Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Search results for: paraffin wax

71 Soy Candle vs Paraffin Candle

Authors: Otana A. Jakpor


Air pollution is without a doubt one of the gravest environmental threats the world is facing today in terms of its sheer toll on human lives. Each year an estimated 70,000 Americans lose their lives to air pollution -- a number equal to deaths from both breast and prostate cancer combined. Since Americans spend nearly 90% of their time indoors, more research is needed on indoor air pollution and common exposures such as candles. Paraffin wax is a by-product of petroleum, and similarities have been observed between fine particulate emissions from paraffin candles and diesel exhaust. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not paraffin candles are a major potential source of indoor air pollution. Furthermore, this study aims to determine whether or not soy candles are a safer, cleaner alternative to paraffin candles.

Keywords: soy candle, soy, paraffin candle, paraffin

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
70 Predicting the Solubility of Aromatic Waste Petroleum Paraffin Wax in Organic Solvents to Separate Ultra-Pure Phase Change Materials (PCMs) by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Fathi Soliman


With the ultimate goal of developing the separation of n-paraffin as phase change material (PCM) by means of molecular dynamic simulations, we attempt to predict the solubility of aromatic n-paraffin in two organic solvents: Butyl Acetate (BA) and Methyl Iso Butyl Ketone (MIBK). A simple model of aromatic paraffin: 2-hexadecylantharacene with amorphous molecular structure and periodic boundary conditions was constructed. The results showed that MIBK is the best solvent to separate ultra-pure phase change materials and this data was compatible with experimental data done to separate ultra-pure n-paraffin from waste petroleum aromatic paraffin wax, the separated n-paraffin was characterized by XRD, TGA, GC and DSC, moreover; data revealed that the n-paraffin separated by using MIBK is better as PCM than that separated using BA.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, n-paraffin, organic solvents, phase change materials, solvent extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
69 Catalytic Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Oxidation of Paraffin-Based Fuels

Authors: Lin-Lin Liu, Song-Qi Hu, Yin Wang


Paraffin-based fuels are regarded to be a promising fuel of hybrid rocked motor because of the high regression rate, low price, and environmental friendliness. Graphene Oxide (GO) is an attractive energetic material which is expected to be widely used in propellants, explosives, and some high energy fuels. Paraffin-based fuels with paraffin and GO as raw materials were prepared, and the oxidation process of the samples was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) under oxygen (O₂) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) atmospheres. The oxidation reaction kinetics of the fuels was estimated through the non-isothermal measurements and model-free isoconversional methods based on the experimental results of TGA. The results show that paraffin-based fuels are easier oxidized under O₂ rather than N₂O with atmospheres due to the lower activation energy; GO plays a catalytic role for the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels under the both atmospheres, and the activation energy of the oxidation process decreases with the increase of GO; catalytic effect of GO on the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels are more obvious under O₂ atmospheres than under N₂O atmospheres.

Keywords: graphene oxide, paraffin-based fuels, oxidation, activation energy, TGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
68 An Analysis on Thermal Energy Storage in Paraffin-Wax Using Tube Array on a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Syukri Himran, Rustan Taraka, Anto Duma


The aim of the study is to improve the understanding of latent and sensible thermal energy storage within a paraffin wax media by an array of cylindrical tubes arranged both in in-line and staggered layouts. An analytical and experimental study was carried out in a horizontal shell-and-tube type system during the melting process. Pertamina paraffin-wax was used as a phase change material (PCM), where as the tubes are embedded in the PCM. From analytical study we can obtain the useful information in designing a thermal energy storage such as : the motion of interface, amount of material melted at any time in the process, and the heat storage characteristic during melting. The use of staggered tubes is proposed as superior to in-line layout for thermal storage. The experimental study was used to verify the validity of the analytical predictions. From the comparisons, the analytical and experimental data are in a good agreement.

Keywords: latent, sensible, paraffin-wax, thermal energy storage, conduction, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
67 Paraffin/Expanded Perlite Composite as a Novel Form-Stable Phase Change Material for Latent Heat Energy Storage

Authors: Awni Alkhazaleh


Latent heat storage using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) has attracted growing attention recently in the renewable energy utilization and building energy efficiency. Paraffin (PA) of low melting temperature, which is close to human comfort temperature in the range of 24-28 °C has been considered to be used in building applications. A form-stable composite Paraffin/Expanded perlite (PA-EP) has been prepared by retaining PA into porous particles of EP. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) is used to measure the thermal properties of PA in the form-stable composite with/without building materials. TGA (Thermal gravimetric analysis) shows that the composite is thermally stable. SEM (Scanning electron microscope) demonstrates that the layer structure of the EP particles is uniformly absorbed by PA. The mechanical properties in flexural mode have been discussed. The thermal energy storage performance has been evaluated using a small test room (100 mm ×100 mm ×100 mm) with thickness 10 mm. The flammability test of modified sample has been discussed using a cone calorimeter. The results confirm that the form-stable composite PA has the function of reducing building energy consumption.

