conditions. Harmonics is one of the power quality problem in which the harmonic frequency is integral multiple of supply frequency. Therefore, the supply voltage and supply frequency do not last within their tolerable limits. As a result, distorted current and voltage waveform may appear. Attributes of low power quality confirm that an electrical device or equipment is likely to malfunction, fail promptly or unable to operate under all applied conditions. The electrical power system is designed for delivering power reliably, namely maximizing power availability to customers. However, power quality events are largely untracked, and as a result, can take out a process as many as 20 to 30 times a year, costing utilities, customers and suppliers of load equipment, a loss of millions of dollars. The ill effects of current harmonics reduce system efficiency, cause overheating of connected equipment, result increase in electrical power and air conditioning costs. With the passage of time and the rapid growth of power electronic converters has highlighted the damages of current harmonics in the electrical power system. Therefore, it has become essential to address the bad influence of current harmonics while planning any suitable changes in the electrical installations. In this paper, an effort has been made to mitigate the effects of dominant 3rd order current harmonics. Passive filtering technique with six pulse multiplication converter has been employed to mitigate them. Since, the standards of power quality are to maintain the supply voltage and supply current within certain prescribed standard limits. For this purpose, the obtained results are validated as per specifications of IEEE 519-1992 and IEEE 519-2014 performance standards.

Keywords: current harmonics, power quality, passive filters, power electronic converters

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
11388 A Novel Harmonic Compensation Algorithm for High Speed Drives

Authors: Lakdar Sadi-Haddad

Abstract:

The past few years study of very high speed electrical drives have seen a resurgence of interest. An inventory of the number of scientific papers and patents dealing with the subject makes it relevant. In fact democratization of magnetic bearing technology is at the origin of recent developments in high speed applications. These machines have as main advantage a much higher power density than the state of the art. Nevertheless particular attention should be paid to the design of the inverter as well as control and command. Surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine is the most appropriate technology to address high speed issues. However, it has the drawback of using a carbon sleeve to contain magnets that could tear because of the centrifugal forces generated in rotor periphery. Carbon fiber is well known for its mechanical properties but it has poor heat conduction. It results in a very bad evacuation of eddy current losses induce in the magnets by time and space stator harmonics. The three-phase inverter is the main harmonic source causing eddy currents in the magnets. In high speed applications such harmonics are harmful because on the one hand the characteristic impedance is very low and on the other hand the ratio between the switching frequency and that of the fundamental is much lower than that of the state of the art. To minimize the impact of these harmonics a first lever is to use strategy of modulation producing low harmonic distortion while the second is to introduce a sinus filter between the inverter and the machine to smooth voltage and current waveforms applied to the machine. Nevertheless, in very high speed machine the interaction of the processes mentioned above may introduce particular harmonics that can irreversibly damage the system: harmonics at the resonant frequency, harmonics at the shaft mode frequency, subharmonics etc. Some studies address these issues but treat these phenomena with separate solutions (specific strategy of modulation, active damping methods ...). The purpose of this paper is to present a complete new active harmonic compensation algorithm based on an improvement of the standard vector control as a global solution to all these issues. This presentation will be based on a complete theoretical analysis of the processes leading to the generation of such undesired harmonics. Then a state of the art of available solutions will be provided before developing the content of a new active harmonic compensation algorithm. The study will be completed by a validation study using simulations and practical case on a high speed machine.