Keywords: flammability, latent heat storage, paraffin, plasterboard

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
66 Polysaccharides as Pour Point Depressants

Authors: Ali M. EL-Soll


Physical properties of Sarir waxy crude oil was investigated, pour-point was determined using ASTM D-79 procedure, paraffin content and carbon number distribution of the paraffin was determined using gas liquid Chromatography(GLC), polymeric additives were prepared and their structures were confirmed using IR spectrophotometer. The molecular weight and molecular weigh distribution of these additives were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). the performance of the synthesized additives as pour-point depressants was evaluated, for the mentioned crude oil.

Keywords: sarir, waxy, crude, pour point, depressants

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
65 Rheological and Morphological Properties of Investment Casting Pattern Material Based on Paraffin Wax Fortified with Linear Low-Density Polyethylene and Filled with Poly Methyl Methacrylate

Authors: Robert Kimutai Tewo, Hilary Limo Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


The rheological and morphological properties of paraffin wax, linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microbeads formulations were prepared via an extrusion process. The blends were characterized by rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the viscosity of the blends increased as compared to that of neat wax. SEM confirmed that LLDPE alters the wax crystal habit at higher concentrations. The rheological experimental data fitted with predicted data using the modified Krieger and Dougherty expression. The SEM micrograph of wax/LLDPE/PMMA revealed a near-perfect spherical nature for the filler particles in the wax/EVA polymer matrix. The FT-IR spectra show the deformation vibrations stretch of a long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbon (C-H) and also the presence of carbonyls absorption group denoted by -C=O- stretch.

Keywords: investment casting pattern, paraffin wax, LLDPE, PMMA, rheological properties, modified Krieger and Dougherty expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
64 Numerical Study of Natural Convection of a Localized Heat Source at the up of a Nanofluid-Filled Enclosure

Authors: Marziyeh Heydari, Hossein Shokouhmand


This article presents a numerical study of natural convection of a heat source embedded on the up wall of an enclosure filled with nanofluid. The bottom and vertical walls of the enclosure are maintained at a relatively low temperature. The type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticle on the heat transfer performance is studied. The results indicated that adding nanoparticle into pure paraffin improves heat transfer. The results are presented over a wide range of Rayleigh numbers(Ra=〖10〗^3 〖-10〗^5), the volume fraction of nanoparticles (0≤ɸ≤0.4%). For an enclosure, the Nusselt number of a cu-paraffin nanofluid was reduced by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles above 0.2%.

Keywords: nanofluid, heat transfer, heat source, enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
63 Multifunctional Epoxy/Carbon Laminates Containing Carbon Nanotubes-Confined Paraffin for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Giulia Fredi, Andrea Dorigato, Luca Fambri, Alessandro Pegoretti


Thermal energy storage (TES) is the storage of heat for later use, thus filling the gap between energy request and supply. The most widely used materials for TES are the organic solid-liquid phase change materials (PCMs), such as paraffin. These materials store/release a high amount of latent heat thanks to their high specific melting enthalpy, operate in a narrow temperature range and have a tunable working temperature. However, they suffer from a low thermal conductivity and need to be confined to prevent leakage. These two issues can be tackled by confining PCMs with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). TES applications include the buildings industry, solar thermal energy collection and thermal management of electronics. In most cases, TES systems are an additional component to be added to the main structure, but if weight and volume savings are key issues, it would be advantageous to embed the TES functionality directly in the structure. Such multifunctional materials could be employed in the automotive industry, where the diffusion of lightweight structures could complicate the thermal management of the cockpit environment or of other temperature sensitive components. This work aims to produce epoxy/carbon structural laminates containing CNT-stabilized paraffin. CNTs were added to molten paraffin in a fraction of 10 wt%, as this was the minimum amount at which no leakage was detected above the melting temperature (45°C). The paraffin/CNT blend was cryogenically milled to obtain particles with an average size of 50 µm. They were added in various percentages (20, 30 and 40 wt%) to an epoxy/hardener formulation, which was used as a matrix to produce laminates through a wet layup technique, by stacking five plies of a plain carbon fiber fabric. The samples were characterized microstructurally, thermally and mechanically. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests showed that the paraffin kept its ability to melt and crystallize also in the laminates, and the melting enthalpy was almost proportional to the paraffin weight fraction. These thermal properties were retained after fifty heating/cooling cycles. Laser flash analysis showed that the thermal conductivity through the thickness increased with an increase of the PCM, due to the presence of CNTs. The ability of the developed laminates to contribute to the thermal management was also assessed by monitoring their cooling rates through a thermal camera. Three-point bending tests showed that the flexural modulus was only slightly impaired by the presence of the paraffin/CNT particles, while a more sensible decrease of the stress and strain at break and the interlaminar shear strength was detected. Optical and scanning electron microscope images revealed that these could be attributed to the preferential location of the PCM in the interlaminar region. These results demonstrated the feasibility of multifunctional structural TES composites and highlighted that the PCM size and distribution affect the mechanical properties. In this perspective, this group is working on the encapsulation of paraffin in a sol-gel derived organosilica shell. Submicron spheres have been produced, and the current activity focuses on the optimization of the synthesis parameters to increase the emulsion efficiency.

Keywords: carbon fibers, carbon nanotubes, lightweight materials, multifunctional composites, thermal energy storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
62 Synthesis of Highly Valuable Fuel Fractions from Waste Date Seeds Oil

Authors: Farrukh Jamil, Ala'A H. Al-Muhtaseb, Lamya Al-Haj, Mohab A. Al-Hinai


Environmental problems and the security of energy supply have motivated the attention in the expansion of alternatives for fossil based fuels. Biomass has been recognized as a capable resource because it is plentifully available and in principle carbon dioxide neutral. Present study focuses on utilization date seeds oil for synthesizing high value fuels formulations such as green diesel and jet fuel. The hydrodeoxygenation of date seeds oil occurred to be highly efficient at following operating conditions temperature 300°C pressure 10bar with continuous stirring at 500 rpm. Products characterization revealed the efficiency of hydrodeoxygenation by formation of linear hydrocarbons (paraffin) in larger fraction. Based on the type of components in product oil it was calculated that maximum fraction lies within the range of green diesel 72.78 % then jet fuel 28.25 % by using Pt/C catalyst. It can be concluded that waste date seeds oil has potential to be used for obtaining high value products.

Keywords: date seeds, hydrodeoxygenation, paraffin, deoxygenation

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
61 Thermal and Flammability Properties of Paraffin/Nanoclay Composite Phase Change Materials Incorporated in Building Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Awni H. Alkhazaleh, Baljinder K. Kandola


In this study, a form-stable composite Paraffin/Nanoclay (PA-NC) has been prepared by absorbing PA into porous particles of NC to be used for low-temperature latent heat thermal energy storage. The leakage test shows that the maximum mass fraction of PA that can be incorporated in NC without leakage is 60 wt.%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure the thermal properties of the PA and PA-NC both before and after incorporation in plasterboard (PL). The mechanical performance of the samples has been evaluated in flexural mode. The thermal energy storage performance has been studied using a small test chamber (100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm) made from 10 mm thick PL and measuring the temperatures using thermocouples. The flammability of the PL+PL-NC has been discussed using a cone calorimeter. The results indicate that the form composite PA has good potential for use as thermal energy storage materials in building applications.

Keywords: building materials, flammability, phase change materials, thermal energy storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
60 Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Testing of a Scaled down Hybrid Rocket Engine

Authors: Pawthawala Nancy Manish, Syed Alay Hashim


A hybrid rocket is a rocket engine which uses propellants in two different states of matter- one is in solid and the other either gas or liquid. A hybrid rocket exhibit advantages over both liquid rockets and solid rockets especially in terms of simplicity, stop-start-restart capabilities, safety and cost. This paper deals the design and development of a hybrid rocket having paraffin wax as solid fuel and liquid oxygen as oxidizer. Due to variation of pressure in combustion chamber there is significantly change in mass flow rate, burning rate and uneven regression along the length of the grain. This project describes the working model of a hybrid propellant rocket motor. We have designed a hybrid rocket thrust chamber based on the predetermined combustion chamber pressure and the properties of hybrid propellant. This project is all ready in working condition with normal oxygen injector. Now we have planned to modify the injector design to improve the combustion property. We will use spray type injector for injecting the oxidizer. This idea will increase the performance followed by the regression rate of the solid fuel. By employing mass conservation law, oxygen mass flux, oxidizer/fuel ratio and regression rate the thrust coefficient can be obtained for our current design. CATIA V5 R20 is our design software for the complete setup. This project is fully based on experimental evaluation and the collection of combustion and flow parameters. The thrust chamber is made of stainless steel and the duration of test is around 15-20 seconds (Maximum). These experiments indicates that paraffin based fuel provides the opportunity to satisfy a broad range of mission requirements for the next generation of the hybrid rocket system.