Keywords: active harmonic compensation, eddy current losses, high speed machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
11387 Impact of Series Reactive Compensation on Increasing a Distribution Network Distributed Generation Hosting Capacity

Authors: Moataz Ammar, Ahdab Elmorshedy

Abstract:

The distributed generation hosting capacity of a distribution network is typically limited at a given connection point by the upper voltage limit that can be violated due to the injection of active power into the distribution network. The upper voltage limit violation concern becomes more important as the network equivalent resistance increases with respect to its equivalent reactance. This paper investigates the impact of modifying the distribution network equivalent reactance at the point of connection such that the upper voltage limit is violated at a higher distributed generation penetration, than it would without the addition of series reactive compensation. The results show that series reactive compensation proves efficient in certain situations (based on the ratio of equivalent network reactance to equivalent network resistance at the point of connection). As opposed to the conventional case of capacitive compensation of a distribution network to reduce voltage drop, inductive compensation is seen to be more appropriate for alleviation of distributed-generation-induced voltage rise.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution networks, series compensation, voltage rise

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
11386 Effect of Parameters for Exponential Loads on Voltage Transmission Line with Compensation

Authors: Benalia Nadia, Bensiali Nadia, Zerzouri Noura

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the effects of parameters np and nq for exponential load on the transmission line voltage profile, transferred power and transmission losses for different shunt compensation size. For different values for np and nq in which active and reactive power vary with it is terminal voltages as in exponential form, variations of the load voltage for different sizes of shunt capacitors are simulated with a simple two-bus power system using Matlab SimPowerSystems Toolbox. It is observed that the compensation level is significantly affected by the voltage sensitivities of loads.

Keywords: static load model, shunt compensation, transmission system, exponentiel load model

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
11385 Reactive Power Control with Plug-In Electric Vehicles

Authors: Mostafa Dastori, Sirus Mohammadi

Abstract:

While plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) potentially have the capability to fulfill the energy storage needs of the electric grid, the degradation on the battery during this operation makes it less preferable by the auto manufacturers and consumers. On the other hand, the on-board chargers can also supply energy storage system applications such as reactive power compensation, voltage regulation, and power factor correction without the need of engaging the battery with the grid and thereby preserving its lifetime. It presents the design motives of single-phase on-board chargers in detail and makes a classification of the chargers based on their future vehicle-to-grid usage. The pros and cons of each different ac–dc topology are discussed to shed light on their suit- ability for reactive power support. This paper also presents and analyzes the differences between charging-only operation and capacitive reactive power operation that results in increased demand from the dc-link capacitor (more charge/discharge cycles and in- creased second harmonic ripple current). Moreover, battery state of charge is spared from losses during reactive power operation, but converter output power must be limited below its rated power rating to have the same stress on the dc-link capacitor.

Keywords: energy storage system, battery unit, cost, optimal sizing, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
11384 Reactive Power Cost Evaluation with FACTS Devices in Restructured Power System

Authors: A. S. Walkey, N. P. Patidar

Abstract:

It is not always economical to provide reactive power using synchronous alternators. The cost of reactive power can be minimized by optimal placing of FACTS devices in power systems. In this paper a Particle Swarm Optimization- Sequential Quadratic Programming (PSO-SQP) algorithm is applied to minimize the cost of reactive power generation along with real power generation to alleviate the bus voltage violations. The effectiveness of proposed approach tested on IEEE-14 bus systems. In this paper in addition to synchronous generators, an opportunity of FACTS devices are also proposed to procure the reactive power demands in the power system.

Keywords: reactive power, reactive power cost, voltage security margins, capability curve, FACTS devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
11383 Optimal Injected Current Control for Shunt Active Power Filter Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Brahim Berbaoui

Abstract:

In this paper, a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) based method is proposed for the implantation of optimal harmonic power flow in power systems. In this algorithm approach, proportional integral controller for reference compensating currents of active power filter is performed in order to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD). The simulation results show that the new control method using PSO approach is not only easy to be implanted, but also very effective in reducing the unwanted harmonics and compensating reactive power. The studies carried out have been accomplished using the MATLAB Simulink Power System Toolbox.