Keywords: burning rate, liquid oxygen, mass flow rate, paraffin wax and sugar

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
59 Semen Characteristics of Ram Semen Frozen in Straw and Pellet in Three Type of Cold Plates

Authors: Abdurzag Kerban


Preservation of semen had a major impact on sheep genetic breeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of ram spermatozoa after freezing pellet using cold surfaces made from cattle fat and paraffin wax. A pool of three to four ejaculates were pooled from six rams within a period of ten weeks. Semen was diluted in egg yolk-Tris diluent and processed in 0.25 ml straw and 0.1 ml pellets. Motility was evaluated after dilution, before freezing and post-thawing at 0, 1, 2 and 3 hour incubation. Viability index, acrosome integrity and leakage of intracellular enzymes (aspartat aminotransferase and alkline phosphatase) were also evaluated. Spermatozoa exhibited highly significant percentages of motility at 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours incubation after thawing and viability index in 0.25 ml straw and 0.1 ml pellets on cattle fat plate as compared to ram spermatozoa frozen on paraffin wax. In conclusion, cattle fat plate could be used as the cold surface of choice for freezing ram semen in form of pellets. Such form of frozen semen could be used as efficiently as semen frozen in straws. This simple method is economical with little expensive equipment or supplies, and may provide an efficient technique to cryopreserve ram spermatozoa in developing countries.

Keywords: ram semen, freezing, straw, pellet

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
58 Trapping Efficiency of Highly Effective Slow Released Formulations of Biodegradable Waxes with Methyl Eugenol Against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq, Faisal Munir


Experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of highly effective Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax, Candellila wax, Bee-wax, Carnauba wax and paraffin wax in the orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. The waxes were mixed with methyl eugenol in 1:9 ratio. The results revealed that SRF of Candellila, Paraffin, Bees and Carnauba wax attracted 13.77, 11, 8.15 and 7.23 flies/day/trap which was 2.6, 2, 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard respectively and exhibited 41.42%, 32.05%, 20.98% and 12.87% attractive index respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulation to B. zonata and was catagorized as Class-II slow-released formulation (AI = 11-50%). However, SRF of Lanolin wax trapped 1.81 flies/day/trap which was 3 times less than standard and exhibited -61.86% attractive index proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: biodegradable waxes, slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, methyl euginol

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
57 Paeonol Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Xuan Li, Xiaobing Cui, Nan Meng, Shuangshuang Guo, Lingling Wang


Objective: To investigate the influence of Paeonol on diabetic nephropathy progression in streptozocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Method Male Wistar rats were injected STZ combined with Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) 0.1mL/rat once a week for three weeks. The diabetic rats were treated with Paenol for 13 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized. Serum and the kidney were collected. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and total cholesterol (Chol) level were detected; kidney paraffin sections were prepared and HE and PAS staining sections were used to evaluate the pathology changes of the kidney. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to observe the expression of VEGF and fibernectin expression in the kidney. Result The blood glucose level remained over 16mmol. L-1 for 13 weeks and the ECM accumulated in the diabetic kidney apparently. Paeonol treatment increased serum SOD activity, however, MDA, BUN, Cr, and Chol level was decreased by paeonol treatment. VEGF and fibernectin expression were increased significantly in the DN rats and paeonol treatment ameliorated the overexpression. Conclusion: paeonol prevented the progression of DN.

Keywords: paeonol, STZ, diabetic nephropathy, fibernectin expression, kidney paraffin sections

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
56 Liquid-Liquid Plug Flow Characteristics in Microchannel with T-Junction

Authors: Anna Yagodnitsyna, Alexander Kovalev, Artur Bilsky


The efficiency of certain technological processes in two-phase microfluidics such as emulsion production, nanomaterial synthesis, nitration, extraction processes etc. depends on two-phase flow regimes in microchannels. For practical application in chemistry and biochemistry it is very important to predict the expected flow pattern for a large variety of fluids and channel geometries. In the case of immiscible liquids, the plug flow is a typical and optimal regime for chemical reactions and needs to be predicted by empirical data or correlations. In this work flow patterns of immiscible liquid-liquid flow in a rectangular microchannel with T-junction are investigated. Three liquid-liquid flow systems are considered, viz. kerosene – water, paraffin oil – water and castor oil – paraffin oil. Different flow patterns such as parallel flow, slug flow, plug flow, dispersed (droplet) flow, and rivulet flow are observed for different velocity ratios. New flow pattern of the parallel flow with steady wavy interface (serpentine flow) has been found. It is shown that flow pattern maps based on Weber numbers for different liquid-liquid systems do not match well. Weber number multiplied by Ohnesorge number is proposed as a parameter to generalize flow maps. Flow maps based on this parameter are superposed well for all liquid-liquid systems of this work and other experiments. Plug length and velocity are measured for the plug flow regime. When dispersed liquid wets channel walls plug length cannot be predicted by known empirical correlations. By means of particle tracking velocimetry technique instantaneous velocity fields in a plug flow regime were measured. Flow circulation inside plug was calculated using velocity data that can be useful for mass flux prediction in chemical reactions.

Keywords: flow patterns, hydrodynamics, liquid-liquid flow, microchannel

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
55 Enhanced Ripening Behaviour of Manganese Doped Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (Mn-doped CdSe QDs)

Authors: N. A. Hamizi, M. R. Johan, Y. H. Hor, A. N. Sabri, Y. Y. A. Yong


In this research, Mn-doped CdSe QDs is synthesized by using paraffin liquid as the reacting solvent and oleic acid as the ligands for Cd in order to produce Mn-doped CdSe QDs in zinc-blende crystal structure. Characterization studies for synthesized Mn-doped CdSe QDs are carried out using UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The absorption wavelengths in UV-vis test and emission wavelengths in PL test were increase with the increases in the ripening temperature and time respectively.

Keywords: semiconductor, chemical synthesis, optical properties, ripening

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
54 Latent Heat Storage Using Phase Change Materials

Authors: Debashree Ghosh, Preethi Sridhar, Shloka Atul Dhavle


The judicious and economic consumption of energy for sustainable growth and development is nowadays a thing of primary importance; Phase Change Materials (PCM) provide an ingenious option of storing energy in the form of Latent Heat. Energy storing mechanism incorporating phase change material increases the efficiency of the process by minimizing the difference between supply and demand; PCM heat exchangers are used to storing the heat or non-convectional energy within the PCM as the heat of fusion. The experimental study evaluates the effect of thermo-physical properties, variation in inlet temperature, and flow rate on charging period of a coiled heat exchanger. Secondly, a numerical study is performed on a PCM double pipe heat exchanger packed with two different PCMs, namely, RT50 and Fatty Acid, in the annular region. In this work, the simulation of charging of paraffin wax (RT50) using water as high-temperature fluid (HTF) is performed. Commercial software Ansys-Fluent 15 is used for simulation, and hence charging of PCM is studied. In the Enthalpy-porosity model, a single momentum equation is applicable to describe the motion of both solid and liquid phases. The details of the progress of phase change with time are presented through the contours of melt-fraction, temperature. The velocity contour is shown to describe the motion of the liquid phase. The experimental study revealed that paraffin wax melts with almost the same temperature variation at the two Intermediate positions. Fatty acid, on the other hand, melts faster owing to greater thermal conductivity and low melting temperature. It was also observed that an increase in flow rate leads to a reduction in the charging period. The numerical study also supports some of the observations found in the experimental study like the significant dependence of driving force on the process of melting. The numerical study also clarifies the melting pattern of the PCM, which cannot be observed in the experimental study.

Keywords: latent heat storage, charging period, discharging period, coiled heat exchanger

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53 Olefin and Paraffin Separation Using Simulations on Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah


Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with respect to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent shows an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator; moreover NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99 % pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1 : 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column, previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the proposed plates were 30, which can economize the separation process.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, Aspen Plus, ACN solvent

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52 CCK/Gastrin Immunoreactivity in Gastrointestinal Tract of Vimba vimba

Authors: Nurgül Şenol, Melda Azman


In this study, gastrointestinal immunohistochemistry in the Vimba vimba and the localization of CCK/gastrin were determined. Although there are a number of studies which relate to the gastrointestinal histochemistry and the localization of the peptides, a literature research in this field revealed that no histochemical or immunohistochemical study covering also the species had been found in our country. In this research, species will be provided from Vimba vimba located in Eğirdir lake. Stomach samples and intestinal samples of these fish will be exposed to routine histological tissue process, embedded in paraffin blocks, and 5-6 μ -thick sections will be taken. Using the PAP (Peroxidase anti-peroxidase) method, localization of the peptides CCK/gastrin was to be found. The densities of peptides of this species were compared, and then the findings obtained were to be evaluated through the statistical analysis methods (SPSS). Endocrine cells reactive to gastrin/CCK antiserum were demonstrated in the stomach and intestinal mucosa. There is a significant difference between gastrin and CCK when compared to regions.