Keywords: shunt active power filter, power quality, current control, proportional integral controller, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
11382 Harmonic Assessment and Mitigation in Medical Diagonesis Equipment

Authors: S. S. Adamu, H. S. Muhammad, D. S. Shuaibu

Abstract:

Poor power quality in electrical power systems can lead to medical equipment at healthcare centres to malfunction and present wrong medical diagnosis. Equipment such as X-rays, computerized axial tomography, etc. can pollute the system due to their high level of harmonics production, which may cause a number of undesirable effects like heating, equipment damages and electromagnetic interferences. The conventional approach of mitigation uses passive inductor/capacitor (LC) filters, which has some drawbacks such as, large sizes, resonance problems and fixed compensation behaviours. The current trends of solutions generally employ active power filters using suitable control algorithms. This work focuses on assessing the level of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) on medical facilities and various ways of mitigation, using radiology unit of an existing hospital as a case study. The measurement of the harmonics is conducted with a power quality analyzer at the point of common coupling (PCC). The levels of measured THD are found to be higher than the IEEE 519-1992 standard limits. The system is then modelled as a harmonic current source using MATLAB/SIMULINK. To mitigate the unwanted harmonic currents a shunt active filter is developed using synchronous detection algorithm to extract the fundamental component of the source currents. Fuzzy logic controller is then developed to control the filter. The THD without the active power filter are validated using the measured values. The THD with the developed filter show that the harmonics are now within the recommended limits.

Keywords: power quality, total harmonics distortion, shunt active filters, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
11381 A Succinct Method for Allocation of Reactive Power Loss in Deregulated Scenario

Authors: J. S. Savier

Abstract:

Real power is the component power which is converted into useful energy whereas reactive power is the component of power which cannot be converted to useful energy but it is required for the magnetization of various electrical machineries. If the reactive power is compensated at the consumer end, the need for reactive power flow from generators to the load can be avoided and hence the overall power loss can be reduced. In this scenario, this paper presents a succinct method called JSS method for allocation of reactive power losses to consumers connected to radial distribution networks in a deregulated environment. The proposed method has the advantage that no assumptions are made while deriving the reactive power loss allocation method.

Keywords: deregulation, reactive power loss allocation, radial distribution systems, succinct method

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
11380 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani

Abstract:

In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

Keywords: power quality, direct power control, power ripple, switching table, unity power factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
11379 Design and Simulation of Unified Power Quality Conditioner based on Adaptive Fuzzy PI Controller

Authors: Brahim Ferdi, Samira Dib

Abstract:

The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC), a combination of shunt and series active power filter, is one of the best solutions towards the mitigation of voltage and current harmonics problems in distribution power system. PI controller is very common in the control of UPQC. However, one disadvantage of this conventional controller is the difficulty in tuning its gains (Kp and Ki). To overcome this problem, an adaptive fuzzy logic PI controller is proposed. The controller is composed of fuzzy controller and PI controller. According to the error and error rate of the control system and fuzzy control rules, the fuzzy controller can online adjust the two gains of the PI controller to get better performance of UPQC. Simulations using MATLAB/SIMULINK are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed controller. The results show that the proposed controller has fast dynamic response and high accuracy of tracking the current and voltage references.

Keywords: adaptive fuzzy PI controller, current harmonics, PI controller, voltage harmonics, UPQC

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
11378 Comparison of DPC and FOC Vector Control Strategies on Reducing Harmonics Caused by Nonlinear Load in the DFIG Wind Turbine

Authors: Hamid Havasi, Mohamad Reza Gholami Dehbalaei, Hamed Khorami, Shahram Karimi, Hamdi Abdi

Abstract:

Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a power converter is an efficient tool for converting mechanical energy of a variable speed system to a fixed-frequency electrical grid. Since electrical energy sources faces with production problems such as harmonics caused by nonlinear loads, so in this paper, compensation performance of DPC and FOC method on harmonics reduction of a DFIG wind turbine connected to a nonlinear load in MATLAB Simulink model has been simulated and effect of each method on nonlinear load harmonic elimination has been compared. Results of the two mentioned control methods shows the advantage of the FOC method on DPC method for harmonic compensation. Also, the fifth and seventh harmonic components of the network and THD greatly reduced.