Keywords: CCK, gastrin, immunoreactivity, vimba vimba

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
51 Soybean Oil Based Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Emre Basturk, Memet Vezir Kahraman


In many developing countries, with the rapid economic improvements, energy shortage and environmental issues have become a serious problem. Therefore, it has become a very critical issue to improve energy usage efficiency and also protect the environment. Thermal energy storage system is an essential approach to match the thermal energy claim and supply. Thermal energy can be stored by heating, cooling or melting a material with the energy and then enhancing accessible when the procedure is reversed. The overall thermal energy storage techniques are sorted as; latent heat or sensible heat thermal energy storage technology segments. Among these methods, latent heat storage is the most effective method of collecting thermal energy. Latent heat thermal energy storage depend on the storage material, emitting or discharging heat as it undergoes a solid to liquid, solid to solid or liquid to gas phase change or vice versa. Phase change materials (PCMs) are promising materials for latent heat storage applications due to their capacities to accumulate high latent heat storage per unit volume by phase change at an almost constant temperature. Phase change materials (PCMs) are being utilized to absorb, collect and discharge thermal energy during the cycle of melting and freezing, converting from one phase to another. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) can generally be arranged into three classes: organic materials, salt hydrates and eutectics. Many kinds of organic and inorganic PCMs and their blends have been examined as latent heat storage materials. Organic PCMs are rather expensive and they have average latent heat storage per unit volume and also have low density. Most organic PCMs are combustible in nature and also have a wide range of melting point. Organic PCMs can be categorized into two major categories: non-paraffinic and paraffin materials. Paraffin materials have been extensively used, due to their high latent heat and right thermal characteristics, such as minimal super cooling, varying phase change temperature, low vapor pressure while melting, good chemical and thermal stability, and self-nucleating behavior. Ultraviolet (UV)-curing technology has been generally used because it has many advantages, such as low energy consumption , high speed, high chemical stability, room-temperature operation, low processing costs and environmental friendly. For many years, PCMs have been used for heating and cooling industrial applications including textiles, refrigerators, construction, transportation packaging for temperature-sensitive products, a few solar energy based systems, biomedical and electronic materials. In this study, UV-curable, fatty alcohol containing soybean oil based phase change materials (PCMs) were obtained and characterized. The phase transition behaviors and thermal stability of the prepared UV-cured biobased PCMs were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The heating process phase change enthalpy is measured between 30 and 68 J/g, and the freezing process phase change enthalpy is found between 18 and 70 J/g. The decomposition of UVcured PCMs started at 260 ºC and reached a maximum of 430 ºC.

Keywords: fatty alcohol, phase change material, thermal energy storage, UV curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
50 Immunohistochemical Expression of β-catenin and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Adamantinomatous Craniopharyngioma

Authors: Ghada Esheba, Fatimah Alturkistani, Arwa Obaid, Ahdab Bashehab, Moayad Alturkistani


Introduction: Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are rare epithelial tumors located mainly in the sellar/parasellar region. CPs have been classified histopathologically, genetically, clinically and prognostically into two distinctive subtypes: adamantinomatous and papillary variants. Aim: To examine the pattern of expression of both the β-catenin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in surgically resected samples of adamantinomatous CP, and to asses for the possibility of using anti-EGFR in the management of ACP patients. Materials and methods: β-catenin and EGFR immunostaining was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 18 ACP cases. Result: 17 out of 18 cases (94%) of ACP exhibited strong nuclear/cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin, 15 (83%) of APC cases were positive for EGFR. Conclusion: Nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a diagnostic hallmark of ACP. EGFR positivity in most cases of ACP could qualify the use of anti-EGFR therapy. 

Keywords: craniopharyngioma, adamantinomatous, papillary, epidermal growth factor receptor, B-catenin

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
49 Numerical Analysis of the Melting of Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material in a Rectangular Latent Heat Storage Unit

Authors: Radouane Elbahjaoui, Hamid El Qarnia


Melting of Paraffin Wax (P116) dispersed with Al2O3 nanoparticles in a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) is numerically investigated. The storage unit consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM) separated by rectangular channels in which heat transfer fluid flows (HTF: Water). A two dimensional mathematical model is considered to investigate numerically the heat and flow characteristics of the LHSU. The melting problem was formulated using the enthalpy porosity method. The finite volume approach was used for solving equations. The effects of nanoparticles’ volumetric fraction and the Reynolds number on the thermal performance of the storage unit were investigated.

Keywords: nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM), phase change material (PCM), nanoparticles, latent heat storage unit (LHSU), melting.

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48 Enhancement of Thermal Performance of Latent Heat Solar Storage System

Authors: Rishindra M. Sarviya, Ashish Agrawal


Solar energy is available abundantly in the world, but it is not continuous and its intensity also varies with time. Due to above reason the acceptability and reliability of solar based thermal system is lower than conventional systems. A properly designed heat storage system increases the reliability of solar thermal systems by bridging the gap between the energy demand and availability. In the present work, two dimensional numerical simulation of the melting of heat storage material is presented in the horizontal annulus of double pipe latent heat storage system. Longitudinal fins were used as a thermal conductivity enhancement. Paraffin wax was used as a heat-storage or phase change material (PCM). Constant wall temperature is applied to heat transfer tube. Presented two-dimensional numerical analysis shows the movement of melting front in the finned cylindrical annulus for analyzing the thermal behavior of the system during melting.

Keywords: latent heat, numerical study, phase change material, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
47 Comparative Study of Propensity for Amyloidogenesis in Male and Female Mice

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Afshin Zahedi


Reactive amyloidosis is a condition that complicates a long list of chronic inflammation, chronic infectious, malignant, and hereditary disorders. In the present study the propensity for amyloidogenesis in male and female rats on spatio-temporal pattern was evaluated. For this purpose a total of 40 male and female Swiss mice, obtained from Pasteur Institute Tehran, after being weighted were randomly divided into 4 groups including 2 treatment groups [ 10 male (Group A1) and 10 female (Group B1) each], and 2 control groups [10 male (Group A2) and 10 female (Group B2) each]. At the end of 3rd, 5th and 7th weeks of experiment 3 mice were randomly selected and euthnised. Spleen samples of each animal were obtained and preserved in 10% neutral buffer formalin. Sample were then processed through different stages of dehydration, clearing and impregnation and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by alkaline Congo red techniques. The data obtained from polarized microscopic quantitative analysis did show significant differences between groups A1 and B1. A preferential expression of reactive amyloidosis is concluded in male, indicating sex differences in amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, amyloidogenesis, mice, gender

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46 An Abbattoir-Based Study on Relative Prevalence of Histopathologic Patterns of Hepatic Lesions in One-Humped Camels (Camelus deromedarius), Semnan, Iran

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Afshin Zahedi


An abattoir based study was carried out during spring 2011 to investigate pathological conditions of the liver in camels (Camelus deromedarius) slaughtered in the Semnan slaughter house, Northern East of Iran. In this study, 40 carcasses out of 150 randomly selected carcasses inspected at postmortem, found with liver lesions. Proper tissue samples obtained from the livers with macroscopic lesions, fixed in 10% neutral buffer formaldehyde, processed for routine histopathological techniques, and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by H&E staining techniques. In histopathological examination of hepatic tissues, following changes were observed: Hydatid cysts; 65%, Cirrhosis; 10%, Hepatic lipidosis (Mild to Severe fatty changes); 12.5%, Glycogen deposition; 2.5%, Cholangitis; 2.8%, Cholangiohepatitis; 5%, Calcified hydatid cyst; 2.5%, Hepatic abscess; 2.5%, lipofuscin pigments; 17.5%. It is concluded that the highest and lowest prevalent patterns of hepatic lesions were hydatid cysts and Hepatic abscess respectively.

Keywords: camel, liver, lesion, pathology, slaughterhouse

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45 Evaluation of Excision Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Michelia Champaca ın Diabetic Wistar Rats

Authors: Smita Shenoy, Amoolya Gowda, Tara Shanbhag, Krishnananda Prabhu, Venumadhav Nelluri


The study was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca on excision wound healing in diabetic wistar rats. Excision wound was made in five groups of rats after inducing diabetes with streptozotocin in four groups. Paraffin was applied to wounds in nondiabetic and diabetic control and 2.5%, 5%, 10% ointment of extract to wounds in three diabetic test groups. Monitoring of wound contraction rate, the period of epithelization and histopathological examination of granulation tissue was done. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the period of epithelization and a significant increase in the wound contraction rate on day 12 and 16 in rats treated with 5% and 10% ointment as compared to diabetic rats. There was a better organization of collagen fibers in the granulation tissue of wounds treated with 10% ointment. The higher dose of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca promoted wound healing in diabetic Wistar rats.

Keywords: Michelia champaca, excision wound, contraction, epithelization

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44 In-situ Fabrication of Silver-PDMS Nanocomposite Membrane with Application in Olefine Separation

Authors: P. Tirgarbahnamiri, S. Mahravani, N. Haddadpour, F. Yaghmaie, F. Barazandeh


In this study, silver nanoparticle-Polydimethylsiloxane membrane (SNP-PDMS) was prepared with an in-situ reduction method using AgNO3 in poly (dimethylsiloxane) hardener. Optical and mechanical properties as well as functionality of these membranes were determined employing, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, strain-stress test and liquid/liquid filtration measurements. Silver nanoparticles are known to selectively absorb Olefins and may be used for separation of Alkanes from olefins. Yellow color of silver nanocomposites and transparency of blank polymer were observed employing optical microscope. λmax in 415-420 nm regions in UV-Vis spectrophotometry are related to silver nanoparticles absorbance. Based on stress-strain test results, tensile strength of silver nanoparticle PDMS (SNP-PDMS) membranes is higher than PDMS films of comparable size and thickness. Moreover, permeability of SNP-PDMS membranes were characterized using similar olefin/paraffin pair using a simple bench scale separation set- up. The silver -PDMS membranes retain their color and UV-vis characteristics for extended periods of time exceeding several months.