Keywords: DFIG machine, energy conversion, nonlinear load, THD, DPC, FOC

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
11377 Effects of Compensation on Distribution System Technical Losses

Authors: B. Kekezoglu, C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan, Y. Hacialiefendioglu, G. Ucar

Abstract:

One of the significant problems of energy systems is to supply economic and efficient energy to consumers. Therefore studies has been continued to reduce technical losses in the network. In this paper, the technical losses analyzed for a portion of European side of Istanbul MV distribution network for different compensation scenarios by considering real system and load data and results are presented. Investigated system is modeled with CYME Power Engineering Software and optimal capacity placement has been proposed to minimize losses.

Keywords: distribution system, optimal capacitor placement, reactive power compensation, technical losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 543
11376 Transient Enhanced LDO Voltage Regulator with Improved Feed Forward Path Compensation

Authors: A. Suresh, Sreehari Rao Patri, K. S. R. Krishnaprasad

Abstract:

An ultra low power capacitor less low-dropout voltage regulator with improved transient response using gain enhanced feed forward path compensation is presented in this paper. It is based on a cascade of a voltage amplifier and a transconductor stage in the feed forward path with regular error amplifier to form a composite gain-enhanced feed forward stage. It broadens the gain bandwidth and thus improves the transient response without substantial increase in power consumption. The proposed LDO, designed for a maximum output current of 100 mA in UMC 180 nm, requires a quiescent current of 69 µA. An undershoot of 153.79mV for a load current changes from 0mA to 100mA and an overshoot of 196.24mV for current change of 100mA to 0mA. The settling time is approximately 1.1 µs for the output voltage undershoot case. The load regulation is of 2.77 µV/mA at load current of 100mA. Reference voltage is generated by using an accurate band gap reference circuit of 0.8V.The costly features of SOC such as total chip area and power consumption is drastically reduced by the use of only a total compensation capacitance of 6pF while consuming power consumption of 0.096 mW.

Keywords: capacitor-less LDO, frequency compensation, transient response, latch, self-biased differential amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
11375 Investigating the Regulation System of the Synchronous Motor Excitation Mode Serving as a Reactive Power Source

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka, Ulikyan Azatuhi

Abstract:

The efficient usage of the compensation abilities of the electrical drive synchronous motors used in production processes can essentially improve the technical and economic indices of the process.  Reducing the flows of the reactive electrical energy due to the compensation of reactive power allows to significantly reduce the load losses of power in the electrical networks. As a result of analyzing the scientific works devoted to the issues of regulating the excitation of the synchronous motors, the need for comprehensive investigation and estimation of the excitation mode has been substantiated. By means of the obtained transmission functions, in the Simulink environment of the software package MATLAB, the transition processes of the excitation mode have been studied. As a result of obtaining and estimating the graph of the Nyquist plot and the transient process, the necessity of developing the Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) regulator has been justified. The transient processes of the system of the PID regulator have been investigated, and the amplitude–phase characteristics of the system have been estimated. The analysis of the obtained results has shown that the regulation indices of the developed system have been improved. The developed system can be successfully applied for regulating the excitation voltage of different-power synchronous motors, operating with a changing load, ensuring a value of the power coefficient close to 1.

Keywords: transition process, synchronous motor, excitation mode, regulator, reactive power

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
11374 Nine-Level Shunt Active Power Filter Associated with a Photovoltaic Array Coupled to the Electrical Distribution Network

Authors: Zahzouh Zoubir, Bouzaouit Azzeddine, Gahgah Mounir

Abstract:

The use of more and more electronic power switches with a nonlinear behavior generates non-sinusoidal currents in distribution networks, which causes damage to domestic and industrial equipment. The multi-level shunt power active filter is subsequently shown to be an adequate solution to the problem raised. Nevertheless, the difficulty of adjusting the active filter DC supply voltage requires another technology to ensure it. In this article, a photovoltaic generator is associated with the DC bus power terminals of the active filter. The proposed system consists of a field of solar panels, three multi-level voltage inverters connected to the power grid and a non-linear load consisting of a six-diode rectifier bridge supplying a resistive-inductive load. Current control techniques of active and reactive power are used to compensate for both harmonic currents and reactive power as well as to inject active solar power into the distribution network. An algorithm of the search method of the maximum power point of type Perturb and observe is applied. Simulation results of the system proposed under the MATLAB/Simulink environment shows that the performance of control commands that reassure the solar power injection in the network, harmonic current compensation and power factor correction.

Keywords: Actif power filter, MPPT, pertub&observe algorithm, PV array, PWM-control

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
11373 Unified Power Quality Conditioner Presentation and Dimensioning

Authors: Abderrahmane Kechich, Othmane Abdelkhalek

Abstract:

Static converters behave as nonlinear loads that inject harmonic currents into the grid and increase the consumption of the inactive power. On the other hand, the increased use of sensitive equipment requires the application of sinusoidal voltages. As a result, the electrical power quality control has become a major concern in the field of power electronics. In this context, the active power conditioner (UPQC) was developed. It combines both serial and parallel structures; the series filter can protect sensitive loads and compensate for voltage disturbances such as voltage harmonics, voltage dips or flicker when the shunt filter compensates for current disturbances such as current harmonics, reactive currents and imbalance. This double feature is that it is one of the most appropriate devices. Calculating parameters is an important step and in the same time it’s not easy for that reason several researchers based on trial and error method for calculating parameters but this method is not easy for beginners researchers especially what about the controller’s parameters, for that reason this paper gives a mathematical way to calculate of almost all of UPQC parameters away from trial and error method. This paper gives also a new approach for calculating of PI regulators parameters for purpose to have a stable UPQC able to compensate for disturbances acting on the waveform of line voltage and load current in order to improve the electrical power quality.

Keywords: UPQC, Shunt active filer, series active filer, PI controller, PWM control, dual-loop control

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
11372 The Contemporary Dynamics of Board Composition and Executive Compensation for R&D Spending

Authors: Farheen Akram

Abstract:

Research and Development (R&D) is the most crucial element of the firm’s survival in a competitive business environment. R&D is a long-term investment; therefore, executives having the power to make the investment decisions may be pessimistic when their compensation is closely linked with short-term firm performance. Thus, the current study investigates the impact of board composition and executives’ compensation (cash or short-term benefits and LTIs) on R&D spending using a sample of 85 S&P/100 firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) in 2017. SmartPLS (v.3.2.7) was used to evaluate the proposed model of current research. The empirical findings of this study indicate that board composition has a significant and positive effect on R&D spending. While, as expected, executive cash compensation has negative and Long-Term-Incentives (LTIs) has a positive impact on R&D spending. Based on current findings, the study suggested that myopic behavior of CEOs and top management towards long-term value creation investment like R&D can be controlled by using long-term compensation rewards.

Keywords: cash compensation, LTIs, board composition, R&D spending

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
11371 Compensation of Power Quality Disturbances Using DVR

Authors: R. Rezaeipour

Abstract:

One of the key aspects of power quality improvement in power system is the mitigation of voltage sags/swells and flicker. Custom power devices have been known as the best tools for voltage disturbances mitigation as well as reactive power compensation. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) which is the most efficient and effective modern custom power device can provide the most commercial solution to solve several problems of power quality in distribution networks. This paper deals with analysis and simulation technique of DVR based on instantaneous power theory which is a quick control to detect signals. The main purpose of this work is to remove three important disturbances including voltage sags/swells and flicker. Simulation of the proposed method was carried out on two sample systems by using MATLAB software environment and the results of simulation show that the proposed method is able to provide desirable power quality in the presence of wide range of disturbances.

Keywords: DVR, power quality, voltage sags, voltage swells, flicker

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