Keywords: nanocomposite membrane, gas separation, facilitated transport, silver nanocomposite, PDMS, in-situ reduction

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43 Pathomorphological Markers of the Explosive Wave Action on Human Brain

Authors: Sergey Kozlov, Juliya Kozlova


Introduction: The increased attention of researchers to an explosive trauma around the world is associated with a constant renewal of military weapons and a significant increase in terrorist activities using explosive devices. Explosive wave is a well known damaging factor of explosion. The most sensitive to the action of explosive wave in the human body are the head brain, lungs, intestines, urine bladder. The severity of damage to these organs depends on the distance from the explosion epicenter to the object, the power of the explosion, presence of barriers, parameters of the body position, and the presence of protective clothing. One of the places where a shock wave acts, in human tissues and organs, is the vascular endothelial barrier, which suffers the greatest damage in the head brain and lungs. The objective of the study was to determine the pathomorphological changes of the head brain followed the action of explosive wave. Materials and methods of research: To achieve the purpose of the study, there have been studied 6 male corpses delivered to the morgue of Municipal Institution "Dnipropetrovsk regional forensic bureau" during 2014-2016 years. The cause of death of those killed was a military explosive injury. After a visual external assessment of the head brain, for histological study there was conducted the 1 x 1 x 1 cm/piece sampling from different parts of the head brain, i.e. the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital sites, and also from the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, thalamus, walls of the lateral ventricles, the bottom of the 4th ventricle. Pieces of the head brain were immersed in 10% formalin solution for 24 hours. After fixing, the paraffin blocks were made from the material using the standard method. Then, using a microtome, there were made sections of 4-6 micron thickness from paraffin blocks which then were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic analysis was performed using a light microscope with x4, x10, x40 lenses. Results of the study: According to the results of our study, injuries of the head brain were divided into macroscopic and microscopic. Macroscopic injuries were marked according to the results of visual assessment of haemorrhages under the membranes and into the substance, their nature, and localisation, areas of softening. In the microscopic study, our attention was drawn to both vascular changes and those of neurons and glial cells. Microscopic qualitative analysis of histological sections of different parts of the head brain revealed a number of structural changes both at the cellular and tissue levels. Typical changes in most of the studied areas of the head brain included damages of the vascular system. The most characteristic microscopic sign was the separation of vascular walls from neuroglia with the formation of perivascular space. Along with this sign, wall fragmentation of these vessels, haemolysis of erythrocytes, formation of haemorrhages in the newly formed perivascular spaces were found. In addition to damages of the cerebrovascular system, destruction of the neurons, presence of oedema of the brain tissue were observed in the histological sections of the brain. On some sections, the head brain had a heterogeneous step-like or wave-like nature. Conclusions: The pathomorphological microscopic changes in the brain, identified in the study on the died of explosive traumas, can be used for diagnostic purposes in conjunction with other characteristic signs of explosive trauma in forensic and pathological studies. The complex of microscopic signs in the head brain, i.e. separation of blood vessel walls from neuroglia with the perivascular space formation, fragmentation of walls of these blood vessels, erythrocyte haemolysis, formation of haemorrhages in the newly formed perivascular spaces is the direct indication of explosive wave action.

Keywords: blast wave, neurotrauma, human, brain

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42 Parathyroid Hormone Receptor 1 as a Prognostic Indicator in Canine Osteosarcoma

Authors: Awf A. Al-Khan, Michael J. Day, Judith Nimmo, Mourad Tayebi, Stewart D. Ryan, Samantha J. Richardson, Janine A. Danks


Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of malignant primary bone tumour in dogs. In addition to their critical roles in bone formation and remodeling, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor (PTHR1) are involved in progression and metastasis of many types of tumours in humans. The aims of this study were to determine the localisation and expression levels of PTHrP and PTHR1 in canine OS tissues using immunohistochemistry and to investigate if this expression is correlated with survival time. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 44 dogs with known survival time that had been diagnosed with primary osteosarcoma were analysed for localisation of PTHrP and PTHR1. Findings showed that both PTHrP and PTHR1 were present in all OS samples. The dogs with high level of PTHR1 protein (16%) had decreased survival time (P<0.05) compared to dogs with less PTHR1 protein. PTHrP levels did not correlate with survival time (P>0.05). The results of this study indicate that the PTHR1 is expressed differently in canine OS tissues and this may be correlated with poor prognosis. This may mean that PTHR1 may be useful as a prognostic indicator in canine OS and could represent a good therapeutic target in OS.

Keywords: dog, expression, osteosarcoma, parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), survival

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